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REHOUSING

SOCIAL HOUSING


REHOUSING

SOCIAL HOUSING


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Hyun Min Park z3376811 Master of Architecture University of New South Wales Graduation Studio 2017 Architecture & Housing: A Social City


Contents

Abstract

Marrickville

Social Housing in New South Wales

Suburb Profile Site Analysis

What is it? Current Issues Housing Affordability

4 5

60 61

Proposed Site Site Analysis

68

Design Conditions

70

12

Social Housing Around the World Vienna Berlin Design Principles

14 17

19

72 74

28 30 38 42 46 54

A Test Unit Configurations Typical Floor Plans Design Strategy Sections Masterplan Detail Section Section Details Facade Design

76 80 84 88 90 92 94 96 100

56 58

Final Design Proposal

104

Prefabrication Cross-Laminated Timber Sustainability

Working on the Grid Living on the Grid Design Proposition

An Alternative Housing Model Rehousing Social Housing Co-Live Co-Work Key Workers Financial Model Incentives for the Government

Modular Design

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Abstract

A research portfolio and project proposition for an alternative social housing model in NSW. Rehousing Social Housing offers an alternative social housing model as a response to the deepening distrust in the effectiveness and necessity of social housing in NSW. In the current climate of unprecedented socioeconomic injustice in both the public and private housing market, it is critical to challenge the government’s plans to continue to reduce social housing stock and actively seek new housing models and procurement methods to provide affordable housing at all levels of income. Rehousing Social Housing proposes a government led, mixed co-live and co-work scheme for key workers located in the heart of Marrickville. The proposed site, situated on the corner of Marrickville’s two main commercial strips will allow the influx of working professionals to breathe new life into the streets, boost the local suburban economy and transform Marrickville into a vibrant social hub. Additionally, the key worker clientele will alleviate the growing shortage of affordable housing in the private housing market as well as resolve the deepening stigma currently surrounding social housing estates. Finally, the increased rental yield from the moderate income residents as well as the co-work and ground floor commercial spaces will allow the scheme to be entirely self-funded, providing a prototype for a more economically sustainable housing system.

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Social Housing in New South Wales WHAT IS IT? Social housing in New South Wales refers to housing products and services provided by not-for-profit, non-government or government organisations to assist individuals and families in housing need. There are 3 main types of social housing; 1 Public housing: Owned and managed by the government; 2 Community housing: Owned and/or managed by a Community Housing Provider (CHP) and; 3 Aboriginal housing: Public or community housing focused on Aboriginal tenants (ACHP). Social housing was first introduced in Australia in 1945 as a response to the debilitated post war economy and housing system and was a means to accommodate low income working families. The target demographics have since changed significantly to the “most vulnerable people in our community who need a safety net.” NSW has the largest social housing system in Australia with around 290,000 tenants in 150,000 dwellings of which approximately 90% are government owned and 80% government managed. A further 70,000 of individuals are supported via private rental assistance or temporary accommodation each year. Most funding for social housing comes from the Commonwealth Government which supports a further 420,000 households with Commonwealth Rental Assistance (CRA) outside of the social housing system.

Rent Setting and Rent Subsidies Rent is chargeable for individual properties based on market valuations, meaning rent is related to property location and attributes. However, rent is limited to some defined capacity of households to pay, usually 25% of household income and capped at ‘market rent’ set for that property. For most tenants, who have low to very low incomes, the rent charged is therefore incomerelated, not market-related. Whilst the lower income tenants are eligible to claim Housing Benefit or rental assistance, it is up to the housing provider to bridge the gap between the tenants’ rent and the market rent.


CURRENT ISSUES Stigma Additionally, public perception of social housing and its tenants has become increasingly negative and this stigma has widely become accepted as reality. This has far-reaching consequences that impact not only social housing tenants, however, society as a whole. “As disadvantage is pathologised, social housing residents are perceived as inherently problematic and undeserving. Stigmatised neighbourhoods attract poorer quality, substandard services, lowered local amenity, and fewer employment opportunities… Evidence of postcode discrimination [have been found] with employers turning away applicants from certain neighbourhoods with poor reputations. Further, stigmatisation may operate as a brake on policy interventions that aim to improve the living conditions and opportunities of residents living in these locations, by reducing public support for investment in social housing.”

“Take a good look at a public housing building and you’ll find precious people who don’t cause trouble, who pay their rent. They are grandmothers and grandfathers, your uncles and aunties, but they are still people who need support... Yet, we’re all stigmatised as junkies, as people who won’t work, as lowlifes — that isn’t fair.” Irene Dourtney, City of Sydney councillor and former resident of Redfern public housing.

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Economic Sustainability

Lack of Government Support

The sustainability of the social housing system poses one of its greatest challenges. Currently, there are no self-sufficient social housing models in NSW owed to the increasingly low socioeconomic profile of housing tenants and the ageing portfolio of stock that requires significantly higher cost levels of maintenance.

Future Directions for Social Housing in NSW which sets out the Government’s vision for social housing over the next 10 years primarily focuses on reducing the number of people in the system by assisting their transition into the private rental market. However, this further emphasises the notion of social housing becoming an ambulant welfare service, puts more vulnerable people at risk of discrimination in the increasingly unaffordable housing market, and ultimately only acts as a thoroughfare for more public money to land in the hands of private investors.

$143 MILLION Net loss p.a.

$330 MILLION Funding deficit for maintenance p.a.

2013 NSW Audit Office Report Lack of Supply & Limited Housing Options The largely old housing stock also fails to meet the requirements of the changed demographic profile of current and future residents with regard to size, location and access.

59, 500

Approved applicants on waiting list

4 YEAR

Approximate waiting time for general needs applicants 2013 NSW Audit Office Report


10 YEAR PLAN

Future Directions for Social Housing in NSW

LESS PEOPLE IN SOCIAL HOUSING

MORE PEOPLE IN PRIVATE RENTAL MARKET PRIVATISE HOUSING & REGENERATE ESTATES TO 70% PRIVATE: 30% SOCIAL HOUSING

AMBULANT SERVICE

STIGMA WORSENS

MORE PUBLIC MONEY IN PRIVATE INVESTORS’ POCKETS

In government reports, the success of social housing programmes is generally measured by tenant exit rates. However, DOES LESS PEOPLE IN SOCIAL HOUSING = A MORE SUCCESSFUL SOCIAL HOUSING PROGRAM ?

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KINGSWOOD

PARRAMATTA

50km

40km

CLAYMORE

30km

20km

10km


Concentration of Poverty As inner city real estate becomes increasingly valuable, the government is selling off existing housing stock to private buyers and replacing demolished stock further and further away from the CBD and other major business districts. The proposed locations of the new developments are evidence of the “spatial polarisation of Sydney’s rich and poor” with the government’s aims for improved social integration, social cohesion and social equity completely out of sight.

