30 MARCH 2012 NORTH OF MARKET - TENDERLOIN CBD
PUBLIC TOILET PROJECT MASTERPLAN Looking towards Dodge Alley, one of the most notorious “incident” dumping grounds in the Tenderloin. Image Source: Kadi Franson, Hyphae Design Lab
Team Hyphae Design Laboratory - Brent Bucknum, Principal - Julia Schmitt, Ecological Engineer - Kadi Franson, Designer - Robert Glass, Landscape Designer - Eric Olso n, Civil Engineer - Marisha Farnsworth, Designer - Jeremy Fisher, Managing Director - Emma Oppen, Designer - Danyao Zhou, Mapping Specialist - Daniel Collazos, Designer North of Market/Tenderloin Community Benefit District (NoM-TL CBD) - Dina Hilliard, Executive Director San Francisco Clean City Coalition - Gia Grant, Executive Director
â€œCustomers Only No Exceptions,â€? sign in the Tenderloin Image Source: Kadi Franson, Hyphae Design Lab
Local Organization Coalition St. Anthony Foundation Glide Memorial Luggage Store Gallery Tenderloin National Forest Youth With A Mission Tenderloin Neighborhood Development Corporation Trust for Public Lands City Team Ministries Community Housing Partnership Rebar Kindness Kitchen SRO Collaborative Boys and Girls Club Larkin Street Youth
Community Collaborators Darryl Smith John Garrity Andrea Jones David Lewis Betty Traynor Susie Wong Kevin Stull Hatty Lee Edward Evans Rick Smith Laura Tepper Sara Greenwald Tom Carter Michael Trevino Mike Djordteyich Tim Svoboda Terry Zukoski Steve Brianquist Elia Variela Charles Pitts Alexandra Goldman Will Thatcher Roberto Rivera Michael Brown Elvis Byrd Jan Couvillon Rochelle Fort Trinita Weekes Wilfred Selvaraj Isaac Jackson Ron Hicks Colleen Rivecca Anita Rao Silas Lorene Butler Richard Lyon Chet Zebroski
Agencies San Francisco Public Utilities Commission San Francisco Department of Public Works San Francisco Department of Public Health Mayorâ€™s Office of Economic and Workforce Development Mayorâ€™s Office of Neighborhood Development San Francisco Police Department, Tenderloin Station SF Board of Supervisors, District 6
Project Summary Executive Summary
Community-Based Approach Vision Project Context Why Public Restrooms? Project Users Project Overview
Operations and Maintenance Budget
Summary Community Background Current Restroom Issues Tenderloin Incident â€œHotspotsâ€? Site Walk
Meetings Surveys Tenderloin National Forest Residency Other Feedback
Summary Site Considerations Potential Sites
Public Toilet Background Toilet Typology Precedent Toilets
Principles Policy and Permitting Strategies Inspiration Considerations Schematics
Timeline Get Involved!
Systems Calculations References Toilet Press Public Restroom Resources Sample RFP
Images, Figures, Tables and Maps 1.1 Image: “Dodge Alley,” p. 7 1.2 Image: “Restroom for PAID Customers Only,” p. 9 1.3 Image: “Demographics of Toilet Users,” p. 11 1.4 Figure: “Restroom Access,” p. 11 1.5 Figure: “A New Public Restroom Paradigm,” p. 12-13 2.1 Image: “Dodge Alley, Street Sign,” p. 17 2.2 Map: “Incidents,” p. 18 2.3 Image: “Incident Site Walk,” p. 19 3.1 Image: “Town Hall Poster,” p. 21 3.2 Image: “Town Hall Location Brainstorm,” p. 23 3.3 Image: “Feedback Postcards,” p. 27 3.4 Image: “Scan of Street Survey form,” p. 28 3.5 Image: “One Restroom; Street Survey,” p. 29 3.6 Figure: “Tenderloin Business Toilet Survey,” p. 30-31 3.7 Images: “Selection of Restrooms; Street Suvey,” p. 32-33 3.8 Images: “Handwritten Notes; Community brainstorm,” p. 34 3.9 Image: “TNF Office Hours,” p. 35 3.10 Image: “Tenderloin National Forest Gate,” p. 36 3.11 Images: “Selected photos; TNF Residency meetings,” p. 36 3.12 Figure: “Mind Map; Community Design Inspirations,” p. 37 4.1 Image: “Potential Site Factors,” p. 39 4.2,3 Maps: “Community Meeting Notes, Incident Locations,” p. 40 4.4,5 Maps: “Neighborhood Stewards, Local Safe Havens,” p. 41 4.6,7 Maps: Crime Zones, Existing Public Toilets,” p. 42 4.8,9 Maps: Transit Lines, Existing Open Space,” p. 43 4.10,11 Maps: “Vacant Lots, Solar Access,” p. 44 4.12,13 Maps: “Topography, Fire Hydrant Locations,” p. 45 4.14,15 Maps: “Storm Drain Locations, Proposed Locations,” p. 46 4.16 Figure: “Site Typologies,” p. 48 4.17 Image: “Examples of Parklets in the Bay Area,” p. 48 4.18 Image: “SF Planning Department Parklet Guidelines,” p. 49 4.19 Figure: “Potential Sites,” p. 50-51 5.1 Image: “JCDecaux near Powell,” p. 52 5.2 Images: “Precedent: JCDecaux APTs,” p. 53 5.3 Images: “SF Recreation & Parks Toilets,” p. 54 5.4 Images: “Bryant Park Toilets,” p. 55 5.5 Images: “The Portland Loo,” p. 56 5.6 Images: “Bronx Zoo Ecological Toilets,” p. 57 5.7 Images: “Sulabh,” p. 58 5.8 Images: “Compostera Toilets, Sweden,” p. 59 5.9 Images: “Public Facilities in Ancient Greece and Rome,” p. 60 5.10 Images: “Night Soil Transport in 19th Century London,” p. 61 6.1 Image: “Tenderloin Toilet Schematic Rendering,” p. 63 6.2 Figure: “Current Scenario - Broken Loops,” p. 64 6.3 Images: “Design Inspiration for Toilet,” p. 65 6.4 Image: “Neighborhood resident at crosswalk,” p. 67 6.5 Figure: “ADA dimensioning, out-swinging door,” p. 67 6.6 Figures: “A closer look at ADA Standards,” p. 68-71 6.7 Figures: “Spatial Configurations,” p. 73-75 6.8 Figures: “ADA Compliant Schematics,” p. 77 6.9 Figures: “Schematics: Systems,” p. 79-85 6.10 Images: “Schematics: Materiality,” p. 86-87 6.11 Image: “Schematics: Visualization,” p. 88-89 7.1 Images: “Modes of Cleaning Restroom,” p. 90 7.2 Image: “SF Clean City employees at work,” p. 91 8.1 Figure: “Budget Table,” p. 92 8.2 Image: “Golden Poop,” p. 93
9.1 9.2 10.1 11.1 11.2 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5
Image: “Yerba Buena District: Collaboration?” p. 97 Image: “Pay-Per-Use,” p. 97 Figure: “Project Timeline,” p. 98-99 Image: “Feedback Postcard,” p. 100 Image: “TNF Residency,” p. 101 Map: “JCDecaux locations,” p. 102 Figure: “Systems Calc Assumptions,” p. 103 Image: “NYTimes Tenderloin Toilets Article,” p. 107 Document: “Sample RFP for Toilet Maintenance,” p. 110-112 Image: “For Customers,” p. 113-114
“Windows into the Tenderloin,” Mural by Mona Caron. Image Source: Kadi Franson, Hyphae Design Lab
Project Summary Executive Summary The Tenderloin Community Toilet Project started as a vision of the Hyphae Design Lab and the North of Market - Tenderloin Community Benefit District (NoM-TL CBD) independently of one another. When the two organizations came together and invited the participation of the SF Clean City Corporation, the toilet project was born. This masterplan document, funded by a seed grant from the NoM-TL CBD, seeks to outline all work that Hyphae Design Lab has completed with regard to Community Participatory Design, Design Schematic recommendations, Siting, Operations and Maintenance, and Funding strategies. The Project Summary chapter will include the following sections: • Community-Based Approach • Vision • Project Context • Why Public Restrooms? • Project Users • Project Overview
Community-Based Approach Hyphae Design Lab has a strong background in “community participatory design,” which is a method for creating infrastructure projects by the people, of the people, and for the people of a particular community. As a group, Hyphae Design Lab, the NoM-TL CBD, and SF Clean City have been using a similar dynamic approach to community outreach and involvement by getting community member participation in meetings and design brainstorming sessions. During a residency within the Tenderloin neighborhood, Hyphae hosted walk-in “office hours” and connected with the community by attending other organization’s local events and participating in urban forestry within the Tenderloin. Most public infrastructure projects are designed in a “top-down” manner; only a few designers and permitting officials are allowed to weigh in on the design decisions. We seek to use a more “bottom-up” approach for design, taking ideas from as many sources as possible throughout the community, including, but not limited to: residents, homeless individuals, members of the local police force, the mayor’s office, and local non-profit employees. In this document we are working to blend all gathered feedback together to form a series of designs that we hope to present to the community for revisions and selection of a final design. Ultimately, the design must be one that the majority of community members feel supportive and proud of. 6
Looking towards Dodge Alley, one of the most notorious “incident” dumping grounds in the Tenderloin. Image Source: Kadi Franson, Hyphae Design Lab
Together with the NoM-TL CBD and SF Clean City, Hyphae is working to apply its ecological restroom paradigm to a public toilet setting in the Tenderloin neighborhood of San Francisco.
Vision Hyphae Design Laboratory envisions a new restroom paradigm focusing on completing the nutrient cycle, maximizing water reuse, increasing user experience, and creating green jobs. Together with the NoM-TL CBD and SF Clean City, Hyphae is working to apply its ecological restroom paradigm to a public toilet setting in the Tenderloin neighborhood of San Francisco. The ecological restroom will serve to alleviate the neighborhood’s ongoing problem of public urination/defecation while acting as a beacon of inspiration and a safe haven for all who use it. Project Summary 7
Project Context Toilet availability falls short for much of the world’s populace. About 2.6 billion people are without access to adequate sanitation - i.e. toilets. In cities and areas of high population density, open defecation from a lack of toilets is the primary cause of disease and mortality, especially in children. Existing freshwater shortages in many regions along with future shortages in other regions will soon require humans to treat water differently -- only using clean water when necessary and recycling non-salt water as much as possible. The use of chemical fertilizers is ravaging many ecosystems, and their production is getting increasingly expensive. Toilet technologies that use little or no water and can return nutrients to the soil for agriculture are an important solution to our current and future water challenges. The use of dry and composting toilets has been slow to take root around the world, especially in the “developed” world, or Global North. Global North populations cannot advocate international development projects to install composting and dry toilets in the Global South without embracing these systems as appropriate technologies for themselves, or run the risk of creating a double standard. The toilets used in the Global North often become the hygiene standard for the Global South; currently, most of the world aspires to use a porcelain flush toilet (squat or sit, depending on the cultural context). Composting and other dry toilets will not be perceived as 21st-century technologies to aspire to, despite their efficient use of resources, until affluent countries adopt them too. By building an attractive public composting toilet in an international Global North city, we will be creating an example for others to look to for inspiration.
