1 한국에서 아이비리그대학 학점따기/MOOC “Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free . . . .” Article 26 of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Right "If we teach today's students as we did yesterday's, we are robbing them of tomorrow." John Dewey
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1. MOOC ? 1.1. Major Players in the MOOC Universe# 1. 1. 1. Udacity 1. 1. 2. Coursera 1.1.2. a. 수료증(Verified Certification) 발급 강의 등록 방법 * 1. 1. 3. EdX# 1. 1. 4. MOOC2Degree# 1. 2. MOOC 수업 구성# 1. 2. 1. 강의 1. 2. 2.시험 1. 2. 3. 학점(Credit) 1. 2. 4. 커뮤니티 1. 2. 5. MOOC 을 통한 미국대학교육 혁명 2. OER(Open Education Resources/무료교육자료) 2.1. OCW 2.2. OER 2.3. iTunes U# 2.4. Khan Academy# 2.5. MOOC 2.5.1. In what way is a MOOC a course?/대학정규강의/강의&시험&점수&수료증 2.5.2. In what way is a MOOC online?/온라인강의 & 오프라인 스타디그룹&감독하에 최종시험 2.5.3. In what way is a MOOC open?/무료화 & 민주화 & 지적재산권 해제 2.5.4. In what way is a MOOC massive?/강의당 수만명 수강 3. MOOC 대학교육혁명 Page 2 of 138
3 3.1. 미국대학혁명 3. 1. 1. 학점인정# a. MOOC2Degree b. San Jose Uni. c. Georgia Tech 3. 1. 2. 법제화 캘리포니아주# 플로리다주# 연방정부 3. 1. 3. 일자리 연결# AT&T Yahoo 3. 1. 4. MOOC 에 대한 비판과 저항 # 버지니아대학# 3.2. 대학입시 스펙 # 듀크대학 컬럼비아대학 AP&MOOC 4. 세계 각국의 MOOC Germany/독일 MOOC United Kingdom MOOC Netherlands MOOC France MOOC Spain MOOC Australia MOOC Independent MOOCs 5. MOOC 수강후기 6. Timeline of MOOC 참고문헌
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1. MOOC ?
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5 MOOC Symposium ay the MOFET institute/by Dalit Levy on Jul 04, 20131 MOOC 강의제공 경험담2 An Upstart Free Course Provider Holds a Cookout to Meet Its Students/학생들의 MOOC 수강동기와 소감
4 Professors Discuss Teaching Free Online Courses for Thousands of Students3
Teaching to the World From Central New Jersey/프린스턴 사회학입문 강의교수 경험담
The Virtual Classroom Revolution 08/01/2013 Amy R. Volpert Massive open online courses (MOOCs) are changing the way we think about education. But many issues still need to be resolved in this evolving field. Take a trip inside today’s "virtual classroom". Learn more...
Some would have thought the class had to be near capacity: 155,000 students all enrolled in a single course called Circuits and Electronics. How many more could possibly sign up? But here the lectures are not taking place in a giant soccer stadium or spread across different months to accommodate all the students. There weren’t hundreds of TAs for smaller sessions either. No, the instructional material, the students and the instructor all inhabited a new arena of virtual education: the massive open online course (MOOC). For today’s scientist, the growth of interdisciplinary research has created the need for continuing education. But it’s hard to spend 8 or 10 or 12 hours 1
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6 in the lab only to turn around and spend additional hours in a traditional lecture hall—Enter the MOOC. MOOCs give students and researchers access to a wide range of courses and course content, much of which may not be available locally, and also provide the opportunity to learn from instructors at top tier universities. Without the traditional enrollment limits of other courses, MOOCs offer a new experience for both students and professors. “What I didn’t anticipate is how much I was going to just absolutely love doing this,” notes Mohamed Noor, a professor at Duke University who teaches a popular MOOC entitled Introduction to Genetics and Evolution. MOOCing the Classroom Noor’s course has been run twice through the rapidly growing, MOOC platform Coursera, generating enrollments of ~30,000 for each “iteration”. It will be offered again in January 2014 as part of Coursera’s new Signature Track, an option allowing students to earn a Verified Certificate rather than the standard Statement of Accomplishment normally granted to those completing the online course. A commercial company, Coursera is perhaps the most wellknown MOOC provider, offering the most courses—over 400—from more than 80 colleges and universities. The platform is supported by funding in excess of $65 million from venture capital firms, educational investment firms, the World Bank, its university partners, and other sources. Coursera’s numbers might surprise those not aware of the interest in MOOCs at the moment: over 4 million students have enrolled in the platform’s courses, with 180,000 taking part in the most popular course. But Coursera is not the only platform in the MOOC world. Another major player is edX, the MOOC platform that delivered the Circuits and Electronics course to 155,000 students. A nonprofit initiative founded by MIT and Harvard with $33 million in funding, one of edX’s main goals, in addition to providing online learning, is “conducting and publishing significant research on how students learn.” The opensource platform offers fewer courses than Coursera—currently 56 from 28 XConsortium college and university partners—but is also growing quickly, having enrolled its millionth student in June, 2013. As the number and range of MOOC course grows, one recurring question has been whether a student can earn college credit through these platforms. In February, the American Council on Education recommended five Coursera courses for credit, but it remains to be seen if universities are ready to award such credits. And this question is closely tied to the Page 6 of 138
7 challenge of financially sustaining MOOCs in the longterm through fees for services such as proctored exams and Verified Certificates. Coursera is exploring various means of generating revenue in the future, including charging universities for course materials or for each student at that school enrolled in certain courses. Although notforprofit, edX aims to be financially sustainable; however, it is currently not clear how revenue will be generated or if any universities plan to award credit for edX courses. The New Lecture Hall Those unfamiliar with the technology and expertise required to produce a MOOC may wonder why commercial platforms such as Coursera have yet to turn a profit. But if simply videotaping a few traditional oncampus lectures and posting those videos on a website were all that was necessary to produce a MOOC, anyone could do it. Adapting traditional courses for online instruction requires restructuring lectures, creating homework and exams that are compatible with a webbased user interface for automated grading, and establishing a mechanism for students to ask questions and get help. Kristin Sainani, a clinical assistant professor with the Department of Health Research and Policy at Stanford University, has had the unusual experience of teaching two MOOCs addressing very different skill sets: science writing and statistics. Unlike most MOOCs, Sainani’s course Writing in the Sciences, offered through Coursera, required more subjective grading of assignments. She was able to accomplish this by including peerediting and assessment (peertopeer learning) in the course, where each student’s writing assignment was graded by 35 classmates. In contrast, Sainani’s recently launched Statistics in Medicine course provided by Stanford’s own online education initiative uses automated grading. That is not to say there were no technical problems. According to Sainani, there “are still some issues with autograding of numerical answers, because even there you can round wrong. But it’s not as big as an issue [as with the writing course] because numbers are a lot easier than words.” For those accustomed to sitting in a classroom for 12 hour lectures, MOOCs can take some getting used to. Lectures are usually divided into 5–15 minutes chunks, in some cases with questions or short exercises imbedded into to the videos. “I had to go through my lectures and bucket them into smaller chunks. I think it does force you to be a little more efficient,” explains Sainani. Noor went through a similar process: “In the class, I would frequently talk for probably about an hour. For this, I broke it Page 7 of 138
8 down to on average to probably something like 15 minutes or so. But that wasn’t very hard; it actually followed fairly naturally from the material itself. There were natural breaks that work fairly well.” Through participating in several MOOCs as a student, Noor has seen the value of shorter lecture segments from a different perspective. “Now that I’ve taken a couple of MOOCs, I remember that if there was a nine minute segment, I nearly always just clicked right on it; if there was a 20 minute one, [I’d think] I’ll do it tomorrow.” Yet another challenge when developing a MOOC is providing students with assistance when questions on the material come up. The most common solution to this problem is the use of discussion forums for each course. Although the instructor or a TA may log in to the forums on a regular basis, other students often are able to provide useful answers and advice more quickly. “In the writing course, I actually thought in the discussion forums that the students actually did a pretty good job responding to each other. Some of them asked really good questions too…with so many people you’re bound to get some really thoughtful questions,” says Sainani. One unique resource that has emerged for courses run multiple times really impressed Noor: “In the second iteration of my class, I had these people referred to as ‘community TAs’. These were people who took the class the first iteration, and they were volunteering to come back. They were phenomenal! I don’t think any question went unanswered for a day, ever.” No More Universities?—Not so Fast Still, the big challenges for Coursera, edX, and other MOOC providers remain how to become financially selfsustaining and provide meaningful certification that universities and employers will recognize. MOOC providers also have to battle the perception that they are actively competing with universities for students and dollars, threatening the very existence of brickandmortar schools—even though universities provide most of the course content and a significant portion of the funding. However, most individuals involved with MOOCs see oncampus and online courses as complementary to one another, rather than mutually exclusive competitors. “The biggest thing I tell people to do is don’t fear the MOOC. There’s definitely an increasing level of fear from academics about them. But there’s a lot of good that can come from [these courses] both within and outside of academia,” says Noor, who is quick to add that no one would ever say they were just going to take a bunch of MOOCs rather than getting a degree from a traditional university. “Who would do that? That’s insane!”
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Course Websites: Circuits and Electronics Introduction to Genetics and Evolution Writing in the Sciences Statistics in Medicine
Moody’s Bullish on MOOC Early Adopters4 MOOC’s Could Hurt Smaller and ForProfit Colleges, Moody’s Report Says 5
Shifting Ground: Technology Begins to Alter CenturiesOld Business Model for Universities/Moody’s/SEPTEMBER 12, 20126 The recent rush by leading universities in North America and Europe to createcollaborative networks offering free onlinecourses through Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) marks a pivotal development for the higher education sector. MOOCs signal a fundamental shift in strategy by the industry’s leaders to use their powerful brand reputations to get ahead of rapid technologicalchangesthat could destabilizetheir residential business models over thelongrun. We expect positive credit effects to develop for the higher education sector 4
http://chronicle.com/blogs/wiredcampus/moocscouldhurtsmallerandforprofitcollegesmood ysreportsays/39864 6
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10 overall as elite universities offer more classes for an unlimited number of students across the globe throughlow cost open courseware platforms. However, there will eventually be negative effects on forprofit education companies and some smaller notforprofit colleges that may be left out of emerging high reputation online networks.7
It is also exciting to see students forming communities within the discussion forums, to help one another with questions about content or technology. Our more ambitious students have developed study guides. Some selfidentified writingandcommunication instructors have formed their own forum, to consider how they can use our course to teach their own students. The most rewarding aspect of the course is the weekly “Hangout” session, livestreamed using Google Air. We invite students to join the discussions and ask questions. Finally, I get to know some of my students! So, what hasn’t gone as planned? Certainly some things do not translate from a traditional classroom course to a MOOC. Our team realized quickly 7
Shifting Ground: Technology Begins to Alter CenturiesOld Business Model for Universities/Moody’s/SEPTEMBER 12, 2012 Page 10 of 138
11 that we needed to do a better job crosslinking material on the course site. For example, if we mention the syllabus, we must link to it. Some students, we have learned, want a great deal of guidance.
MOOCs and the student experience of blended learning8
And when you do embark on a MOOC, you can have a good learning experience by considering some of the tips and strategies other students and teachers have shared here.9
Of course, MOOC formats may differ from one platform to another, but on the major platforms you can expect to find more than video lectures. They usually offer discussion forums, quizzes, peer grading exercises, exams and readings to guide you through the content. Additionally, students are inspired to create study groups and networks online (on Facebook, for example), or even offline through the MeetUp website. Most courses provide a syllabus with a schedule and detailed explanations about the content.
Two Cheers for Web U!10 I’m getting Ivy League (or Ivy League equivalent) wisdom free. Anyone can, whether you live in South Dakota or Senegal, whether it’s noon or 5 a.m., whether you’re broke or a billionaire. Professors from Harvard, M.I.T. and dozens of other schools prerecord their lectures; you watch them online and take quizzes at your leisure. The MOOC classrooms are growing at Big Bang rates: more than five million students worldwide have registered for classes in topics ranging 8
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12 from physics to history to aboriginal worldviews. It creates a strange paradox: these professors are simultaneously the most and least accessible teachers in history. And it’s not the only tension inherent in MOOCs. MOOC boosters tend to speak of these global online classes as if they are the greatest educational advancement since the Athenian agora, highlight in their potential to lift millions of people out of poverty.Skeptics — including the blogger and University of California, Berkeley, doctoral student Aaron Bady — worry that MOOCs will offer a watereddown education, give politicians an excuse to gut state school budgets, and harm less prestigious colleges and universities.
1.1. Major Players in the MOOC Universe11
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Khan Acade my
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14 MOOC founded by Andrew Ng and Daphne Koller has teamed up with 62 colleges (and counting) for its classes. The company is experimenting with a career service that makes money by connecting employers to its students, and attracted $22million in venture capital in its first year.
n Khan made waves when he quit his job as a hedge fund analyst to record short video lecture s on everyth ing from embry onic stem cells to—yo u guess ed it—hed ge funds and venture capital.
forprof it MOOC , started by the Stanfor d profes sor Sebast ian Thrun, works with individ ual profes sors to offer course s. By March 2013, Udacit y had raised more than $21mi llion in venture capital.
and MIT put up the original $60milli on to start this nonprofi t MOOC. So far, students can take classes only from Harvard, MIT, and UC Berkele y, but classes from nine more universit ies are coming soon.
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1. 1. 1. Udacity https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JTTpkEqCico
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16 What is Udacity?12 We're on a mission to bring accessible, affordable, engaging and highly effective higher education to the world. We believe that higher education is a basic human right, and we seek to empower our students to advance their education and careers. What is a Udacity course like? Udacity courses are highly interactive with activities, quizzes, and exercises interspersed between short videos and talks by instructors and industry experts. You can take the courses at your own pace, there are no deadlines. You can rewatch the videos at any time and and retake quizzes, if you wish. Usually after a lesson you will have a problem set with exercises that will help you to determine if you have learned the material taught in that lesson. These exercises will count towards your mastery level. See the Mastery section in this FAQ for more information on how that works.
How much does it cost? All of our courses are available to take for free. However, there is a forcredit path for some of our courses, which is clearly indicated on each course overview page. You can learn more in this FAQ. The content of the class is the same for both options. The primary difference between forcredit and free classes are the support services and proctored exams that are part of the credit pathway.
What languages are Udacity courses available in? All of our courses are closed captioned in English. Many of our courses have subtitles available in many different languages, including Spanish, Chinese, French, Portuguese and even less widespread languages such as Croatian. To see coursespecific information, go to the course's overview page and click on the "cc" button on the video. To help us translate our videos, join the Udacity team on Amara.
How can I get the most out of Udacity courses? To get the most out of any Udacity course, it's important to be an active 12
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17 learner. Take lessons as often as possible and be sure to do the exercises! It's also great to practice and engage with other students through the forums or meetups. Applying what you learn through different projects will also be vital to your learning.
When does each course begin? There is no official start date for courses; all classes are open enrollment, which enables you to take the course on your own time. Some of our newer courses may open for enrollment in advance when the course may not yet be available, but we will keep you updated about those start dates if you sign up for the course.
How many courses do you offer? Check out a full list of our courses here: http://www.udacity.com/courses
How long is a Udacity course available? In most cases, Udacity classes are always available once they have launched.
Are there deadlines within each course? Nope. Udacity courses have no deadlines; you can take these courses at your own pace.
Can I enroll in more than one class? Yes! Enroll in as many classes as you like, but know that each course is about the equivalent amount of coursework to an undergraduate course.
What are the rules on collaboration? Working with other students is often the best way to learn new things. We hope students in the class will form vibrant communities, both online and inperson, to help each other learn. The key is to use collaboration as a way to enhance learning, not as a way of sharing answers without understanding them. You are welcome (and encouraged) to view the lectures with others, and discuss and work together on answering the inlecture quizzes. For the Page 17 of 138
18 problem sets, you may discuss the questions with other students in the online forums and inperson study groups, but everything you submit should be your own work. For the final exam, you are not permitted to work with anyone else, and should only ask clarification questions on the online forums.
What are my testing options? We have different options for our courses. For all courses, there will be final assessments that you can take on your own. For courses that need to be proctored (in order for you to receive credit or certification), we have both proctored exam at a Pearson VUE testing center and online proctored exam on our site. We can also provide a "testing kit" to any institution for a low fee if they are interested in providing proctored exams on our courses. Please look at your specific courses to see options available.
Where do I go to find official testing centers? To find a testing center, visit this page from Pearson VUE
Are there assignments? Yes. To learn any subject, it is important to solve problems on your own. Each course includes a number of problem sets. There are no due dates for these and they will be similar to the inclass quizzes. You will receive instant feedback on these questions and you can try them as many times as you like.
How will my final grade be determined? Your final grade will be determined by your exam grade. How do I get answers to questions I have related to the courses? We love to see an active academic community, so we encourage you to post your question to the course forum. One of your peers will likely provide an adequate answer, but if not, one of our course managers will chime in.
Mastery / Certificates / Credits13 13
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19 What is mastery?f Mastery points (coming soon) are earned when you complete certain questions correctly in a course. Some questions may be worth more points than others. Each class has a different distribution of mastery points, often they appear in Problem Sets and Open Exams. You can see where you can earn mastery points in the course details on the My Courses page after you have enrolled. Mastery levels are achievement targets for each course. Courses have four different mastery levels, which are reached by accumulating mastery points. In the course details on the My Courses page you can see how
many mastery points you will need to reach each mastery level.
How do I get a certificate? CC = Certificate of Completion SA = Statement of Accomplishment CM = Certificate of Mastery C-VA = Certificate, with Varied Levels of Accomplishment $SJSU = San Jose State Credit for a fee NI – No Information About Certificate Available NC = No Certificate
Once you have achieved at least level 1 mastery in a course, you can download your certificate from the course section in My Courses page. When you achieve a higher mastery level, you can redownload the updated certificate. How do I get credit? We have different options for our courses. For all courses, there will be final assessments that you can take on your
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20 own to earn mastery and receive our certificates. These are free and do not give you college credit. For courses provided together with our partner organizations you have to refer to the FAQ of the particular organization. These tests might be for a fee and might provide you with a path to receive credit for them. For CS101 you can opt in for a proctored exam for a fee at a Pearson VUE testing center. To find a testing center, visit this page from Pearson VUE. How does online proctoring work? Exams will be proctored online by ProctorU for those enrolled for credit through SJSU. There will still be exams (unproctored) for students taking the open course. The final exam will be posted no later than May 22, 2013.