Sydney CBD Other major business districts Sydenham to Bankstown Corridor Demolition of existing public housing CHATSWOOD NORTH SYDNEY

5km

Alexandria Darlinghurst Darlington Erskineville Glebe Millers Point Paddington Redfern The Rocks Surry Hills Waterloo Woolloomooloo

153rd* 28th 130th 85th 43rd 8th 21st 111st 33rd 42nd 82nd 14th

Proposed locations for new public housing Beverly Hills Bonnyrigg Casula Condell Park Chester Hill Claymore Gymea Kingswood Miranda Padstow Riverwood Yagoona

309th* 499th 308th 407th 373rd 380th 153rd 347th 121st 372nd 280th 464th

*Sydney’s most liveable suburbs, Domain 2016 Ranking out of total 555 suburbs

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Housing Affordability ITS EFFECT ON SOCIAL HOUSING

Housing is considered to be affordable when households who rent or have mortgage repayments are able to meet these costs and still have sufficient income to pay for other basic needs such as food, clothing, transport, medical care and education. GROSS ANNUAL INCOME

30%

Range of affordable rent

Housing affordability in Sydney is on an exponential decline with the ratio of average house prices reaching 8.5 times higher than the average gross annual income. The rapid urbanisation of Sydney and the concentration of employment in the CBD are driving house prices up across the city, with the property market in the inner city suburbs completely out of reach for most renters and buyers. “However, the current housing crisis is not just a problem for those priced out of a decent place to live. It also damages the efficiency of the entire urban economy as lower paid workers are forced further from jobs, adding to costly traffic congestion and pushing up unemployment.� This can contribute to the loss of labour supply in the inner city for low to moderate income jobs that provide essential services such as childcare, aged care, health care, hospitality, emergency services and teaching as their wages become increasingly insufficient to cover rent/mortgage repayments and the cost of living in the inner city suburbs. Therefore, affordable housing is a vital form of community infrastructure that supports the city’s social, cultural, environmental and economic sustainability.


SOCIAL HOUSING / BOARDING

SLEEP ROUGH

VERY LOW TO LOW INCOME HOUSEHOLDS

STUDENTS, FIRST HOME BUYERS, LOW TO MODERATE INCOME HOUSEHOLDS

CHEAPER PRIVATE HOUSING OPTIONS

REAL ESTATE SPECULATORS

FIRST HOME BUYERS, LOW TO MODERATE INCOME HOUSEHOLDS

PRIVATE HOUSING

1%

Private housing market deemed affordable for low to very low income households

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Social Housing around the World VIENNA: A TIGHTLY CONTROLLED HOUSING SYSTEM The unique and innovative social housing system in Vienna has allowed the city to provide affordable housing to not just the very low income earners, but to the vast majority of the city’s population. Since the early 20th century, the government has continued to give priority to providing quality affordable housing for the Viennese people. The city owns and manages 220,000 housing units, which represents around 25% of the city’s total housing stock, a significantly greater amount than the dwindling 5% in NSW. These units are primarily focused towards housing lower income earners. However, since the 1980s, the city has collaborated with the private sector to increase the number of affordable housing without direct involvement. Currently, the city “indirectly controls 200,000 units that are built and owned by limitedprofit private developers but developed through a city-regulated process.” The process is outlined as follows: 1 The city buys land suitable for residential development and retains control over the type and nature of the development. 2 Developers submit proposals for the new development. 3 The winning proposal is selected by a jury comprising of city representatives, architects, builders and specialist in housing law; based on architectural quality, environmental performance, social sustainability and economic 4 parameters. The winning developer is offered the land at a discounted price with favourable loaning terms such as a below market interest rate and 5 extended repayment periods. The developer builds and retains ownership of the land and the housing units. However, 50% of all housing units must be offered back to the 6 city to be rented out to lower income earners. An income based rental system requires residents to pay only 20 – 25% of their household income for rent, less than the 30% income threshold in Australia.

The competition based public-private partnership has reduced construction costs by up to 20% and has encouraged creative architectural and financial models to continually improve the quality of life within these schemes. A unique feature of the Vienna model is that eligibility for social housing is only considered at the application stage. Once offered a housing unit, the household is not required to leave even if their income increases beyond the income threshold for that property. This means that a large number of moderate income households are living in social housing around Vienna which creates a natural social mix that helps social integration and removes any stigma surrounding subsidised housing. This is possible through the large social housing stock in Vienna with around 5,000 new units added annually. Currently around 60% of Vienna’s population lives in subsidised housing. This means that the private rental market cannot afford to continually increase rents. This ensures rent remains affordable across the entire city.


“Globally, Vienna frequently ranks among the cities with the highest quality of life. Much of that is attributed to social housing.”

SOCIAL HOUSING AS % OF ALL HOUSING

32

NETHERLANDS 23

AUSTRIA DENMARK

18

UK

18

SWEDEN

17

GERMANY

5

US

5

AUSTRALIA

5

LONG TERM NSW SOCIAL HOUSING TENANTS 100% 90% ANNUAL FUNDING TO SOCIAL HOUSING

80% 70%

$600M

60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1960

2013

Other

8X

Wages

$70M

Government Benefits

NSW

VIENNA

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ALT ERLAA “Vast, verdant open spaces with walnut trees, elaborate playgrounds, tennis courts, a fitness and youth club, outdoor and indoor swimming pools, as well as spas — for 11,000 tenants, the project’s slogan “Living like the rich” is a living reality” at Alt Erlaa.

At Alt Erlaa, the “rich and poor live side-by-side, a fact that residents take pride in.” The Vienna social housing system provides an exemplary model which uses economic and architectural drivers to build social mix and social cohesion rather than enforce these ideals as mandatory from governmental parties.

“Home to local sports superstars, high-ranking politicians, labour union heads and even a former president’s daughter,” in Vienna, social housing is a lifestyle choice. Alt Erlaa exterior


BERLIN: A REVOLT In contrast to Sydney where most rental stock are owned by small investors who seek quick and maximum return, much of the housing stock in Berlin is owned by large institutions that prefer a steady return than “boom-and-bust cycles.” Further, rent brake legislation prevents landlords from increasing rent beyond the mandated standard inflation rates. Despite such efforts to maintain housing affordability, similar to most vibrant arts, music and social scenes; Berlin is in the process of a city-wide gentrification. The artists, musicians, young people, small scale entrepreneurs who shaped and revitalised the city are being priced out by real estate speculators. Already, rents are increasing and the city is heading towards greater unaffordability. In Berlin this resulted in a mass social movement to give rights to the priced out poor and middle class locals turning to squatting and other unconventional housing options. The movement was able to stop government intervention and now the government has started to work with them to give them rights to the land and offer funding to refurbish the old vacant buildings. These former squats are now known as cooperatives. BAUGRUPPE “In Germany, the baugruppe is a typical model of community-led housing which consists of a group of people who form a cooperative in order to design, finance and build one or several multistorey buildings.” The Baugruppe has become increasingly popular around Germany and especially in Berlin with over 1,000 cohousing developments around the city. Berlin provided the ideal backdrop for the cohousing culture to develop with its unique history that disrupted top-down planning processes, leaving large pockets of land and vacant buildings available for alternative housing projects. “WE ARE ALL STAYING”

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Design Principles

URBAN SPRAWL

URBAN INTENSIFICATION

SEGREGATION

INTEGRATION

HOMOGENEITY

DIVERSITY

HIGH RISE

HUMAN SCALE

ISOLATION

TOGETHERNESS

INDIVIDUALITY

COMMUNITY

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Rejuvenate the Existing Urban Fabric TO AVOID URBAN SPRAWL Urban sprawl refers to the horizontal expansion of suburbs around urban centres to accommodate a growing population. This leads to an increasing number of people living further away from jobs and other services offered by the city. Whilst urban sprawl can offer lower cost housing options further away from the city centre, research has found that these fringe suburbs often become isolated, resulting in poor social cohesion and trust, and income based segregation. Further, urban sprawl leads to increasing commute times that has a serious impact on the well-being of those travelling more than 30 minutes to get to work. According to the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey, the average daily commute time for people in Sydney is around 55 minutes each way, the longest average commute time in Australia. Numerous studies have found direct links between long commutes and various physical and mental health problems and overall lower life satisfaction. Therefore, we must look at methods of urban intensification, not sprawl in order to bring the population back into closer proximity to the city centre and counteract the issues of inequity and a declining quality of life.