Why Public Restrooms? There are a myriad of reasons to focus on public restrooms in the Tenderloin and in countless neighborhoods throughout San Francisco and other American cities. In general, public restrooms are a basic infrastructure need in any busy city. Public restrooms make cities more pedestrian and tourist-friendly, allowing people to be away from home or the office for longer periods of time. They create a more just society whereby the homeless are not unfairly punished for public urination and defecation. Accessible public restrooms also make for a more equitable society in the sense that people with disabilities and increased restroom need are more able to spend time in public spaces rather than worrying about where to find a restroom. Many cities across the United States have seen declining numbers of public restrooms since the 1980’s as a result of vandalism and illicit activities within restrooms . 8
Many cities across the United States have seen declining numbers of public restrooms since the 1980’s as a result of vandalism and illicit activities. (1)
“Restrooms for Paid Customers Only. No Exceptions.” A common type of sign found on local Tenderloin business windows and storefronts, expressing frustration with overuse from walk-in users. Image Source: Kadi Franson, Hyphae Design Lab
Although some cities have embraced the use of Automatic Pay Toilets, or Automated Public Toilets, (APTs) on sidewalks in high traffic areas, many such projects have failed to meet public need in its entirety. San Francisco has installed JCDecaux APTs in the Tenderloin and several other neighborhoods, yet human waste is still routinely found between parked cars on the street and in local alleyways. Many times APTs are broken or vandalized in San Francisco: see Precedent Analysis section for details. There are other options for public restrooms beyond the APT: one option may be to have standalone or storefront restrooms with a combination of toilets, sinks, and/or showers with attendants or vendors nearby that feel some responsibility for the restroom’s wellbeing. Another option could be semi-public restrooms located inside a private space, such as a hotel, museum, or parking lot, that have a public entrance for all to use. (2] Project Summary 9
Project Users This project will serve the needs of commuters traveling by foot, bus, bike, train, or car to areas in or alongside the Tenderloin. It will serve the needs of tourists or those attending restaurants, bars, cafes, shows, concerts or events in the neighborhood. It will serve the neighborhood’s large homeless population, and those living in SRO buildings who have less regular access to restroom facilities. For those who work in a location without a working bathroom, it could serve as a backup toilet solution. It will serve the needs of the elderly, retired, and unemployed. Each of these types of users may have a different set of needs for the toilets: Bike travelers may like to have bike parking near the restroom, while car commuters or car drivers may advocate for an accessible 10 min parking space adjacent to the restroom. Tourists would like to have map information available, late night users (bar and concert goers, etc) would like the space to be well-lit, safe, and easy to identify at night. Potential users have had a lot to say in the past months. See the community feedback section for more details.
Project Overview A public toilet is an inherently sensitive space that may provoke emotions such as fear, desperation, and disgust in a user. Any public restroom deemed by individuals to be less than clean, private, and safe will be rejected except in case of emergency. The most valuable public restrooms are those that strike a balance between privacy and safety, comfort and functionality, as well as anonymity and accessibility. Any variation from “normal” toilet fixture functionality may cause confusion in a public toilet and ultimately fail in the long run. Nonetheless, public toilets are a necessity in creating useful public environments. Relieving oneself in public may be illegal, but for some there is no alternative. It is with openness and flexibility that we propose a new public toilet in the Tenderloin. Our proposed toilet will use a probationary approach to designing for the Tenderloin’s crowded urban environment: a restroom without permanent plumbing or an electrical connection that is simultaneously easy to move and hard to break or vandalize. We seek to provide a guide to design, build, and maintain such a restroom, complete with a list of recommended design features and choices of options that can be selected by community members, government permitting bodies, the CBD board members, and involved stakeholders.
We seek to provide a guide to design, build, and maintain such a restroom, complete with a list of recommended design features and choices of options that can be selected by community members, government permitting bodies, the CBD board members, and involved stakeholders.
Potential Project Users: The Toilet Project has considered the varying needs of a wide demographic. From pregnant women, local business owners and clientele, late night clubbers, the elderly, children, homeless, cyclists, transit riders, tourist shoppers, and beyond, we have strived to consider the needs of many potential users throughout the process. Image Source: Hyphae Design Lab
cafes bars existing APTâ€™s service orgs other businesses less reliable --- more reliable less numerous --- more numerous minimum toilet access hours reduced toilet access hours Estimations of restroom access to existing facilities in terms of reliability.
Our goal is that the toilet will embody progressive environmental ideals: sustainable water, energy, and waste solutions, while realizing that socio-individual and community needs are of utmost importance. An infographic showing our initial vision for the toilet concept is shown on the following pages. Project Summary 11
A New Public Restroom Paradigm: Advertiser-Funded Model vs. Community-Funded Model
Infographic designed by Hyphae Design Lab.
“The Tenderloin does in fact need more restrooms available for those who can’t afford to pay a merchant just to use their bathroom facilities. No one needs a bladder infection from not being able to relieve themselves.” - comment sourced from online press “Tenderloin Toilets” St. Anthony’s Blog Sunday, March 11, 2011
Project Summary 13
Existing Conditions Summary This section will provide some historical and present-day information about the Tenderloin neighborhood community and its relation to public sanitation, examine the current issue of public urination/defecation, and give an overview of existing organizations’ experiences with providing public toilets. This chapter, “Existing Conditions,” is divided into the following sections: • Community Background • Current Restroom Issues • Tenderloin Incident “Hotspots” Site Walk
Community Background The Tenderloin is a dynamic area with great population diversity and density, and has been this way for many years. In the late 19th and early 20th century, the Tenderloin had a high density of single-room hotels and rooms for rent, as it does today, and was a popular location for ship workers and other traveling professionals to live on a temporary basis. At that time, the neighborhood housed several public bath-houses catering to those staying in rentals that did not include private baths. In the early twentieth century, hotels would charge guests a fee to take a bath, so public baths were a popular alternative. One Tenderloin bathhouse, the Hammam Sultan Baths, was constructed in 1910 at 227-231 Ellis Street and featured a saltwater plunge pool. Another bathhouse, at the corner of Bush and Larkin, was Lurline Baths. Constructed in 1894, destroyed by the 1906 earthquake, and rebuilt in 1915, Lurline was demolished in 1936 , , .
At least 30 well-known non-profit organizations provide services such as food, shelter, and job/technical training for low income and homeless people in the neighborhood. Some of these organizations allow public use of their restrooms, but others can’t afford the maintenance/utility expenses of keeping their restrooms open to all. 14
In response to question, “What is your take on building [ecological] public toilets in the Tenderloin?” “[G]ood idea. We need them. I pee [on trees and in the Tenderloin National Forest] because I know it is nitrogen but I do it in spots where there is mulch.” “Do you think providing public toilets will be helpful?” “That’s a good thing, why not? And let them know that their time is up because I know some people go there and go to sleep there … don’t go there and get high; use it and get out.” A small snippet of input gathered from community members during the participatory design process.
Today, the Tenderloin is home to about 40% of San Francisco’s homeless population and the median household income is below $27,000 . Many of the neighborhood’s historic hotel buildings currently house single room occupancy efficiency apartments, also called “SROs.” There are approximately 208 SROs in the neighborhood with a total of about 8,616 units . At least 30 wellknown non-profit organizations provide services such as food, shelter, and job/technical training for low income and homeless people in the neighborhood. Some of these organizations allow public use of their restrooms, but others can’t afford the maintenance/utility expenses of keeping their restrooms open to all. Outside of these organizations, there are a limited number of publicly available toilets for the homeless but also for those visiting the Tenderloin for business, nightlife, cultural events, restaurants, or tourism. Also scant are public amenities such as benches and public green spaces that are not behind locked gates, partially due to the large expense required to keep these amenities clean, safe, and functional in this intensely urban environment. Existing Conditions 15
Current Restroom Issues The only truly public restrooms available in the Tenderloin are the four JCDecaux APTs. These are located at • Jones and Eddy streets (at the entrance to Boeddeker Park) • Larkin between O’Farrell and Alice B. Toklas Pl. • Market + 7th or UN Plaza (approximately 1117 Market St) • Civic Center Plaza (approximately 62 Grove St) All other restrooms in the neighborhood are privately owned, but may be available for public use through private businesses and nonprofits who choose to offer them. A comprehensive survey of restroom availability at local organizations is shown in the Community Feedback chapter under the “Street Survey” section. Through interviews and meetings with local business owners and building managers, we have gathered information regarding the high utility and maintenance expenses of providing a public restroom. • A representative from the Central City Hospitality House reported 15,000 toilet flushes per month, raising water bills significantly. • The building manager from Glide reported 3,000 toilet flushes per day for toilets that are open during mealtimes. • Due to high toilet traffic, Glide spends about $17,500 per year on labor and parts costs fixing broken toilet and sink fixtures and about $5,000 per year on routine maintenance and cleaning of toilets. Glide spends about $3,000 per year fixing outside doors corroded from public urination. • Many anonymous business owners have closed restrooms to the public after experiencing toilet and sink vandalism, drug abuse and overdosing in restrooms, and fixture malfunctions.
Tenderloin Incident “Hotspots” Site Walk The San Francisco Clean City Coalition regularly collects data about Tenderloin “incidents” as part of its street and sidewalk cleaning program. An incident in this case signifies a documented finding of human waste on city streets. As part of our early project research, Hyphae staff took to the streets of the Tenderloin to visit some of the most notorious locations listed in previous years’ incident reports. Included in this site walk was Dodge Alley, a small alley located near the intersection of Turk and Larkin, several sidewalk inset locations and doorways, and zones comprised of well-vegetated areas adjacent to large government buildings. The areas were naturally more private and sheltered, in general; off of main streets and sidewalks; and out of view, often in alleyways. Additionally, some of the areas were within proximity to bars and clubs, suggesting a potential need for late-night, after-hours access to public restroom use. 16
Due to high toilet traffic, Glide spends about $17,500 per year on labor and parts costs fixing broken toilet and sink fixtures and about $5,000 per year on routine maintenance and cleaning of toilets. Glide spends about $3,000 per year fixing outside doors corroded from public urination.