Community14 FORUMS How do I use the forums? If you're new to the forums, welcome. The forums are where you can post any ideas and thoughts you have about the course, ask questions, and receive feedback from other students. The forum is an important social element of the classroom where the priority is a friendly, open atmosphere that allows students to ask questions freely. We encourage free flowing conversation. If you're uncomfortable about posting in English, you are encouraged to post in your own language rather than not post at all. What is the forum? A classroom where learning is the goal. A place where people can ask questions and help each other out. A place where people can express their feelings about the course and get support and encouragement. A place where extra information relating to the course can be shared A place where students can contact other students to form study. groups, arrange hangouts and learn together. A place where people can get feedback about their co서로 비슷한 게시물을 올리는 것은 괜찮습니다. 비슷한 질문을 올de from their fellow 14
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21 students. What should I NOT do in the forums? Post a full solution when somebody just asked for a hint. Vote down questions where someone asks for help, or tell them their question is stupid, or they shouldn't have asked it. Any other behavior which creates an atmosphere where people are unwilling to post. What should I post? Problem set code using the special spoiler tag. It's ok to post it even if someone else has posted a similar post no one should be afraid to ask someone to look at their code even if someone else asked a similar question. Guide people on how to search the forums try to provide a link to a useful post, and say what you used to find it as it can be hard to use the right search terms when you're unfamiliar with the terminology. Clarify what the homework is asking. How do I thank someone for their answer? Upvote their post by clicking the thumbs up button on the left side of the post. Accept their answer You can accept an answer by pressing the check mark on the left side, below the thumbs icons. This is helpful so others can see that you're happy with an answer and so they don't need to answer it again. It also shows the poster they've done a good job in helping you. Let people know they've helped you with a comment or answer in the thread saying thanks Who moderates this community? This forum is moderated by the students, as well as official Udacity representatives, who can be recognized by two diamonds next to their name. The community features a karma system that allows users to earn rights to perform a variety of moderation tasks. How does the karma system work? When a question or answer is upvoted, the student who posted it will gain "karma points". These points serve as a rough measure of the community's trust in him/her. Various moderation tasks are gradually assigned to students based on those points. For example, if you ask an interesting question or give a helpful answer, your input will be upvoted. On the other Page 21 of 138
22 hand, if the answer is misleading, it will be downvoted. Each vote in favor generates 15 points, each vote against subtracts one points. There is a limit of 200 points that can be accumulated per question or answer. The table below explains karma requirements for each type of moderation task: add comments > 1 retag questions > 500 edit any answer > 2000 delete any comment > 10,000 What is a gravatar? Gravatar means globally recognized avatar your unique avatar image is associated with your email address. It's simply a picture that shows up next to your posts on the websites that support gravatar protocol. The default gravatar appears as a square filled with a snowflakelike figure. You can set your image at gravatar.com. It takes a few minutes for your gravatar to sync with your account. How come other people can edit my questions/answers? Allowing experienced members of this community to curate the questions and answers improves the overall quality of the knowledge base content. If this approach is not for you, we respect your choice. MEETUPS15 What's the best way to organize a study group? Study groups can be organized any way you'd like. You can form online study groups through Google Hangouts or any similar platform or arrange for an in person meetup. What's the best way to organize a meetup? Meetups are already being organized. To see which ones currently exists click here. Feel free to organize a meetup in your area if one doesn't already exist.
Career16 What companies do Udacity students work for? Our students work for a variety of companies from Fortune 500 companies, 15
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23 like Google and Oracle, to startups like Square and Spotify. What kinds of jobs do Udacity students get? Students have gotten jobs as Software Engineer, Data Scientist, Assistant Instructors, Instructors, and Web Developers. How can Udacity make me a more desirable job candidate? Take Udacity courses that are relevant for your dream job(s). You'll learn relevant skills during the course, and you could even put those skills to work on independent projects outside of class. Also make sure to update your profile, share your resume, and be responsive to employers when they contact you. Who sees my CV on the Profile Page? Our trusted partners and Udacity employees. How do I start the job placement process? Make sure to have your profile updated and opt into sharing your resume. This will help make you more visible to potential employers. Whom do I contact if I'm an employer that is interested in hiring Udacity students? Please send an email to email@example.com if you want more information.
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1. 1. 2. Coursera Courses17
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“As I drive home, I sometimes think this is somebody else’s life,” Daphne Koller says. She calls the experience “surreal.”
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27 About Coursera 19 We believe in connecting people to a great education so that anyone around the world can learn without limits. Coursera is an education company that partners with the top universities and organizations in the world to offer courses online for anyone to take, for free. Our technology enables our partners to teach millions of students rather than hundreds. We envision a future where everyone has access to a worldclass education that has so far been available to a select few. We aim to empower people with education that will improve their lives, the lives of their families, and the communities they live in. Our Courses Classes offered on Coursera are designed to help you master the material. When you take one of our classes, you will watch lectures taught by worldclass professors, learn at your own pace, test your knowledge, and reinforce concepts through interactive exercises. When you join one of our classes, you'll also join a global community of thousands of students learning alongside you. We know that your life is busy, and that you have many commitments on your time. Thus, our courses are designed based on sound pedago gical foundations, to help you master new concepts quickly and effectively. Key ideas include mastery learning, to make sure that you have multiple attempts to demonstrate your new knowledge; using interactivity, to ensure student engagement and to assist longterm retention; and providing frequent feedback, so that you can monitor your own progress, and know when you've really mastered the material. We offer courses in a wide range of topics, spanning the Humanities, Medicine, Biology, Social Sciences, Mathematics, Business, Computer Science, and many others. Whether you're looking to improve your resume, advance your career, or just learn more and expand your knowledge, we hope there will be multiple courses that you find interesting. teaching methods that use active learning and interactive engagement between faculty and students, and between students and their peers
Coursera Takes A Big Step Toward Monetization, Now Lets Students Earn 19
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28 “Verified Certificates” For A Fee20 Coursera today unveiled its next phase and what will likely be its most significant source of revenue: Verified certificates./January 8th, 2013
Students who take a course on its platform will now be able to earn “Verified Certificates” for a small fee. The new option, called Signature Track, is available on a coursebycourse basis and is designed to provide verification for the work students complete on its platform, giving value to that work in the form of the startup’s first foray into credentialing. The certificate, however does not include credit toward a degree program, it simply aims to give them a more meaningful way to prove that they’ve completed the course. Students will have up to three weeks from the beginning of the course to sign up for a Signature Track. If they participate, they take two photos with their webcam, one of themselves, the other of a photo ID and create a “biometric profile of their unique typing patterns by typing a short phrase.” When submitting work for a course, they type the same phrase to match the record to their ID. Upon completion, students receive a certificate issued by the university and Coursera, which they’ll be able to share with anyone they choose via their “personal Course Records” page on Coursera. The price of admission into Signature track depends on the course, but will range from $30 to $100, and students who cannot afford the fee will be able to register for financial assistance. Five Courses Receive College Credit Recommendations21 Coursera is committed to seeing that our courses meet our students’ educational goals, from simply experiencing the joy of learning something new, to seeking improved employment opportunities, to working towards a degree. To this end, we are proud to announce that theAmerican Council
http://techcrunch.com/2013/01/08/courseratakesabigsteptowardmonetizationnowletsstude ntsearnverifiedcertificatesforafee/ 21
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29 on Education’s College Credit Recommendation Service (ACE CREDIT) 22 hasevaluated and recommended college credit for five courses on Coursera. Many students face enormous financial obstacles in pursuit of their degrees. We want to help more students enter college with credit already accrued and exit college on time, on budget and with a degree in hand. ACE CREDIT is a recognized authority in assessing nontraditional education experiences, with more than 2,000 colleges and universities considering ACE CREDIT recommendations in determining the applicability to their course and degree programs.23 The five courses approved for college credit recommendation include four undergraduate credit courses: 24
PreCalculus from the University of California, Irvine25 Introduction to Genetics and Evolution from Duke University26 Bioelectricity: A Quantitative Approach from Duke University27 Calculus: Single Variable from the University of Pennsylvania28
● ● ● ●
And one course approved for developmental math vocational credit recommendation: ● Algebra from the University of California, Irvine29
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30 You can earn an ACE CREDIT college credit recommendation by signing up for an eligible course in the Signature Track 30 and then taking an online proctored Credit Exam at the end of the course.We are working with a thirdparty provider, ProctorU,31 to enable online proctoring so that students anywhere in the world can take these special proctored assessments via a webcam at their convenience. There is an additional fee for the Credit Exam. Students who meet all requirements and successfully complete one of these five preapproved courses may request a transcript with credit recommendations from ACE, which they can then present to the college or university of their choice for prerequisite or undergraduate credit consideration, to be granted at the discretion of the institution. Duke Provost Peter Lange said “We are excited by this opportunity to experiment with new ways of using our MOOC courses to extend our educational reach and provide credit for students who would not otherwise have access to our faculty. MOOCs, often in combination with the creativity of individual universities, have much potential to open and enrich the educational offerings available to students across the United States and the globe." Learn more at the Coursera College Credit Recommendation Guidebook. 32
Earning an ACE CREDIT college credit recommendation33 1) Join the Signature Track for an eligible course To receive transfer credit, you must join the Signature Track of the eligible course. Registration is open during the first two to three weeks of the course. Learn more about joining Signature Track. The Signature Track securely links your coursework to your real identity using your photo ID and unique typing pattern. In your course’s Signature 30
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31 Track, you will be able to verify your identity with each piece of graded coursework you submit, such as quizzes, exams, homeworks and assignments. At this time, not all courses featuring Signature Track are eligible for ACE CREDIT college credit recommendations. Currently, only the courses listed above are eligible for ACE CREDIT college credit recommendations.
2) Signup for and take course's Credit Recommendation Exam Once in the Signature Track, you must complete the online proctored Credit Recommendation Exam at the end of the course. This exam covers broad course learning objectives and tests your skills and knowledge in the course material at the college course level. Your performance on the Credit Recommendation Exam will be a large determinant of your final grade. The Credit Recommendation Exam is separate from the normal course final exam, though you are encouraged to take both. The Credit Recommendation Exam will be online proctored, and conducted on Coursera in partnership with ProctorU, which will provide live human proctors who will digitally connect with you during your exam session. You will need access to a webcam, a microphone, and a reliable, highspeed internet connection for this (if you’d like to test your computer, you can do so at ProctorU). The Credit Recommendation Exam can be taken for an additional fee, which varies by course. Please see Eligible Courses for the costs. Signing up for a course's Credit Recommendation Exam Towards the end of the course, students who have joined the Signature Track will receive more information on how to sign up for the Credit Recommendation Exam. After successfully registering for the Credit Recommendation Exam, you will receive a confirmation email with instructions on how to schedule your Credit Recommendation Exam testtaking appointment with ProctorU. Each course has its own Credit Recommendation Exam availability dates, which are available here. You must schedule your exam at least 72 hours (3 days) in advance of your appointment. We strongly recommend you schedule your appointment well in advance to avoid potential problems with limited appointment availability or late scheduling fees. Taking your Credit Recommendation Exam Once you have scheduled your exam, you will be sent a special link to visit on the date and time of your examination appointment. This link will connect Page 31 of 138
32 you with your live proctor, who will guide you through to your examination on Coursera. Your proctor: ● Is knowledgeable about the examination policies ● Will ask you to conduct a review of your testing area using your webcam ● Will monitor webcam, audio and screensharing feeds while you are taking your exam ● Can close the exam session at any time if necessary ● Can communicate with you via chat or audio if you have any questions Credit Recommendation Exam grading policies You must meet the criteria set forth in your course’s Credit Recommendation Exam grading policy in order to receive an ACE CREDIT college credit recommendation. This grading policy, which will be outlined in your class site, is different from the regular course grading policy. In the Credit Recommendation Exam grading policy, the Credit Recommendation Exam will be worth 80% of your course grade, with regular assignments making up the remaining 20%. Each course will have its own unique minimum passing grade for the purposes of determining eligibility for college credit recommendation. Verified Certificate with Credit Recommendation Exam Students who take the Credit Recommendation Exam and pass the criteria outlined in the Credit Recommendation Exam grading policy will receive a Verified Certificate and the option to request for ACE CREDIT transcripts. This Verified Certificate will additionally indicate that you’ve completed a proctored exam. If your class offers a “distinction” grade, we will take the higher score on either the regular course final or the Credit Recommendation Exam to determine eligibility. Therefore, students who attempt the Credit Recommendation Exam will not be required to attempt the regular course final. Retake policy A student can only attempt the Credit Recommendation Exam once per course offering. Students who do not meet the passing requirements for college credit recommendations will be able to attempt the Credit Recommendation Exam again in future offerings of the course.
3) Send your ACE CREDIT transcripts to your school Page 32 of 138
33 If you meet the course’s passing criteria for ACE CREDIT college credit recommendations, Coursera will report your course information to the American Council on Education’s (ACE) Transcript Service. The ACE Transcript Service offers a lifelong record for students who have successfully completed our courses that have been reviewed by ACE CREDIT. This service enables adult learners to present a nationally recognized transcript to the college or university of their choice for the potential award of academic credit. For more information, visit the ACE CREDIT Transcript Service website.34 Coursera Career Services35 Coursera and your career36 People from around the world come to Coursera with professional aspirations in mind and some of our favorite emails have been from students who have used their courses to find new jobs. One student recently told us how the Gamification course helped him land a position with a gamification company. Another student, Dawn, accepted a communications position with the University of Illinois Cancer Center after completing Fundamentals of Pharmacology. She talked about the course content at length during the interview process and now uses her newfound knowledge regularly in her new position.
With students like these in mind, we are developing Coursera Career Services, a recruiting service that connects passionate and committed Coursera students with positions that match their skills and interests. If you optin to our Career Services, we will try to find companies that match your interests, skills and knowledge. If you do well in a Coursera class and allow us to share that information with potential employers (who will have agreed to keep this information in strict confidence, and use only for the purpose of considering you for employment), this could make you even more appealing to employers. We’ve been piloting the program for a few months and results have been 34
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34 good! We use sophisticated analytics to automatically find good studentcompany matches, and make an introduction only if we think there’s a reasonable chance of interest on both sides. Recently, one of our partner companies said “the candidates we’ve gotten from Coursera are performing better in our process than candidates from any other source.” We’re working with companies of varying stage and size who are finding great talent in innovative ways, like Facebook, Twitter, AppDirect and TrialPay. Essentially, Coursera’s new service is an optin to a recruiting program that allows students to find and connect with positions that “match their skills and interests.” Using “sophisticated analytics,” Coursera looks for matches between students and companies. Once it identifies a match, it sends an email to students, seeking their approval, only making an intro if the student gives them the goahead.Companies pay Coursera a flat fee for each introduction, with a share of that revenue going to the colleges offering the course. Udacity has also begun employing a similar model and has started to make money doing it. VERIFIED CERTIFICATES FOR YOUR EMPLOYEES37 Looking for an innovative way to support your employees' ongoing learning and development? Try sponsoring Verified Certificates within your organization! By sponsoring Verified Certificates, you can: ● Point your employees to a new learning resource with courses across a range of topics like technical, business, leadership and many more. ● Provide them with the chance to earn a valuable Verified Certificate upon completion of these Coursera courses The program is cost effective and easy to implement, get started here!
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1.1.2. a. 수료증(Verified Certification) 발급 강의 등록 방법
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36 현재 Coursera에는 70개의 Signature Track(수료증발급) 강의가 개설되어 있습니다. Coursera Signature Track 강의목록 을 참고하시면 됩니다. Coursera Signature Track 가이드 북 을 통해 자세한 내용을 보실 수 있습니다.
등록(Sign up)과 로그인을 마치시고 강의를 클릭합니다. 위페이지는 제가 수강하는 Introduction to Music Production 입니다. Enroll in Signature Track은 수료증을 받을 수 있는 강의라는 것을 알려줍니다. 노란색 버튼을 클릭하시면 Signature Track 등록 절차를 하실 수 있습니다.
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Signatrue Track을 클릭하시면 다음 페이지로 이동합니다. 아래에 강의 가격이 39$임을 알 수 있습니다. * 강의 수강은 무료입니다. 다만 Verified Certificate를 받기 위해서는 등록절차가 필요하다는 것을 잊지마세요.
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모든 과정을 마치면 다음과 같은 수료증을 받게 됩니다.
그럼 Signature Profile을 만들어봅시다. Signature Profile 순서
1) Your Signature Profile typing pattern
2) Webcam photos: Your headshot and photo ID document
3) Enter your personal details
4) Entering payment information
Finalizing your Signature Profile
Step 1. 타이핑 입력하기
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아래에 있는 문장을 2번 타이핑 합니다.개인 타이핑 패턴을 인식하여, 과제제출과 시험을 볼 때 본인을 확인하는 용도로 사용됩니다.
Step 2. 본인 사진 찍기 & ID 카드(신분증) 사진찍기
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본인의 얼굴을 웹캠으로 찍습니다.
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신분증 (여권, 주민등록증, 운전면허증 등)을 웹캠으로 찍습니다. 신분증 인정이 안되는 것은 다음과 같습니다. ● Any document that does not bear your name exactly (excluding hyphens, accents and spaces) ● Any document that is photocopied ● Any document that has expired ● Student ID ● Credit/debit card ● Birth certificate ● Social Security card ● Employee ID card ● International driver's license ● Draft classification card ● International student ID ● Diplomatic, consulate or embassy ID card Page 41 of 138
42 ● Notaryprepared letter or document ● Any temporary ID
Step 3. 본인 사진 찍기 & ID 카드(신분증) 사진찍기
개인신상정보 정책 To protect your privacy, all data you provide us will be securely encrypted during transmission. Once we receive your ID information, it will be used to verify your name and identity. The photo of your ID document will be kept
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43 private and deleted after we have verified your name and identity. Your headshot photo will remain only as part of your private Signature Profile, and will only be used by us for the purposes of dentity verification.
Step 4. 결제하기 Visa, MasterCard, American Express, discover로 결제가 가능합니다. 제가 해본 결과, 체크카드 비자로도 가능했습니다.
Step 5. 강의등록확인
Signature Profile을 만들고 나면, 등록된 강좌에 노란색 북마트가 생깁니다. 자, 이제 코세라 강의를 열심히 들어보도록 하겠습니다. :)
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44 1. 1. 3. EdX38 Schools/The colleges and universities that comprise the edX consortium are among the best in the world. They are dedicated to quality education both on campus and online. EdX is honored they have chosen to become part of the initiative by opening their virtual doors to the world.39
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45 MIT and Harvard launch a ‘revolution in education’40
MIT President Susan Hockfield and Harvard University President Drew Faust41 WE’RE EMPOWERING LEARNING IN THE CLASSROOM AND AROUND THE GLOBE42 At edX, we believe in the highest quality education, both online and in the classroom. EdX was created for students and institutions that seek to transform themselves through cuttingedge technologies, innovative pedagogy, and rigorous courses. Through our institutional partners, the XConsortium, we present the best of higher education online, offering opportunity to anyone who wants to achieve, thrive, and grow. Our goals, however, go beyond offering courses and content. We are committed to research that will allow us to understand how students learn, how technology can transform learning, and the ways teachers teach on campus and beyond. As innovators and experimenters, we want to share what we discover. The edX platform will be available as open source. By conducting and 40
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46 publishing significant research on how students learn, we will empower and inspire educators around the world and promote success in learning. Our aim is to become a leading resource for learners and learning worldwide by staying focused on the goals and principles set forth when forming edX: Our goals ● Expand access to education for everyone ● Enhance teaching and learning on campus and online ● Advance teaching and learning through research Our principles ● ● ● ●
Not for profit Open source platform Collaborative Financially sustainable
We are not only expanding access to knowledge, but developing best practices to enhance the student experience and improve teaching and learning both on campus and online. edx FAQs43 What is edX? EdX is a notforprofit initiative composed of over 20 leading global institutions, the xConsortium. We offer the highest quality education, both online and in the classroom. Founded by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Harvard University, edX offers online learning to oncampus students and to millions of people around the world. EdX is building an opensource online learning platform and hosts a web portal at www.edx.org for online education.