Mix Building Functions TO GENERATE STREET LIFE AT ALL TIMES OF DAY Mix commercial, residential, civic and cultural functions at accessible urban scales and grains to generate street life at all times of day. This not only boosts the daytime and night time suburban economy, it creates a sense of safety and also acts as a mechanism to prevent petty crimes by a means of passive surveillance a la Jane Jacobs.

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Design for Diversity TO FILL IN THE ‘MISSING MIDDLE’ The privatisation of the vast majority of the housing market has seen the design focus for new volume housing delivery shift from the quality of life the space can bring to the end user to simply increasing profits. This was further driven by the unprecedented level of interest in real estate among investors and first home buyers. Developers began to push for quick delivery of the maximum number of 1- 2 bedroom units that would yield the fastest and greatest amount of return on their investment. Now there is a gaping void in the inner city housing market or a ‘missing middle’ for anything beyond “cookie-cutter small units or prestige apartments.” So, how can we deliver a new type of housing to suit people at different stages in life and incomes that is cost-effective and equally viable with people’s needs and quality of life at its core?


Change the High Rise Model TO ADJUST TO THE HUMAN SCALE A growing need for denser cities has traditionally been fulfilled by high rise residential towers. However, high rises are costly and have little consideration for the human element or the surrounding streetscape. In lower socioeconomic areas, high rises have often been linked to increased isolation and crime. A simple top-down approach to increasing density can have serious adverse effects on the local community. So can we create a new model for density that is designed for and built at the human scale?

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Create Inviting Public Spaces TO ALLOW A DIVERSE POPULATION TO COEXIST EASILY In a digital society, connections are built within the confines of our own homes. However, a thriving community is a community with people interacting with each other and the environment. Therefore, it is now more critical than ever to design public spaces that are inviting and enticing in order to bring people out of their homes and interact with the city. The research documentary, The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces, found that people instinctively gravitate towards: Sunlight, Trees, Water, Food, Places to sit and/or places, Places with something to look at and, Places along the circulation path. The documentary also noted that busy spaces with a lot of foot traffic create a sense of safety and allow men and women, office workers and homeless people, the elderly and children to coexist happily and easily.

People are inclined to gather where there are places to sit.


Embrace the Sharing Economy TO CULTIVATE SOCIAL WELLNESS “The Sharing Economy is a socio-economic ecosystem built around the sharing of human, physical and intellectual resources. Despite the persevering “obsession with individuality and independence, the most consistent factor for predicting happiness is social connectivity.” This is evident in the success of the sharing economy which cultivates social trust, social interaction and overall social wellness. This economic model is already being embraced in other industries especially among the younger generations who are more inclined to value experiences over possessions.

The World Health Organisation (WHO) has predicted that depression will be the leading cause of morbidity by 2030.

Various collective living models have already garnered traction around Europe and the United States and are evidence of more people seeking a more communal life. This presents a myriad of opportunities for new ways of living that can be more suitable to the 21st century.

INDIVIDUALITY

COMMUNITY

SHARING ECONOMY SOCIAL TRUST AND CONNECTIVITY

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A New Australian Dream WHERE DO PEOPLE WANT TO LIVE? Derived from the American dream, the Australian dream emerged in the 1950s as the Australian economy began to recover from the debilitating effects of World War II. It represents the ideal Australian lifestyle that we aspire to achieve through hard work and determination. However, our housing aspirations are changing and it is time that the housing market changes too.

1950s

2017

“A detached house on a quarter acre block, surrounded by garden, complete with a Hills Hoist, barbecue and room for a cricket match.”

“Generally around railway stations and close to work opportunities. House prices also tell us that more and more people want to live in the inner west and areas close to the Sydney CBD. A growing number of people are preferring the urban, cosmopolitan apartment lifestyle to the suburban retreat.”


“At a time of increasing change, we believe that we need to rethink established industry models to address contemporary city challenges and to accommodate 21st century patterns of life.” Natasha Reid, Architect

“CHANGE THE DREAM AND YOU CHANGE THE CITY.”

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It is not enough to simply add supply to the public and private housing markets that only favour those on a very low or very high income. Instead, it is critical that we actively seek new housing models and procurement methods to provide affordable housing at all levels of income. So, how can we create a new housing model that “addresses the socioeconomic injustice, financial barriers and social alienation embedded in the Australian housing market?�


An Alternative Model: A Missing Typology CO-LIVE + CO-WORK + AFFORDABILITY The project proposes a new type of social housing model that offers affordability and liveability to the city’s essential workers who until recently were often neglected in the political housing debate. This includes key workers and other moderate income earners as well as small scale entrepreneurs, artists, designers, writers, freelancers, etc. Inspired by the co-housing and co-working culture that has already yielded great success around the world, the project aims to deliver affordable subsidised housing and working spaces that cultivate community and challenge the social stigma surrounding government subsidised housing.

REHOUSING

SOCIAL HOUSING

CO-LIVING

CO-WORKING

AFFORDABILITY + LIVEABILITY + COMMUNITY + EQUALITY INFLATIONARY REAL ESTATE + SEGREGATION + ISOLATION

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Co-Live WHAT IS IT?

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CO-LIVING AND COMMUNITY HOUSING

Co-living is a new way of living also known as ‘Intentional Living’, ‘Intentional Community’, and ‘Cohousing’. It is a new kind of sharing economy which steers away from traditional ideas of ownership and individualism and focuses on a “genuine sense of community, using shared spaces and facilities to create a more convenient and fulfilling life.”

Community housing is an existing social housing model which offers affordable, secure and safe housing options and encourages community participation. They are generally owned and managed by not-for-profit community housing providers.

The main characteristics of co-living projects are:

• Intentional neighbourhood design • Extensive common facilities • Non-hierarchial structure

Whilst the basic tenets of co-living and community housing are quite similar, community housing offers fully self-contained units with only some communal spaces that will ideally foster a sense of community. However, in most community housing developments around Sydney, these spaces are more often than not underused and the sense of community remains an ideal. Co-living prioritises community over the individual housing unit, using design mechanisms to not only promote but compel community participation.


Council Leadership ELY COURT, LONDON Alison Brooks Architects + Brent Council Part of a 20 year regeneration project, the success of Ely Court can be attributed to the ambitions and leadership of Brent council. Council employed architects up to the planning stage at which point the proposed schemes were used to draw up a land deal with social landlords who then proceeded to build the project. Council retained guardianship of the project throughout the entire process which prevented any watering down in quality or social housing objectives such as building community and reducing social exclusion, a common occurrence when developers take over who have no obligations or financial incentives to meet such objectives. Ely Court exterior

Mixed Tenure Co-Housing Initiated by a Not-For-Profit Housing Developer NEW GROUND CO-HOUSING, LONDON Pollard Thomas Edwards Architects + Hanover Housing New Ground Co-Housing is the first project of its kind specifically built for older female residents, commissioned by Hanover Housing for the Older Women’s Co-Housing Group (OWCH). The complex features 25 private apartments ranging from 1 to 3 bedroom units with a large communal garden, communal craft shed and a common house containing a meeting room, kitchen and dining areas and a laundry room. The project is unique because it is a cohousing project initiated, designed and developed without any direct involvement by the intended residents. It also offers a successful model for cohousing that is targeted at a different group of people to the typical young professionals demographic. Further, the scheme is 2 thirds owner-occupied and 1 third social housing. Middle: Residents of New Ground Cohousing Bottom: New Ground Cohousing exterior

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Emphasis on Integration MINI LIVING INSTALLATION, MILAN A conceptual living installation offered by car brand MINI blurs the lines between private and public with 30sqm micro apartments scattered around a larger communal space. The installation suggests a micro-neighbourhood could be the answer to a global housing shortage crisis. Every inch of the private living spaces are designed for purpose, rendering the small apartment layout possible. Joinery units are built into the wall with hinges and sliding tracts enabling them to function as doors and windows connecting the living space to the surrounding communal spaces.