One of the most notorious locations for street defecation, Dodge Alley in the Tenderloin. Image Source: Kadi Franson, Hyphae Design Lab
“There has been a dire need of facilities in San Francisco for a long, long time. We as citizens of this earth have the same basic needs, every one of us.” - comment sourced from online press “Tenderloin Toilets” St. Anthony’s Blog Sunday, March 11, 2011
“On a recent trip to St. Petersburg, in Russia, I saw a bus that had been converted into a rolling restroom. It got electricity from somewhere and there was a hose snaking down into a nearby sewer. It cost 75 cents to use, and it was clean. There were two buses, actually, one for men and one for women. It was a terrific idea.” - comment sourced from online press “San Francisco Aims to Be No. 1 at Dealing with... Number 2” The Bay Citizen September 1, 2011
Existing Conditions 17
Highest Number of “Incidents” Reported in the Tenderloin
HIGHEST NUMBER OF “INCIDENTS” REPORTED IN THE T T TAYLOR S
J ONES S
S VAN NES
“INCIDENTS”15 REPORTED IN THE TENDERLOIN DISTRICT 7 REET
T TAYLOR S
1. SHANNON STREET: 103 2. CONTINENTAL MAIL COMPANY: 106 REET 8 9 TURK ST T E RE 3. 445 LEAVENWORTH STREET: 82 T 10 S 11 T E K AR STREET: 55 4. 215 TAYLOR M 5. 340 EDDY STREET: 70 1TER STREET MCALLIS 6. 366 EDDY STREET: 58 L CITY HAL 2 7. 241 JONES STREET: 66 8. 60 LEAVENWORTH STREET: 54 3 9. 44 MCALLISTER: 56 4 THE TENDERLOIN DISTRICT 10. 55 HYDE STREET: 63 5 6 11. BREEN ALLEY: 80 7 12. DODGE ALLEY: 123 1. SHANNON STREET: 103 2. CONTINENTAL MAIL COMPANY: 106 13. 550 LARKIN STREET: 55 14. 587 EDDY STREET: 57 3. 445 LEAVENWORTH STREET: 82 8 9 15. WILLOW ALLEY: 73 4. 215 TAYLORRESTREET: 55 ET 10 ST Shown are the locations with the highest number of incidents T 5. 340 EDDYARKESTREET: 70 out of 70+ locations sampled and nearly 10,000 total incidents M found in a single year! 6. 366 EDDY STREET: 58 source: clean city data report 2010 7. 241 JONES STREET: 66 8. 60 LEAVENWORTH STREET: 54 hyphae design laboratory 9. 44 MCALLISTER: 56 10. 55 HYDE STREET: 63 11. BREEN ALLEY: 80 1812. DODGE ALLEY: 123 REET
1. SH 2. CO 3. 44 4. 21 5. 34 6. 36 7. 24 8. 60 9. 44 10. 5 11. B 12. D 13. 5 14. 5 15. W
Shown out of found
Initial site walk through the Tenderloin, looking at some of the hotspots listed on the incident report. Image Source: Kadi Franson, Hyphae Design Lab
What are the current costs of incident cleanup in the Tenderloin? To find out, we called the San Francisco Department of Public Works, which is currently responsible for cleaning up human excrement on the streets. Here is the resulting information: - DPW gets about seven calls per day. - From DPW warehouse at 2323 Cesar Chavez, its about 7-8 miles (say 7.5) roundtrip and 20-30 min in transit (source: googlemaps). - Cleanup takes about 10 minutes, conservatively. Therefore, each incident is 30-40 min (say 35 min.) - 7.5 miles of gas equates to $1.25/trip. (1/15 mpg for truck)($3.50 per gallon, cheap gas) = $1.25 per trip. - At 7 calls per day, every day of the year, this equates to $59,617 per year in labor costs. (365 days per year) (35min/60 min per hour) ($40 / hour) = $59,617 - At 7 calls per day, transport equates to $4,471/year. (7 calls per day)(365 days per year)
Conservative Estimate = about $65K/year If the actual number of incidents is 10,000 per year (instead of current calculation of 2555 per year), then costs increase to about $250K per year! These costs should be kept in consideration when evaluating the estimated cost of an ecological public toilet. - source: SF DPW spokesperson for 2011 records
Existing Conditions 19
Community Summary The Tenderloin restroom project’s success is hinged on community participation in the planning process and neighborhood acceptance of the resulting structure. The project partners are committed to using a community participatory design process. Through community meetings, design charrettes, local art prototype displays, surveys, and other feedback loops, we have gathered and will continue to gather information, advice, opinions, and critiques to inform design and restroom management plans. We have had numerous meetings with community members, local non profit organizations, city government agencies, and local businesses in an attempt to make the restroom a structure that all will appreciate, use, and admire for years to come. These meetings have yielded a wide swath of opinions, recommendations, and advice. In an attempt to synthesize this multifaceted feedback, this chapter will present all feedback as concisely as possible and then use it in our design recommendations. The chapter is divided into the following sections: • Meetings to Date • Town Hall -Locations -Design Criteria -Safety • City Family -Long-term maintenance/operation costs -Integration with existing city services • Service Organizations -Predicted usage, maintenance/operation costs -Strategic locations to enable community stewardship • Twitter -Crowd-sourced fundraising and monitoring opportunities • Rebar -Comprehensive community participation • Surveys • SF Parks • Google • Street Survey • TNF Residency • Other
“Some great ideas here. Someday they will be the norm.” - comment sourced from online press “The Bathroom Reinvented: Hyphae” Dwell Article/Video June 2009
Toilet Town Hall Meeting fliers were generously hung all around the Tenderloin by neighborhood organizations and volunteers.
Meetings to Date Town Hall Meetings On November 10th, 2011, two Town Hall Meetings took place at Saint Anthony’s Poverello Room with a total of about 40 in attendance. Those present were primarily from local service organizations, along with some residents, business owners, university students, and concerned SF citizens. The meeting started with general questions and concerns about the project, then broke into smaller groups to discuss potential restroom locations and channel knowledge about locations throughout the neighborhood. Location feedback from the meeting is shown in the Location Analysis chapter, while other concerns about toilet design, drug use, and use by the neighborhood’s homeless population are shown below. Toilet design was a key concern at the Town Hall Meetings: how to create a sense of privacy while still ensuring safety. Transparency or translucency was controversial: some vocal participants rejected wall translucency of any kind. Shy bladder syndrome was noted as a reason. A positive aspect of translucency was safety: the ability to see the number of people inside and/or their body position (lying vs. standing). Other design concerns included making toilets user-friendly for women and people with disabilities. Women were concerned that men would make unisex restrooms dirty, and some mentioned risks of violence associated with public restrooms. Baby changing tables and hygenic automatic seat covers were two ideas that could improve a woman’s experience using the restroom. Designing for users with disabilities was another priority: at least one ADA-compliant stall was recommended. Drug use was another major concern. The majority of Town Hall attendees supported providing biohazard bins for used needles and an emergency call button in each stall to help with overdoses. Translucency or grates could help discover multiple drug users or users seated/lying down. Using blue-colored lights was cited as a way to discourage the use of needles, making it difficult for people to see veins. The neighborhood’s large homeless population was another topic of discussion. Having a place for the thousands of homeless persons to relieve themselves is critical to the cleanliness of the Tenderloin, but it is important that the restrooms not be taken over by individuals or small groups for sleeping or activities that exclude usage by others. Strategies to provide sturdy automated doors, toilet attendants/ambassadors, sinks outside of the stalls and/or some level of translucency or noise transparency are considered essential. 22
Interactive toilet mapping excercise at a Town Hall Meeting held by Hyphae Design Laboratory and the NoM-TL CBD at St. Anthony’s Poverello Room on November 10th, 2011 at 2:00 pm. A second session was held at 5:30 pm to focus on more general community concerns, including safety and funding, related to the toilet design. Image Source: Brent Bucknum, Hyphae Design Lab
“I have worked and lived in the TL for 25 years. On several public meetings/occasions I have advocated – among many other human needs that the homeless require – for the establishment of FREE 24/7 restrooms – no need here to explain why – with security/attendants to monitor the facilities.” - comment sourced from online press “Tenderloin Toilets” St. Anthony’s Blog Sunday, March 11, 2011
Meetings to Date City Family Meetings We met with officials from each of the city agencies listed on page 3 of this document, including a representative from Jane Kimâ€™s office of the Board of Supervisors. In general, the representatives from city government bodies were in support of the project, citing its environmental and social goals as important to San Francisco. Several officials were concerned about long-term funding to maintain the restrooms for their entire lifecycle, and some suggested that the toilet project combine multiple resources to make operations and maintenance of the toilets possible. For example, SF Clean City employees could do weekly or daily power washing of the restrooms using a small increase to SF Clean Cityâ€™s budget paid by the North of Market-Tenderloin Community Benefit District. General Assistance workers assigned to Glide or the St. Anthony Foundation could help with restocking and basic operations tasks with very little additional expenditure, and the existing San Francisco Community Ambassadors program could provide training for restroom attendants.
City Family Meeting members sit around the table to discuss plans for bringing toilets to the Tenderloin. Image Source: Julia Schmitt, Hyphae Design Lab
Meetings to Date Service Organization Meetings We met with several nonprofit organizations in the Tenderloin, including representatives from Glide, the St. Anthony Foundation, Youth With a Mission (YWAM), Tenderloin Neighborhood Development Corporation, and Trust for Public Land. The chart at right shows many of the outcomes and suggestions we received. Overall, these organizations will be critical to the functioning of the restroom for a number of reasons. The first three (Glide, St Anthony, and YWAM) can help us understand usage patterns of and potential problems associated with homeless persons who are likely to use the restroom regularly. We can base our restroom maintenance costs loosely on their experience. If these organizations are located near the restroom site, they can act as stewards for the toilet - reporting suspicious activity in and around the restroom, helping organize restroom maintenance, and just providing a positive influence on the area. The Trust for Public Land is working to install parklets in the neighborhood, and helped explore the idea of incorporating toilets into existing parklet plans. Twitter A meeting with a community outreach employee at Twitter established potential collaboration in the toilet design process and its operations and maintenance plan. It was determined that Twitter could play a role in organizing a hackathon that would challenge participants to explore the use of technology, including phone and web apps, in designing the toilet’s payment and fundraising strategy, using crowd-sourced maintenance notifications, keeping the toilet safe and well-monitored, and improving overall toilet user experience.
“All Muni stations, gas stations, grocery stores (even small ones), drugstores, post offices, etc.... need CLEAN public restrooms.”
Rebar Rebar meetings resulted in several innovative suggestions to further community participation, including having a gallery show rather than a one-time charrette to gather feedback and design ideas. This idea came to fruition as part of the Tenderloin National Forest / Luggage Store Gallery Artist-in-residence program.