What institutions offer courses and modules through edX? EdX offers online courses from more than 20 edX xConsortium institutions, including University of California at Berkeley, the University of Texas system, and founders MIT and Harvard. More courses from leading global institutions will be coming online over the months to come.
What are the goals of the partner universities and colleges? 43
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47 The edX partners aim to extend their collective reach to build a global community of online students. Along with offering online courses, partner institutions plan to use their online courses to enhance education on their own campuses and to undertake research on how students learn and how technology can transform learning.
Will edX be adding additional X Universities? EdX is committed to expanding the number of universities offering courses on its platform. It will welcome new partners as it builds capacity to accommodate the growing interest among universities and learners. Potential partners are welcome to approach Director of Business Development, Johannes Heinlein (firstname.lastname@example.org) for any initial inquiries.
What is the “X University” Consortium? In addition to providing online courses on the edX platform, the "X University" Consortium is a forum in which members can share experiences around online learning. Harvard, MIT, the University of California at Berkeley, the University of Texas system and the other consortium members are building the "X University" Consortium, whose membership is expanding to include additional "X Universities". Each member of the consortium will offer courses on the edX platform as an "X University."
Open Source & the edX Technology Platform44 What technology does edX use? Features that are available or planned for the edX learning platform include: selfpaced learning, online discussion groups, wikibased collaborative learning, assessment of learning as a student progresses through a course, and online laboratories and other interactive learning tools. The first version of the technology was used in the first MITx course, 6.002x Circuits and Electronics, which launched in Spring 2012. Because it is open source, the 44
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48 platform will be continuously improved by a worldwide community of collaborators, with new features added as needs arise.
How is this different from what other universities are doing online? EdX is a notforprofit enterprise that promotes the educational missions of likeminded universities, all dedicated to improving our understanding of learning and delivering better educational experiences both on campus and beyond. The platform will also serve as a laboratory from which data will be gathered to better understand how students learn.
What is Open Source? Open source is a philosophy that refers to making software freely available for use and/or modification as users see fit. In exchange for use of the software, users add their contributions to the software, making it in a form of public collaboration. Before the contributions are officially incorporated within the primary source code, an oversight body typically ensures additions meet a certain standard of quality and usefulness. The edX platform was made available as open source code on June 1st, 2013.
When/how can I get the edX opensource platform technology? The edX learning platform source code, as well as platform developments from Stanford, edX and other contributors, is available as of June 1, 2013 and can be accessed from the edX Platform Repository located at http://code.edx.org/
My organization is interested in using edX software or the edX platform to host our own content. What level of support does edX provide to do so? Currently, the opensourced edX software is intended to be used by developers who will contribute towards the platform development efforts. While some edX partner organizations are using the platform to host their own content, we don't encourage organizations outside of the partnership group to do so at this point. EdX does not offer hosting or support services beyond its partner group at Page 48 of 138
49 this time.However, edX may evolve its participation models in the future; we may for example offer hosting and support services to interested organizations. Future releases of the software may also offer self publishing capabilities. Please check our website for updates about when these participation models may become available.
STUDENT FAQS45 edX BASICS How do I sign up to take a course? Simply create an edX account (it's free) and then register for the course of your choice. Choose Register Now to get started.
Who can take an edX course? EdX courses are open to everyone. All you need is an Internet connection and a desire to learn.
What does it cost to take a course? Currently, edX courses are free for everyone.
What happens after I sign up? You will receive an activation email. Follow the prompts in that email to activate your account. You will need to log in each time you access your course(s). Once the course begins, it’s time to hit the virtual books. You can access the lectures, homework, tutorials, etc., for each week, one week at a time.
Are courses accessible to students with disabilities? EdX strives to create an innovative onlinelearning platform that promotes accessibility for everyone, including students with disabilities. We are dedicated to improving the accessibility of the platform and welcome your 45
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50 comments or questions at email@example.com.
Are the courses only offered in English? Some edX courses include a translation of the lecture in the text bar to the right of the video. Some have the specific option of requesting a course in other languages. Please check your course to determine foreign language options.
When will there be more courses on other subjects? We are continually reviewing and creating courses to add to the edX platform. Please check the website for future course announcements or register with edX and we will send you an email when new courses are available. You can also "like" edXonline on Facebook, circle us on Google+, or follow us on Twitter – you'll receive updates and announcements there too
When does my course start and/or finish? You can find the start and stop dates for each course on each course description page.
Is there a walkthrough of a sample course session? Each course begins with an introduction of how the course works and what to expect.You can also join a past course and walk through the user experience there.
What happens if I have to quit a course? Will I be able to take the same or another course in the future? You may unregister from an edX course at anytime, there are absolutely no penalties associated with incomplete edX studies, and you may register for the same course (provided we are still offering it) at a later time.
What is the edX honor code? You’ll find the edX honor code here. Each course may also have specific Page 50 of 138
51 agreements for student collaboration and discussion.
How can I help improve edX? You may not realize it, but just by taking a course you are helping edX. That’s because the edX platform has been specifically designed to not only teach, but also gather data about learning. EdX will use this data to find out how to improve education online and oncampus. Additionally, if you have enjoyed your experience on edX, we encourage you to share your insights and enthusiasm with us and others (inperson and online.)
THE COURSES46 How much work will I have to do to pass my course? The projected hours of study required for each course are described on the specific course description page.
What should I do before I take a course (prerequisites)? Each course is different some have prerequisites, and some don't. Take a look at your specific courses recommended prerequisites. If you do not have a particular prerequisite, you may still take the course.
What books should I read? (I am interested in reading materials before the class starts.) Take a look at the specific course prerequisites. All required academic materials will be provided during the course, within the browser. Some of the course descriptions may list additional resources. For supplemental reading material during the course, you can post a question on the course's discussion forum to ask your online classmates for suggestions.
Can I download the book for my course? Unless specifically noted in the course, edX book content may only be viewed within the browser; downloading it violates copyright laws. If you need or want a hard copy of the book, we recommend that you purchase a 46
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Can I take more than one course at a time? You may take multiple edX courses, however we recommend checking the requirements on each course description page to determine your available study hours and the demands of the intended courses.
How do I log in to take an edX course? Once you sign up for a course and activate your account, click on the Log In button on the edx.org home page. You will need to type in your email address and edX password each time you log in.///////
What time is the class? EdX classes take place at your convenience. Prefer to sleep in and study late? No worries. Videos and problem sets are available 24 hours a day, which means you can watch video and complete work whenever you have spare time. You simply log in to your course via the Internet and work through the course material, one week at a time.
If I miss a week, how does this affect my performance? It is certainly possible to pass an edX course if you miss a week; however, coursework is progressive, so you should review and study what you may have missed. Also, homework and exams may not be submitted after their due dates. Check your course schedule for important dates and times.
How can I meet/find other students? All edX courses have Discussion Forums where you can chat with and help each other within the framework of the honor code. You can also “like” edXonline on Facebook, circle us on Google+, or follow us on Twitter you'll be joining a community of others with a shared interest in edX.
How can I meet/find other students? All edX courses have Discussion Forums where you can chat with and help each other within the framework of the honor code. You can also “like” Page 52 of 138
53 edXonline on Facebook, circle us on Google+, or follow us on Twitter you'll be joining a community of others with a shared interest in edX. Getting help and support You have a vibrant, global community of fellow online learners available 247 to help with the course within the framework of the honor code, as well as support from the TAs who monitor the course. Take a look at the course's Discussion Forum where you can review questions, answers and comments from fellow online learners, as well as post a question.
Can I retake a course? You may retake edX courses as often as you wish. Each offering of a course is assessed independently.
Is there an exam at the end? Different courses have slightly different structures. Please check the course materials.
Will the same courses be offered again in the future? Most, if not all, existing edX courses will be reoffered, and more courses added on a regular basis.
Enrollment for a course that I am interested in is open, but the course has already started. Can I still enroll? Yes, but you will not be able to turn in any assignments or exams that are past due. If it is early in the course, you might still be able to complete enough assignments and exams to earn a certificate. Check the course syllabus and grading policy in order to find out more.
CERTIFICATES & CREDITS47 What is a certificate of mastery? A certificate of mastery certifies that you have fully participated in an edX course made available through one of its X institutions. You get a certificate when/if you complete your course successfully (watch the videos and 47
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54 successfully fulfill the requirements, per the course syllabus). If you achieve a certificate, you should be proud. All edX courses are rigorous and successful completion is a real accomplishment. EdX students haveused certificates of mastery on university or job applications, or with their employers to showcase their abilities. Today, certificates of mastery are free. This may change in the future to help cover our costs. See a sample certificate here. Will my university accept my edX coursework for credit? Each educational institution makes its own decision regarding credit. Check with your university for its policy. Please note: EdX does not currently offer transcripts or proof of registration for the purpose of obtaining credit.
Will the associated X University grant credit for my course? X Universities do not currently offer formal academic credit for edX coursework and do not certify that MOOC students have met the same requirements as matriculated students taking the original course on which the MOOC is based.
How are certificates of mastery determined? Online learners who receive a passing grade for a course will receive a certificate at thediscretion of edX and the underlying X University that offered the course. For example, a certificate for MITx’s 6.002x Circuits & Electronics will come from edX and MITx.
If you passed the course, your certificate will be delivered online through edx.org. So be sure to check your email in the weeks following the final grading – you will be able todownload and print your certificate. Note: At this time, edX is holding certificates for students connected with Cuba, Iran, and Sudan pending confirmation that the issuance is in compliance with U.S. embargoes.
What is the difference between a proctored certificate and an honor code certificate? A proctored certificate is given to students who take and pass Page 54 of 138
55 an exam under proctored conditions in addition to completing all the required online coursework. An honorcode certificate of mastery is granted to students who have completed all of the required coursework online and are in compliance with the edX honor code. Note: Not all courses offer a proctored exam. A proctored exam happens in a proctored facility where students register and are charged a fee. Honor code coursework is free and available to everyone.
Can I get both a proctored certificate and an honor code certificate? Yes. The requirements for both certificates can be independently satisfied. Note: At this time, edX is holding certificates for learners connected with Cuba, Iran, and Sudan pending confirmation that the issuance is in compliance with U.S. embargoes.
Will my grade be shown on my certificate? No. Grades are not displayed on either honor code or proctored certificates. The only certificates distributed with grades by edX were for the initial prototype course.
Why did I not receive my certificate? Certificates of Mastery are delivered approximately one week after each course closes. If you did not receive one in this time and are certain that you completed the requirements, please check your dashboard. The certificate will display with your course.
I lost my edX certificate – can you resend it to me? Please log back in to your account to find certificates from the same profile page where they were originally posted. You will be able to reprint your certificate from there.ㄴ 1. 1. 4. MOOC2Degree48
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Public Universities to Offer Free Online Classes for Credit NYTimes ...49 49
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57 With MOOC2Degree, Academic Partnerships has collaborated with public universities to offer creditbearing MOOCs as a first step and a free start toward earning a degree. Through this new initiative, the initial course in select online degree programs will be converted into a MOOC. Each MOOC will be the same course with the same academic content, taught by the same instructors, as currently offered degree programs at participating universities. Students who successfully complete a MOOC2Degree course earn academic credits toward a degree, based upon criteria established by participating universities. Academic Partnerships (AP) helps universities convert their traditional degree programs into an online format, recruits qualified students and supports enrolled students through graduation. Serving more than 40 state institutions, AP is one of the largest representatives of public universities' online learning in the United States. The company was founded by social entrepreneur, Randy Best, an 18year veteran of developing innovative learning solutions to improve education. AP is guided by the principle that the opportunities presented through distance learning make higher education more accessible and achievable for students in the U.S. and globally. 50
1. 2. MOOC 수업 구성51 What You Need to Know About MOOCs The MOOCLed Meritocracy/강의의 질
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THE PROFESSORS: B+
The pop star analogy is not trivial. While MOOCs are a great equalizer when it comes to students around the world, they are a great unequalizer when it comes to teachers. MOOCs are creating a breed of Alist celebrity professors who have lopsided sway over the landscape of ideas. I pity the offline teachers. I fear one of the casualties of these online courses might be the biodiversity of the academic ecosystem. CONVENIENCE: A
MOOCs shift control to the student.
“I’m hyper. I’m nuts ... The good news is, you can always skip parts you don’t enjoy. Whereas if you were in the class you’d have to suffer me throughout.”
TEACHERTOSTUDENT INTERACTION: D
As I mentioned, I had little to no contact with the professors. Not that I didn’t try. I entered a lottery to join an exclusive 10person Google hangout with my genetics professor, the Duke University biologistMohamed A. Noor. I lost. My cosmology professor, S. George Djorgovski, of Caltech, held office hours on Second Life, the virtual world. But the professor told those of us who were Second Life virgins that we might not want to bother, since the software is complicated. A handful of lucky students got responses from professors on the discussion boards, and a few handfuls more from teaching assistants. I was not among them. Perhaps I should have been more solicitous, like the student who offered to send one fluridden instructor camomile tea. The professor gamely responded that whiskey kills more bacteria. For MOOCs to fulfill their potential, Coursera and its competitors will have to figure out how to make teachers and teaching assistants more reachable. More like local pastors, less like deities on high. To their credit, Page 58 of 138
59 the MOOC providers seem aware of the problem and are experimenting with fixes, like recruiting experienced students to guide discussions.Some reformers have suggested an onlineoffline hybrid model.Students in, say, Ecuador, could gather in a Quito classroom, watch the MOOC lectures on video, and then have a local teacher facilitate a discussion. As I learned in my science literacy course, it’s hard to predict what will work in the real world, but this seems worth testing. STUDENTTOSTUDENT INTERACTION: B
As psychologists will tell you, if you don’t talk about what you’ve learned, the knowledge will evaporate. With MOOCs, there is no shortage of ways to connect with other students: Facebook, Google Plus, Skype, Twitter, Coursera discussion boards — even shutting your laptop and meeting a classmate in a threedimensional Dunkin’ Donuts.
I videochatted twice with a clutch of students in my Google Plus modern history group. Our conversations on Haitian independence and the professor’s possible firstworld biases were worthwhile and wonderfully international: a Filipino scientist told me about his country’s education system, and a Brazilian businessman shared a data point on his country’s pronounced wealth inequality.
Coursework comes in various forms: multiplechoice quizzes, essays and projects
Of course, since students are taking quizzes without proctors, cheatingis a big MOOC concern. As it should be. When I Googled some quiz questions for my genetics course — as a journalist, I swear — I found a Canadian Web site with the answers.
A company called ProctorU has designed software to allow its employees to monitor students taking quizzes via webcam. When it comes to cheating, the catandmouse game is likely to play out for a while. Page 59 of 138
60 Most of the quizzes are graded instantly by computer, but a few assignments are judged by fellow students. I wrote an essay for my “Aboriginal Worldviews” course in which I had to describe an American ritual as if it were foreign to me (I chose birthday parties). Three of my peers graded the paper. They were kind over all, but I bristled at every slight. Who died and made you professor?
The flexibility of courses
The flexibility of courses also may differ. On Udacity, for example, you can start a class anytime you like and complete every task or exam at your own pace. This reduces the massiveness and the opportunity to interact with other students. On Coursera, classes have a start and an end date. Although it’s possible to watch lectures at any time you want (and to pause, start again, rewind and make your comments), most assignments and exams have a deadline.
You might notice that most classes offered at the moment by universities are introductory, taken from undergraduate disciplines. However, it is also possible to find subjects in other levels or MOOCs specializing in a particular field of knowledge.
Selfpaced, synchronous and asynchronous52 The terms selfpaced, synchronous and asynchronous are applied to these different models in inconsistent ways. A selfpaced class at Udacity is usually called asynchronous, since you don’t have to take it during a specific period. You may be taking the class a year after the teacher produced and published it.
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61 From that perspective, the classes at Coursera and edX are often called synchronous. Everyone is moving through the material at approximately the same pace established by a schedule and deadlines.
Gates Foundation Offers Grants for MOOC’s in Introductory Classe53 The foundation will award as many as 10 grants of up to $50,000 each for MOOC’s in “highenrollment, lowsuccess introductorylevel courses.” “We are cautiously optimistic that MOOC’s might be able to improve outcomes for lowincome students who are working toward credentials, but there are a lot of questions that we can’t yet answer,” says Josh Jarrett, the foundation’s deputy director for postsecondary success.
1. 2. 1. 강의
1. 2. 2.시험
Credit by Exam54 edX Offers Proctored Exams for Open Online Course
And when you do embark on a MOOC, you can have a good learning experience by considering some of the tips and strategies other students and teachers have shared here.
MOOC platforms set hours of homework every week besides lecture videos, and the homework is either graded automatically or by students'
http://chronicle.com/blogs/wiredcampus/gatesfoundationoffersgrantsformoocsinintroducto ryclasses/39792 54
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62 peers. The importance of retrieval and testing for learning55 Many people think that the primary purpose of homework is to assess or to evaluate students. We believe that a far more important purpose is that they drive learning, and ensure longterm retention. A key factor in the design of the Coursera system is the extensive use of interactive exercises, which we believe are critical for student engagement and learning. Even within our videos, there are multiple opportunities for interactions: the video frequently stops, and students are asked to answer a simple question to test whether they are tracking the material. This strategy has value not only in maintaining student focus and engagement. Research shows that even simple retrieval questions have significant pedagogical value. For example, in two papers in Science, (Karpicke and Roediger III, 2008; Karpicke and Blunt, 2011) show that activities that require students to retrieve or reconstruct knowledge produces significant gains in learning much more so than many other learning strategies. Mastery Learning Many of our courses’ homework are designed to give students multiple opportunities to learn the content and demonstrate their knowledge. In many traditional classes, if a student attempts a homework and does not do well, he or she simply gets a low score on the assignment, and instruction moves to the next topic, providing the student a poor basis for learning the next concept. The feedback is also often given weeks after the concept was taught, by which point the student barely remembers the material, and rarely goes back to review the concepts to understand them better. In the Coursera platform, we typically giveimmediate feedback on that concept the student did not understand. In many cases, we provide randomized versions of the same assignment, so that a studentcan restudy and reattempt the homework. This process is called Mastery Learning, and was shown in a seminal paper by Bloom to increase student performance by about one standard deviation over more traditional forms of instruction. This means that if in a traditional class 50% of all students pass a certain (median) level of performance, with Mastery Learning, about 84% of students now achieve this level of performance.