Left: Living unit interior Right: Kitchen joinery/door


Emphasis on Communal Spaces WELIVE, NEW YORK CITY & WASHINGTON DC WeLive provides short-term to long-term accommodation for those looking for flexible and playful living arrangements that foster meaningful relationships. WeLive is a hybrid of existing housing models, offering the living arrangements of student housing, the services of hotels and the vibrancy and social vigour of youth hostels. We live is built upon the belief that “we are only as good as the people we surround ourselves with” and offers an expansive array of communal spaces “from mailrooms and laundry rooms that double as bars and event spaces to communal kitchens, roof decks, and hot tubs” to encourage social interaction. “WeLive aims to provide residents with the option of privacy—“but if they don’t want to, they will never be alone in their life.”

Left: Communal dining Middle: Communal living Right: Communal laundry

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New Ground Cohousing, London POLLARD THOMAS EDWARDS ARCHITECTS An L shaped design with self-contained private apartments looking onto a large communal green space. A communal living and kitchen space sits at the central axis point of the building. Design Focus: Privacy Social Interaction

80%

20%

Site Plan 1:1000

Social Space 1 Bedroom 2 Bedroom 3 Bedroom Green Space Services

Ground Floor Plan 1:500


MINI Living Installation, Milan MINI BY BMW Micro self-contained units dispersed around larger communal spaces. The small private areas attract people to come out of their homes and into the communal spaces. The multiple entry points to each unit eliminates defined circulation paths creating an environment for organic social interactions. However, there are issues with lack of natural light and ventilation as well as security concerns. Design Focus: Privacy Social Interaction

20%

80%

Social Space Studio

Floor Plan 1:500

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WeLive Crystal City, Washington DC WELIVE An O shaped design with private units placed along the perimeter and communal spaces placed at the centre. The communal spaces become optional as they serve no necessary function and they do not sit along any direct circulation paths. This scheme works for WeLive simply because of their target market who are people specifically looking for social interaction. Design Focus: Privacy Social Interaction

60%

Ground Floor Plan 1:500

40%

Social Space Studio 3 Bedroom 4 Bedroom Services


The Table Top WINNER OF THE 2017 NEW YORK AFFORDABLE HOUSING CHALLENGE A modular system using combined circular, square and rectangular forms creates a diverse and dynamic interplay of units and circulation corridors/ semi-public courtyards that aid increased social interaction between residents. The various shapes and angles create a lot of dead spaces within the units.

Social Space Studio 2 Bedroom 3 Bedroom

Design Focus: Privacy Social Interaction

50%

Floor Plan 1:500

50%

Shared courtyards

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Co-Work

Co-Work

WHAT IS IT?

So, co-working offers desks, small office spaces and workshops that can be rented under more flexible conditions for those who seek an informal working environment alongside others. Co-working is a fast-growing industry, growing from 20,000 workers globally in 2010 to more than 510,000 workers in 2016, a 2550% growth.

PROS

CONS

• • •

• • • • • •

Lower costs (rent, utilities and maintenance) Flexibility (more mobility) Productivity Networking Collaboration Community spirit Creativity

20,000 WORKERS 2010

2550%

Co-working taps into the market of ‘coffices’ (cafe offices) for people who cannot afford office spaces or prefer to work away from home or from their corporate offices. The rising number of remote workers created a new culture of cafes with free wi-fi being filled with students and professionals working on their laptops. In Australia, 1 in 3 professionals work regularly from home and a recent survey of 250 work-from-home workers found that “58% are craving more social interaction and face-to-face interaction... and admitted to eating more food, spending more on office expenses, being unable to relax at home after work and struggling to muster enough self-motivation to do a decent job.”

Distractions Conflicts Competition

510,000 WORKERS 2016


WEWORK Founded in 2010, WeWork is the currently the biggest co-working services provider with 100,000+ members and locations in 19 US cities and 12 countries including various locations around Sydney and Melbourne. WeWork offers: A WIDE VARIETY OF WORKSPACES • Shared desk spaces • Private offices for teams of 1-100+ FLEXIBILITY OF USE • Month-to-month membership terms • Single monthly membership fee • Access to any WeWork building around the world SENSE OF COMMUNITY AND BELONGING “Whether it’s getting feedback on your product in real time, asking for a recommendation on a service provider, or simply grabbing a beer after work, the power of our community is invaluable.” VARIOUS SERVICES • Fast internet • Spacious common areas • Lockable filing cabinets • High grade printers • Free refreshments including coffee, tea, mineral water and beer • On-site managers • Private phone booths for private calls ENDLESS NETWORKING OPPORTUNITIES Organised social and professional events including: • Catered lunch • Happy hour drinks • Seminars with industry professionals Co-working space

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WeWork Weihai Lu, Shanghai

22@Barcelona, Barcelona

WEWORK FOR ALL WEWORK MEMBERS

APPAREIL FOR ARCHITECTS AND DESIGNERS


New Lab Co-Working, New York City

Mercado Da Ribeira, Lisbon

MARVEL ARCHITECTS FOR TECH ENTREPRENEURS

SELGASCANO STUDIO FOR COLLABORATIVE WORKERS

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Key Workers WHO ARE THEY?

HOW ARE THEY AFFECTED?

A key worker is a public sector employee who is considered to provide an essential service. Those defined as key workers generally include:

The increasing unaffordability of houses are pushing public sector workers on capped incomes out of the inner city areas, forcing them to either travel up to and over 1 hour each way to work or find jobs outside of the inner city region. This means Sydney is at risk of losing key workers who are essential to the functioning of the city.

Clinical National Health Service staff (except doctors and dentists) Teachers and nursery nurses Police officers, Community Support Officers and some civilian police staff Prison officers and some other Prison staff Social workers, educational psychologists, and therapists Local Authority Planners Firefighters

“Just because you are a police officer starting off or a nurse, why do you have to travel an hour and a half to your shift and then an hour and a half back again?” NSW GOVERNMENT’S PROPOSED SOLUTIONS Inclusionary Zoning (IZ) is a new policy initiative that requires a certain percentage of all new residential developments to be set aside at affordable prices for people on low to moderate incomes with a part of that percentage set aside for key workers and first home buyers. The policy will in turn increase the floor space ratio and/or height restrictions for these developments. However, in the current housing crisis, IZ is not enough to cover the increasing affordable housing deficit in the market.


MODERATE INCOME THRESHOLD Moderate income benchmark is 80% - 120% of gross median income for Greater Sydney.

2016-2017 GROSS MEDIAN INCOME FOR INDIVIDUALS

$30K

$40K

$50K

$60K

$70K

$80K

$90K

$100K

$80K

$90K

$100K

$80K

$90K

$100K

$80K

$90K

$100K

$40,001 - $59,900 2016-2017 GROSS MEDIAN INCOME FOR HOUSEHOLDS $30K

$40K

$50K

$60K

$70K

$67,601 - $101,400

MODERATE INCOME THRESHOLD FOR INDIVIDUALS $30K

$40K

$50K

$60K

$70K

$32,000 - $71,880 MODERATE INCOME THRESHOLD FOR HOUSEHOLDS $30K

$40K

$50K

$60K

$70K

$54,080 - $121,680

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POLICE OFFICER $30K

$40K

$50K

$60K

$70K

$80K

$90K

$100K

$70K

$80K

$90K

$100K

$70K

$80K

$90K

$100K

$64k $69,382

$74k

FIREFIGHTER $30K

$40K

$50K

$60K

$64k

$65k

NURSE $30K

$40K

$50K

$60K

$57,213 $60k

$72k


PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHER $30K

$40K

$50K

$60K

$70K

$80K

$90K

$100K

$70K

$80K

$90K

$100K

$80K

$90K

$100K

$60k $61,106

HIGH SCHOOL TEACHER $30K

$40K

$50K

$60K

$60k

$66,104

$72k

SOCIAL WORKER $30K

$40K

$50K

$60K

$70K

$58k $59,745 $66k

Average Annual Salary

Average Starting Salary

Average Salary After 5 Years

45


46

Financial Model

The government buys land and changes development controls OR The government changes development controls on existing public land

The government remains the client throughout the entire design process to ensure affordability takes priority.

