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S K I N M E L ATO N I N SYSTEM

S TAT U S

SPINAL SYSTEMS

Scien ce /R

SITE CO N D I T I O N S

ea es

+500.0

rch

+490.0 90%

+480.0 Storms

+470.0

+460.0

Tidal EXTREME UV Tint Adaptation

Iconic Building Landmark Location

THERMOCHROMIC POLYMER

THERMOCHROMIC POLYMER

+450.0

Wind

REAC TION 1

REAC TION 2

+440.0

REAC TION 3

A CC E S S

Rain

+430.0

Helicopter

Car Land Ecology

Structure reacts to strong wind loads flexing and bracing taking in air

Ferry COMFORT RANGE Translucent

ELECTRO ACTIVE POLYMER

ELECTRO ACTIVE POLYMER

Swimming

Jet Ski

+410.0

e Us

d

Mi xe

Kayak

Sun Exposure

+420.0

WIND

+400.0 100%

Walking

Bike

Algae

SKIN TRANSITION

S TO R M

Extreme Environmental Conditions

Boat

Diving

+390.0

BRACING

Structure braces itself by locking spinal cords into a fixed position

+380.0

River Ecology

Perth Site Plan | Scale 1:20000

S TA G E 1 30% UV

S TA G E 2 50% UV

S TA G E 3 60% UV

+370.0

S TA G E 4 80% UV

+360.0

+350.0 Superior Articular Process Movement Joint Superior to Inferior

+340.0 Inferior Articular Process Movement Joint Superior to Inferior

+330.0

Transverse Process Muscle Connection

FRONT

+320.0

Office /C

o

rce me m

+310.0

Rib Facet Rib Connection

80%

Spinal Column Structural Body

+300.0

Intervertebral Disc Compression flexibility

SIDE

+290.0

+280.0

+270.0 Lamina Spinal Nerve Exit

Spinal Canal Nerve System

+260.0

Transverse Process Rib connection Muscle Connection

+250.0

V I S UA L I N F O R M AT I O N I N T E R FA C E

C I R C U L AT I O N SYSTEM 3

Structural Rib Transport Cell

8

1

T R A N S P O R T VA S C U L A R S Y S T E M

+230.0

n

Ed

c

io at

+220.0 90%

STRUCTURAL SYSTEMS

Gyroscopic Rail

2

4

+240.0

u

The skin system of the building acts as an interactive visual information interface which is constantly streaming visual data via the nervous system from various organs and locations from all around the structure’s body, collating data from people, the environment, its water, land and air ecologies as well as local and global scientific advancements. This allows users to become part of the building’s information ecology as it streams data all over its skin towards the brain and science divisions in the form of text, images, questions, interactions and statics. Users can interact with the skin interface by uploading data to the brain, asking it questions, catching passing data streams or simply gestural movements on the skin to activate the user interface. This visual information system creates a sense of human data space occupation where by the users of the building can visually and physically interact with its learning process, becoming one with the structure’s scientific endeavor, allowing the public to embrace this new form of architectural ecology through educational experiences.

The system is based on the nervous and vascular systems of the human body running on a non-linear rail through contained tubes which runs from the land and base of the organism up through the spine and into the rib structures for for entry into the diaphragm and spinal canal.

1

PLAN

+210.0

+200.0

Polymer Ligament

+190.0 3

Structure based on the Trachea which has cartilaginous rings joined together by ligaments which reinforces the anterior and lateral sides of the trachea to protect and maintain the airway open, giving it resilience and flexibility.

2

Research Facility

Legend 5

1. Tower 2. Membrane 3. Skin 4. Rib Cage

9

6

+170.0

1. Skin 2. Spine 3. Spinal Canal 4. Exo Skeleton 5. Endo Skeleton 6. Rib Structure 7. Floor Diaphragm Void 8. Vascular Transport 9. Floor plate