- comment sourced from online press “Its Time to Raise a Stink Over Public Toilets,” SF Gate Sunday, December 11, 2011
Surveys In order to get additional community feedback, we’ve used past survey information and our own surveys to learn more about community opinions about restrooms, what people currently do when they need a restroom, and where people are regularly able to go. SF Parks Survey San Francisco Recreation and Parks conducted a survey in 2007 of about 500 users of SF parks, and had a significant number of questions related to park restrooms. Of particular note were the following responses: 45% of respondents noted that the availability or condition of park restroom is always or often a factor in the length of their visit. Park restrooms were the most frequently cited park feature needing improvements (67% of responses). It seems restrooms are a matter of importance to those using outdoor spaces. In indicating the biggest problems with park restrooms, lack of cleanliness and lack of availability were both the most common responses while safety was the third largest concern. Google Survey Hyphae and the NoM-TL CBD collaborated to generate an online Google survey related to the availability of restrooms in the neighborhood and the perceived need for new public restrooms. The survey had 15 respondents who reported to spend a significant amount of time in and near the Tenderloin neighborhood. Of these, ten people felt positively about the project overall, saying that they believed the toilet project was a moderate to high priority for the neighborhood. The same ten people reported being upset about the amount of human waste found on the streets/ sidewalks. Two other people felt that a toilet project was not necessary, and that the project would decrease the quality of life in the neighborhood by creating “new horrid toilets” or more places for the homeless to hang out. Three people did not respond to the question about how important a new toilet would be. Two out of fifteen of those surveyed had used public restrooms in the neighborhood, while thirteen had never used one. The two that had used public restrooms used the library, a restaurant, and JCDecaux restrooms. The biggest concerns noted by participants were that the toilets would not remain clean, or that they would be taken over by drug users. Secondarily, participants worried about safety of restrooms, and the cost to the taxpayer. Participants were overall in favor of paying to use public restrooms, with 13 being willing to pay. One of these was only willing to pay $.10, while six were in favor of paying $.25. Two would pay $.50, while another 4 people would pay $1 to use a public restroom. Due to the small survey size, these data are not a reliable indicator of the overall popula26tion’s willingness to pay for a public restroom. However, it could
100% of Google survey respondents are upset about the amount of human waste found on streets/sidewalks. 10 out of 15 people surveyed consider the public toilet project a moderate to high priority for the neighborhood The top concern raised was how the toilets would be kept clean, followed by the possibility of drug use, safety in restrooms, and the cost to taxpayers.
WE WOULD LOVE TO HEAR FROM YOU:
Early in the Toilet Project, we brainstormed ways of garnering feedback from community members on an ongoing basis. One of those ideas was to leave comment postcards at various Tenderloin locations. This card enabled people to respond via email or through postcard drop-off locations.
Street Survey The Tenderloin Toilet Survey or â€œStreet Surveyâ€? was an effort funded by a private individual through the NoM-TL CBD to map and track all restrooms available for use in the Tenderloin neighborhood, both north and south of Market St., during business hours on a weekday. An anonymous resident was hired to walk door-to-door asking to use the restroom at all businesses and organizations with a storefront in the fifty blocks of the Tenderloin. All locations where he was able to use the toilet were photographed and tracked through a paper spreadsheet. The results of the survey were utilized to generate a map showcasing accessible and non-accessible public restroom zones. In total there were 96 toilets available for use by the public without payment or purchase out of a total of 309 locations visited.
Resident Bio We collaborated with a formerly homeless, middle-aged male resident from the Tenderloin to conduct the Street Survey. After the survey, Kadi Franson of Hyphae Design Lab conducted a short phone interview with him in order to find out more about his experience. Read the interview on the following pages.
Of 309 locations visited, 31% had toilets available for use by the public without payment or purchase.
Tenderloin Toilet Survey - Accessible toilets of the neighborhood. Image Source: Robert Brandreth
A Short Interview with the Surveyor After the street survey, Kadi Franson of Hyphae Design Lab conducted a short interview with the surveyor to learn more about his thoughts regarding the Street Survey experience. KF: Do you have any experience with trying to use the restroom in the Tenderloin under other circumstances? S: Yes I have. Not the same places though, I wouldn’t even think to try some of the places, because they’re so high-end, like some of the hotels. Normally I’d try a Starbucks or something first, or go to the cafe and buy something for a dollar to use their restroom. KF: Did you feel as though the survey results were similar to what you have experienced previously? S: Not familiar with a lot of the places, such as the hotels. Some were surprisingly accommodating. KF: Do you think that certain variables would alter the results? If so, what are they? S: Yes - if a woman, or somebody who looked obviously like a street person, or even a black person, did the survey, or if it was at different times of day, all of these things would probably alter the results. KF: Did you find that specific areas of the neighborhood had more or less access to restrooms? S: Higher access - up by Gehry, O’Farrell, and Ellis, near Union Square, where all the high-end hotels are. Lower access - in the heart of the Tenderloin, businesses were much more reluctant. That’s where you see all of the ‘customers only’, or ‘no public bathroom signs.’ Around Taylor, Jones, Leavenworth, Hyde, Church, Eddy, Ellis and O’Farrell, where people are on the street openly drinking and drugging, people are more reluctant. One person told me that they’ve had an overdose in their bathroom, and so they don’t let people use it anymore because of insurance liability. Sometimes there would be a sign and they would still let me use the bathroom, but they’d just ask me to please not make a mess. Seems that things are pretty case by case sometimes. KF: Any other relevant observations/experiences/anecdotes from your walk around the Tenderloin? It was interesting how many people would be willing to help out if a business owner said no. People sitting nearby, they’d tell me where to go (across the street or to a specific business or whatever) 30
KF: Does it seem that people generally know where to find bathrooms in the neighborhood then? S: Not really. Its hard to tell. Some people know, but others who might be new to the neighborhood don’t. There are some places that are financed to provide restrooms all day, like the Rescue Mission. The Self Help on Turk and Leavenworth also has restroom availability. I work with Youth With A Mission as a bathroom attendant on Fridays from 2-4:20, where you can take a shower and use the restroom, you just need a time slot. We provide soap and towels. KF: Do a lot of people show up during those times? S: We generally get a core group of about five guys that hang out on Ellis most of the time. Sometimes we get a woman. The guys like it though as compared to other places, like Embassy South, where people can shower but others will run off with your stuff. At YWAM they get the shower to themselves for twenty minutes so they don’t have to worry about it. KF: Do you feel like having an attendant there is a factor in what makes the service successful? S: Probably. KF: We’ve talked a lot about having an attendant present for the public restroom, to make sure that its being used properly. Thoughts? S: Yeah, because at the push-button toilets you never know what’s going on. Door opens, several people come out, drugging, people turn tricks in there or whatever. KF: Do you have any other thoughs about the project? S: I think that you guys are on the right track and you’re doing a good thing, trying to find out what will work best in the Tenderloin. Doing the survey was actually pretty fun. I’ve never done anything like that before. KF: Thanks for all of your hard work!
184 185 186
195 192 193 194
191 189 190
62% NO 4% YES
E OFARR 163
119 249 118 175 248 174
EDD69Y ST 70
TE AVE 227
221 45 44
82% NO 6% YES
274 26 259 273 258 272 257 256 255 254 250 253 252 251
E K R
286 287 288
223 48 47 46
61 62 59 60
108 113 112 111 110 56
76 234 235
93 94 95
75 74 73
77 114 243
90 9192 87 88 89 72% NO 16% YES
127 126 183182 125 79 117
81 241 246 242 245 244 181
170 169 167
123 165 120 121 122
17 14 15 16 13 12 11 10 219 7 8 9 220 218 138 151 156 137 158 136 135 150149 153152 154 157155 217 161 160 159 216
RY ST5 GEA 4
198 199 200
205 206 20
205 206 207
215 24 213 212 214 209 210 211
35 31 36
39 43 42 41 40
82% NO 6% YES
262 261 305 304 274 260 306 303 259 73 258 307 302 301 257 293 308 256 270 309 292 255 4
285 284 283 22% NO 32 67% YES 282 266 281 300 280 267 299 268 298 297 265 296 269 295
19% NO 62% YES
VE GRANT A
Three low-access zones were identified, areas in which 60% or more of businesses surveyed did not have a toilet available to the public. Highaccess zones were defined as areas in which greater than 60% of businesses surveyed had available toilets.
16% NO 23 79% YES 22 21 19 20 18 25 26 27 144 28 141142 143 140 29 145 147 146 148
Tenderloin Business Toilet Survey toilet: allowed to use toilet: allowed with purchase toilet: employees only no toilet: reported by business
Availability low toilet access < 40% toilet access high toilet access > 60% toilet access urban green space
Tenderloin Toilet Survey - Accessible toilets of the neighborhood. Image Source: Robert Brandreth
The results of the survey were utilized to generate a photographic archive of all accessible toilets. In total, there were 96 toilets available for use by the public without payment or purchase out of a total of 309 locations visited.
Other Feedback The first presentations and meetings with the NoM-TL CBD focused on how the CBD is looking at various options for restrooms in the neighborhood. Eventually a storefront restroom may be desired, but given the expense required, boardmembers consider it opportune to build something less permanent and less expensive. Preliminary meetings with SF Clean City discussed the possibility of using Clean City employees to help maintain restrooms, but also cautioned us about the necessity to design restrooms that are easily cleaned and built tough enough to withstand abuse. Putting restrooms near key “hang-out spots” and near where waste is often found in the neighborhood are considered two possible strategies. Additionally, it was suggested that new restrooms be placed at a distance from existing JCDecaux restrooms. At two meetings with the SFPUC, it was noted that we must be careful about where to use composted waste. The SFPUC had an unpleasant experience giving away municipal sewage compost to schools and homeowners - many groups complained about health risks. However, if correctly handled, compost from human waste could be a valuable commodity. At the second meeting, it was determined that we should work with SFPUC at every level to get various systems permitted. Many ideas - rainwater harvesting, greywater reuse, solar panels, greenery/green walls - were met with enthusiasm.
The SFPUC had an unpleasant experience giving away municipal sewage compost to schools and homeowners - many groups complained about health risks. However, if correctly handled, compost from human waste could be a valuable commodity.
A few examples of the many various ideas, notes, and sketches that we’ve collected over the course of the project.
Tenderloin National Forest Residency
Throughout the residency, Hyphae staff held daily drop-in “office hours,” inviting passersby to come in, chat, and write down or draw ideas related to toilets and urban forests.
During the month of April 2012, Hyphae Design Laboratory was the artist-in-residence at the Luggage Store Gallery “Annex” at 509 Ellis St. The residency focused on gathering individual community member quotes, hosting brainstorming sessions and art openings to call into question and debate potential toilet design principles, and look into synergies between the toilet project and Hyphae’s other work - design of the retrofit and expansion of the Tenderloin National Forest (an alley converted into a community garden). Hyphae displayed drawings and maps showing current work on the toilet project, images of existing gardens and green roofs/walls, and renderings showing proposed future locations of urban greening projects. Throughout the residency, Hyphae staff held daily drop-in “office hours,” inviting passersby (via a sign posted on the sidewalk outside) to come in, chat, and write down or draw ideas related to toilets and urban forests on the walls. Hyphae held an art opening and community design charrette focused on toilet design principles on April 12, 2012.