The sale returns a profit to the government to allow for more government controlled developments Pay rent on the share you don’t own

The buyer is also free to sell the home at any stage, at which point the rights are given back to the provider so that they can select the next buyer based on their income eligibility. This is to ensure that others unable to buy in the open market have the opportunity to purchase a home of their own and ensure the unit’s continued level of affordability.

Shared Ownership

Buy 25 - 75% of a property Newlon Housing Trust, a London based affordable housing provider offers shared ownership which refers to a part buy and part rent scheme, allowing people struggling to enter the private property market to get a foothold on the ladder. Buyers are able to purchase a share in the property and as their income increases, they can continue to purchase further shares until they own 100% of the property. The greater the percentage of ownership, the lower the percentage on which they pay rent to the provider. Whilst standard legal fees, stamp duty and a strata levy still apply, the scheme allows buyers to enter the market with a smaller upfront deposit and offer a flexible and lower risk system to enter the housing market.


The government sells the approved DA to a limited profit or not for profit developer with favourable loaning terms such as a below market interest rate and extended repayment periods.

The developer builds and retains ownership of the land and the housing units.

Units are rented out or sold to those who fit the eligibility criteria.

OR

Below Market Rent Current Rental Market Average in Marrickville: 1 Bedroom: $400pw 2 Bedroom: $500pw 3 Bedroom: $ 750pw Proposed Rent for Proposed Scheme 1 Bedroom: $360pw 2 Bedroom: $400pw 3 Bedroom: $600pw WeWork Rent Pricing: Hot Desk: Starting from $450pm Dedicated Desk: Starting from $550pm Private Office: Starting from $850pm

Steady flow of income

Proposed Rent for Proposed Scheme Hot Desk: $360pm or $90pw Dedicated Desk:$440pm or $110pw Private Office: $680pm or $170pw

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48

ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR NEWLON HOUSING

• •

• • • • • •

You must have a gross household income of less than £90,000 per annum and a minimum of £24,000. You need to be in full or part time paid employment with a minimum of a one year contract. If your contract is less than 12 months you must be able to demonstrate that you have been in employment for the last 24 months. You must complete a credit check. If you have been a Newlon tenant in the past you must not have left owing us money or been evicted for a breach of tenancy or arrears. You must be able to pay the rent without state assistance such as Housing Benefit. You must be able to pay by direct debit. You must be eligible for the Right to Rent. You must not own or have an interest in a property that you could be expected to occupy.


ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR PROJECT:

• • • •

• • • •

You must earn a moderate income: For individuals, a gross household income of less than $71,880 and more than $32,000 For couples, a gross household income of less than $121,680 and more than $54,080 You need to be in full or part time paid employment with a minimum of a one year contract. If your contract is less than 12 months you must be able to demonstrate that you have been in employment for the last 24 months. You must complete a credit check. You must be able to pay the rent without state assistance such as Rental Assistance. You must be able to pay by direct debit. You must not own or have an interest in a property that you could be expected to occupy.

REHOUSING

SOCIAL HOUSING

49


50

Below Market Rent COST OF CONSTRUCTION

Design Principles

COST OF LIVING

+

SPATIAL EFFICIENCY

FLOOR PLATE SIZE

USE OF NATURAL LIGHT & VENTILATION

USE OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHTS & A/C

BICYCLE PARKING

CAR PARKING

PREFABRICATED MODULAR SYSTEM

Cost of Material CONCRETE AND STEEL

Maintenance Cost CONCRETE AND STEEL

REDUCE BUILDING TIME & COSTS

> >

CLT

>

BRICK

BRICK

>

CLT


Layered Strata Current strata laws are quite rigid and have many limitations regarding mixed function buildings. This creates numerous problems especially for residents sharing maintenance costs with high traffic commercial spaces that inevitably require greater maintenance costs. A layered strata law separates the strata levies to each function of the building. For example, the owner of a residential unit above a ground level commercial space will only be required to pay a strata levy relevant to the residential layer of the building and vice versa. For this project, as a city subsidised model, rental bonds for the commercial and residential spaces will help fund maintenance costs as well as an extra strata levy charged to home buyers.

MAINTENANCE FOR RESIDENTIAL AREAS

MAINTENANCE FOR COMMERCIAL AREAS

RENTAL BOND FROM TENANTS STRATA LEVY FROM HOME OWNERS

RENTAL BOND FROM TENANTS STRATA LEVY FROM LONG TERM TENANTS

MAINTENANCE FOR COMMUNAL AREAS

51


52

How much does the building cost? $2,860/sqm

RESIDENTIAL Multi-storey apartments, high standard, air conditioning, lift

$2,120/sqm

Multi-storey apartments, medium standard with lift

$750/sqm

INDUSTRIAL Up to 10m high warehouse, medium standard, precast walls, no sprinklers (up to 5,000sqm)

$1,400/sqm

RETAIL Suburban department stores with air conditioning, excluding fitout

$80/sqm

CAR PARKING Open bitumen car parking, drainage, linemarking (30sqm/car)

Napier and Blakely Construction Costs Datacard

EXISTING PUBLIC HOUSING MODEL 80 RESIDENTS 14 14 4 40

x x x x

1 bed units 2 bed units 3 bed units parking spaces

$2,002,000 $2,802,800 $1,086,800 $44,000

TOTAL

$5,935,600

DIFFERENCE

$1,505,080 =

25% SAVING

NOTE The above cost of building only considers total floor plate area. It does not consider the cost of material or the cost of construction. The total cost of saving will increase once these factors are taken into consideration.


REHOUSING

NSW MINIMUM UNIT SIZE

SOCIAL HOUSING 1 bed unit

50sqm

1 bed unit

36sqm

2 bed unit

70sqm

2 bed unit

45sqm

3 bed unit

95sqm

3 bed unit

63sqm

Parking

2.5 x 5.5m

Work space

9sqm

Ground floor commercial spaces

9sqm x 97 squares

REHOUSING

SOCIAL HOUSING 80 RESIDENTS 14 x 1 bed units 14 x 2 bed units 4 x 3 bed units 40 x work spaces Commercial

$1,068,480 $1,335,600 $534,240 $270,000 $1,222,200

TOTAL

$4,430,520

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54

Incentives for the Government INCREASED VIABILITY OF SOCIAL HOUSING A social housing model aimed at moderate income key workers will increase rental yield and additional working and commercial spaces will ensure the project’s profitability and thus allow the scheme to be entirely self-funded, helping to create a more sustainable housing system.

INCREASED SUBURBAN ACTIVITY

The co-working spaces will inject life into the area during the day and the co-living spaces will inject life into the area during the evenings and weekends, transforming the local area into a vibrant social hub and boosting the local suburban economy. This will in turn add significant value to the local area (see land value capture, p59).

REDUCED STIGMA THROUGH NEW CLIENTELE A social housing model aimed at moderate income key workers will change cultural perceptions of social housing which will remove the stigma that is preventing the success of many current social mix developments around Sydney (see right).