Peer assessments 55
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63 In many courses, the most meaningful assignments do not lend themselves easily to automated grading by a computer. For example, in a poetry course, we would want the students to practice critical thinking and interpretive skills by answeringessaystyle questions, which do not have clear right or wrong answers. Similar issues arise when we are evaluating business plans, engineering designs, medical chart reviews, or many others. This is particularly an issue in courses in the Humanities, Social Sciences, Business, and other disciplines where a relatively small fraction of the content lends itself well to an autograded format. Given our commitment to offer courses from a broad range of disciplines, we have invested substantial effort in developing the technology of peer assessments, wherestudents can evaluate and provide feedback on each other’s work. This technology draws on two bodies of literature: First, the education literature on peer assessments. Following the literature on student peer reviews, we have developed a process in which students are first trained using a grading rubric to grade other assessments. This has been shown to result in accurate feedback to other students, and also provide a valuable learning experience for the students doing the grading. Second, we draw on ideas from the literature on crowdsourcing, which studies how one can take many ratings (of varying degrees of reliability) and combine them to obtain a highly accurate score. Using such algorithms, we expect that by having multiple students grade each homework, we will be able to obtain grading accuracy comparable or even superior to that provided by a single teaching assistant.
teaching methods that use active learning and interactive engagement between faculty and students, and between students and their peers
1. 2. 3. 학점(Credit)
American Council on Education May Recommend Some Coursera Offerings for College Credit/November 13, 2012/MOOC 학점인정심사
Credit for MOOCs56
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64 College Credit
Educational Portfolios57 Signaling Learning
The MOOC Credit Paradox58 The Anatomy of a Verified Certificate & Shareable Course Records/Coursera59
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All three of the leading MOOC providers — Coursera, edX and Udacity, another Stanford spinoff — started by offering courses free but with no credit, attracting millions of learners around the world. But all three are now adapting those courses, often in blended form, for use in public universities that will offer students credit and extra support — and bring the MOOC providers a steady revenue stream. 60
A First for Udacity: a U.S. University Will Accept Transfer Credit for One of Its Courses61 Colorado State to Offer Credits for Online Class62 By TAMAR LEWIN; Colorado State University’s Global Campus would give three credits to students who complete one of Udacity’s free “massive open online courses.” September 7, 2012, Friday 60
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MOOCs for Credit/Georgia State University63 Public Universities to Offer Free Online Classes for Credit64 10 large public university systems team with Coursera65 Coursera, the California company that offers free college classes online, is forming partnerships with 10 large public university systems and public uflagship universities to create courses that students can take for credit, either fully online or with classroom sessions.
At the State University of New York system, the partnership is tied to Chancellor Nancy L. Zimpher’s announcement of Open SUNY, an online effort to enroll 100,000 new students.
The move could open online classes to 1.25 million students at public institutions across the United States, and could help increase graduation rates by making introductory and required classes — often a bottleneck because of high demand — more widely available. Joining Coursera will be the State University of New York system, the Tennessee Board of Regents and the University of Tennessee systems, the University of Colorado system, theUniversity of Houston system, the University of Kentucky, the University of Nebraska, theUniversity of New Mexico, the University System of Georgia and West Virginia University. Some systems plan to blend online materials with facultyled classroom sessions. Others will offer credit to students who take the courses online followed by a proctored exam on campus. 63
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67 Some will use existing Coursera materials developed by faculties at elite universities, but others expect that their own faculties will develop materials for the Coursera platform, making them available at campuses systemwide and beyond. Faculty members will be able to customize existing courses, adding their own lessons and refinements, the company said. Coursera’s fees will vary, depending on the size of the class. For a large course, universities would pay about $8 a student to use the Coursera platform. In addition, for use of content developed at a different university, Coursera would charge $30 to $60 per student per course. At SUNY, which has 468,000 students at 64 campuses, the Coursera partnership is tied to Chancellor Nancy L. Zimpher’s announcement this year of Open SUNY, an online effort to enroll 100,000 new students and make it possible for a quarter of them to earn a degree in three years. Students could take courses at any campus, or at other universities on the Coursera platform, toward a degree at their home campus. Dr. Zimpher said it would be some time before a decision about how many of the system’s online offerings, and which ones, would use the Coursera platform. Houston Davis, the chief academic officer of the University System of Georgia, with 314,000 students, said that while the system would start with just a handful of Coursera courses next fall, he hoped a full menu of general education courses — the gateway classes usually taken in a student’s first two years — would eventually be available online through Coursera, for sharing by all the campuses. “As I’ve told the faculty, we’re not outsourcing content delivery or casting students to the winds,” he said. “But there are thousands and thousands of students in Georgia with a high school diploma, or some college but no degree, and we need to explore new ways to reach them.” The partnerships represent a new direction for Coursera, and for the “massive open online courses,” known as MOOCs, that have galvanizedhigher education over the last year, as millions of students worldwide registered for free classes that carried no credit. “Our first year, we were enamored with the possibilities of scale in MOOCs,” said Daphne Koller, one of the two Stanford computer science professors who founded Coursera. “Now we are thinking about how to use the materials on campus to move along the completion agenda and other challenges facing the largest public university systems.” Page 67 of 138
68 Initially, Coursera recruited as partners only the elite research universities in the Association of American Universities. Now the company is eager to work with a broader range of institutions, to see how its materials can help more students complete their degrees. Other leading online providers, too, have begun projects with public universities: edX, the nonprofit collaboration founded by Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, has teamed with the University of Texas and some California State University campuses, and Udacity, another Stanford spinoff, with San Jose State University. Some faculty resistance has emerged recently against using online materials, even if they are blended with classroom work. This week, 58 Harvard professors wrote a letter seeking the creation of a new committee to consider the ethical issues related to edX and its impact on higher education. Both Dr. Koller and university officials involved in the new partnerships said that they had no intention of undercutting faculty control over course content and that the provision allowing faculties to customize online materials or put their own courses onto the Coursera platform was critical to the project’s success. “We hope this will help public universities do more with the less they’re getting in state support,” Dr. Koller said. William G. Bowen, the former Princeton president and founding chairman of Ithaka, a nonprofit organization that studies online education, sees promise in the arrangement. “We have encouraged Coursera to work with the large state university systems, and the large state university systems to work with Coursera, because that’s where the numbers are, and that’s where there are the biggest issues in terms of cost, completion and access,” said Dr. Bowen. “It’s still exploratory, but this partnership has the potential to make real headway in dealing with those issues.”
Five Courses Receive College Credit Recommendations66
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69 The End of Nuclear Institutions67 There is compelling reason to think that unbundling institutional knowledge provision and credentialing is not only gaining momentum but is inevitable. Recent events confirm Peter Stokes's observation that the fusion of the core elements of landbased education (faculty, curriculum, credentials) is no longer inseparably tied to a single institution.3 The emergence of MOOCs as an alternative to locationbound, proprietary forms of campusbased learning and portals like edX, Coursera, and Udacity that host them undermine the individually crafted course model that sustains the "college credit monopoly."4 The acceptance of credit for MOOCs by accredited institutions, such as Colorado State University's Global Campus,5 Antioch University,6 San Jose State University,7 Georgia State University,8 and the recently announced MOOC2Degree collaboration between dozens of public universities and Academic Partnerships,9 the impetus from Gates Foundation grants to develop MOOCs for "high enrollment, lowsuccess" introductory courses,10 and the partnership between the Saylor Foundation and Excelsior College and StraigherLine11 are all opening upa path to credit for free and lowcost courses. A parallel movement away from seattime to competencybased learning at Western Governors University, Southern New Hampshire University, and the University of Wisconsin System further erodes the value proposition underlying the traditional model of landbased education. MOOCs, as currently designed, address two of the three challenges facing postsecondary education: access and cost. MOOCbased degree programs would not only democratize education, but their scalability would help end the unsustainable trajectory of tuition. They are an effective remedy to the "cost disease" plaguing higher education12 and a viable solution to the problem of providing global access to educational credentials
edX Offers Proctored Exams68
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70 Students enrolled in a free open online course offered through edX will now have the option of getting their learning validated with a proctored final exam, under a new program announced today. The nonprofit onlinelearning venture, founded by MIT and Harvard, will let students take onsite exams administered by the Pearson VUE service, which has more than 450 testing centers in more than 110 countries. Students who pass the tests will receivecertificates noting that they completed a proctored exam. In a conference call with reporters, Anant Agarwal, president of edX, said the proctoring option would make the certificates“significantly more valuable.” “From our discussions with employers and institutions, they certainly feel much more comfortable with proctored certificates, because these really reflect the students’ own work,” he said. For the Udacity course, the proctored exam will cost $89.
1. 2. 4. 커뮤니티
Harvard Asks Graduates to Donate Time to Free Online Humanities Class 69
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71 Students in Free Online Courses Form Groups to Study and Socialize70 Students in Free Online Courses Form Groups to Study and Socialize August 16, 2012
"The biggest revolution of MOOC is the interactions between students and teachers as well as other students," says Ng of a system that offers materials including videos and tests together with communitybuilding user forums.71 Another major departure from previous online courses is that MOOC has successfully brought together student communities. They either discuss difficult points online or come together in the real world to meet.
수강중 무료 교과서 제공72 Coursera partners with publishers to bring digital textbooks to the masses73
http://chronicle.com/blogs/wiredcampus/studentsinfreeonlinecoursesformgroupstostudya ndsocialize/38887 –
http://venturebeat.com/2013/05/08/courserapartnerswithpublisherstobringdigitaltextbookst othemasses/ 73
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활용예/The Student Hub/강의중에만 구독가능
1. 2. 5. MOOC 을 통한 미국대학교육 혁명
Former U.S. secretary of education William Bennett has written that he senses“an Athenslike renaissance” 74 in the making. Stanford president John Hennessy told the New Yorker he sees “a tsunami coming.”75 The Crisis in Higher Education76 The excitement over MOOCs comes at a time of growing dissatisfaction with the state of college education. The average price tag for a bachelor’s degree has shot up to more than $100,000. Spending four years on campus often leaves young people or their parents weighed down with big debts, a burden not only on their personal finances but on the overall economy. 77 And many people worry that even as the cost of higher education has risen, its quality has fallen. Dropout rates are often high, particularly at public colleges, and many graduates display little evidence that college improved their criticalthinking skills. Close to 60 percent of Americans believe that the country’s colleges and universities are failing to provide students with “good value for the money they and their families spend,” according to a 2011 survey by the Pew Research Center. Proponents of MOOCs say the efficiency and flexibility of online instruction will offer a timely remedy.
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73 How an Upstart Company Might Profit From Free Courses/MOOC 수익모델
Students Rush to Web Classes, but Profits May Be Much Later78 By TAMAR LEWIN; New companies are partnering with universities to offer online courses, in an effort that could define the future of higher education — if anyone can figure out how to make money. January 7, 2013, Monday
The MOOC Model: Challenging Traditional Education79 MOOCs represent the latest stage in the evolution of open educational resources. First was open access to course content, and then access to free online courses. Accredited institutions are now accepting MOOCs as well as free courses and experiential learning as partial credit toward a degree. The next disruptor will likely mark a tipping point: an entirely free online curriculum leading to a degree from an accredited institution. With this new business model, students might still have to pay to certify their credentials, but not for the process leading to their acquisition. If free access to a degreegranting curriculum were to occur, the business model of higher education would dramatically and irreversibly change. As Nathan Harden ominously noted, "recent history shows us that the internet is a great destroyer of any traditional business that relies on the sale of information."1 Colleges have a problem here: the way in which the core services of education are rendered is changing, but the underlying business model is not. This widening disconnect threatens not only the financial viability of traditional campuses following the "Law of More,"2 but, more fundamentally, their rationale. 78
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74 A number of converging trends pose a challenge to brickandmortar institutions: ● the emergence of the learning sciences and their application to educational practice, ● the movement toward competencybased education, and ● new business models that effectively combine instructional quality, lower cost, and increased access through unlimited scalability (MOOCs). A turning point will occur when a MOOCbased program of study leads to a degree from an accredited institution. Indeed, we are already partially there: students can now receive transfer credit toward a degree from an accredited institution for learning not obtained at a college or university. MOOCs: Quality Matters80 Notwithstanding the importance of their role in reducing cost and expanding access, the remaining unresolved issue facing the acceptance of MOOCs is access to what? The major obstacle to their acceptance relates to the third challenge: their quality. As some rightly point out, current course models can aptly be described as"selfservice learning and crowdsourced teaching."13 Although selfdirected learning and peer mentoring have instructional benefits when part of a welldesigned curriculum, most MOOCs (especially in STEM areas) are designed in a way that skews toward autodidacts and more advanced learners. Novice learners needing instructional guidance are largely on their own and no better off perhaps than those in a large gateway course delivered in a lecture hall on campus. Although improving the quality of student learning is one of the priorities of the major MOOC providers, most of their courses currently lack a sophisticated learning architecture that effectively adapts to the individual needs of each learner. Addressing the quality of the learning experience that MOOCs provide is therefore of paramount importance to their credibility and acceptance. According to the most recent Babson Research Group survey, institutional decision makers have yet to be convinced of the value of MOOCs. Although not specifically attributing their skepticism to the perceived quality of MOOCs, the report finds that only 28 percent of chief academic officers believe that they are a sustainable method for offering courses.14 What potential, then, do MOOCs have not only to improve learning but to provide 80
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75 the best possible educational experience? Contrary to what some may think, designing the best learning environments does not entail their being taught by the best professors or affiliated with elite universities. Instead of simply using scholarly reputation and institutional prestige as quality standards, we should judge MOOCs by how well they enable the conditions that optimize learning for each student. Although critics may scoff at the simplistic design of most current MOOCs, it would be shortsighted to dismiss them as hopelessly inferior to classroombased instruction. If there is one lesson from the history of disruptive innovation, it is that we often wrongly assume that a product or practice that dominates a current market defines enduring standards of optimal quality. It would be a mistake, then, to think that the nearterm shortcomings of MOOCs inhibit their potential to improve in quality. MOOCs and other forms of open curricula will transform how people learn only to the extent that they enable effective learning. What, then, might a learningoptimized MOOC look like? San Jose State U. Says Replacing Live Lectures With Videos Increased Test Scores81 In an effort to raise student performance in a difficult course, San Jose State University has turned to a “flipped classroom” format,requiring students to watch lecture videos produced by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and using class time for discussion. The 85 students in the flipped course at San Jose State watched the edX lecture videos at home and attended class twice a week to practice what they had learned and ask questions. Two other sections of students took a traditional version of the course. The midtermexamination scores of students in the flipped section were higher than those in the traditional sections, said Mr. Ghadiri. Although the midterm questions were more difficult for the flipped students, their median score was 10 to 11 points higher.
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76 How Will MOOCs Make Money?82
Winning the MOOC space will require a combination of investment capital, branded credibility in the marketplace, deep expertise in academics, and deep expertise in the formation and scaling of hugely popular online enterprises.
2. OER(Open Education Resources/무료교육자료)
As Juliana previously discussed in an article on the History of Distance Learning, the idea to provide free academic knowledge online is not recent. It’s been now almost 15 years, for example, since the American university The Massachusetts Institute of Technology began its OpenCourseWare project, giving more people access to university lectures and other tools to enhance elearning. 83
2.2. OER FreeTextbook Group Will Sell Its EBooks on Chegg, for a Small Fee/무료교과서 82
http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2012/06/11/expertsspeculatepossiblebusinessmodelsm oocproviders#ixzz2AEv9ZYEl 83
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Annenberg Learner/초중고대학 교육자료/Offers free teacher professional development, resources, and activities.
Khan Academy/초중고 과학,수학/With a library of over 3000 videos covering everything from arithmetic to physics, finance, and history and hundreds of skills to practice
Thinkfinity/Offers free K12 standardsbased lesson plans across many disciplines including art, economics, humanities, mathematics, science and geography.
Lit2Go/ free online collection of stories and poems in Mp3 (audiobook) format.
Internet Archive/ nonprofit digital library offering free universal access to books, movies & music, as well as 351 billion archived web pages
EuropeanaLibraries/The Europeana Libraries project is working to make 5 million digital objects from 19 leading European research libraries freely accessible onThe European Library and Europeana websites. Digital Public Library of America/The Digital Public Library of America brings together the riches of America’s libraries, archives, and museums, and makes them freely available to the world.
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Hybrid & Flipped & Blended Class85
2.3. iTunes U86
Another antecedent to the MOOC is iTunes U, launched by Apple in 2007 to offer education materials for download. Many colleges and universities joined the site, creating courses especially designed for the format or simply posting podcasts, video lectures or textbooks for free download by anyone in the world.
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79 2.4. Khan Academy87 College 2.0: A SelfAppointed Teacher Runs a OneMan 'Academy' on YouTube
Gates Notes88 Using basic tools on his home computer, Salman Khan began making short math tutoring videos, first for his younger cousins and then for anyone following his YouTube account and eventually for millions of students around the world. That has grown into Khan Academy, a nonprofit provider of video lectures and exercises on a variety of subjects and now, although Khan isn’t a formally trained educator, he is one of the bestknown teachers in the world.
Birth of cMOOC 89 The concept of MOOC was ﬁrst implemented in 2008 with an openonline course offered by George Siemens and Stephen Downes at theUniversity of Manitoba, "Connectivism and Connective Knowledge". The environment created was a web site using aggregation, remix,repurpose, and feeding forward of content and media identiﬁed bythe students using blogs, YouTube videos, synchronous videodiscussions, and RSS feeds to build knowledge structures within adomain. A MOOC is a platform! (think Google Course Builder) Focus was on peerconstructed knowledge and curation in a virtuallearning environment. cMOOCs emphasize creation, creativity,autonomy and social networking learning.
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MOOC Hyperbole in 2012 MOOC
The demise of the campus as we know it. The most important education technology in the past 200 years. Free education for all, anywhere in the world with online access. Professors at prestigious universities host reviewable onlinelectures and curate videos, content and activities for their students. Learners can tap into Ivy Leaguequality instruction on their owntime, at their own pace and with little to no cost. Despite the hype, MOOCs have yet to solve seemingly simpleproblems, such as producing a sustainable business model andevaluating student performance in a meaningful way. 90 MOOC Disruptive Innovation
A disruptive innovation is an innovation that helps create anew market with its own value network; and eventually goes on todisrupt an existing market and value network (over a few years ordecades), displacing an earlier technology. Examples of disruptive innovations include: MP3 ﬁle format and the effect on the music industry Wikipedia and the effect on bound encyclopedias eBook formats, enabling selfpublishing and impact on the broaderpublishing industry Digital readers and the effect on the newspaper and magazineindustry MOOCs and the presumed effect on higher education
Clayton Christensen deﬁnes a disruptive innovation as aproduct or service designed for a new set of customers."Generally, disruptive innovationswere technologicallystraightforward, consisting of offtheshelf components put togetherin a product architecture that wasoften simpler than priorapproaches. They offered less ofwhat customers in establishedmarkets wanted and so couldrarely be initially employed there.They offered a different package ofattributes valued only in emergingmarkets remote from, andunimportant to, the mainstream."