7

+180.0

Transport Veins

Analysis

+160.0

CO M P L E T E SECTION

2 Memory

+150.0

Brain Structural Rings 1

1 2

1

1

Legend 1. Pedestrain 2. Large Objects Cargo/supply

STRUCTURAL A S S E M B LY

1

E XO MEMBER

H

Legend

3

TRANSPORT NERVE

Research

+140.0

el ot

+130.0

Visual Display Skin Interface

70%

Polymer Membrane/ Visual Interface

E XO S K E L E TO N

Data Transfer

1

+110.0 User Data

Organ Responses

Uploads 4

P

User Interactions

or

Ecological Data

t

+100.0

ENDO S K E L E TO N

60%

Skin

Downloads

Skeleton

Questions

Circulation

Gestures

Immune

+90.0 River

RIB STRUCTURE

Land

ENDO MEMBER

+80.0

y Cit ng

Flo at i

1

+120.0

Statistics

+70.0

Air

Typical Floor Plan | Scale NTS

Scale Bar

0

5 10

20

50

Scale Bar

0

5

10

Perth CBD

South Perth

100%

+60.0

20

Cu lt u r

Tower Ecology Plan | Scale NTS

Spinal Structure

+50.0

s Art al/

+40.0

Transport System 60%

+20.0

ort n sp ra

Pu b lic

T

+30.0

+10.0 80%

u

rc sA

-10.0

h

Amph ibi

o

0.0

I N T E R N A L E CO LO G Y

-20.0 80%

-30.0

-40.0

S WA N R I V E R R E J U V E N AT I O N me m

-60.0

rce

Office /C

o

-50.0

-70.0 80%

-80.0

5

1

Due to the below factors the result is the Swan River we know today; a polluted environment that we tell our children not to play in and are even reluctant to venture in ourselves. With this in mind, the opportunity was seized to rehabilitate the Swan River by dredging out the decayed/ polluted river bed and pumping it full of micro-nutrients and re-oxygenated water. This in turn would create an entirely rejuvenated natural habitat around the structure’s base that could be studied and maintained for the future enjoyment of the city and the varied natural aquatic species of the Swan River ecology.

5

1

-90.0

-100.0

Mi xe

5

d

Us

-110.0

e

-120.0

4

4

100%

-130.0

5

5 2

-140.0

2 Structure

-150.0

Aeration System

PROBLEM

4

H

4

-160.0

el ot

• River has two distinct currents running both up and down stream. Fresh water flows downstream into the ocean over the top of the denser sea water running along the river bed at the bottom. • This makes the Lower waters of the swan river hypoxic and even sometimes anoxic – which means little to no oxygen is available on the river bed for aquatic fauna or life to flourish, resulting in the decomposition of organic matter and the releasing of nutrients which cause blue green algae bloom. • This creates vicious cycle creating Algae in the summer months which kills any aquatic fauna attempting to grow by starving them of oxygen. • High levels of phosphorus and nitrogen are the cause of the algae usually a result of decomposing aquatic fauna at the bottom of the sea bed.

-170.0 70%

-180.0

-190.0

-200.0

Scien ce /R

Winter - Fresh Down Stream Summer - Sea Up Stream

3 1

ea es

-220.0

TWO CURRENTS Salt water on bottom (dense) Fresh Water Above - down

1

-210.0

rch

90%

-230.0

-240.0

5

5

I

V

E

-250.0

u

L

Toxic blue green algae bloom

c

io at

No aquatic fauna results in algae bloom

-270.0

Destruction of Natural Aquatic life

90%

-280.0

S O LU T I O N

-290.0

“Its not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.”

-300.0

- Charles Darwin

1

1

4

The statement “that building is alive…” refers to a relatively new form of architectural response that this research will denote as ‘The Alive’. The Alive refers to a type of architecture that essentially feels alive, harbouring living qualities, as though a living organism had planted itself in that location and was interacting with the surrounding urban ecology, even though it is essentially static in scientific terms. These types of buildings have their own complex ecology of moving parts, skins, organs and innovative technologies that bring them to life, harmonising a new form of external expression, gesturing and interacting with their surrounding context. All this is made possible by the introduction of innovative digital and non-digital technological instruments to facilitate new types of architectural experimentation and exploration into that which was not thought possible.