“This development is a blockade and a threat to the lifestyle that we had envisaged for our children.” Local resident of proposed housing development

There is “no public housing, which was one of the reasons that compelled us to move to Nicholls.” Local resident of proposed housing development

I’d “like to see Hazzard live in their freshly purchased home next to some of these [social housing tenants].” Commentator of Brad Hazzard’s social mix program


LAND VALUE CAPTURE The severe deficit of affordable housing in inner Sydney requires new and inventive ways to fund more affordable housing projects that can not only increase equity in the housing market, however, also bring financial return to the local government. Land value capture allows council to claim value uplift of land around proposed developments that can increase land value such as new and improved public transport and various public amenities as well as increased real estate interest in the area.

A vibrant living and working hub along the proposed Sydenham to Bankstown metro line will attract more business and more life to the area, and as a result, land value will see significant increases. This presents the local councils along the corridor with the opportunity to take advantage of the land value capture method to gain profits from the renewal to fund more local developments.

TRANSPORTATION IMPROVEMENT AMENITIES IMPROVEMENT INCREASED DENSITY

INCREASED ACCESSIBIITY TO DESTINATIONS, INCREASED INTEREST IN LOCAL REAL ESTATE

VALUE CAPTURE

HIGH LAND VALUES

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56

Prefabrication CROSS-LAMINATED TIMBER (CLT) CLT, often called pre-cast timber panels, are a cheaper, more sustainable, lighter, faster to construct alternative to concrete and steel construction. Timber, as a replenishable material, is naturally a more ecologically sustainable material than concrete or steel. It absorbs and stores carbon which helps to clean the air and has very low embodied energy. CLT is also highly resistant to heating or cooling, requiring less energy to heat or cool the building and preventing excessive heat build up around the building. It is made through a process of stacking kilndried timber boards, gluing the surfaces together with non-toxic adhesives, and finally hydraulically pressing the stacked boards to make solid panels with strong structural integrity. Generally, CLT weigh 80% less than concrete which reduces foundation loads and distribution requirements. CLT construction relies on precise engineering calculated during the design stage. On-site, the panels are simply pieced together, cutting construction time by up to 1/3 of standard construction methods. Modular CLT designs can cut construction time up to more than 1/2 of standard construction methods.

50% MORE

energy efficient than concrete

WEIGHS 80% LESS than concrete

Cut construction time by up to

1/3 of standard construction. Cut construction time by up to

1/2

of standard construction with modular design


57


58

Sustainability PREFABRICATED TIMBER

Very little energy consumption Absorbs

Renewable

CO2 AVG. 20 - 40 YR LIFESPAN

Reused/Decompose


CONCRETE & STEEL

Materials manufacturing

10%

global energy consumption

30 - 40% global CO2 emissions AVG. 20 - 40 YR LIFESPAN

20 - 30% landfill in Australia

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60

85,171

+ 9,031

POPULATION 2016

NEW PEOPLE

23.9% ESTABLISHED INDEPENDENTS

18TH

=

94,202

MEDIAN AGE: YEARS OLD

37

POPULATION 2026

22.2% INDEPENDENT YOUTHS

11.7% COUPLES & FAMILIES

MOST LIVEABLE SUBURB IN THE INNER WEST, 2016 OUT OF 53

Education, telecommunications coverage and culture.

Crime, open space, main road congestion and tree cover. 5.6% 6.3%

31.9%

8.1%

51%

26.1%

8.9%

30.7%

11.8%

14.3%

62%

9%

12.5%

Language Spoken at Home

Employment Rate

Occupation

Only English Greek Vietnamese Other

Full-Time Employment Part-Time Employment Unemployment Unknown

Professional Clerical/Admin Worker Manager Technicians/Trade Worker Other

SUBURB’S MEDIAN 1 BED UNIT TO RENT

$400PW

SUBURB’S MEDIAN 2 BED UNIT TO RENT

$500PW

SUBURB’S MEDIAN 3 BED UNIT TO RENT

$750PW

Property Price Trends $2m

$1.5m

$1m

$500k Jul 16

Aug 16

Sep 16

Oct 16

Nov16

Dec16

Jan 17

Feb 17

Mar 17 House

Apr 17

May 17 Unit

Jun 17


Marrickville A SITE ANALYSIS Marrickville was selected due to its proximity to the CBD (closest suburb to the CBD from the Sydenham to Bankstown Urban Renewal Corridor) and easy access to a variety of amenities and key worker employment locations. 102 Marrickville residents attended the 2016 Sydenham to Bankstown Urban Renewal Corridor consultation workshop. This is a summary of their response to the Strategy.

Priorities for the future: • • • • •

Concerns about the Strategy •

What they value most about their suburb: • • •

• • •

Access to public transport Sense of community Cafes, restaurants and shops

Campsie Belmore

Bankstown Punchbowl

Parks Schools Preserving local character Community spaces (produce markets, libraries and community centres) More trees

Disproportionate increase in density and height Traffic congestion Affordable housing Lack of infrastructure and amenities to support growth

Hurlstone Dulwich Park Hill Canterbury Marrickville Sydenham

Wiley Lakemba Park

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62

Distance From Train Station “The state government’s freight noise attenuation program involves upgrading windows and doors, sealing gaps, and providing better ventilation.” Anyone who has a home facing a NSW Government rail corridor within a 100m distance and 3 levels above ground are eligible to apply. Therefore, the site for my proposal will be selected outside of this 100m noise threshold whilst staying in walking distance to the train station. Marrickville Station Walkable distance from train station 100m from noise Not-liveable area

5MIN

SCALE 1:10 000

10MIN


Amenities Map Marrickville Station Police Station Fire Station Town Hall / Library School Supermarket Illawarra Road and Marrickville Road Shops Green Space

SCALE 1:10 000

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64

Current Land Use Map Marrickville Station Residential Shop Top Housing Commercial Industrial Community Facilities Public Green Space Private Green Space

SCALE 1:10 000


Building Heights Map Marrickville Station Single Dwelling Low Rise Medium Rise High Rise Green Space

SCALE 1:10 000

65


66

Illawarra Road & Marrickville Road Commercial Occupancy Marrickville Station Occupied Unoccupied

MA

RR

Not Commercial

ICK

VIL

LE

RO

IL

LA W AR

RA

RO

AD

AD

SCALE 1:5000


Illawarra Road & Marrickville Road Street Vitality Marrickville Station Afternoon Foot Traffic MA

RR

ICK

VIL

LE

RO

IL

LA W AR

RA

RO

AD

AD

SCALE 1:5000

67


68

Proposed Site A SITE ANALYSIS This site was selected due to its proximity to the train station (5-6min walk) as well as various local amenities. It also sits directly beyond the 100m freight train noise buffer zone.

SCALE 1:2500

Finally, creating a social hub on the corner of Illawarra Road and Marrickville Road for new residents and professionals will add more pedestrian activity to these currently underused commercial strips.


Current Land Use Marrickville Station

1-2 Storey Commercial

1-2 Storey Residential

2-3 Storey Shop Top

4-5 Storey Mixed Use

Plaza

Church

Car Park

Cafe Restaurant Grocer/Supermarket Butcher Retail Convenience Store Bank Post Office

MA

AD

RR

ICK

VIL

LE

RO

ST

RE

SI

ET

LV E

R

ST

RE

ET

IL

LA W AR

RA

RO

AD

CA

ST

RE

ET

GL AD

RT

ST ON

E

LV E

SCALE 1:2500

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70

Design Conditions BUILDING SIZE

PARKING

“In our experience, [60 to 80 people] is the right size so that people still feel connected to the building that they live in. When it becomes bigger, it’s a very different relationship that people have to the building that they live in... If it becomes smaller, then it’s more difficult to have connected spaces.”

The proposed site has a car park with 35 parking spaces. This along with on-street parking down Silver Street will be removed to clear the site. Onstreet parking along Illawarra Road, Marrickville Road and Calvert Street on the opposite side to the site will remain. Residents who require permanent parking spaces will be able to apply for residential parking permits through the City of Sydney.