Office hours during the Tenderloin National Forest month-long residency. Image Source: Emma Oppen, Hyphae Design Lab
Community members and visitors of the Tenderloin National Forest. Image Source: SF Gate Blog â€œSunday Streets in the Tenderloin & Civic Center was Sunny and Sparseâ€?
Hyphae Design Lab conducting toilet events during the Tenderloin National Forest month-long residency. Image Source: Eric Olson, Hyphae Design Lab
A mind map showing many of the design inspirations we recorded throughout our discussions with the community and local stakeholders.
Location Analysis Summary In any building project, various project site criteria will inform the building’s design. Conversely, the building design goals will inform which sites should be considered. The Tenderloin toilet design has a number of potential forms, each of which has a number of site considerations. The first and primary typology is the “parklet” design - a mobile (skid-mounted) or quickly assembled structure located in one or two parking spaces. Other typologies include a storefront restroom built into an existing building or a permanent or semi-permanent stand-alone building located in a plaza or sidewalk space. For the parklet typology, location is important but flexible. If a particular location is not working well, the toilet structure can be moved to a new location quickly. For the other typologies, significantly more time will need to be invested in siting the toilet, and the permitting process will be more laborious. Partner organization input, community feedback, discussions with permitting agencies, and various site constraints have influenced our location analysis. Selection criteria for locations is shown under “Site Considerations” below, and “Potential Sites” shows some of the locations we recommend based on these criteria and organization/community member feedback. Although the potential site locations are primarily focused on the parklet typology, other locations examined during the masterplanning process include UN Plaza and Market St at Golden Gate St.
Site Considerations 1. Community Input: Where people have noticed “incidents,” where they feel safe or unsafe, observed gathering zones, suggestions for toilet locations. 2. Current Incident Locations: Areas that are currently popular for street defecation and urination. 3. Location of Neighborhood Stewards: Organizations that might be able to provide maintenance and monitoring. 4. Location of Safe Havens: Denoting safe spaces to take shelter in case of emergency. 5. Areas of Crime: One month of data, analyzed to find areas of higher crime. 6. Existing Public Toilet Locations 7. Transit Areas: Bus stops, routes, and cycling paths.
Some field photographs of site location considerations for the Public Toilet Project. Image Source: Kadi Franson, Hyphae Design Lab
Site Considerations, continued 8. Green Space Availability: Current parks and open spaces. 9. Lots: We investigated the existing vacant lots and parking lots as potential attractors for siting, in that they provide areas where local businesses will not be affected by a toilet structure parked in front. 10. Solar Access: Identifying sun availability as it will affect the potential to grow vegetation around the structure. 11. Topography: Existing slopes may affect drainage design. 12. Hydrant Locations: Proximity to backup water supplies, as needed. 13. Storm Drain Locations: Proximity to overflow drains for greywater from the planters.
(Above) 1. Sidewalk widths range in size from approximately 9â€™-20â€™ in the Tenderloin. We tried to locate sites with wider sidewalks, to prevent the toilet from becoming an obstruction to current programming. 2. The intersection of Jones and Golden Gate can become very crowded during dining hours at the St. Anthony Foundation. Good spot for a public restroom? 3. Observing the performance of existing street features. 4. Curbside storm drain in the Tenderloin can serve as a backup destination for greywater overflow. 5. Metered parking spots in the neighborhood that are reserved for commercial loading. 6. Proximity to neighborhood stewards ensures extra added care and monitoring. Location Analysis 41
1. Community Meeting Notes
2. Incident Locations
3. Neighborhood Stewards
4. Local Safe Havens
Location Analysis 43
5. Crime Zones
6. Existing Public Toilets
7. Transit Lines
8. Existing Open Space
Location Analysis 45
9. Lots: Vacant and Parking
10. Solar Access
12. Fire Hydrant Locations
Location Analysis 47
13. Storm Drain Locations
14. Proposed Locations
A parklet under construction near the streets of Jones and Geary in the Tenderloin. Image Source: Kadi Franson, Hyphae Design Lab
Location Analysis 49
Site Typologies: In the beginning of the project, we considered other location typologies for building a public toilet in the Tenderloin: a free-standing plaza location, a storefront location, and a parkletstyle location.
For the parklet typology, location is important but flexible. If a particular location is not working well, the toilet structure can be moved to a new location quickly. For the other typologies, significantly more time will need to be invested in siting the toilet, and the permitting process will be more laborious.
Examples of Parklets in the Bay Area 1. Actual Cafe. Image source: blog.archpaper.com 2. Guerrero Street. Image source: www.sierraclubgreenhome.com 3. Tonyâ€™s Pizza Napoletana. Image source: www.architecturalrecord.com
WHAT ARE PARKLETS?
WHAT CAN BE PUT ON A PARKLET?
Parklets are intended to provide space for people to sit and relax and enjoy the city around them, especially where narrow sidewalks would otherwise preclude such activities. They are intended to be seen as a piece of street furniture, providing aesthetic enhancement to the overall streetscape. While we ask that the permit holder sponsor the Parklet (more information on back), Parklets are public space and must be publicly accessible. Table service is not permitted.
Parklets can feature: Tables and chairs for public use (must be different design than what you may already be using as part of your business) Benches Planters and landscaping features Bicycle parking While other uses are possible on a Parklet, please remember that the goal of these spaces is to provide room for people to sit and relax. For images of existing Parklets, please see the Pavement to Parks website,
DESIGN AND PLACEMENT GUIDELINES 1. Max of 6’ width. 2. Maintain curbline drainage.
3. Parklet decking flush with curb, 1/2” gap max.
4. 4’ distance from parklet to wheel stop. 5. 3’ Wheel stop installed 1’ from curb 6. Reflective soft hit posts.
Flow of Traffic
7. Visually permeable outside edge. Railing may be required. 8. Generally 2 parking spots per parklet, expansion may be considered.
A page of the SF Planning Department’s parklet application, showing general guidelines and parameters for parking space proposals. http://sfpavementtoparks.sfplanning.org/
Location Analysis 51
2. Jones and Ellis
3. Jones and Golden Gate
t Larkin S
1. Turk and Leavenworth
t Potential Sites: Ofarrell S
1. Turk + Leavenworth 2. Jones + Ellis
3. Jones + Golden Gate
45’ YWAM Eddy St
Tenderloin Neighborhood Development Corporation
Community Housing Partnership Boys and Girls Club
50’ St. Anthony’s Foundation
ve en Gate A
*street widths are approximate
50’ The Luggage Store Gallery
Three examples of site location for the Public Toilet Project. Site considerations have been annotated. Image Source: Hyphae Design Lab
Nearby Storm Drains
Nearby Neighborhood Stewards St Direction n of Slope o
M Existing APT’s (JC Decaux)
Number of Traffic Lanes h 6t St
Location Analysis 53
Precedent Analysis Public Toilet Background We chose a few public toilet examples to analyze what works and what doesnâ€™t in terms of design, siting, operations and maintenance, and funding sources. These examples include JCDecaux toilets in San Francisco, San Francisco Parks and Recreation restrooms, Bryant Park Toilets in New York City, the Portland Loo, and the Bronx Zoo Eco Restrooms. For historical persective, we examined night soil collection in the US, Europe, and China, as well as the public toilets of the Roman Empire. Our global search for examples encouraged us to examine the models of Sulabh International in India and Compostera in Sweden, both of which are using alternative methods of composting or biogas generating public toilet provision. For architectural design inspiration, we looked at public park toilets in Hiroshima, Japan, UriLift temporary urinals invented in Holland and used throughout Europe, along with some images of visually striking toilets and urinals in public spaces and bars.
“...At 16th and Mission the prostitutes use the JCD to turn tricks and keep tight control on access... you aint getting inside unless you pay...and it is more than the cost of admission to open the door. Second, what about Amsterdam? I saw plenty of boys leaned into a public urinal after the bars closed...may be an experiment SF could try.” - comment sourced from online press “Its Time to Raise a Stink Over Public Toilets,” SF Gate Saturday, December 10, 2011
JCDecaux is an international advertising company based in France that specializes in outdoor and shopping mall advertising kiosks. It has installed 113 advertising kiosks throughout San Francisco since 1994, in exchange for providing 25 automated public toilets (APTs) to the city free of charge (maintenance included). Four of these toilets are present in or around the North of Market - Tenderloin area, at the following addresses: the NE corner of Jones St and Eddy St (in front of Boeddeker Park), 1128 Market Street (UN Plaza), 892 Market Street (near Powell BART) and Larkin St at O’Farrell. Since their installation, the JCDecaux APTs have gone through a lot of turmoil. In 1996, after the first 19 toilets had been installed, many SF Chronicle articles praised the “high tech toilets:” at that time the Market/Powell toilet was flushed 150 times per day. By late 2001 into 2002, the toilet problems started getting media attention. The Chronicle published over 30 articles describing the restrooms’ woes: they were broken or vandalized and used for sex (often prostitution), drugs, and camping out or sleeping. In 2002, many of the toilets were ordered to be closed at night. In 2012, the toilets are still the subject of controversy, frequent vandalism, and misuse, but JCDecaux has not given up and is still making plans to install more of its restrooms on San Francisco Streets. The city is no longer permitting additional advertisements, so the model of advertiser funded restrooms will not be possible for new construction. Although the JCDecaux toilets’ financial model has proved successful, the APTs’ design and siting have encouraged the range of problems they have experienced. Seattle had similar difficulties after installing JCDecaux APTs, with restrooms becoming so dirty that they were no longer fit for use. Some of the suspected design failures include: dark lighting/lack of external lighting, no easy emergency access, too little transparency (either by sound or visually), too much space in the stall given the amount of privacy, and overly automated systems prone to failure.