4 2

Aerial Floor Plan | Scale 1:5000

Legend

The research presents an insight into the future innovation and advancement of the architectural profession through the re-acquaintance of architecture with the applied sciences. Architecture only needs to leverage off the technologies the applied scientific fields develop and apply it to the designs. Lars Spuybroek, a Professor and the Ventulett Distinguished Chair in Architectural Design at the Georgia Institute of Technology states ‘Architecture tends to be at the low-end of science and worse, at the low-end of technology’ (Spuybroek 2007). Identifying a need for architecture to reorientate itself with the multitude of scientific disciplines in order to not only innovate the profession, but also the built environment as to be more closely aligned with that of the adaptive intelligence of nature. As Charles Darwin in his evolutionary theory identifies “It’s not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most adaptable to change.” (Ingels 2009, 15).

1. Port 2. Ship Entry 3. Internal ecology 4. Main Hall Diaphragm 5. Vascular Connection

5

Through the exploration of this statement the research has achieved a deeper understanding of ‘The Alive’ through an investigation into the historical developments of non-static architectural systems, the rapid advancement of new scientific technologies plus nature itself as an endless resource of information and the systems of the human body to develop a design response shaped by the principles discovered around this notion. The research is significant as we are moving into a rapidly evolving technological age of free flowing information and technological advancement. Our urban environments are being left behind, stuck within the limitations of the Cartesian systems of old, where static forms stagnate our cities; which cities in their very nature are pulsing with life and activity, thus presenting an opportunity to create a new form of architectural species that better represents the culture of our time and forms a symbiotic relationship with its occupants.

5

BACKGROUND “Implied movement” within architecture refers to the ability of a space or structure to look or feel as if it is moving or alive. This form of architecture has the ability to unleash chaos upon the mind’s senses, but in an ordered and manipulative fashion, as to not be unpleasant but to be intriguing. The elegance of this phenomenon within architecture is composed though a play of “forces” that push and pull the viewer around a space or facade creating a sense that either they or the object is moving even though it is essentially static. The engagement that these structures impose upon the viewer’s mind is the principle element that gives them their energy. These types of structures often evoke within the viewer (also described as evocation) associations of forms reminiscent of creatures or things that move, including plants and other organisms that grow and evolve. This can also be referred to as reminiscence, a characteristic of one thing that is suggestive of another, moreover expressing itself as one thing, such as a building, but gesturing something else entirely.

Allows for growth of natural fauna

Scien ce /R

Aeration of water around site

INTRODUCTION “That building is alive…”. A statement that this research has vigorously explored over the course of this dissertation, but what does this statement mean? What is this personification or evocation of architecture? How does the building come alive and how does it engage with its context? All relevant and intriguing questions which this research has explored through a design proposal situated within the heart of the Swan Canning River.

This investigation initially in the dissertation proposal resulted in the research of 4 key areas associated with this idea: Existing architectural works that facilitate this phenomenon, the mind as the animator, the evolution of building methodologies and advocates of ‘the Alive’. As the research progressed, the investigation into the sciences and nature around the notion of life and how nature and other living organisms have evolved over time to adapt and respond to their surrounding environmental conditions, became increasingly important within the research. This resulted in the exploration of new scientific technological advancements in fields such as bio-mimicry, bio-mechatronics, bio-engineering, bio-mimetics and many others, which in turn brought attention to the true meaning of what it means to be alive within architecture, and how nature and science are an endless source of information that must be leveraged and applied. The research into these two additional aspects underlined the importance of the ecologies within the Perth CBD area and allowed for a further investigation into the ecologies of air, land and water. SCIENCES In the beginning of the research the intention was primarily to study the current and historic developments of non-static architectural systems on the premise that this would give the project grounding around what it means to be alive. However as the research progressed, it was evident that the exploration into the sciences was more relevant and provided the most opportunity. The exploration into the sciences liberated the research from the confines of the introverted architectural profession, and allowed a thorough examination into technologies that are currently being developed or have been developed by the multitude of scientific fields. This allowed the project to select from a catalogue of technologies that could be harnessed and applied on a larger scale, in order to bring the building to life through hybridization of these technologies with the intelligence of natural and human organic systems. This permitted the research to present a more adaptive, intelligent and responsive design solution, identifying the vital need for architecture to reunite itself with the sciences in order to not only project the discipline further, but create more sophisticated, adaptive, intelligent and responsive design solutions. Architecture is essentially a slow science and as Lars Spuybroek, a Professor and the Ventulett Distinguished Chair in Architectural Design at the Georgia Institute of Technology states ‘ Architecture tends to be at the low-end of science and worse, at the low-end of technology’ (Spuybroek 2007), vociferously bringing attention to this alarming realisation. ECOLOGIES After further investigation into nature and its adaptive responses to a multitude of different ecologies, it was found that The Swan Canning River offered the most appropriate testing ground in which the ecologies of sky, water and land could be explored. The research into the ecologies also brought attention to the Swan Rivers’ multiple environmental issues such as pollution and algae that desolates aquatic life and fauna, presenting a distinct opportunity to interact and rejuvenate the Swan River ecology back to health. SIGNIFICANCE As discussed in the background this “rapid change” requires appropriate response. Thus the significance is in the response: 1. Presenting an insight into the future innovation and advancement of the architectural profession through