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Peak of Inflated Expectations✤ MIT launched MITx (Massachusetts Innovation & TechnologyExchange) in December of 2011, merging with Harvard in early 2012to create edX.✤ In the same period, a consortium of British universities has createdthere own MOOC platform called Futurelearn.✤ More than 90 universities worldwide had teamed up with one ormore MOOC providers, with investments of over $100M, promptingthe New York Times to declare 2012 as "The Year of the MOOC" inNovember of last year.91
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1.Internal students on course –cost savings on volume courses
2.Internal students not on course– expanding student experience
3.Potential students national –major source of income
4.Potential students international– major source of income
5.Potential students High school –reputation and preparation
6.Parents – signiﬁcant in studentchoice
7.Alumni – potential income andinﬂuencers
8.Lifelong learners – late andlifelong adult learners
9.Professionals – related toprofessions and work
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10.Government – part of accessstrateg 92
Nor should we forget what, funnily enough, are now sometimes called “traditional” online classes. For many years now, most colleges and universities have offered at least a few of their classes in online formats for tuitionpaying students and for credit. You can even earn an entire online degree this way from a growing number of programs. While these are not massive and not free, they demonstrate that online learning is possible, and much of the technology behind those classes are part of how MOOCs function now.
전통적인 온라인강의와 MOOC 의 차이점./how it differs from other forms of distance learning
Then, in 2012, the MOOC initiatives many of us are familiar with burst onto the scene. Educators, social entrepreneurs, charitable foundations, universities and venture capitalists began forming initiatives to unite the best online tools with the best — or, at least, the most prestigious — teaching available.
This was how Udacity, Coursera and edX (the only nonprofit among those major MOOC platforms) were founded. The response they got was enormous, with tens of thousands students signing up for each class.
2.5.1. In what way is a MOOC a course?/대학정규강의/강의&시험&점수&수료증 A MOOC is a course in two important senses. First of all, it has assignments and evaluations built in the way that a college class has assignments and exams. Most MOOCs have quizzes along the way and 92
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84 exams at the end, but more subjective assignments, such as written essays or creative projects, are also possible. (The Berklee School of Music Songwriting MOOC, for example, required . . . . writing a song.) The evaluation may be done by the teacher, by software or by peers. Having assignments and evaluations distinguishes a MOOC from university initiatives like Open Yale that offer free lectures but don’t have any way of assessing a visitor to the site.
Second, MOOCs are courses in the sense of having a completion point. Khan Academy has exercises along the way, but if you jump in to start learning, for example, elementary school arithmetic, you’ll never reach a last day of school. Somehow, Sal always has recorded one more advanced mathematics lesson for you or a lesson in a related topic. MOOC courses are designed to come to a conclusion, usually after 4 – 12 weeks.
Most MOOCs are offered by college professors on subjects that are usually covered in college classrooms and with a workload and schedule resembling a college semester. So MOOCs are about getting a college education, right?
2.5.2. In what way is a MOOC online?/온라인강의 & 오프라인 스타디그룹&감독하에 최종시험 Hybrid Class/Fipped Class/Blended Class
It’s pretty obvious what online means, but one thing to keep in mind is that some forms of distance learning are hybrid, where students do part of their work online and meet with the teacher at school part of the time. Increasingly, hybrid classes use materials from a MOOC to support the class, but the class itself isn’t what most people would call a MOOC.
One example of this hybrid format is the oncampus version of Professor Mohamed Noor’s Introduction to Genetics and Evolution class at Duke University. He teaches it in MOOC form and he uses the MOOC materials in a hybrid or flipped class for his oncampus students. Page 84 of 138
산호세 대학 예93 California State U. System Will Expand MOOC Experiment94 San Jose State last fall used material from an edX course, “Circuits & Electronics,” as part of a “flipped classroom” experiment in its own introductory course in electrical engineering. The university offered three versions of the course: two conventional facetoface sections and one “blended” section, in which students watched edX videos on their own and then participated in group activities, sans lecturing, during class time. The pass rates in the two conventional sections were 55 percent and 59 percent. In the “flipped” section with the edX videos, 91 percent of students passed.
2.5.3. In what way is a MOOC open?/무료화 & 민주화 & 지적재산권 해제
This is the part of the definition that is most in dispute. Lately, most people refer to something as a MOOC when it is free for anyone to participate in without a fee and without any admissions process. It’s open in the sense of being nocost, and it’s open in the sense of having no application requirements. All you need is a username and password.
But the original designers of MOOCs meant for them to be open in two other important senses. MOOCs were originally open (and many still are) in the sense of openaccess, much like creative works under a Creative Commons license can be open. These instructors use materials in the public domain that don’t have copyright restrictions, and they intend for their work to be freely available for others to reuse and adapt.
That’s not how today’s major MOOC providers work, though. On sites like 93
http://chronicle.com/blogs/wiredcampus/californiastateusystemwillexpandmoocexperiment/ 43361 94
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86 Coursera and edX, anyone may enter, but the materials a visitor will find there are under copyright and can’t be removed or modified. Also, after those classes are completed, the materials are often closed from public view until the next time they are offered, whereas on many independent MOOCs outside those major platforms, even after they are inactive, the materials remain available for anyone to access.
Discusion Forum / 집단지성의 장
Second, the original MOOC concept was open in the connectivist sense. The boundaries between teacher and student and between each student are much more open than in a traditional classroom, and the creation of knowledge happens through connections that are unexpected and unplanned.
People who promote open education resources (OER) are disappointed that the term MOOC is being applied to classes without open access.
Open Text under Condition 95 Coursera, Publisher Pilot Offers Licensed Content to MOOC Students
Partnership Gives Students Access to a HighPrice Text on a MOOC Budget96
2.5.4. In what way is a MOOC massive?/강의당 수만명 수강
The massiveness of a MOOC is a natural result of being an online course open for anyone to enter. What counts as massive varies quite a bit. Some 95
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87 MOOCs have a few hundred students and a few have had more than 100,000 students. But one way to look at it is to consider a course massive when it has more students than the teachers and assistants can themselves interact with. When machine grading, peer assessment and other peer support become not only desirable but necessary, that counts as massive from the teacher’s perspective, and a few thousand more or less doesn’t make much difference.
3. MOOC 대학교육혁명 Independent Educational Portfolios97 Davos Forum Considers Learning’s Next Wave98 Revolution Hits the Universities99 The Professors’ Big Stage100 Clayton Christensen, the Harvard Business School professor and expert on disruptive innovation, gave a compelling talk about how much today’s traditional university has in common with General Motors of the 1960s, just before Toyota used a technology breakthrough to come from nowhere and topple G.M. Christensen noted that Harvard Business School doesn’t teach entrylevel accounting anymore, because there is a professor out at Brigham Young University whose online accounting course “is just so good” that Harvard students use that instead. When outstanding becomes so easily available, average is over. 97
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/28/business/davosconsiderslearningsnextwave.html?ref=ele arning 99
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/27/opinion/sunday/friedmanrevolutionhitstheuniversities.ht ml?ref=elearning 100
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What MOOCs Can Learn from the Publishing Industry101 Only one year after the biggest MOOC platforms were founded, it is already possible to see how fast they are changing higher education.
As you can see, MOOCs are a great source of free high quality information about a topic, and they may also be a source of opportunities for career advancement or educational credentials. Some free courses are now being accepted for credit at some colleges, and some Coursera MOOCs received credit recommendations from the American Council on Education. In addition, students may choose to pay for a verified certificate and share their results with potential employers, which could lead to fewer students seeking degrees. Meanwhile, the major American providers we’ve used as to illustrate the different kinds of MOOCs are only the beginning of the story. When you start searching for massive open online courses, you will also discover that many new platforms are being developed from all over the world and in many different languages. Some universities are also trying to reach the stream independently. The University of Amsterdam, for example, where Juliana is studying, built its own MOOC website. It is normal to get confused in such a high tide, but never fear. The most comprehensive roundup of all the sources of MOOCs is on this site in our MOOC Around the World series. And when you do embark on a MOOC, you can have a good learning experience by considering some of the tips and strategies other students and teachers have shared here.
5 Tactical Questions Higher Ed Administrators Should Be Asking About MOOCs102 101
https://www.edsurge.com/n/20130708opinionwhatmoocscanlearnfromthepublishingindu stry 102
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There are many reasons colleges and universities provide free online classes in the form of a MOOC to audiences beyond their own students.103 One important reason is that they are hoping to reach new audiences. In some cases, they want to reach people who can’t have access to a full degree or any other university course, either because of distance, cost or a lack of time.
In other cases, they hope to influence students who may enroll in their institution. An example of that is the MathMOOC at the University of Wisconsin – La Crosse, which attracted students from around the world and every state in the U.S. but most especially from “feeder schools” around Wisconsin whose students may end up at La Crosse.
A third reason for offering MOOCs is “brand building.” Some university presidents have pointed out that by raising the profile of their school through a MOOC they are increasing the value of the degree to past and future graduates.
3. 1. 1. 학점인정104 A First for Udacity: a U.S. University Will Accept Transfer Credit for One of Its Courses/콜로라도대학 Udacity 학점인정
http://moocnewsandreviews.com/5tacticalquestionshigheredadministratorsshouldbeasking aboutmoocs/ 103
http://moocnewsandreviews.com/whatisamassiveopenonlinecourseanywayattemptingdefi nition/ 104
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90 State Lines May Ease for Classes Held Online
Higher education leaders have proposed a way to make it easier for universities to offer online courses across state lines.
A commission on online learning led by former Secretary of EducationRichard W. Riley outlined a proposal on Thursday under which any institution that had received state authorization for its online programs, based on certain quality and consumer protection standards, would beallowed to enroll students from other states that met the same basic standards and agreed to reciprocity.
The issue of state regulations in the era of online learning was highlighted in October when officials in Minnesota told Coursera, a provider of “massive open online courses,” or MOOCs, that it could not offer free courses to Minnesota residents without registering with the state. Because the courses were free — and because the state action was widely ridiculed, given the difficulty of stopping Minnesotans from enrolling online — the state quickly backed down. The new proposal would not apply to MOOC providers, because they are not accredited degreegranting institutions, or to international students.
b. San Jose Uni. San Jose State U. Says Replacing Live Lectures With Videos Increased Test Scores/October 17, 2012/산요세대학 MOOC 이용 성적 향상
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SJSU and edX, the transformational new online educational initiative founded by MIT and Harvard, showcase a unique collaboration resulting in SJSU's first "flipped class." Preliminary results suggest this class, which is using an electrical engineering MOOC (the MITx 6.002x Circuits and Electronics Massively Online Open Course), may be an effective way to reinvent and transform the academic experience of electrical engineering students.
An Educational Hybrid105
For two to three decades the evidence has grown that active student engagement with material, not brilliant lecture presentations, is the key to learning. It seems that San Jose State’s blended version of a MOOC, weaving material from online classes into instruction, supports that conclusion. As your article correctly points out, it may not be the MOOC itself that produced a 91 percent pass rate in the blended circuits course, but rather the intensive inperson workshops and 24/7 availability of online mentors. Let’s hope that the results at San Jose State will be replicated with a scaling up in class size, and let’s be sure we take away the right lesson. The MOOCs’ key role may be in enabling a more engaging structure for courses, and if so, MOOCs have done higher education a great service. San Jose State used the online lectures and interactive exercises of M.I.T.’s introductory online Circuits and Electronics course. Students would watch the M.I.T. lectures and do the exercises at home, and then come to class, where the first 15 minutes were reserved for questions and answers with the San Jose State professor, and the last 45 were devoted to problem solving and discussion. Preliminary numbers indicate that those passing the class went from nearly 60 percent to about 90 percent. And since this 105
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92 course was the first step to a degree in science and technology, it meant that many more students potentially moved on toward a degree and career in that field
Udacity is pleased to offer five online courses in partnership with San Jose State University (SJSU). Students who successfully complete these courses will receive college credit from SJSU, and credit earned is transferable within the California State University (CSU) system and to most US colleges and universities*.106 Each class costs $150, and payment covers: ● ● ● ●
Interactive online courses — all 100% online; no inperson attendance Access to realtime course help with course instructors and staff Online proctored exams (see the technical requirements for more information) Credit on your official SJSU transcript for passing the course
Enrollment is limited and ended May 26, 2013.107
c. Georgia Tech Georgia Tech Will Offer a Master’s Degree Online108 OMS CS PUBLIC FAQ109 Georgia Tech’s Online Master of Science in Computer Science (OMS CS) is the first degree of its kind, and people always have questions about 106
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/15/education/georgiatechwillofferamastersdegreeonline.ht ml?ref=elearning 109
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93 something new. We tried to anticipate those questions in the information below.
Why the OMS CS?110
Why is Georgia Tech doing this? Georgia Tech in general, and the College of Computing in particular, are committed to fully incorporating disruptive educational technologies into the value the Institute provides to its stakeholders. The development of massiveonline educational models bring an unprecedented opportunity to extend access to highquality education to an exponentially larger number of people, from around the world, than we can accommodate on a physical campus. Our educational mission as a public university is to explore and maximize such opportunities. What’s new about this approach? It will be the first professional Online Master of Science degree in computer science that can be earned completely through the “massive online” format. It shows how leaders from MOOC, industry and academia can join to offer an advanced degree program on a massive and affordable scale. We believe this program can establish corporate acceptance of highquality and 100 percent online degrees as being on par with degrees received in traditional oncampus settings, and serve as a blueprint for helping the United States address the shortage of people with advanced computer science and other STEM skills. Why computer science? There are an estimated 3 million open technology positions in the job market today. Training skilled computing professionals is a societal need, and that is a challenge Georgia Tech, Udacity and AT&T want to address. How does computer science lend itself to evaluation using the massiveonline approach? Often computer science problems have a right or wrong answer and lend themselves to objective, rather than subjective, assessment and evaluation. This is what makes computer science amenable to the MOOC platform. In 110
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94 instances where this is not the case, we will apply the resources necessary to evaluate and assess student performance. Will Georgia Tech offer other degrees in this format? Georgia Tech has no plans at this time to launch other massiveonline degrees. Why has AT&T decided to jump into the world of online higher education? AT&T believes the disruptive power of the MOOC (Massive Online Open Course) platform can help address the shortage of engineers and other technicaldegreed talent in the United States. By making graduate degrees and certifications available online at very affordable rates, Udacity, Georgia Tech and AT&T are eliminating barriers for many students unable to afford or access an advanced degree, and increasing the pipeline for the next generation of technology leaders. STEM skills are essential across business segments in today’s digital economy. About the Program111 How is this degree different from residential Georgia Tech MS CS? The OMS CS will deliver educational content completely through the massive online format. This means it will differ from the residential MS CS in course structure, for example, but will provide an educational experience no less rigorous than the oncampus format. How is the OMS CS different from other distancelearning and/or online degree programs that have existed for a long time? The Georgia Tech OMS CS is the first online degree in computer science from a toptier university that students can obtain exclusively through the massiveonline format. How much does the degree program cost? We’re not yet ready to announce a specific program cost, but the plan is to offer the Georgia Tech OMS CS for a total cost of under $7,000—a fraction of the cost of Georgia Tech’s oncampus program and even less than that of comparable private universities. What evidence do you have of market demand for this program? 111
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95 At present, around 160,000 master’s degrees are bestowed in the United States every year in computer science and related subject disciplines; the worldwide market is almost certainly much larger, perhaps even an order of magnitude larger. We conjecture that the present structure is vastly underserving the market and will conduct market research in the first year to check these estimates and help target our course offerings. How long does it take to complete and receive a degree? We anticipate the typical time for students to complete the OMS CS will be about three years, though we will allow for longer enrollments— up to six years—for those students who need greater flexibility. How does the student workload compare to a residential degree? How many hours a week will students spend on it? The total workload is the same as the residential program; the weekly or hourly workload depends on how quickly students wish to complete the program. Who can take courses? All OMS CS courses will be available free of charge for anyone, anywhere in the world. Degreeseeking students will be virtually separated from “open” students to ensure degree program rigor. Who can apply to the degree program? Formal admission into the OMS CS program will require a Bachelor of Science degree in computer science from an accredited institution, or a related Bachelor of Science degree with a possible need to take and pass remedial courses. Formal admission will also require the selection through a graduate admission committee that will meet periodically. When can people sign up for the courses? All courses will be open to the public as soon as they are available on the Udacity website. Timing is to be worked out, but course previews are expected to be available this summer for select courses. For more information, please see www.Udacity.com/GeorgiaTech When can they apply to the degree program? We anticipate opening enrollment for matriculation during Fall 2014. Why isn’t the program open to the general public immediately? At Georgia Tech, we are not only educators but scientists. To ensure program rigor and success, we will test our programmatic hypotheses with Page 95 of 138
96 a smaller student cohort before scaling the OMS CS up to larger enrollments. How many students ultimately do you anticipate participating? This is difficult to determine, but we feel the current offerings of topquality computer science degrees vastly underserve the market. Our longterm business models suggest an enrollment of about 10,000 students at any given time. How does the admissions process work? Admissions into the OMS CS program will take place on a periodic basis, and students have to furnish materials commonly required for graduate admissions (prior degrees, transcripts, etc.). Georgia Tech will admit successful applicants with special/nondegreeseeking standing and ask them to pass designated courses with a grade of B or higher prior to being granted degreeseeking standing. Do applicants need to take the GRE? No. Is there a cap on admissions? Our goal at full scale is to admit all applying students who satisfy the basic admissions prerequisites and qualifications. What is the curriculum? How does it compare to the curriculum for the residential degree? The curriculum in the pilot OMS CS will represent a subset of the oncampus curriculum, allowing for a full MS in computer science but with only some of the specializations available in the oncampus program. The OMS CS curriculum will then expand as more courses come online. How will you guarantee academic honesty? All exams are proctored using national proctoring standards. We have access to 4,500 physical proctoring facilities and are working with online proctoring institutions. How will you handle grading? Will each student be evaluated individually by a human being, or is there an automated process? Grading will be the privilege and responsibility of Georgia Tech’s instructors. We will leverage MOOC technology to automate aspects of the grading process, using a significant portion of the tuition fee to support the scaling of student evaluation through such technologies. Similar techniques Page 96 of 138