Dick van Gameren, partner at Dutch architectural firm, Mecanoo A TEST

The residential areas will consist of mostly 1 and 2 bedroom units to cater for the dominant demographic in the area as well as household types among key workers that are most vulnerable in the open market. Some 3 bedroom units will be available to allow for more diversity of households. Live 1 Bedroom Unit: 1-2 people or average 1.5 people 2 Bedroom Unit: 2-4 people or average 3 people 3 Bedroom Unit: 3-5 people or average 4 people So, overall average 2.8 people Proposed Scheme: 1 Bedroom : 2 Bedroom : 3 Bedroom 14 : 14 : 4 = 79 Residents (over 4 floors) Therefore, the building height will be capped at 5 storeys including the ground floor.

On-site parking significantly increases the price of residential and commercial areas and is therefore a counterproductive amenity to the proposed affordable living scheme. Whilst, there will not be any on-site parking available, the on-street parallel parking spaces along Gladstone Street will be converted to 90 degree parking spaces which will create around 65 parking spaces. Approximately 15% of these spaces will be allocated as car sharing spaces to give more people access to car use if required. Further, bike parking racks will be available throughout the site near each major entry point.


SIZE LIMITS

LIVING ON THE GRID

Australia’s main CLT distributor, The Tiling Group provides CLT panels with a maximum length of 16.5m, maximum width of 2.95m, and a maximum thickness of 0.5m.

A square module was drawn at 2.95m x 2.95m informed by the maximum available CLT width.

To reduce construction costs further, modules and/ or panels should be transported as efficiently as possible. Size limits for transportation are generally dictated by road conditions.

A grid was drawn using the square. Each square/ module will serve a function and these modules will be joined together to create units and various communal spaces.

The allowable length of modules is limited by the turns able to be made by a truck. Experienced transporters can handle up to 18m length modules. The allowable width of modules generally ranges from 3 and 4.5m, determined by standard road widths.

2.8m

2.95m

2.95m

The allowable height of modules if being constructed off-site is 3.3m, determined by the 4.3m minimum clearance for heavy vehicles along highways (1m allowance for height of flat-bed trailer).

16.5m

0.5m 2.95m

18m

3.3m 3-4.5m

71


72

Modular Design WORKING ON THE GRID

Meeting Room

Storage

Private Office

Lockers + Printing

Work benches

Private Phone Call Booths


Kitchen

Entertainment Area

Training Room

WCs

Work Stations

73


74

LIVING ON THE GRID

Kitchen

Bathroom

Living

Bedroom

Living + Study


Living + WC

Living + Stairs

Upstairs Bedroom + Ensuite

Upstairs WC

75


76

Design Proposition A TEST A 1:50 model of each living module was made and pieced together in a trial and error process to find which arrangements provided the greatest level of spatial quality and liveability.


2 bedroom unit with larger living room, 1.5 baths, standard kitchen and extendible dining table.

77


78

A

B

C

C

A

B

1 Bedroom Unit Configuration 4 Squares


1 Bedroom Unit Configuration Section AA

1 Bedroom Unit Configuration Section BB

1 Bedroom Unit Configuration Section CC

79


80

UNIT CONFIGURATIONS The linear floor plans maximise natural light and ventilation as well as minimises floor space area. Each unit features 1 x kitchen (with washing machine) and extendible dining table, 1 x generous 3 piece bathroom, 1 x living, 1 x walk in storage, and 1 - 3 x bedrooms. Despite the small area, the units offer all necessary amenities to emphasise comfort and liveability.

1 Bedroom Unit 4 Squares

1 Bedroom Unit 4 Squares

1 Bedroom Unit 4 Squares


1 Bedroom Unit 4 Squares

2 Bedroom Unit 5 Squares

2 Bedroom Unit 5 Squares

81


82

2 Bedroom Unit 6 Squares

2 Bedroom Unit 6 Squares

2 Bedroom Unit 5 Squares


2 Bedroom Duplex 6.5 Squares

3 Bedroom Unit 7 Squares

3 Bedroom Duplex 7 Squares

83


84

SINGLE HOUSEHOLD Young social worker

SINGLE PARENT Single mother with her two young children

ESTABLISHED FAMILY High school teachers with their teenage son


A

A

B B

Typical First Floor Plan 1:300 16 x 11 Squares

85


86

YOUNG FAMILY Police officer and stay-at-home mother with two young children

FLATSHARE Young artist, fashion designer and photographer

CO-WORK Freelancer & small scale entrepreneur


A

A

B B

Typical Second Floor Plan 1:300 16 x 11 Squares

87


88

DESIGN STRATEGY

A

A

B B

Lift & Fire Stair Core

Units

Structural core at centre of floor plate for lateral strength.

Units placed around North, East and West facade for natural light into bedrooms, living spaces and terraces.

Communal Space Communal spaces permeate through residential and working spaces to promote interaction.


A

A

B B

Terrace/Atrium

Communal Work Space

Terraces around the perimeter offer units private outdoor spaces as well as soften sunlight reaching the internal living spaces.

The communal work space provides a buffer zone between living and working.

Secure Work Space Work stations face south where natural light is soft and easy to control.

The atrium allows natural light and ventilation to penetrate into the core of the building.

89


90

The section shows the diversity and flexibility of modular design. The number of possible floor plate configurations is endless and allows for this design methodology to be used in future social housing projects throughout Sydney and New South Wales to continue to battle the housing crisis.

JOIN

JOIN

JOIN

The focus on transparency allows the building to breathe and invites natural sunlight to reach all corners of the building. This obviates the need for air conditioning and reduces the amount of artificial lights required during the day.

Section A-A 1:300


JOIN

JOIN

Section B-B 1:300

91


92

The ground floor amenities breathes life into the local area. The mostly public amenities that are presently lacking in Marrickville such as a public library, public park and playground and a tennis court draw locals into the site, providing a setting for natural social interaction between the residents, the workers and the general public. This acts to resolve any stigma surrounding social housing estates and creates a new social hotspot at the centre of Marrickville.

Building NW

Building NE

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Workshop Food Food Cafe Library Co-Work Reception Gallery Garbage Public WCs Retail

Restaurant Cafe Workshop Public WCs Juice Bar Co-Work Reception Garbage Cleaner’s Store Office Grocer

Building SW

Building SE

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Cafe Gym Kids Indoor Play Bakery Public WCs Cleaner’s Store Co-Work Reception Workshop Medical Centre

Resident’s Lounge Food Food Tuition Centre Public WCs Garbage Cleaner’s Store Restaurant Co-Work Reception Co-Work Office

Masterplan 1:500 Corner of Illawarra Road and Marrickville Road

5 minutes from Marrickville Station, a bright yellow path catches your eye. The sound of children’s laughter fill the air and the smell of freshly baked bread draws you into the site. You continue on, passing the sound of parents calling out for their children, the steady thumping of feet on treadmills and the distant chitchat of friends when you are stopped by the sight of a heated tennis match. As you approach the tennis court, a small tennis ball flies past you, enthusiastically followed by a little dog. You turn back to continue up the path, travelling deeper into the site, catching glimpses of students studying in the library, families enjoying lunch, colleagues catching up over coffee, office workers hard at work, young artists painting and sculpting, and cyclists racing past. The path leads you to a leafy corner of the site where small tables and seats are scattered throughout. You take a seat and take in the warmth of the sun as you watch the stream of children, mothers and fathers, the elderly, working professionals, students, joggers and cyclists passing by.