the re-amalgamation of architecture with the sciences, and the potential of what could be achieved if architecture only leveraged off the technologies. These scientific fields are developed and applied to their own designs, as Lars Spuybroek, a Professor and the Ventulett Distinguished Chair in Architectural Design at the Georgia Institute of Technology quotes ‘ Architecture tends to be at the low-end of science and worse, at the low-end of technology’ (Spuybroek 2007), identifying an evident need for architecture to re-orientate itself with the multitude of scientific disciplines in order to not only innovate the profession,

MAIN HALL DIAPHRAGM

-260.0

n

Ed

A

Muddy Polluted water

2.

3.

4.

5.

but also the built environment as to be more closely aligned with adaptive prowess of nature. As Charles Darwin, an English naturalist best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory, cleverly identifies “It’s not the strongest of the species that survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most adaptable to change.” (Ingels 2009, 15) Submitting a proposition that not only looks inwards, but outwards as well, borrowing, leveraging and harnessing intelligence from nature and science, taking advantage of the best technologies and intellect on offer in order to provide a highly responsive and adaptable design solution. Putting forth a building that is not only high tech, but is attributed with an abundance of abilities, from monitoring and self-regulation, to a high level of intelligence, responsiveness and adaptability to change. A structure that, like the human body, is constantly regenerating itself, learning and adapting to its surrounding environment. Presenting a design proposition that contributes to its surrounding environment by rejuvenating the Swan River and interacting with the land, air and river ecologies, creating a diverse architectural dynamic for spatial experience as well as scientific research and experimentation. Creating a building that acts as a city making device, drawing energy and people from all over the world, not only to itself but also its surrounding urban and natural ecologies. A proposition that awakens the city to this new form of architectural typology and builds momentum and energy around its philosophies, that not only draws energy to itself but gives energy back to its people.

Provides habitat for natural aquatic life

ea es

-310.0

rch

-320.0 90%

Allows for public enjoyment of the Swan River

-330.0

This research has created an new architectural species based on the principles developed through systematic analysis of ‘The Alive’ that represents and interacts with the life that surrounds its being, forming a symbiotic relationship between people and its built form, where people interact with it and it interacts with them. This in turn will create an entirely new architectural dynamic for future professionals to follow that can facilitate the needs of our ever advancing society. CONCLUSION The complexities of our natural world continue to intrigue, challenge and reveal to us lessons that have greatly advanced our understanding of its intelligence. Civilisation has come at a great price on our natural environment. The constructed environment has been quite unsympathetic to the important balance of ecologies of: water, land and sky. The discipline of architecture has a significant part to play as it seeks to balance the sustainability equation (social, cultural, economic and environmental). Our constructed built forms must “EVOLVE” and “ADAPT” and to be an agent of change – responsively intelligent and at the same time humane places that support the advancement in the quality to human society. The so call bricks and mortars of the buildings of the future are strongly receptive to the application of intelligent materials and systems. The research was always ambitious since the very beginning to scope widely and at all times taking advantage of knowledge from past, current and immediate future from discoveries – research that have been innovatively applied in the automotive, robotic, aerospace, information technology and biomedical industries . Notwithstanding also that nature holds many secrets where by animals and plants have physical attributes that allow them to survive and thrive under extreme conditions. The final project is in no way meant to be a resolved design; rather the outcomes presented a kind of “armatureplatform” in which the project continues to be a test-bed. A design to debate architecture themes around: generative design, form, typology, technological systems, ecologies, education, sustainability, responsive and adaptive design solutions. The applied sciences identified, explored and adopted in this research have and will continue to significantly challenge the discipline of architecture to re-imaging the “buildings as ecologies” - Alive and thriving. The harmonious balance of the natural and the built environment in a coexisting relationship – where both are living “beings” – is where I would consider devoting my future practice.