1. JC Decaux toilet near City Hall. Source: sfpublicpress.org 2. JC Decaax toilet near Powell BART. Source: Kadi Franson, Hyphae Design Lab 3. JC Decaax toilet screen, up close. Source: Kadi Franson, Hyphae Design Lab
Precedent Analysis 55
San Francisco Recreation & Parks Toilets San Francisco has 40 restrooms throughout the city’s parks and has received $11.4M in 2008 as part of the Restroom Repair and Renovation Program. In 2009, the “Restroom Taskforce,” appointed as part of the Program, identified 21 park sites where restrooms needed renovation or replacement by the end of 2012. An additional 8 sites may also receive new restrooms depending on the amount of funds remaining in the budget after the initial 21 sites have been updated. New parks restrooms have a standard design and cost around $450,000 to build. The standard design is a brick/stone building with 2 rooms divided by a wall separating 2 female toilets (1 ADA) from 1 ADA male toilet and 1 urinal on the other side. Each restroom also has 1 sink per side and a shatterproof mirror. Some older toilets may have a different number of stalls, urinals, or sinks. Fixtures are made of stainless steel, walls are graffitiproof, walls/floors are easily cleaned (tiled/concrete, respectively), and stall walls are raised 8-inches from the floor for security reasons. Although some park toilets have experienced vandalism and crime; the majority of users do not feel unsafe using the toilets (according to their restroom survey). The Recreation and Parks toilet improvements seem to be going on without noticeable public criticism of their significant cost to the city. Unfortunately, these park toilets do not benefit the Tenderloin neighborhood, but we can learn from design and fundraising strategies of the Recreation and Parks restrooms project.
1. SF Parks & Rec toilet in the Panhandle. Source: blogs.sfweekly.com 2. Outside view of Panhandle toilet. Source: blogs.sfweekly.com
Precedent Analysis 56
Bryant Park Toilets A public restroom that is frequently cited as a highly successful facility is located New York City’s Bryant Park. Named by virtualtourist.com as the number 1 public restroom in the world, it has 3 stalls in the women’s room, 2 stalls and 3 urinals in the men’s room, and is visited by about 700,000 users each year. Madison Square, by comparison, has an automated public toilet (APT) with only 180,000 users per year, even though both areas have similar numbers of pedestrians. The APT is clean, high-tech, and frequently maintained, but the Bryant Park toilets have a human presence: attendants work round the clock to clean stalls and otherwise help out (during opening hours, 7 am - 10 pm). The toilets have automatically dispensed plastic seat covers that change out after each use, standard heavy duty automatic faucets, foam soap, as well as automatic toilet flushing. The restrooms’ entryway displays a large bouquet of fresh flowers, while all rooms smell of aromatherapy and have classical music playing. The restroom, along with the park, is funded by the Bryant Park Corporation, a not-for-profit private management company established with support from the Rockefeller Brothers Fund.
1. Exterior of Restrooms, looking at flower bouquet inside. Source: nymag.com 2. Sinks, with flowers. Souce: blog.bryantpark.org 3. Bryant Park Toilets, with seat covers. Source: morethanstuff.com
Precedent Analysis 57
The Portland Loo The Portland Loo is a collaboration between the City of Portland and Portland-based non-profit PHLUSH (Public Hygiene Letâ€™s Us Stay Human), an advocacy group that focuses on the need for public restrooms in cities. In Portland, PHLUSH has been instrumental in inspiring the Portland Loo design and in getting new public comfort stations installed around Portland. PHLUSH includes a number of well-researched documents and presentations on its website about experiences with public restrooms, the history of public restrooms, how to design public restrooms for safety, etc. Similar to San Francisco, downtown Portland has had experience with human waste cleanups, and in 2005 estimated that there were about 2250 requests for human waste cleanup in the Old Town Chinatown neighborhood during the year. The organization that responds to emergency waste cleanups, Clean and Safe, is also responsible for cleaning Portlandâ€™s existing public restrooms. In total, the organization had an operating budget of around $10,000 per month. Public restrooms are diminishing this budget due to fewer emergency calls. The Portland Loo is an indestructible steel toilet frame that sits directly on the sidewalk, is ADA compliant, can fit a bike inside, has grates on the sides for limited visual and auditory transparency, and has a customizable art panel on the outside for individuality.
Similar to San Francisco, downtown Portland has had experience with human waste cleanups, and in 2005 estimated that there were about 2250 requests for human waste cleanup in the Old Town Chinatown neighborhood during the year.
1. Portland Loo at at Southwest Ash Street and Naito Parkway. Source: portlandloo.com 2. Inside the Naito Pkwy Loo. Source: mikevogel.com 3. Rodney Haven of Clean and Safe washes a Loo. Source: djc.com
Precedent Analysis 58
Bronx Zoo Ecological Toilets The Bronx Zoo installed 14 public composting toilets and 4 dry urinals in 2006 and has gotten a number of positive press features about them ever since. The toilets are Clivus Multrum brand units that use a foam microflush, demanding 6 (or fewer) ounces of water per flush, and 10 large underground composting chambers that compost urine and feces onsite with redworms, carbon-rich additives and fungi. The toilets have a waste residence time between 6 months - 2 years, depending on usage and when waste is removed, it becomes a crumbly rich organic soil that just smells of humus. The foam microflush allows toilets to look and feel like standard flush toilets. According to the New York Times, the toilets will save 1 million gallons of water per year and use composted waste as topsoil/fertilizer. Additionally, the sink water from handwashing with biodegradable soap feeds a greywater garden adjacent to the restroom. Other green building features include rainwater harvesting, natural daylighting, and an in-floor radiant heating system. Although the system provides a great example from which to learn, it requires a large space under the restroom and would never be compatible with a semi-mobile design or â€œon-streetâ€? non-invasive design.
1. The outside of the Eco-Restroom with greywater garden. Source: peachygreen.com 2. Interior of Eco-Restroom. Source: clivusmultrum.com 3. Close-up of foam-flush toilet. Source: media.treehugger.com
Precedent Analysis 59
Sulabh Sulabh International is an India-based social service organization which works to promote human rights, environmental sanitation, non-conventional sources of energy, waste management, and social reforms through education. The organization counts 50,000 volunteers , and is the largest non-profit organization in India. Although the system provides a great example from which to learn, it requires a large space under the restroom and would never be compatible with a semi-mobile design or “on-street” non-invasive design. Sulabh International’s headquarters in Delhi houses a museum dedicated to the history of sanitation and toilets. Sulabh International was born out of a desire by the founders to give scavengers, people who work emptying pit latrines, in India the ability to leave their demeaning profession . Sulabh has constructed complexes in many urban and rural areas that offer bathing, toilets, laundry, and urinals with 24-hour a day attendant service. All services are offered on a pay per use basis, and attendants are able to make a living wage. The first complex, implemented in Patna in 1974, was widely successful and the concept quickly spread to other cities and municipalities who became interested in the Sulabh model . Sulabh operates more than 5,500 community complexes in 1075 towns across India, and has also opened centers in neighboring countries such as Bhutan.  In some densely populated areas where many residents cannot afford to use a pay toilet, municipal governments, NGOs, and community-based organizations have gotten involved to build free or subsidized Sulabh complexes to cater to the needs of those living in poverty. This model has been a success in Pune and Thiruchirapally in India.
“On a recent trip to Paris I went to a pay-for toilet on the Champs Elysee. It was actually quite smart because it was in a fancy mall. One pays two Euros to use the facility which is well maintained and nicely decorated and scented. Of course we could never have such a facility in SF because there would be so much red tape and code issues. ” - comments sourced from online press “Its Time to Raise a Stink Over Public Toilets” SF Gate Saturday, December 10, 2011
1. Exterior of Sulabh Toilet Complex in Jaipur. Source: sulabhinternational.org 2. Toilet attendant switching waste bins. Source: openideo.com 3. Sulabh International Academy of Environmental Sanitation. Source: sulabhinternational.org
Precedent Analysis 60
Compostera Toilets, Sweden Compostera Toilets has been working in the realm of composting toilets for almost half a decade.The Swedish company creates composting toilets that decompose human excreta through an enclosed system on a long-term basis. A liquid waste, or â€œcomposting tea,â€? is separated from the system through gravity, leaving solids to break down within the collection tank.The toilets have been used en masse for outdoor concert events as well as disaster relief purposes. The system is odor-free through ventilation, flush-free, waterless, pathogen isolating, and low-maintenance. Because the tanks are dimensioned to go for 30-50 years without solids removal, there is no pumping or extraction of waste. The large volume of the tanks would prohibit this system from working at the mobile, parking space-sized scale.
1. Compost Era event toilets. Source: ecoloo.eu
Precedent Analysis 61
Public Baths, Toilets, and Sewerage in Ancient Greece and Rome
Public Facilities Roman cities had public bath-houses and toilets for use by anyone who did not have access to a private bath and toilet. Only wealthy Roman citizens could afford private baths and toilets. Public baths were cheap and served as a meeting place to catch up and gossip with friends. They were gender-segregated areas where people would sit together and bathe in large open spaces. Toilets were similar in that they did not have separate stalls: Romans would converse while sitting next to each other on the toilet benches.  Public toilets could seat up to 60 people in larger public facilities. Sewerage Starting as early as 3000 B.C., during the Minoan period of Ancient Greece, advanced water supply and wastewater conveyance systems were developed on the island of Crete. The Greeks began using technologies such as water-flushed toilets, ceramic pipes, sewer aquaducts, and filtration systems.  According to Georgios Anteoniou, a Greek historian, it is likely that Ancient Greeks and later Romans used recycled water from washing, cleaning, or cooking to flush toilets. 
1. Reconstructed Roman Latrines in the UK. Source: ancienthistory.about.com 2. Roman Baths in Bath, England. Source: hpanwo-tv.blogspot.com 3. Roman Toilets in Ostia. Source: ancientandold.blogspot.com
Night Soil Transport in 19th Century London In early and mid 19th century London, sewers were not yet in place. People used latrines or privies that were emptied manually by “night-soil men” in the late night and early morning hours. Night-soil, a polite term for human excreta, was transported from city privies to farms in the countryside to be spread on fields to add nutrients to the soil.  Working through the night, night-soil men had a cart and often worked in a crew of four: a holeman, ropeman, and two tubmen.  The crew would work together to shovel nightsoil, usually present in deep pits accessible by ladder, into a series of intermediate containers before loading it onto the larger cart and hauling it outside the city. Despite the unpleasant task of manually shoveling and hauling human waste, nightsoil workers were well paid. They charged high rates to toilet owners for emptying pit latrines and, on the back end, charged farmers for the delivered nightsoil. This system broke down over time as London expanded and nightsoil men had to travel further and empty more latrines. The workers began to raise rates to account for the additional hours and distance, and night-soil collection became unaffordable for London’s working poor.  Water contamination caused an outbreak of cholera, and by the late 19th century, flush toilets connected to sewers became widely available. 
1. Three ‘Night Soil Men’ in Staffordshire, c. 1900. Source: Staffordshire County Record Office, ‘FP51.1.1 (37/15963)’; www.search.staffspasttrack.org.uk 2. Night Soil Van c. 1884 Source: Samuel M. Gray, Proposed Plan for a Sewerage System, and for the Disposal of the Sewage of the City of Providence (Providence: Providence Press Company, Printers to the City, 1884), Plate 4, opposite page 16.