97 already are in use at Georgia Tech to handle grading in classes with very large enrollments. What kind of reaction do you anticipate from current students and alumni of your residential MS program? So far we’ve encountered enthusiasm for our willingness to innovate and expand access to higher education. There is broad consensus that the quality of this program will match that of Georgia Tech’s residential degree programs, and we will work as hard as necessary to ensure this is the case without devaluing the experience of our current students and alumni. Does this dilute the Georgia Tech experience—or value—for oncampus students? Not at all. These technologies will enhance GT educational offerings in terms of overall quality, access and affordability. Further, Georgia Tech’s existing MS CS program will remain a special experience that is qualitatively different—in terms of student community, faculty interaction, and project and thesis offerings—from the online offering, particularly for those students who wish to pursue a Ph.D. in computer science. Provided the program is successful, why would a student choose to come to campus and pay more for a residential degree? Though Georgia Tech believes strongly in the value online education can provide, the Institute acknowledges that certain aspects of oncampus programs simply cannot be replicated at present through the massiveonline format. There will always be a premium value on close facultystudent interaction, the ability to work directly with fellow students in groups, and to perform handson research projects, to name just a few examples. Does this program have Board of Regents/USG approval? Yes. This program has been approved at every relevant level of the University System of Georgia, up to and including the Board of Regents. About the Collaborators112 What makes Udacity the “right” delivery vehicle for this? Udacity has been a leader in the creation of the modern MOOC and has been dedicated to highquality online education and improving learning 112
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98 outcomes. The Udacity platform and services offer unprecedented scale for online higher ed. Additionally, Udacity has a strong focus on innovations in online pedagogy and active learning that complements Georgia Tech’s faculty. Why is Udacity collaborating with Georgia Tech? Why not other universities? Udacity has already collaborated with other universities, including San Jose State University in California, and the company always seeks to work with likeminded institutions that have a desire to broaden access to higher learning through an innovative use of educational technology. Georgia Tech’s computer science department is one of the very best in the world and offers a master’s program of the highest caliber. The company is excited to work with Georgia Tech to offer an affordable and accessible degree program through the Udacity platform. Is Udacity planning other degrees with other universities? We are trying out this new concept for the first time with Georgia Tech, which will keep us busy for a while. However, we’re always looking for new opportunities to bring affordable, accessible education to a broader group of people. Is Udacity shifting away from its strategy of collaborating with corporations for skillsbased classes? This is not at all a shift away, but a natural complement to the high tech, industry skill courses Udacity builds together with not just AT&T but the Googles, Autodesks, NVIDIAs of the world. Many of these companies are employers of Georgia Tech alumni and look forward to seeing opportunities for talent from both the degree program and from the more industryfocused classes. Why is AT&T the corporate collaborator for this initiative? As a premier global communications company and a champion for innovation in education, AT&T will provide technology access, connectivity and products at inception, as well as evolving service and platform support. The company will serve on an advisory board and, where appropriate, offer corporate projects for credit, be a source from which Georgia Tech draws curriculum content and guest instructors and offer internship opportunities to select students. AT&T will tap into the program to train its own employees and will recruit graduates. Why is AT&T collaborating with Georgia Tech and Udacity? Page 98 of 138
99 Georgia Tech is an international leader in scientific and technological research and education. Our company is already wellstocked with Georgia Techeducated talent and this will give us even greater access to their worldclass resources. Meanwhile, Udacity has brought the effectiveness of MOOCs to a new level, working tirelessly to improve learning outcomes. Udacity’s platform and services offer unprecedented scale for online higher education. Founder Sebastian Thrun’s leadership and passion for an educated humanity are a catalyst for reengineering online learning and his company is widely recognized as one of the most innovative companies in education. What is the extent of AT&T’s involvement? Is the company providing more than financial resources and the initial student cohort? AT&T will be the founding corporate collaborator of the program, contributing $2 million to the initiative, in addition to providing technology access, connectivity and products at inception, as well as evolving service and platform support. The company will serve on an advisory board and, where appropriate, offer corporate projects for credit, be a source from which Georgia Tech draws curriculum content and guest instructors, and offer internship opportunities to select students. AT&T will tap into the program to train its own employees and will recruit graduates. How will AT&T technologies be integrated into the program? AT&T will provide technology access, connectivity and products at inception, as well as evolving service and platform support. We’re further defining that engagement as part of the pilot. Is AT&T helping to determine the curriculum? Where appropriate and subject to the approval of a GT faculty committee, we will offer corporate projects for credit and be a source from which Georgia Tech draws curriculum content and guest instructors. MOOCs, Education & Learning113 What kind of evidence do you have to support positive educational outcomes for the MOOC delivery format? Udacity evolved the MOOC format into one for which the company has proven learning outcomes and high retention rates. The evidence stems 113
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100 from an independent study funded by the National Science Foundation, as well as various smallerscale evaluations. Still, Udacity believes the OMS CS enters uncharted territory. Student outcomes are of utmost importance, and resources will be dedicated to conducting independent evaluations of educational and jobplacement outcomes. How do Udacity MOOCs differ from other platforms’? Udacity MOOCs differentiate themselves in two significant ways. First, Udacity courses focus on active student learning and student experience, by using interactive and collaborative elements pervasively throughout our courses. Second, Udacity provides human services in the form of student mentoring. In past classes, we found that the Udacity formula can attain 100 percent retention, compared to less than 4 percent for a conventional MOOC. How much does it cost Udacity to produce a MOOC? While the actual cost remains to be seen and can vary from course to course, Udacity typically budgets about $200,000 per class. Udacity is committed to the highest quality of service, and OMS CS MOOCs will be developed by teams of people, led by the Georgia Tech instructor. Does Udacity own the MOOCs it produces? Udacity makes no claim with respect to the intellectual property of the instructor or Georgia Tech. The Need for STEM Education114 Why do working professionals need this degree? Can’t they just enroll in classes? The United States is facing a severe shortage of skilled workers in STEM fields. The Georgia Tech master’s degree in computer science represents an achievement and skill set that companies like AT&T value and want more of their employees to have. The OMS CS program will produce graduates on par with those receiving degrees from an oncampus program, and will also bestow skills certifications for employees who complete designated coursework and take proctored exams. Why does AT&T care about education and STEMskills programs in particular? 114
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101 AT&T hires about 30,000 employees a year, and STEM skills are required across its business. It’s clear that the United States must develop a robust pipeline of skilled STEM workers to remain globally competitive; many jobs are going unfilled as candidates lack the necessary skills, training or degrees. STEM jobs are projected to grow by 17 percent over the next six years, compared to 10 percent for other professions. Through this program, Georgia Tech will be able to offer employers like AT&T a larger and more diverse pool of highly qualified STEMtrained workers.
Five Online Courses Are Eligible for College Credit By TAMAR LEWIN; The American Council on Education and Coursera announced on Wednesday that five Coursera offerings were similar enough to traditional college courses to be eligible for credit. February 7, 2013, Thursday
Public Universities to Offer Free Online Classes for Credit115 By TAMAR LEWIN; In an unusual arrangement with a commercial company, the universities hope that those who pass the free courses will pay tuition to complete a degree program. January 23, 2013, Wednesday
California to Give Web Courses a Big Trial116 By TAMAR LEWIN and JOHN MARKOFF; Udacity, a startup that offers online college courses, will offer lowcost 115
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/23/education/publicuniversitiestoofferfreeonlineclassesfor credit.html?ref=tamarlewin 116
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102 remedial and introductory classes to students at San Jose State University and local community colleges and high schools. January 15, 2013, Tuesday
Colleges Adapt Online Courses to Ease Burden/산요세대학 MOOC 활용방법 117 By TAMAR LEWIN Published: April 29, 2013
SAN JOSE, Calif. — Dazzled by the potential of free online college classes, educators are now turning to the gritty task of harnessing online materials to meet the toughest challenges in American higher education: giving more students access to college, and helping them graduate on time.
Nearly half of all undergraduates in the United States arrive on campus needing remedial work before they can begin regular creditbearing classes. That early detour can be costly, leading many to drop out, often in heavy debt and with diminished prospects of finding a job. Meanwhile, shrinking state budgets have taken a heavy toll at public institutions, reducing the number of seats available in classes students must take to graduate. In California alone, higher education cuts have left hundreds of thousands of college students without access to classes they need. To address both problems and keep students on track to graduation, universities are beginning to experiment with adding the new “massive open online courses,” created to deliver elite college instruction to anyone with an Internet connection, to their offerings. While the courses, known as MOOCs, have enrolled millions of students 117
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103 around the world, most who enroll never start a single assignment, and very few complete the courses. So to reach students who are not ready for collegelevel work, or struggling with introductory courses, universities are beginning to add extra supports to the online materials, in hopes of improving success rates. Here at San Jose State, for example, two pilot programs weave material from the online classes into the instructional mix and allow students to earn credit for them. “We’re in Silicon Valley, we breathe that entrepreneurial air, so it makes sense that we are the first university to try this,” saidMohammad Qayoumi, the university’s president. “In academia, people are scared to fail, but we know that innovation always comes with the possibility of failure. And if it doesn’t work the first time, we’ll figure out what went wrong and do better.” In one pilot program, the university is working with Udacity, a company cofounded by a Stanford professor, to see whether roundtheclock online mentors, hired and trained by the company, can help more students make their way through three fully online basic math courses. The tiny forcredit pilot courses, open to both San Jose State students and local high school and community college students, began in January, so it is too early to draw any conclusions. But early signs are promising, so this summer, Udacity and San Jose State are expanding those classes to 1,000 students, and adding new courses in psychology and computer programming, with tuition of only $150 a course. San Jose State has already achieved remarkable results with online materials from edX, a nonprofit online provider, in its circuits course, a longstanding hurdle for wouldbe engineers. Usually, two of every five students earn a grade below C and must retake the course or change career plans. So last spring, Ellen Junn, the provost, visited Anant Agarwal, an M.I.T. professor who taught a free online version of the circuits class, to ask whether San Jose State could become a living lab for his course, the first offering from edX, an online collaboration of Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Dr. Junn hoped that blending M.I.T.'s online materials with live classroom sessions might help more students succeed. Dr. Agarwal, the president of edX, agreed enthusiastically, and without any formal agreement or exchange of money, he arranged for San Jose State to offer the blended class last fall. The results were striking: 91 percent of those in the blended section Page 103 of 138
104 passed, compared with 59 percent in the traditional class. “We’re engineers, and we check our results, but if this semester is similar, we will not have the traditional version next year,” said Khosrow Ghadiri, who teaches the blended class. “It would be educational malpractice.” It is hard to say, though, how much the improved results come from the edX online materials, and how much from the shift to classroom sessions focusing on small group projects, rather than lectures. Finding better ways to move students through the start of college is crucial, said Josh Jarrett, a higher education officer at the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, which in the past year has given grants to develop massive open online courses for basic and remedial courses. “For us, 2012 was all about trying to tilt some of the MOOC attention toward the more novice learner, the lowincome and firstgeneration students,” he said. “And 2013 is about blending MOOCs into college courses where there is additional support, and students can get credit. While some lowincome young adults can benefit from what I call the freerange MOOCs, the research suggests that most are going to need more scaffolding, more support.”
Until now, there has been little data on how well the massive online courses work, and for which kinds of students. Blended courses provide valuable research data because outcomes can easily be compared with those from a traditional class. “The results in the San Jose circuits course are probably the most interesting data point in the whole MOOC movement,” Mr. Jarrett said. Said Dr. Junn, “We want to bring all the hyperbole around MOOCs down to reality, and really see at a granular level that’s never before been available, how well they work for underserved students.” Online courses are undeniably chipping at the traditional boundaries of higher education. Until now, most of the millions of students who register for them could not earn credit for their work. But that is changing, and not just at San Jose State. The three leading providers,Udacity, EdX and Coursera, are all offering proctored exams, and in some cases, certification for transfer credit through the American Council on Education. Last month, in a controversial proposal, the president pro tem of the California Senate announced the introduction of legislation allowing students in the state’s public colleges and universities who cannot get a seat in oversubscribed lowerlevel classes to earn credit for Page 104 of 138
105 facultyapproved online versions, including those from private vendors like edX and Udacity. And on Wednesday, San Jose State announced that next fall, it will pay a licensing fee to offer three to five more blended edX courses, probably including Harvard’s “Ancient Greek Heroes” and Berkeley’s"Artificial Intelligence.” And over the summer, it will train 11 other California State campuses to use the blended M.I.T. circuits course. Dr. Qayoumi favors the blended model for upperlevel courses, but fully online courses like Udacity’s for lowerlevel classes, which could be expanded to serve many more students at low cost. Traditional teaching will be disappearing in five to seven years, he predicts, as more professors come to realize that lectures are not the best route to student engagement, and cashstrapped universities continue to seek cheaper instruction. “There may still be facetoface classes, but they would not be in lecture halls,” he said. “And they will have not only course material developed by the instructor, but MOOC materials and labs, and content from public broadcasting or corporate sources. But just as faculty currently decide what textbook to use, they will still have the autonomy to choose what materials to include.” While San Jose State professors decided what material should be covered in the three Udacity math courses, it was Udacity employees who determined the course look and flow — and, in most cases, appeared on camera. “We gave them lecture notes and a textbook, and they ‘Udacified’ things, and wrote the script, which we edited,” said Susan McClory, San Jose State’s developmental math coordinator. “We made sure they used our way of finding a common denominator.” The online mentors work in shifts at Udacity’s offices in nearby Mountain View, Calif., waiting at their laptops for the “bing” that signals a question, and answering immediately. “We get to hear the ‘aha’ moments, and these allcaps messages ‘THANK YOU THANK YOU THANK YOU,’ ” said Rachel Meltzer, a former clinical research manager at Stanford and mentor who is starting medical school next fall. The mentors answer about 30 questions a day, like how to type the infinity symbol or add unlike fractions — or, occasionally, whether Ms. Meltzer is interested in a date. The questions appear in a chat box onscreen, but tutoring can move to a whiteboard, or even a live conversation. When many Page 105 of 138
106 students share confusion, mentors provide feedback to the instructors. The San Jose State professors were surprised at the speed with which the project came together. “The first word was in November, and it started in January,” said Ronald Rogers, one of the statistics professors. “Academics usually form a committee for months before anything happens.” But Udacity’s approach was appealing. “What attracted us to Udacity was the pedagogy, that they break things into very small segments, then ask students to figure things out, before you’ve told them the answer,” said Dr. Rogers, who spends an hour a day reading comments on the discussion forum for students in the worldwide version of the class. Results from the pilot forcredit version with the online mentors will not be clear until after the final exams, which will be proctored by webcam. But one good sign is that, in the pilot statistics course, every student, including a group of high school students from an Oakland charter school, completed the first, unproctored exam. “We’re approaching this as an empirical question,” Dr. Rogers said. “If the results are good, then we’ll scale it up, which would be very good, given how much unmet demand we have at California public colleges.” Any wholesale online expansion raises the specter of professors being laid off, turned into glorified teaching assistants or relegated to secondtier status, with only academic stars giving the lectures. Indeed, the faculty unions at all three California higher education systems oppose the legislation requiring credit for MOOCs for students shut out of oncampus classes. The state, they say, should restore state financing for public universities, rather than turning to unaccredited private vendors. But with so many students lacking access, others say, new alternatives are necessary. “I’m involved in this not to destroy brickandmortar universities, but to increase access for more students,” Dr. Rogers said. And if short videos and embedded quizzes with instant feedback can improve student outcomes, why should professors go on writing and delivering their own lectures? “Our ego always runs ahead of us, making us think we can do it better than anyone else in the world,” Dr. Ghadiri said. “But why should we invent the wheel 10,000 times? This is M.I.T., No. 1 school in the nation — why would Page 106 of 138
107 we not want to use their material?” There are, he said, two ways of thinking about what the MOOC revolution portends: “One is me, me, me — me comes first. The other is, we are not in this business for ourselves, we are here to educate students.”
3. 1. 2. 법제화
캘리포니아주118 California Bill Seeks Campus Credit for Online Study By TAMAR LEWIN; Legislation in California would require universities to honor facultyapproved online courses taken by those unable to register for classes on campus. March 13, 2013, Wednesday
Online education gets legit: California bill would give college credit119 the first time a state is mandating that universities grant credit for courses offered by thirdparty providers,
Darrell Steinberg, the president pro tem of the Senate said he introduced the bill to ensure that “no college student in California will be denied the right to move through their education because they couldn’t get a seat in a course they needed.” 118
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/13/education/californiabillwouldforcecollegestohonoronlin eclasses.html?ref=tamarlewin 119
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“MOOCs have a huge role to play in addressing the quality and capacity issues we’re seeing in the California education system,” said Koller.
Gov. Jerry Brown has been a huge supporter of online education as a means to reduce college costs.
In November, Brown made a comparison between the University and California and the U.S. Postal Service, both “venerable institution[s] being upended by digital change.”
MOOC 학점인정 반대 이유와 논리
“These lowlevel courses are really the largest source of revenue for the university because [they're] large classes often taught by grad students and a few instructors,” she said. “I think that universities will have a hard time letting go.”
The New York Times Public Universities to Offer Free Online Classes for Credit121
http://www.insidehighered.com/quicktakes/2013/07/01/watereddownmoocbillbecomeslawflor ida 121
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109 Inside Higher Ed MOOCs for Credit122
'Watered Down' MOOC Bill Becomes Law In Florida Florida Governor Rick Scott signed a bill into law last week to encourage the state's K12 and higher education systems to use massive open online courses, or MOOCs.
The bill Scott signed allows MOOCs, under certain conditions, to be used to help teach K12 students in four subjects and also orders Florida education officials to study and set rules that would allow students who have yet to enroll in college to earn transfer credits by taking MOOCs.
Tom Auxter, the president of the 7,000member United Faculty of Florida, said "intense and feverish" opposition from faculty helped scale back the plan. Still, he warned of a generation of "cheap and dirty" online courses offered to students before they enroll in college. “No matter how many times they use ‘quality,’ this is a cheapening of what higher education is all about,” Auxter warned, referring to supporters of MOOCs for credit.
Much remains up in the air now, though. Brandes said he expected the scope of the law to eventually be expanded. Much will also be decided in coming months as state education officials study the issue and set rules about how to use MOOCs for college credit. “We’re giving them two years to set up all the rules and procedures they need to allow us to work with Udacity, or edX or Coursera to offer their wealth of knowledge in Florida,” Brandes said, referring to three MOOC providers.
“Florida has recognized the opportunities inherent in MOOCs and in admirable fashion reached consensus on a bill incorporating all public education systems, from K12 to higher ed,” he said in a statement.
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3. 1. 3. 일자리 연결123 Providers of Free MOOC's Now Charge Employers for Access to Stud/December 4, 2012/Big Data 이용한 직장연결
MCKINSEY: The Massive Skills Gap Is Only Going To Get Worse Because Our Education Systems Are Broken124
Georgia Tech Will Offer a Master’s Degree Online125 Starting in the fall, the Georgia Institute of Technology, together with AT&T and Udacity, an online education venture, will offer a master’s degree in computer science that can be earned entirely through socalled massive open online courses, or MOOCs. While the courses would be available free online to the general public, students seeking the degree would have to have a bachelor’s degree in computer science, and pay tuition that is expected to be less than $7,000 Initially, the program will be limited to a few hundred students from AT&T and Georgia Tech corporate affiliates, but enrollment is then expected to expand in the fall of 2014.