IAIN BICKNELL 14844784

UNIFIED SKELETAL SYSTEMS WITH AN INTERNAL SPINE

Spinal Structure Endo Skeleton Skin

The adaptation of the spine to the building was used to empower the structures formal composition while allowing the building to flex, twist and brace against external environmental conditions like that of a human being. The ductile programming of the spinal arrangements allows for any part of the skeletal system to be upgraded, as all elements of the system work together as a whole and independently in the instance they may need to support the load of a redundant system that is in the process of being upgraded.

immune system

COMPLETE SYSTEM

nervous system

skeletal system

EXO REMOVAL

Watson is a cognitive technology that processes information more like a human than a computer by understanding natural language, generating hypotheses based on evidence, and learning as it goes. And learn it does. Watson “gets smarter” in three ways: by being taught by its users, by learning from prior interactions, and by being presented with new information. This technology was integrated into the structure in order to adopt the functions of the human brain while following these five programmatic principles. Watson will implement these principles as follows:

Rib Structure Membrane

Line Force

Diaphragm/Floor Plates

Projection

Brain

BMW GINA SKIN REAC TIONS

1. Act as a hive mind for the research division aiding in technological advancement and invention 2. Record all climatic and sensory data, internally and externally recommending possible new ways to adapt and respond to imposed conditions. 3. Interact and learn from the building’s occupants and develop its intelligence over time 4. Collaborate and aid in all scientific and non-scientific endeavours by its counterparts around the globe 5. Aid in the betterment, advancement, innovation and prolonging of the human race and the environment

Artificial Intelligence

exo structure

endo structure

Membrane Bio-Mimicry

SKIN REMOVAL

Genetic Engineering

Research Facility

Bionics Robotics

REPRODUCTION Development of new tech based on acquired data and research LIVING Field testing

SYSTEMS

EVOLUTION Implementation of new tech

Data received and stored

Data analysed Brain

Virus

Data analysed & implemented

ENDO REMOVAL

MEMBRANE REMOVAL

System response

Hypothesis formed alternative solution discovered

Nano Technology Elasticity

ECDYSIS Removal of redundant tech

AIR SKIN SYSTEM

MOVEABLE SKIN MADE OF POLYURETHANE COATED LYCRA WITH INTERNAL MOVING ENDO SKELETON

LAND SKIN SYSTEM

W AT E R S K I N S Y S T E M

R E J U V E N AT E D W AT E R E CO LO G Y

S K I N D E TA I L

Scales: Barrier Protection Movement: Repetition Ability: Turbulence Reduction

Scales: Barrier Protection Movement: Lines of Force Ability: Turbulence Reduction