Precedent Analysis 63
Design Principles Imagining a public restroom model to serve the needs of the multifaceted community within the Tenderloin neighborhood required combining our community participatory design process with some external design principles. Listed below are principles we would like the toilet to uphold: • Equitable • Ecological • Architecturally Innovative/Beautiful • Inviting as a public space • Improving the community and city as a whole This chapter, and sections below, recommend a series of design templates for a public restroom that will fit the needs of the Tenderloin while adhering to the principles listed above.
Policy and Permitting Strategies In the beginning of the community participatory design process, we held meetings with permitting agencies including the San Francisco Department of Public Works, Public Utilities Commission, Department of Public Health, and Mayor’s Office to get a sense of what permits would be required for various toilet typologies (See Community Chapter for details). An overview of permitting required for each typology is shown below:
Parklet Type Toilet Permitting A semi-permanent or mobile toilet occupying one or two parking spaces could be permitted in the following way(s): (1) Space Permitting (a) SF Planning Department: Temporary SideWalk Extension (Parklet) permitting process. This depends on whether there is an open Parklet Request for Proposals (RFP). (b) SF DPW: Street Occupancy Permit (2) Waste Hauling/Treatment (a) SF PUC: Waste Haulers Permit (b) SF DPH: Writes new PH code for composting public toi lets. (3) Water Sources (if used) (a) SFPUC: Water and Wastewater New Capacity Charge (b) Dept of Building Inspection: Plumbing Division Additional Permitting for Plaza or Storefront Toilets See Appendix, References for details on permitting toilet options. 64
An early Tenderloin Ecological Restroom schematic rendering.
“You WILL need full time attendants. People use the JCDeCaux toilet at 16th & Mission to do drugs, turn tricks and God only knows what else. Thugs guard the door so someone who really needs to go has to go to McDonalds or Burger King. The bathrooms in the BART stations have been closed since 9/11. There’s a terrible lack of facilities, especially at night.” - comment sourced from online press “Its Time to Raise a Stink Over Public Toilets” SF Gate Saturday, December 10, 2011
1. Field Chapel in Boedigheim, Germany, designed by University of Illinois Architecture students 2. Interior of Boedigheim field chapel. Source: http://www.flurkapelle-boedigheim.com/ 3. A semi-private public urinal in Victoria, Canada. Source: http://www.theglobeandmail.com/ 4. Pier Goughâ€™s public toilet. CZWG Architects. The toilet was built in 1993 and is located in Westbourne Grove, Notting Hill, London. A mixed-use building, it combines a public toilet with a flower shop which helps pay for maintenance. Source: http://anonphotography.com/blog/ 5. IkoToilet in Nairobi, Kenya. Source: kenyandating.wordpress.com 6. Hiroshima Park Restrooms by Future Studios. Source: dezeen.com 7. Hiroshima Park Restroom interior. Source: dezeen.com 8. P-Tree Urinals by Aandeboom. Source: dezeen.com 9. The Shit Box by Brown Corporation. Source: http://www.thebrowncorporation.com/
Standards / Considerations Summary International, national, and state/municipal standards or best practices for toilet availability and design are important in thinking about how to build and maintain a public restroom project. Looking to past public toilet projects is also critical in ensuring a sustainable and well maintained toilet. The following are standards and lessons learned that we considered in our design recommendations:
• 1 stall per 500 women; 1 stall + 1 urinal per 1100 men (British Toilet Authority or BTA) • Important Proximity Factors: Near bars/clubs? Parks? Transit hubs?
• Americans with Disabilities Act • 1 handicapped toilet stall per 10,000 people (BTA) • 1 baby changing table per 10,000 people (BTA)
• Defensible Space: graffiti-proof surfaces, no exposed pipes, extremely durable doors and moving parts
Safety • • • •
Crime Prevention through Environmental Design Natural Surveillance (Location, Translucency, Attendants) Natural Access Control (Locks, Attendants, Heavy Doors) Territorial Reinforcement (Activating the surrounding space)
• Toilets as a Human Right • Potential Combination of Toilets with Showers + Laundry
• If Sinks - need adequate hand drying mechanisms • Hand Sanitizer is alternative • New public health code for safe handling and treatment of composting toilet ‘humanure’
• Involving local organizations to watch over restroom periodically • Paying local employees for maintenance/cleaning 68
A neighborhood resident traversing the crosswalk. Image Source: Hyphae Design Lab
The American with Disabilities Act has regulated design specifications for public restrooms to allow for ease of use by disabled persons. This set of regulations has been generated to cater to several different levels of capability, including the non-ambulatory (those confined to a wheelchair), the sight and hearing impaired, and those affected by a reduction in flexibility and range of movement due to aging factors. In this document, we will focus mostly on the regulations pertaining to the non-ambulatory population of the Tenderloin. Certain universal design principles, such as tactile signage and vertical obstruction specifications for the visually impaired, will also be a part of our design recommendations. Right: An American with Disabilities Act plan layout recommendation. Image Source: www.ada.gov, â€œ2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design.â€?
A Closer Look at ADA Standards:
Wheelchair User Dimensions
Wheelchair User Dimensions
Wheelchair User Dimensions
Clear Space Required
Turnaround Space Required 70
U-Turn Space Required
Enclosure Dimensions and Toilet Location
Ramps and Hand Rails
A Closer Look at ADA Standards, Continued:
Bathroom Fixture Clearance
Bathroom Fixture Clearance
Sliding Door Side Approach
Sliding Door Front Approach
Tactile Signage Location 72
Tactile Signage Location
1. An example of an ADA accessible bathroom. This model is drawn larger than the current minimum spatial requirements, (see previous pages for minimum enclosure dimensions), with many interior fixtures that are not being proposed for the Tenderloin Public Toilet. However, it is a good baseline example of all of the dimensional requirements of accessible bathroom components. Image Source: unavailable. Design 73
Schematics - Spatial Configurations Non-ADA Compliant Schematics Summary It is against federal law to construct new toilets that do not include ADA-compliant access features.   . Due to the spatial requirements of the composting toilet holding tanks, an ADA accessible design will necessitate a ramp, significantly expanding the overall dimensions while limiting the number of toilets available. We have included non-ADA schematics in case the community is interested in adding a separate structure to increase usage capacity. We do not recommend these designs without an additional ADA-compliant toilet nearby. We have looked primarily at two systems for constructing the public toilet: a single-haul truckbed skid structure and on-site construction-based system, with combinations of the two approaches embedded within our design schematics. In both of these versions, we explored a few primary spatial/programmatic features; the toilet area, access approach, the addition of a urinal area, sink area, and graywater-irrigated planted zones. These varying areas are annotated through color in the following plan-view diagrams. The following spatial configuration diagrams are not finished design drawings, nor should be regarded as such. Scheme 1: 2 Toilets (gender specific) A female-only and male-only pair of toilets would be accessible via stairs off of the sidewalk. The toilet rooms would include grab bars and other fixtures designed to aid the semi-ambulatory population in usage. Perimeter planters would support vegetation along a cable trellis, irrigated with gray water from the weekly power-washing regime. Rainwater harvested from the roof could be used to supplement powerwasher water needs during the rainy season.
We have included non-ADA schematics in case the community is interested in adding a separate structure to increase usage capacity. We do not recommend these designs without an additional ADA-compliant toilet nearby. 74
Non-ADA Compliant Schematics, continued Scheme 2: 2 Toilets (gender specific) plus 2 Urinals A female-only and male-only pair of toilets would be accessible via stairs off of the sidewalk. The toilet rooms would include grab bars and other fixtures designed to aid the semi-ambulatory population in usage. Perimeter planters would support vegetation along a cable trellis, irrigated with gray water from the weekly power-washing regime. Rainwater harvested from the roof could be used to supplement powerwasher water needs during the rainy season. Scheme 3: 4 Toilets (gender specific) plus 2 Urinals A female-only pair of toilets and male-only pair of toilets would be accessible via stairs off of the a connecting platform. The toilet rooms would include grab bars and other fixtures designed to aid the semi-ambulatory population in usage. Perimeter planters would support vegetation along a cable trellis, irrigated with gray water from the weekly power-washing regime. Rainwater harvested from the roof could be used to supplement powerwasher water needs during the rainy season.
ADA Compliant Schematics Scheme 1: 1 Unisex Accessible Toilet plus 2 Urinals A unisex ADA accessible toilet would be accessed via a ramp off of the sidewalk. The toilet room would include all design specifications required for usage by the non-ambulatory demographic. Perimeter planters would support vegetation along a cable trellis, irrigated with gray water from the weekly power-washing regime. Rainwater harvested from the roof could be used to supplement powerwasher water needs during the rainy season.
Schematics - Systems Summary We have generated a series of schematics to better clarify the flows of the proposed system; water, waste, energy. For more detailed calculations and assumptions, please refer to the appendix.
Flow Diagram - (opposite)
This diagram illustrates the basic flows of energy, waste, and water, as they are moving in and out of the system.
Minimum Tank Sizes for Human Excrement -
A schematic showing the tank size calculations based on a realistic estimate for the first month of toilet usage. Depending on whether or not the toilet becomes a popular option this estimation could increase or decrease.
Maximum Tank Sizes for Human Excrement -
A schematic showing the tank size calculations based on the highest usage scenario.
Minimum Tank Sizes for Water - Without Sink -
In terms of ease of mobility, this is the recommended option. The absence of a sink is compensated for with hand sanitizing stations.
Maximum Tank Sizes for Water - Without Sink In terms of ease of mobility, this is the recommended option. The absence of a sink is compensated for with hand sanitizing stations. This schematic exemplifies a high usage scenario for water storage.
Minimum Tank Sizes for Water - With Sink -
Water storage occurs below the ramp deck, with waste storage remaining below the toilet enclosure. Due to the amount of grey water generated by sink usage, powerwasher water is no longer stored.
Maximum Tank Sizes for Water - With Sink -
Primary water storage sub-floor is replaced by a vertical tank option in the urinal area. Due to the amount of grey water generated by sink usage, powerwasher water is no longer stored. 80
Minimum Tank Sizes for Human Excrement
Maximum Tank Sizes for Human Excrement
Minimum Tank Sizes for Water - Without Sink Minimum Tank Sizes for Water - Without Sink
Maximum Tank Sizes for Water - Without Sink
Minimum Tank Sizes for Water - With Sink
Maximum Tank Sizes for Water - With Sink
Schematics - Materiality Summary The recommended material palette comes from our community design process combined with our design principles.