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Yahoo Providers of Free MOOC's Now Charge Employers for Access to Student Data Providers of free online courses are officially in the headhunting business, Coursera, which works with highprofile colleges to provide massive open online courses, or MOOC's, announced its employeematching service, called Coursera Career Services. Some highprofile tech companies have already signed up—includingFacebook and Twitter, according to a post on Coursera's blog, though officials would not disclose how much employers pay for the service.bringing in revenue by selling to employers information about highperforming
Udacity's founder, Sebastian Thrun, said in an interview that 350 partner companies had signed up for its job program. While Mr. Thrun would not say how much employers pay, he characterized the fee as "significantly less than you'd pay for a headhunter, but significantly more than what you'd pay for access to LinkedIn," a popular social network for job hunters.students who might be a good fit for open jobs.
3. 1. 4. MOOC 에 대한 비판과 저항 126 Online Classes Fuel a Campus Debate/By TAMAR LEWIN/Published: 126
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112 June 19, 2013
In Colleges' Rush to Try MOOC's, Faculty Are Not Always in the Conversation
We're All to Blame for MOOCs/
MOOCs and Economic Reality
The Illusion of Safety from Disruption 127 In their defense, legacy institutions might counter that Harden's point about the destabilizing effect of the Internet is largely irrelevant because they offer students more than just information. As Christensen pointed out, brickandmortar institutions have advantages that are not easily duplicated online: they provide an oncampus experience that offers students (who can afford it) myriad socialization and networking opportunities.24 According to conventional thinking, college campuses, unlike online networks, serve as career and relationship incubators. But are even these advantages safe from disruption? MOOCs are beginning to compete with one of the key elements of the extendable core of locationbased education: they are challenging the proposition that inperson, oncampus networking confers a decided advantage for those seeking to parlay their degrees into jobs. Recently the major forprofit MOOC providers, Coursera and Udacity, disclosed that mining and brokering talent for business clients are primary drivers behind their business model.25 Coursera's Career Services, for example, proposes to use MOOCs to identify and channel talent to hightech businesses. By taking advantage of MOOCenabled recruitment opportunities, talented individualsneed not wait to earn a degree before successfully marketing their credentials. If MOOCs can be used to create a system that rewards demonstrable competency, then they will further undermine the value of campusbased networking. When used to connect talent directly to prospective employers, MOOCs can circumvent one of the
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113 few remaining rationales for seeking a traditional college experience. Note that, in the "recruitment services" model, MOOCs do not create talent — they identify it and broker its acquisition. Rather than create intellectual capital, they serve primarily as a means of certifying its possession. Even if MOOCs were used solely as a recruitment tool, however, the rationale for preferring a precisionbuilt model of learning that develops the competencies being measured would still hold. In fact, the forprofit model of MOOCs depends on and presupposes the existence of an optimally designed process that develops the competencies they evaluate. Precision education therefore underlies the rationale for MOOCs as both academic exemplars and as a litmus test for identifying those who possess relevant jobrelated competencies. Whether the motivation for adopting a MOOC is forprofit or nonprofit, the success of either model depends on a design strategy that optimizes learning.
As MOOC Debate Simmers at San Jose State, American U. Calls a Halt128
버클리 암허스트129 This spring, the Amherst faculty voted against joining edX, the nonprofit HarvardM.I.T. collaboration, and 58 Harvard facultymembers sought the creation of a new committee to consider the effect online courses will have on higher education. 산요세130
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Professors at San Jose State Criticize Online Courses By TAMAR LEWIN Published: May 2, 2013
San Jose State University has publicly committed to using online courses to bring in more students — and bring down costs — but its philosophy department is balking. Faculty members issued a blisteringstatement this week about why they will not use materials from an online course called Justice, taught by Michael Sandel of Harvard, an academic superstar.
Gary Reyes/San Jose Mercury News, via Associated Press
Mohammad H. Qayoumi, left, the president of San Jose State University, signing a partnership agreement with Udacity. Mohammad H. Qayoumi, 131 the president of San Jose State, has pushed his university toexperiment with new online technologies through pilot projects with bothedX, the nonprofit HarvardM.I.T. online collaboration that offers Dr. Sandel’s course, and Udacity, a company producing the massive open online courses, known as MOOCs. But this week, the philosophy department sent Dr. Sandel an open letter asserting that such courses, designed by elite universities and widely licensed by others, would compromise the quality of education, stifle diverse viewpoints and lead to the dismantling of public universities.
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115 “The thought of the exact same social justice course being taught in various philosophy depts. across the country is downright scary,” the letter said. The letter came as a surprise to the provost, Ellen Junn, because, she said, no one had demanded that the philosophy department use the Sandel course. “All we ever did was let the deans know that these courses were available, and if they were interested in integrating any of the edX materials into their courses, they should let us know,” Dr. Junn said. “We’re never telling faculty what to use. They control the content of their courses.” Several philosophy professors, however, said that there wasadministrative pressure to offer the Justice course. Indeed, the department chairman, Peter J. Hadreas, said that administrators had now arranged to offer it through the English department, reinforcing his concerns that it would be taught by professors who are not trained in philosophy and would be especially reliant on the edX materials. Dr. Junn said she had emailed the philosophy department on Wednesday, the day she learned of the letter, to ask whether anyone wanted to discuss it, but was told there was no need, since the letter was mainly meant to raise the level of discussion. The letter echoed concerns of many university faculties across the nation as MOOCs have spread rapidly. It emphasized the importance of individual interaction with students, and the fear that the courses would widen the gap between the education that elite universities can offer, and what is available to students at most other institutions. “The move to MOOCs comes at great peril to our university,” the letter said, “We regard such courses as a serious compromise of quality of education and, ironically for a social justice course, a case of social injustice.” While expressing respect for Dr. Sandel’s scholarship and teaching, it also chided him, saying, “Professors who care about public education should not produce products that will replace professors, dismantle departments and provide a diminished education for student in public universities.” “My goal is simply to make an educational resource freely available — a resource that faculty colleagues should be free to use in whole or in part, or not at all, as they see fit,” Dr. Sandel said in a statement responding to the letter. “The worry that the widespread use of online courses will damage departments in public universities facing budgetary pressures is a legitimate concern that deserves serious debate, at edX and throughout higher education. The last thing I want is for my online lectures to be used to undermine faculty colleagues at other institutions.” Page 115 of 138
116 San Jose State philosophy professors said there were no dissentersfrom the letter. “We don’t have any illusions that we’ll change the world,” said Prof. Tom Leddy. “But our position needs to be heard. It’s been amazing to us how quickly we’ve moved to MOOCs, without faculty consultation. And now the state government’s pushing it. It’s great to have Professor Sandel’s lectures available free online, to use if we want. But if we buy them from edX as the basis for our classes, we would suddenly be secondclass citizens. I would basically be a teaching assistant, and my students, unlike those at Harvard, could not question their professor.” Anant Agarwal, the M.I.T. professor who heads edX, had a different view. “Really, we can think of MOOCs as the nextgeneration textbook, and just as it doesn’t take away from a professor to use a chapter of someone else’s textbook,” he said, “I don’t think it takes away from them to use as much or as little of our materials as they want. I really believe it frees them to interact more with their students.” Faculty backlash against online courses has spread in recent weeks, as the Amherst College faculty voted against joining edX, and the Duke faculty voted down participation in Semester Online, offered by a consortium of universities. Most faculty objections arise out of concerns about how online coursesimpinge on the professorstudent relationship — and how they may lead to the privatization of public universities, and the loss of faculty jobs. “I started out very enthusiastic about the democratization of higher education through the global MOOCs, but I’ve gotten more cautious as my colleagues talk about what it might mean for jobs, at public universities,” said one professor, who taught a popular MOOC, but asked not to be named because he said he had not decided whether he would continue to teach them. Many college presidents, too, are MOOC skeptics. In a Gallup poll released Thursday, most of the 889 presidents surveyed said they did not expect online education to solve colleges’ financial challenges or improve all students’ learning.
At San Jose State University, which has led the way in allowing the MOOCs to be used for credit, the philosophy department last month wrote an open letter to Michael Sandel, a Harvard professor whose online Justice course it refused to use, laying out its concerns about the impact of such courses. “Let us not kid ourselves,” the letter said, “administrators at C.S.U. are Page 116 of 138
117 beginning a process of replacing faculty with cheap online education.”
버지니아대학132 New Meeting Is Set on Fate of President of University By TAMAR LEWIN; The governing board at the University of Virginia, facing increasing pressure from on and off campus, will consider “possible changes in the terms of employment” of Teresa Sullivan. June 22, 2012, Friday
University of Virginia’s Governing Board to Meet on Ousted President’s Fate133 By TAMAR LEWIN The governing board at the University of Virginia, facing increasing pressure from on and off campus, will consider “possible changes in the terms of employment” of Teresa Sullivan. June 22, 2012, Friday 2 New Resignations Rock the University of Virginia 134
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/21/education/universityofvirginiavicerectorandaprominent professorresign.html?ref=tamarlewin 133
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/22/education/universityofvirginiasgoverningboardtomeet onoustedpresidentsfate.html?ref=tamarlewin 134
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118 By TAMAR LEWIN and RICHARD PÉREZPEÑA; The vice rector and a prominent professor resigned following the ouster of the school’s president, Teresa Sullivan. June 21, 2012, Thursday University of Virginia Vice Rector and a Prominent Professor Resign By TAMAR LEWIN and RICHARD PÉREZPEÑA The vice rector and a prominent professor resigned following the ouster of the school’s president, Teresa Sullivan. June 21, 2012, Thursday
A Postindustrial Model of Teaching and Learning135 Precisionbuilt MOOCs challenge the assumption that students need to come to a campus to interact with resident faculty in order to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary for credentialing. They therefore have the potential to undermine the dominant role that campusbased educational institutions have had as exclusive providers of knowledge and credentials. As competition with MOOCs increases, they will face the following dilemma: Should they compete with MOOCbased curricula headtohead, or should they begin to assimilate MOOCs into their traditional, residencybased curriculum? On one hand, for those institutions without the cachet of being highly selective, participation in the forprofit MOOC model is problematic: acting as a talent broker for employers would likely siphon away talented, potential degreeseeking students. It would be great for employers and for students who are qualified to transition into good jobs, but not so great for institutions that depend on cultivating and retaining residential talent. On the other hand, elite private and flagship public universities with established brands might choose to offer MOOCs on the basis that they would not pose a threat to their residential operations. But precisionbuilt MOOCs will eventually compromise even their residential academic model as well. Students who would still prefer, for nonacademic reasons, to pay a tuition premium for a campus experience would likely be at a competitive disadvantage if their curriculum were locally crafted instead of learning optimized. On the strength of their extendable core, therefore, MOOCs represent a postindustrial model of teaching and 135
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119 learning that has the potential to undermine and replace the business model of all institutions that depend on recruiting and retaining students for oncampus studies.
Jonathan Rees, a history professor at Colorado State University
Jonathan Rees, a history professor at Colorado State University at Pueblo, who has written critically about MOOCs, said their spread is likely to lead to a threetiered world, with a few highstatus “super professors” for whom the courses provide both status and royalties; a larger pool of tenured professors who continue to teach their regular inperson classes until they retire; and “a huge army of adjuncts and teaching assistants,” whose jobs will be vulnerable to online competition.136 “The problem with this MOOCaslaborissue argument is that it has no place for students and learning,” said Phil Hill, an education technology consultant. “Our starting point ought to be what students need and whether this is an effective form of learning.” Many educators say that highquality online materials can help students learn, just like a highquality textbook. “The issue in higher education is how we get to scale,” said M. Peter McPherson, president of the Association of Public and LandGrant Universities. “The question now is how long it’s going to take for faculty members to stop saying they can use the same textbooks as others at other institutions, but they can’t use the same lectures.”
3.2. 대학입시 스펙 137 136
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MOOC & High School
Actually, MOOCs have a much broader application than that. A growing number of MOOCs cover material for earlier grades. The A.P. exam prep MOOCs from the University of Miami Global Academy are one example.
Leap the College Readiness Gap: The Best MOOCs for High School Seniors
Dartmouth Stops Credits for Excelling on A.P. Test138 By TAMAR LEWIN; Dartmouth is concerned that Advanced Placement courses are not as rigorous as college courses.
Brown University Creates Online Course for High School Students139 Now, in what seems to be the first major effort by a university to tailor a massive open online course, or MOOC, specifically to high school students,Brown University is preparing to offer a free online engineering class with the aim of teaching high school students about the merits and challenges of the field. If the program is truly unprecedented, as Brown’s team has come to believe, it could start a trend of directly advising high school students and their teachers on specific curriculums, motivated in part by the hypercompetitive college admissions process. “This is the kind of innovative leadership that can be a game changer for students,” said Josh Coates, chief executive of Instructure, the software 138
http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/18/education/dartmouthstopscreditsforexcellingonaptest.h tml?ref=tamarlewin 139
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121 company that provided the platform for Brown’s project. “We all know we need more STEM education, and bridging the gap between college and high school with an open online course is a great way to get more kids into these kinds of fields and more interested in the college experience.” “If a student wants to get into the University of Michigan and they’ve actually shown that they’re already passionate about this topic, and they’ve taken that extra step to learn more about engineering, and if they have all the other credentials they need, then yes, that definitely is going to set them apart,” Dr. Drexler said. “It’s how you reflect your passion. If you look at it that way, then yes, it can be a positive addition to a college application.”
EdX & High School 듀크대학 컬럼비아대학 AP&MOOC
A Good Thing?/What MOOCs Can Learn from the Publishing Industry140
Like all changes, this creative destruction has both positive and negative implications. This approach will lead to a more agile and dynamic education system that will be able to adjust better to market forces, train our youth for indemand jobs and careers, and retrain those that are being made obsolete by the relentless push of technology and globalization. New tools will pop up to help individuals organize and make sense of educational goals, as well as new credentials to capture this fragmented learning. It's also likely that this new world will require less physical (aka costly) infrastructure, and as a result, will offer more equal access to education, both within developed societies, and in a global contextreducing the need for sprawling (and expensive) campuses. 140
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122 It is not all positive though. Research, broadly, is likely to suffer, as it will be harder to support professors in fields that are not supported by industry, such as the humanities. The quality of labs and research infrastructure will decrease with less available funding, potentially slowing progress on more difficult societal problems. The best universities will continue to prosper, but will also be forced to narrow their scope to only what they do best, as innovation in the long tail will pull the best talent in emerging fields away from them. And finally, thousands of students will likely forego a traditional brickandmortar college for an online education, likely saving money, but also losing out on the invaluable holistic experience that past generations have taken for granted. And many massive open online courses aren’t offered by colleges or universities at all but by cultural organizations and philanthropies. These can be short classes for a few weeks and on topics related to the special expertise of that organization. Staffing agencies and workforce development nonprofits are exploring how MOOCs can be used to support workplace readiness. And businesses are testing out ways to use MOOCs to engage their customers and build professional skills within their industries. Some are as large as the software giant SAP, and others are as small as the twoman startup Instreamia. After all, if Sal Khan can become a massively popular teacher online, why can’t you or I?
4. 세계 각국의 MOOC
Globalization of MOOCs 141 Differences in infrastructure, content, language and culture begin to chip away at the notion of globalbased courses in a onesizeﬁtsall model for democratizing education. Some educators worry a oneway transfer of educational materials from the rich north to the poor south will amount to a wave of “intellectual neocolonialism". “If they are going to democratize education, which is a good goal, you have 141
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123 to go to the different democracies and see what they want,” Lani Gunawardena, a professorof instructional technology at the University of New Mexico who also teaches onlinecourses, said. “You cannot put your personal point of view there and say you’re democratizing education.” Arab students prefer signiﬁcantly more rigid structure and more interaction with their instructors compared to American students. Arab learners need to know speciﬁcally what to do and how to do it. They ﬁnd the open ﬂexibility and wide chance to provide their input and ideas uncomfortable. In China, students don’t necessarily openly argue with each other based on points ofview. They build knowledge based on collaboration
MOOC Around the World – Our Global List of Distance Education Resources142 MOOC around the world143
Iversity aims to become Europe’s leading provider of MOOCs. Iversity was 142
http://moocnewsandreviews.com/moocaroundtheworldourgloballistofdistanceeducationr esourcespart1/ 143
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124 founded in 2011 by Jonas Liepmann and Hannes Klöpper to develop a crossuniversity platform for distance education and to foster communication in teaching and research. By October 2013 the reorganized Berlinbased platform will offer free academic online courses from German and international teachers. The core elements of their open courses are videos, feedback and peertopeer learning.144 Nothing is known so far about the class topics at Iversity, but this is the organization behind the MOOC Production Fellowship where 250 proposed courses are being put to a public vote to see which teachers get a €250,000 award to develop their course. Iversity plans to charge money for final exams and certificates.
United Kingdom MOOC
Open University is building a British platform to compete with U.S. MOOC providers that will launch “later this year.” The new platform, called Futurelearn, will operate as an independent company yet will have courses from state and public universities. Futurelearn is working in partnership with the British Council, the British Library, the British Museum and more than 20 U.K. universities to create a joint offering available to students across the world free of charge. There is currently no specific information on the courses Futurelearn will be providing, but you can subscribe to a mailinglist or follow them on Twitter @futurelearn to receive more information.145 OU not only collaborates with Futurelearn, but also offers next to their traditional commercial courses its Open Learn program of MOOCs and Internetbased courses to students from anywhere around the world.
http://moocnewsandreviews.com/moocaroundtheworldourgloballistofdistanceeducationr esourcespart1/ 145
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125 Netherlands MOOC
The University of Amsterdam (UvA) launched their first MOOC with Introduction to Communication Science (which Patrica van der Linden reviewed for this site.) The free eightweek English–language course will start again in September 2013, delivering video lectures on every aspect of communication, from history and theory to the influence of the media on society.146
The Netherlands will serve as our home base for a grand tour of European MOOCs. The “first panEuropean” MOOC platform, OpenupEd.eu, was launched April 25 at Open Universities in the Netherlands.
OpenupEd.eu is a multiinstitutional European MOOC platform with partners in 11 countries: France, Italy, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, U.K., Russia, Turkey and Israel. Each partner is offering courses via its own distance learning platform, and at least some are in the home language of each university. The current choices includes the 11 languages of the partners, plus Arabic. Around 40 courses, covering a variety of subjects ranging from mathematics, economics, ecommerce, climate change, cultural heritage, corporate social responsibility and the modern Middle East, will be available free of charge. Some of the courses use the “synchronous” model, and some are selfpaced. All courses may lead to recognition: a completion certificate, a badge or a credit certificate that may count toward a degree. In the latter case, students have to pay for the certificate, with the cost ranging from €25 to €400, depending on the length of the course and institution.