Scales: Barrier Protection Movement: Repetition Ability: Turbulence Reduction

Dermis: Sensory/Support Layer Energy: Nano film Solar Cells

Dermis: Sensory/Support Layer Energy: Nano film Solar Cells

Dermis: Sensory/Support Layer

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

E-Skin Sensor

Melatonin: Thermochromic Layer

Melatonin: Thermochromic Layer

Melatonin: Thermochromic Layer

Electro Active Polymer

Interface: Electro-Active Polymer

Interface: Electro-Active Polymer

Interface: Electro-Active Polymer

Dermis Support

Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

Epidermis: Prestressed Polymer

Reactive Scales

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

Hypo-dermis: Silicon Insulation

Filtration Membrane

T E C H N O LO G Y

Shape Memory Alloy

Nano Film Solar Cells

Thermochromic Polymer

Electro Active Polymer

Graphene

Evocation

Bio-Mimetics

Imposed site condition

INTERRELATED SYSTEMS

SPINE REMOVAL

BRAIN PROGRAM I B M W AT S O N

THIS PROVIDES THE COLLABORATIVE ENVIRONMENT TO FACILITATE CREATIVE THINKING AND PROCESS

Bio Engineering

skin system

IMPLIED MOVEMENT

Geometric Transcendence

ALL RESPONSES + INFO RELAYED TO THE BRAIN

R E S E A R C H FA C I L I T Y IMMUNE SYSTEM

Muscular Tension

FOCUS

D U C T I L E S K E L E TA L SYSTEM

R - Facility

RESILIENT SKIN

O2

O2

Air Filtration: 10%

H 2O

Air Filtration: 10%

Water Turbulence: 20% Reduction

Structures Skin Functions Compress

Wrinkle

Bend

Stretch

Indigo Snake Scales

Air Adaptive Membrane

Barrier Defence

Indigo Snake Scales

Land Adaptive Membrane

Barrier Defence

Indigo Snake Scales

Water Adaptive Membrane

Barrier Defence

Data sent to research division for further study and implementation

The design of the skin was adopted from an experiment conducted by BMW called BMW Gina, which consisted of a moveable skin made of polyurethane coated lycra, applied to an internal moving endo skeleton. This allowed the car’s skin to compress, wrinkle, bend and stretch, adding an entirely new dynamic to the cars functions (BMW Web TV 2008). This technology coupled with EAP technology allowed for the skin to be laid over the structure’s skeletal system without deformations imposed onto it by the spine causing any damage.

Extreme Weather

Extreme Weather Protective Armor

Protective Armor

Smooth Surface

Smooth Surface

Reduction in surface air friction

Reduction in surface air friction

Turbulence Reduction

Weather/Water Turbulence

The skin reflects these 3 separate ecologies through functional cell membranes that react to imposed site conditions such as light, wind, rain, water currents and touch, also facilitating the ability to harvest solar energy throughout the day through the implementations of liquid solar cell technology. The design of the skin was adopted from an experiment conducted by BMW called BMW Gina, which consisted of a moveable skin made of polyurethane coated lycra, applied to an internal moving endo skeleton. This allowed the cars skin to compress, wrinkle, bend and stretch, adding an entirely new dynamic to the cars functions. (Youtube, Gina) This technology coupled with EAP technology allowed for the skin to be laid over the structures structural skeleton without deformations imposed onto it by the skeletal structure causing any damage. The composition of the skins structural was designed to reflect the functions of the human skin as close as possible with other adaptations from other organisms such as sharks and snakes being applied as an extra protective layer, which human skin lacks.

Human Skin Structure

Less Stress on Spine

Silent Flow Armor Barrier

• • • • •

Scale Assembly

Closing Scale

Lines of Force

Closing Scale

Lines of Force

Smooth Flow

The skin consists of a supple membrane composed of three layers -- the epidermis, the dermis and the hypodermis that all work in support of one another. The epidermis is the thinnest of the skin layers and is the outermost one. Serving as the body’s armour against infectious diseases. It also contains melanin, a pigment that gives our skin its colour, darkening in response to harmful UV rays in order to protect the skin. Commonly referred to as a ‘Tan’. The Dermis layer is full of collagen, which gives the skin its firmness, containing sweat glands and hair follicles. It also contains nerve endings that allow us to feel sensations such as heat, cold and pain. The dermis is body’s the body’s alarm system, signalling it into action. The innermost layer of skin is the hypodermis, which connects our skin to the bone and muscle beneath it. The hypodermis is made up of subcutaneous tissue that insulates our body and controls its temperature. Sebum is an oily substance that the body excretes to coat the skin to shield the epidermis from the elements. The skin also consists of cells called Keratinocytes which determine peoples skin colour – These skin cells absorb harmful UV rays. People with dark skin due to this cell are less susceptible to burning. 7. Unlike snakes humans shed their skin gradually, shedding old skin cells to make room for the new ones that lie beneath them.

Shark Skin Technology

Sensory E-Skin



'ALIVE' Thesis Panels