ROAD

VILLE

2

3

STREET

MARRICK

4 2 1

ILLAWARR

A

4

5

8 6 7

6

7 8

9 9

10

10

1

1

2 2

3

4

5

5

3

5

3

GLADSTONE

ROAD

1

6

7

6 7 9

9

4 8

10

AVENUE

STREET

CENTRAL

CALVERT

8

93


94


PLY BITUMEN SEALING MEMBRANE 2 PLY BITUMEN 2SEALING MEMBRANE FOLDED CAPPING FOLDED CAPPING WOOL THERMAL INSULATION; VAPOUR BARRIER 260MM MINERAL260MM WOOLMINERAL THERMAL INSULATION; VAPOUR BARRIER TIMBER PACKER TIMBER PACKER 19MM WEATHERPROOF 19MM WEATHERPROOF PLYWOOD FACING PLYWOOD PANEL FACING PANEL 16MM MOISTURE-RESISTANT GYPSUM PLASTERBOARD 16MM MOISTURE-RESISTANT GYPSUM PLASTERBOARD FURRING CHANNEL FURRING CHANNEL @ 600MM CTS @ 600MM CTS 2 X 16MM GYPSUM PLASTERBOARD 2 X 16MM GYPSUM PLASTERBOARD GLULAM SUPPORT BEYOND GLULAM SUPPORT BEYOND

DOUBLE GLAZING: 2 X 4MM TOUGHENED GLASS DOUBLE GLAZING: 2 X 4MM TOUGHENED GLASS IN STEEL FIRE IN STEEL FIRE RATED CONCRETE FILLED DOOR FRAME RATED CONCRETE FILLED DOOR FRAME WATERPROOF MEMBRANE WATERPROOF MEMBRANE 30MM ATLANTIS30MM FLO-CELL ATLANTIS DRAINAGE FLO-CELL CELLDRAINAGE CELL GEOTEXTILE GEOTEXTILE WASHED RIVERWASHED SAND RIVER SAND LIGHTWEIGHT SOIL LIGHTWEIGHT SOIL FRAMELESS GRASS FRAMELESS BALUSTRADE GRASSFIXED BALUSTRADE TO STAINLESS FIXED STEEL TO STAINLESS CLAMP STEEL CLAMP TIMBER PLANTER TIMBER PLANTER 19MM WEATHERPROOF 19MM WEATHERPROOF PLYWOOD FACING PLYWOOD PANEL FACING PANEL 68MM STUD WALL 68MM CLAD STUD WITH WALL 16MM CLAD GYPSUM WITH 16MM PLASTERBOARD GYPSUM PLASTERBOARD TILE CLADDINGTILE CLADDING

DOUBLE STUD WALL DOUBLE WITH STUD 3 LAYER WALLGYPSUM-PLASTERBOARD WITH 3 LAYER GYPSUM-PLASTERBOARD CLADDING CLADDING FOR SOUND CONTROL, FOR SOUND FIRECONTROL, SEPARATION FIRE AND SEPARATION FIRE RESISTANCE AND FIRE RESISTANCE

INSULATION

INSULATION

EXTENDABLE FOLD EXTENDABLE OUT TABLE FOLD OUT TABLE MOVABLE EXTERNAL MOVABLE TABLE EXTERNAL TO ADD SEATING TABLE TOFOR ADDGUESTS SEATING FOR GUESTS ENGINEERED TIMBER ENGINEERED FLOORING TIMBER DIRECT FLOORING FIX TO ACOUSTIC DIRECT FIXUNDERLAY TO ACOUSTIC UNDERLAY 40MM SCREED 40MM SCREED WATERPROOF MEMBRANE WATERPROOF MEMBRANE SEPARATING LAYER SEPARATING 169MM CLT LAYER FLOOR 169MM CLT FLOOR DOUBLE TIMBER DOUBLE STUD WALL TIMBER STUD WALL CEILING HANGERS CEILING @ 1200M HANGERS CTS @ 1200M CTS

MIRROR MIRROR CONCRETE FINISH CONCRETE FINISH 130MM REINFORCED 130MMCONCRETE REINFORCED EXTERNAL CONCRETE PAVEMENT EXTERNAL SLAB PAVEMENT WITH SLAB WITH 600 X 400MM PERIMETER 600 X 400MM BEAM PERIMETER BEAM BICYCLE RACK BICYCLE RACK CONCRETE FOOTPATH CONCRETE FOOTPATH 400MM DIAMETER 400MM CONCRETE DIAMETER PIER CONCRETE BEHIND SHOWN PIER BEHIND DOTTED SHOWN DOTTED 50MM BLINDING50MM SANDBLINDING LAYER SAND LAYER

Detail Section 1:75 Illustrating diversity of modular design


96

FLOOR AND COLUMN JUNCTION


FLOOR AND COLUMN JUNCTION DETAIL 1:10

STEEL PLUG-IN CONNECTION FLOOR FINISH; 40MM SCREED; SEPARATING LAYER 169MM CROSS-LAM. TIMBER FLOOR; 16MM MOISTURE-RESISTANT GYPSUM PLASTERBOARD; STEEL SUPPORTING STRUCTURE; 2 X 16MM GYPSUM PLASTERBOARD; INTERNAL PAINTING 16MM Ø THREADED ROD 3 LAYER GYPSUM-PLASTERBOARD CLADDING ON LAMINATED TIMBER COLUMN FOR SOUND CONTROL, FIRE SEPARATION AND FIRE RESISTANCE

97


98

TERRACE GARDEN


PLANTER SECTION DETAIL 1:20

LIGHTWEIGHT LIGHTWEIGHT LIGHTWEIGHT SOIL SOIL SOIL WASHED WASHED RIVER WASHED RIVER SAND SAND RIVER SAND GEOTEXTILE GEOTEXTILE GEOTEXTILE 30MM 30MM ATLANTIS ATLANTIS 30MM FLO-CELL ATLANTIS FLO-CELL DRAINAGE FLO-CELL DRAINAGE DRAINAGE CELL CELL CELL TIMBER TIMBER PLANTER TIMBER PLANTER PLANTER FRAMELESS FRAMELESS FRAMELESS GLASSGLASS BALUSTRADE GLASS BALUSTRADE BALUSTRADE FIXEDFIXED TO STAINLESS TO FIXED STAINLESS TOSTEEL STAINLESS STEEL CLAMP STEEL CLAMPCLAMP 19MM 19MM WEATHERPROOF WEATHERPROOF 19MM WEATHERPROOF PLYWOOD PLYWOOD PLYWOOD FACING FACING PANEL FACING PANEL PANEL 16MM 16MM MOISTURE-RESISTANT MOISTURE-RESISTANT 16MM MOISTURE-RESISTANT GYPSUM GYPSUM GYPSUM PLASTERBOARD PLASTERBOARD PLASTERBOARD PLANTER PLANTER DRAINAGE PLANTER DRAINAGE PIPE DRAINAGE PIPE PIPE

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FACADE DESIGN

Full height glazing

Bedroom window

Bathroom tile

Full height glazing

Bedroom window

Bathroom tile


1. Columns

2. Facade elements

3. CLT floor

4. Upper level columns

3. Upper level facade elements

4. Upper CLT floor

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SW Building North Elevation Ground floor cafe + Upper level residential outdoor terraces flooded with natural light from their north aspect. The elevation reinforces the diversity of life easily facilitated by the prefabricated modular design model and represents only one possible configuration of units and facade elements from countless other variations that can be adapted for future projects.

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Above: Co-Work Kitchen


Above left: Communal Dining Above Right: Private Office

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“Architecture is about trying to make the world a little bit more like our dreams.�

Bjarke Ingels

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Rehousing Social Housing  

UNSW 2017 Graduation Studio

Rehousing Social Housing  

UNSW 2017 Graduation Studio

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