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Miriada X appears to be the ultimate Spanishlanguage distance learning resource. Created by Universia and Telefonica Learning Services, the platform works with 1,241 partner universities from 23 countries in Latin America representing 15.3 million students and academics. Miriada X provides a platform for teachers or teaching teams of any Latin American university to create and deliver 0pen online courses accessible to everyone free of charge. The courses range from Astronomy to Humanities to Sociology.147
Open Universities Australia (OUA), a private distance and online education organization, launched a new free online education platform called Open2Study last March. They’re starting with 10 courses including nursing, anthropology, financial planning and management. OUA expects to offer 40 to 50 subjects by the end of 2013. Like the FutureLearn initiative in the U.K., Open2Study is a collaboration of many different institutions, including Macquarie University, RMIT University and the Central Institute of Technology.148 Open2Study has a very particular model. Each course takes four weeks, with 10 intakes per year. Most classes have an emphasis on career exploration and vocational and life skills. The free courses from Open2Study are taught as “starters” that let students taste what is available 147
http://moocnewsandreviews.com/moocaroundtheworldourgloballistofdistancelearningres ourcespart2/ 148
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127 at OUA. Like with many open online courses, the materials include recorded lectures, animations, simulations and quizzes. The course subjects are free to everyone, regardless of educational achievement. You just need to register an account and enroll. You do not, however, need to register to participate in the community forum, which allows prospective and current students to ask questions. To receive a certificate of achievement, students need to complete at least three of the four multiple choice tests by the deadline with an average mark of at least 60% to pass. Be aware that your total score is divided by the number of modules in the courses. Additionally, Open2Study rewards learning and helping other students with different categories of badges, which are used as an incentive in a gamebased approach. The more points and badges you earn the higher you move up the high score list. Rozalia Zeibeki and other writers for MOOCs News & Reviews are just now finishing up their first classes on Open2Study, so watch the reviews page for their take on how the gamified approach is working. In the meantime, you might be also interested in Debbie Morrison’s write up on her site, Online Learning Insights.
Independent MOOCs Asia’s first MOOC draws students from around world Even though most of the media coverage of MOOCs summarize them as “elite university classes for free,” MOOCs have a much broader scope. It’s not just elite universities, and in reality, there’s nothing to keep a museum, a nonprofit organization, a trade association, a single business — large or small — or even just some individual from using free online course builder tools to create their own MOOC. As Robert McGuire, the editor of this site, has said in the past, MOOCs mean not only that anyone in the world be a learner but than anyone in the world can be a teacher. Not only can we all take a class from Harvard but we can all can put up a class next to Harvard’s and see if it finds an audience.149 Well, through most of this series I included independent MOOCs without a university affiliation along the way, but in the U.S. there are enough of them 149
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128 that I’m listing them in this separate article. So before I leave American MOOCs behind and head home for a rest (yes, there is a part six to this journey in the works), let’s take another quick dash around the country, shall we? As before, I’ll include MOOCs that are already concluded to give a sense of the larger MOOC landscape.
5. MOOC 수강후기
Online Education Changing the World/Davos 2013/Bill Gates,Larry Summers,Thomas Friedman/온라인무료대학강의(MOOC)에 관한 2013 다보스 토론/Thomas Friedman(New York Times columnist) & Khadija Niazi MOOCs are not only the best tools for students. They are equally beneficial for teachers as well. Teachers can learn how to make their teaching more effective, and it’s time they should also use technology for teaching. The goal should be simple for a teacher: “If you can’t do it, use the technology, and don’t let students suffer.” Schools should also invest in these technologies along with teacher training programs.
On Thursday, 24 January, 2013 at 12:30 (GMT+1) in Davos (Switzerland) at the Morosani Schweizerhof Hotel the Victor Pinchuk Foundation held its 6th Page 128 of 138
129 Davos Philanthropic Roundtable “RevolutiOnline.edu – Online Education Changing the World” on the occasion of the Annual Meeting of the World Economic Forum. The panel brought together Thomas Friedman, Foreign Affairs columnist, The New York Times (moderator); Bill Gates, CoChair, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; Rafael Reif, President, MIT; Larry Summers, President Emeritus, Harvard University; Daphne Koller, CoFounder and CoCEO, Coursera;Sebastian Thrun, Founder, Udacity; Peter Thiel, Partner, Founders Fund and Jimmy Wales, Founder, Wikipedia.150 Expansion of online education will bring about dramatic changes in global education system in the nearest future. This topic was discussed by the participants of RevolutiOnline.edu Philanthropic Roundtable organized by the Victor Pinchuk Foundation. The discussion participants voiced out different opinions about the expected results of the changes. Bill Gates, the founder of Microsoft Corporation, one of the top philanthropists in the world, believes that the revolution in education is long overdue, but online education is only one moving force of this revolution. “The most important factor is motivation, but not the Internet. At the moment, online education sector is in constant search and attempts but the quality of online courses should improve phenomenally. Education certification and employer trust in it remain a significant problem. It is important who and how would define quality and compliance of the education”, Gates emphasized. “Online education brings vast transformation opportunities, but it meets natural resistance of the existing conventional educational institutions”, Peter Thiel, Founders Fund partner believes. He focused attention of the Roundtable participants on the problem of access to highstandard education as today this is a key problem both for developing and developed countries. According to him, since the beginning of 1980s the price of university education has increased 4 times and, in general, higher education is yet another economic “bubble”, because a diploma of the leading university does not guarantee high incomes at the workplace. “The education sector should be redesigned in full”, Peter Thiel believes. According to him, the education includes three functions. The first is learning as it is, which is the main function of education. The second is 150
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130 insurance, which permits individuals choosing a school and university to guarantee potential employment and career. At last, the third function is tournament, which, unfortunately, brings a zero gain for the participants either at the exams or tests among schoolchildren or university students. “People should, first of all, define themselves which one is the most important component of education for them”, Peter Thiel emphasized. Online education is a challenge to the universities, Rafael Reif, MIT President admits. He told in his speech at the Roundtable that upon the University proposed the opportunity to listen to online lectures, many students preferred this method. “This is reality, which should be respected”, he believes. And online education may therefore become a significant part of educational process. At the same time, Reif accented that the education consists not only of lectures. “Students learn to persuade, to negotiate, to work as a team. This method of education can’t be replaced by something else yet”, Reif believes. Larry Summers, President Emeritus of Harvard University, believes that online education would bring the education system transformations, which we can’t even imagine today. In his opinion, online education has got “huge potential for implementation of absolutely new ideas using novel technologies. There are more opportunities here than in any other sector.” This is especially important for students and schoolchildren in the developing countries as they can get access to the advanced knowledge and highstandard education staying in their home countries. “The previous generation could hardly even imagine this situation”, he said. Jimmy Wales, Founder of the Wikipedia, agrees with him. “Speaking of formal education, online methods are of almost zero effect on it. But the informal education sector experiences a real revolution. In the past, any person willing to get extra knowledge was to go to the library or register with a University course, nowadays a person can simply come to his place and have a homebased online access”, he said.
OUR STUDENT STORIES/Coursera/세계각국 학생들의 코세라 경험담151
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131 http://edxstories.tumblr.com/ 세계각국 학생들의 EdX 경험담152 Pakistani Middle School Student on Education, Technology and MOOCs / Udacity153 After “Every Astronomy Book In Pakistan,” A 12 Year Old Turns To MOOCs/Muhammad Shaheer Niazi on Jun 17, 2013 154 My love of education through the Internet started very early. I was only three years old when I started using an online site called Starfall, and I feel it would be unfair not to mention the interactive educational software I used even before going online for my education. One was Reader Rabbit from TLC (The Learning Company) and another was Jumpstart series from Knowledge Adventures.155 This awesome educational software was my first obsession with the computer. I remember sitting on the computer and crossing all the stages of the programs while learning a great amount. Education was so colorful and amazing that I never used to get tired or bored. It was even better than watching cartoons. Computers and education seemed necessary to me at that time, and I quickly finished all the programs. I learned that those interactive tools were so important in education. It opened another window which involves doing something while learning. It was certainly more interesting for me, at least. Later when I started school I knew that school books are not enough for me. I go to a very good school in Pakistan — I will be in eighth grade next term 152
http://moocnewsandreviews.com/author/muhammadniazi/http://moocnewsandreviews.com/after everyastronomybookinpakistana12yearoldturnstomoocs/ 155
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132 — but my teachers have many students to work with and limited time, and they can’t cover every subject that interests me. For example, we have no astronomy club at my school, and astronomy has been a passion of mine since I was one year old and my father read a book about the planets to me. I think he let me buy every astronomy book in Pakistan. My parents have always told me that knowledge is out there if you look for it. So, while my passion with reading books grew, my interest with online educational sites also grew, and finally when I was seven years old I found the famous Khan Academy. It looked like the ultimate answer to all my educational interests and it certainly quenched my thirst for getting education. I felt so blessed that I was learning something out of my school. Khan Academy really helped clarify many hard concepts in math and science. It certainly offered me the outlet I was looking for. So what was missing? I did not know what was missing or lacking until one day I found an online Artificial Intelligence course from Stanford University. It was a very difficult new course which I decided to take along with my sister. We both were hardly 11 years old. When I joined that course, I had no idea it will open a new set of opportunities for me in education. I did not know anything about artificial intelligence. I remember that I choose to do the course because I just loved the picture of a robotic figure on the homepage.
Now, about the missing or lacking part I was talking about, I found out to my amazement that the course had a forum where you can post your problems and have interesting debates with your course mates. Artificial Intelligence was very tough, but I was so determined to complete it that I did not care what marks I got. The only thing I cared about was to complete it and get as much education as I could. My sister and I were the youngest to take that course. The course was really well taught. I was introduced for first time in my life to probability. Professor Sebastian Thrun and Peter Norvig were the instructors for the course, and they really taught in a great way. I managed to complete that course and got a certificate as well. Even though I did not do so well, I made sure that I do not give up. It was a very exciting course for me, and I loved interacting with other students by going through the forums. That was the first course which was so “alive” for me in that sense. I could feel that I was interacting with real human beings, maybe in a different way, but it was more fun for me. I felt education was given new meaning. It was clearly revolutionizing education for me. New ways were Page 132 of 138
133 introduced and new technologies were involved. I could more easily access education, and that was really amazing. Not much later, I found an email from Udacity introducing many new exciting MOOCs. I loved the site and the many new courses which were introduced. So I quickly enrolled in the Physics (PH100) course. I must say I was totally impressed with the teacher Andy Brown. His light humorous style and sharp perky voice used to make me smile, not to mention his very interesting tours to different places really caught my attention. I loved the way he taught using real scenarios and real situations.The forum for the class was so active. Moderators and teachers, along with many students, were ever ready to answer your queries. When I finished that physics MOOC with distinction (My sister and I were the youngest ever to complete it at the age of 11), I enrolled in the most famous course on Udacity, Introduction to Computer Science (CS101). This course was my first step in learning a programming language called Python. It was tough for me but I completed it with distinction.
Later on I even completed Introduction to statistics (ST101) with distinction. I choose it because of my interest in probability, which I developed in the AI course, and because it was taught by Professor Thrun. His way of teaching was excellent. Udacity offered “karma points” to the students in the forum, which really encouraged students to get more engaged. The more you help, the more karma points you get and your reputation goes up and you are even awarded with badges, which gave the student a sense of achievement. Later I thought to explore new educational horizons, and I found Coursera. What attracted me to Coursera’s MOOCs was the different variety of subjects; it has evolved a lot ever since it was launched. In less than a year it had more than a million students enrolled in it. It didn’t only have science, but also art, computers, maths and most of the major subjects. What interested me was an astronomy MOOC, which I had been seeking for a long time. It was taught by Professor Ronen Plesser from Duke University. The course was very well crafted with a very successful attempt to put the subject in a nutshell; it covered almost all the introductory topics related to the subject. It was really an intensive course, and even I, who had a great amount of knowledge about astronomy, found it very challenging. This course opened my eyes. I even told Professor Plesser when I met him in the forums, “Before all I knew about astronomy was just general knowledge. This course taught me that it is maths and calculations. It is all Page 133 of 138
134 about formulas and theories. I came to realize now that is what is real astronomy!” I meant actually that books only enhance your knowledge but getting taught by a professor and doing it practically is a different experience altogether. After completing Astronomy with flying colors, I did not want to stop. It was like I was exposed to some kind of new world of education which is totally different, but it is more global, a class of a thousand or more taking the course and discussing things. I could reach the world using my very own computer while sitting in my home. So I immediately took other MOOCs — Introduction to Astrobiology, How Things Work, PreCalculus and Understanding Einstein: The Theory of Relativity. I completed these courses successfully, and my journey still goes on, because it is a new realm of quality education. It will be seen in the future that MOOCs have made education possible even in those areas where the quality of education is not so good. It has really enabled many students from thirdworld countries to have a chance to look at other means of learning. Revolution has come, and it has come in the best form, which is providing education. Coursera, Udacity and Khan Academy have really brought the real change, and that is mixing technology with education. We are living in a more open and global world where education will be revolutionized, and MOOCs are actually a great step in that direction.
6. Timeline of MOOC
We'll be updating this page regularly. Stanford Professor Gives Up Teaching Position, Hopes to Reach 500,000 Students at Online StartUp January 23, 2012,/Udacity 런칭
Harvard and MIT Put $60Million Into New Platform for Free Online Courses May 2, 2012, /EdX 런칭
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135 A Conversation With Bill Gates About the Future of Higher Education/June 25, 2012/빌게이츠가 보는 MOOC 미래
After Leadership Crisis Fueled by DistanceEd Debate, UVa Will Put Free Classes Online/버지니아 대학총장 퇴출과 복귀
Gates Foundation Offers Grants for MOOC’s in Introductory Classes/September 11, 2012/빌게이츠 교양과정 MOOC 지원
Publishers See Online MegaCourses as Opportunity to Sell Textbooks/September 17, 2012/무료교과서 제공 San Jose State U. Says Replacing Live Lectures With Videos Increased Test Scores/October 17, 2012/산요세대학 MOOC 이용 성적 향상 Minnesota Gives Coursera the Boot, Citing a DecadesOld Law/October 18, 2012/이런 애피소드도 있었네... Facing Backlash, Minnesota Decides to Allow Free Online Courses After All October 20, 2012
American Council on Education May Recommend Some Coursera Offerings for College Credit/November 13, 2012/MOOC 학점인정심사
Providers of Free MOOC's Now Charge Employers for Access to Stud/December 4, 2012/Big Data 이용한 직장연결
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136 참고문헌 1. Nathan Harden, "The End of the University as We Know It," The American Interest (January/February 2013). 2. Jeff Denneen and Tom Dretler, "The Financially Sustainable University," Bain & Company, 2012, pp. 3–4. 3. Peter Stokes, "What Online Learning Can Teach Us about Higher Education," in Reinventing Higher Education: The Promise of Innovation, Ben Wildavsky, Andrew P. Kelly, and Kevin Carey, eds. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press, 2011). 4. Kevin Carey, "Into the Future with MOOCs," Chronicle of Higher Education, September 3, 2012. 5. Katherine Mangan, "A First for Udacity: a U.S. University Will Accept Transfer Credit for One of Its Courses," Chronicle of Higher Education, September 6, 2012. 6. Nick DeSantis, "Antioch U. Will Offer MOOCs for Credit Through Coursera," Chronicle of Higher Education, October 29, 2012. 7. Jeffrey R. Young, "California State U. Will Experiment with Offering Credit for MOOCs," Chronicle of Higher Education, January 15, 2013. 8. Jake New, "Georgia State U. to Grant Course Credit for MOOCs," Chronicle of Higher Education, January 22, 2013. 9. Tamar Lewin, "Public Universities to Offer Free Online Classes for Credit," New York Times, January 23, 2013. 10. Katherine Mangan, "Gates Foundation Offers Grants for MOOCs in Introductory Classes," Chronicle of Higher Education, September 11, 2012. 11. Paul Fain, "Majoring in Free Content," Inside Higher Ed, August 15, 2012. 12. Candace Thille and Joel Smith, "Learning Unbound: Disrupting the Baumol/Bowen Effect in Higher Education," Forum for the Future of Higher Education, 2009. 13. Jeffrey R. Young, "Campuses Look to Digital Tools for Savings, and Reinvention," Almanac of Higher Education 2012, Chronicle of Higher Education, 2012. 14. I. Elaine Allen and Jeff Seaman, Changing Course: Ten Years of Tracking Online Education in the United States, Babson Survey Research Group, January 2013, p. 10. 15. Benjamin Bloom, "The 2 Sigma Problem: The Search for Methods of Group Instruction as Effective as OnetoOne Tutoring," Educational Researcher, vol. 13, no. 6 (1984). Page 136 of 138
137 16. Benjamin Bloom, "Learning for Mastery," Evaluation Comment, vol. 1, no. 2 (1968), p. 1. 17. Kurt Van Lehn, "The Relative Effectiveness of Human Tutoring, Intelligent Tutoring Systems, and Other Tutoring Systems," Educational Psychologist, vol. 46, no. 4 (2011). 18. Marsha Lovett, Oded Meyer, Candace Thille, "The Open Learning Initiative: Measuring the Effectiveness of the OLI Statistics Course in Accelerating Student Learning," Journal of Interactive Media in Education, (May 2008), pp. 1–16; and Kurt Van Lehn et al., "The Andes Physics Tutoring System: Lessons Learned,"International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, vol. 15, no. 3 (2005). 19. Linda Baer and John Campbell, "From Metrics to Analytics, Reporting to Action: Analytics' Role in Changing the Learning Environment," in Game Changers: Education and Information Technologies, Diana G. Oblinger, ed. (Boulder, CO: EDUCAUSE, 2012), p. 63. 20. Karen L. Evans, David Yaron, and Gaea Leinhardt, "Learning stoichiometry: A comparison of text and multimedia formats," Chemistry Education Research and Practice, vol. 9 (2008); Lovett et al., "The Open Learning Initiative"; Christian D. Schunn and Mellisa M. Patchan, "An Evaluation of Accelerated Learning in the CMU Open Learning Initiative Course 'Logic & Proofs,'" Technical Report by Learning Research and Development Center, University of Pittsburgh, 2009. 21. James G. Mazoué, "The Deconstructed Campus," Journal of Computing in Higher Education, vol. 24, no. 2 (2012), pp. 74–95. 22. Maxwell Wessel and Clayton M. Christensen, "Surviving Disruption," Harvard Business Review, vol. 90, no. 12 (2012), p. 58. 23. Jeffrey R. Young, "Providers of Free MOOCs Now Charge Employers for Access to Student Data," Chronicle of Higher Education, December 4, 2012. Citation “The competition inherent in the gadarene rush to offer MOOCs will createa sea change by obliging participating institutions to revisit their missions and focus on teaching quality and students as never before.” Sir John Daniel, 2012 MOOCs as a Game Change The MOOC That Roared
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Coursera is the very beginning of the revolution in high education.
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