Lighting • LED lighting: low energy consumption, long lifetime, durable • Bioluminescent strips: no energy use, mark boundaries Wall • Translucent Wall Options: balance privacy with control of misuse • Recycled Eco-Resin: beautiful, sustainable, expensive • Polycarbonate: durable, can be beautiful, not sustainable, moderately priced to expensive • Acrylic: can be durable, simple appearance, not sustainable, cheap to moderately priced • PETG: can be durable, simple appearance, sustainable, cheap to moderately priced • Steel: perforated or not, durable, easy to clean, moderately priced to expensive • One-Way Mirror: Allow for street visibility in select areas; moderately priced • Natural Materials: Non-structural decorative elements such as plants, vines, wood/bamboo panels, rocks, etc. Structure • Steel Frame - welded, mounted on skid/trailer • Speed Rail or 80/20 material for ease of assembly. Toilet Pedestals • Steel Pedestal and Seat • Fiberglass • Molded Resin • Stone Toilet Mechanisms • Foam Microflush • Pneumatic Flush • Rotating Bin Flap Sinks / Hand Sanitizing • Steel • Stone • Solid Hand Sanitizer unit
Flatbed Roll-off System Quality - Durability - Value
Standard Specifications • 22’ & 24’ long. • 7 GA. Decks. • 5’ Headboard with expanded metal window. • Front push plate/stake holder. • Winches and stake pockets. • 6”x 2” (1/4") Structural tubing main rails. • 4”x 6” Nose rollers with grease fittings and 1 1/2” axles. • 10”x 8” Stationary steel wheels with grease fittings (wheel locks front). • Coated with rust inhibitive alkyd primer and painted with automotive alkyd enamel black. (Other colors may be available). • Bottom coated with automotive underseal.
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14620 Arminta Street
901 Simmerhorn Rd.
Calle Maquiladoras #310
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(818) 901 - 1005
(209) 745 - 4604
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NOTE: All specifications are subject to change w
Toilets, Urinals and SInks
Schematics - Visualization Jones Street Closure with Public Toilet
Operations & Maintenance Summary The success of any public toilet project is hinged upon its upkeep and maintenance regime, despite the high costs of operation. Operations and maintenance will depend on systems choices: type of toilet, sink presence, filters present, use of rainwater, onsite energy generation, etc. However, basic cleaning and operations costs will be similar with any system.
Attendant It is recommended that an attendant be present during operating hours. The attendant will be responsible for restocking toilet paper and calling maintenance / waste collection staff as needed, as well as providing on-site safety monitoring. Routine Cleaning: 1-4 times per day SF Clean City Corporation currently works to clean streets and sidewalks in the North of Market-Tenderloin area. Routine toilet cleaning - including trash removal and power washing - could become a part of Clean City staff members’ daily route. Waste/Humanure Management: 1-2 times per week The proposed ecological sanitation model will use an offsite method of treating human excreta. Permitting and partnerships will determine the offsite location, treatment method, and use of treated wastes. In the initial phase of the restroom installation, it is recommended that toilet tanks are pumped out (or bins switched, depending on method) on a weekly or bi-weekly basis and taken to the Southeast/Bayview Water Pollution Control Plant for addition into biogas digester OR solids settling tank.
“Sounds like a nice idea but how long will these new toilets stay operable? The city’s track record on maintenance isn’t good....” - comment sourced from online press “Tenderloin Group Focuses on Green Public Toilet” SF Gate Friday, December 30, 2011
1. Community Needle Drop Box in Vancouver, Canada. Source: canadiandesignresouce.ca 2. Example of backpack power sprayer Source: amazon.com 3. Fire hydrant (potential source of non-potable water). Source: en.wikipedia.org
Staff of the North of Market / Tenderloin Community Benefit District cleaning program on their daily route. Image Source: Kadi Franson, Hyphae Design Lab
Maintenance Toilet parts will require routine maintenance over their lifespan; many parts will break due to heavy use or vandalism. A staff of 2-3 very part time contract workers will be responsible for this maintenance; perhaps hired from local building maintenance staff.
“It’s disappointing they are not upkept. Think of the good national public image if we had a few people on the city payroll to clean them. 25 toilets is not a big deal, 2 people each day.” - comment sourced from online press “Its Time to Raise a Stink Over Public Toilets” SF Gate Saturday, December 10, 20111
11 1 15 3
4’x8’ ea. s.f ea.
$250.00 $500.00 $80.00 $200.00
$2,750 $500 $1,200 $600
1 600 60
ea. l. ft. sq. ft.
$5,000.00 $8.00 $30.00
$5,000 $4,800 $1,800
0 0 50 1
linear ft sq. ft linear ft ea.
$5.00 $60.00 $20.00 $2,500.00
$0 $0 $1,000 $2,500
1 1 2 2 1 1
ea. ea. ea. ea. ea. ea.
$1,000.00 $500.00 $600.00 $500.00 $350.00 $1,500.00
$1,000 $500 $1,200 $1,000 $350 $1,500
60 2 1
s.f. ea. ea.
$25.00 $600.00 $500.00
$1,500 $1,200 $500
1 1 1 2
ea. ea. ea. ea.
$3,000.00 $1,000.00 $1,000.00 $500.00
$3,000 $1,000 $1,000 $1,000
12 80 50
ea. feet ft.
$20.00 $6.00 $8.50
$240 $480 $425
Materials Enclosure Polycarbonate (or corian) Panels Anti-graffiti coating Grated Louvers
Flooring & Structure Roll-Off with modifications to accommodate storage Ramp & Structural Framing (3” tube steel) Steel Checkered Sheets flooring Accessibility ADA compliant ramps: Galvanized Angle Iron Framing 1/4” ADA compliant ramps: Corian Polycarbonate Panels ADA compliant handrails ADA Automatic Sliding Door & Controls Toilet Waterless Toilet Desiccation System Waterless Urinal Urine-Diversion System Forklift-Ready Catchment Bins Urine Storage Tanks Ventilation Metal Ductwork Solar Powered Exhaust Fan Carbon Filtration Electrical Solar Panels, Battery, Wiring User & System Alarm & Control System Sensors (level sensors, leak sensors, smoke sensor, etc. Indoor and outdoor user alarms Lighting UV Central Light UV Wall Strips for exterior Bioluminescent Strips (Ramps) All material items below included in Option B only
Electrical Solar Panels, Battery, Wiring User & System Alarm & Control System Sensors (level sensors, leak sensors, smoke sensor, etc. Indoor and outdoor user alarms
1 1 1 2
ea. ea. ea. ea.
$3,000.00 $1,000.00 $1,000.00 $500.00
$3,000 $1,000 $1,000 $1,000
12 80 50
ea. feet ft.
$20.00 $6.00 $8.50
$240 $480 $425
Water System Rainwater Storage
Water Filtration System Sink Water & Sewer Connection
2,500 gal. ea.
Sink Concreteworks Auto, Low Flow Faucets
Irrigation Grey Water Storage Grey Filtration Pumps Dripline Controller Irrigation Pipe & Fittings
1 1 1 100 1 1
Lighting UV Central Light UV Wall Strips for exterior Bioluminescent Strips (Ramps) All material items below included in Option B only
ea. ea. ea. l.f. c.y. lump sum ea.
$1,000.00 $1,000.00 $400.00 $1.50 $150.00 $300.00
$1,000 $1,000 $400 $150 $150 $150
ea. ea. 1/5 gal. pot c.y. c.y. c.y. per 4 yds
$250.00 $60.00 $10.00
$2,000 $2,700 $600
$70.00 $30.00 $50.00 $125.00
$280 $30 $100 $250
12 s.f 1 ea. 2 ea.
$50 $200 $200
$600 $200 $400
1 ea. 1 ea. 1 ea.
$750 $2,000 $3,500
$750 $2,000 $3,500
Vegetation Containerized Planters for Ramps Trellis System Plants
8 45 60
Soil Mulch Gravel Soil Delivery
4 1 2 2
Signage + Kiosk Accessories Waterpoof “”thermal” signage Interior Photoluminescent Signage (Instructional) Exterior Photoluminescent Signage (Grey water Irrigation, Plantings) Bike racks w/benches Other custom furniture Kiosk System
Materials Subtotal expected contractor mark up
Labor Construction Manager/Foreman Frame Construction - Labor Panel Installation & Prep - Labor
expected contractor mark up
Labor Construction Manager/Foreman
Panel Installation & Prep - Labor
ADA & Railing Assembly
Toilet & Urinal Installation
Sink & Water Supply Plumbing
Greywater & Irrigation Plumbing
Fabricating Planters & Trellis
Planting & Placing
Frame Construction - Labor
All labor Items below included in Option B and/or C only
Hauling & Transport Fork Lift or Crane Rental
trips per day
Construction Cost A
Construction Cost B
without sink & green features without any of the green features. (rainwater, greywater, trellis, planters, kiosk, etc) Cost per toilet (2 in total) $42,515 Cost of JC Decaux $250,000 Cost of Portland Loo (uninstalled) $90,000
with green & public features
If enough funding is received we will be able to meet our goal of funding the full Green Feature Option B system
Cost per toilet (2 in total) $60,951.50
Construction Cost C
with sink & public/green features the CBD needs to decide if this is an important premium to have. Will require complex plumbing coordination, and less mobility of the toilet.
Engineering & Soft Costs Project & Construction Administration
Electrical, Mechanical & Plumbing Engineering
Graphic Design, Kiosk & Signage
Permitting & Agency Coordination
Construction Documents & CAM Drawings
1st Year Maintenance 96Labor
1st Year Maintenance Labor Project Manager (3 hours/ week)
Waste Management (2-3 visits/wk) Cleaning & Engagement Staff (20 hrs/wk)
52 per week
Materials Non-disposable supplies TP (3 roles/day) Disposable Cleaning Supplies Flowers
Total Project Costs & 1 Year maintence (Option A) Funding Sources CBD Hyphae (in kind to date)
Existing Resources Spent Future CBD (TBD) Future Hyphae (In-Kind) Other Inkind (TBD)
CCG Funds Awarded
Additional funding needed for Option 1 (including maintenance) “” Option 2
Hyphae and the CBD have various sources we are working with to close the funding gap including other city agencies and other grants. We are confident we will have the money by the time needed for maintenance
Public toilets aren’t cheap! But who knows, maybe they will bring us luck in keeping the streets of the Tenderloin clean, safe, and equitable. A “Lucky Poop” cell phone charm from Japan.
Funding Models Summary Targeting sources of funding is one of the most challenging elements of the ecological public restroom project. Although existing automated public toilets in San Francisco are funded by JCDecaux’s advertising revenue, the city will not allow any further use of a direct advertising-funded model. There are several funding alternatives that were investigated as part of the public restroom design process, although the alternatives are not mutually exclusive. It is likely that a combination of funding sources will ultimately be the key to raising enough funding to make the project an ongoing success. Raising money for the design and construction of the restroom is important, but ensuring sufficient funds for ongoing operations and maintenance is essential to the projects’ success. Without operations and maintenance funding commitments, the project will not be constructed. The following sources of funding are under consideration, to be described in detail below: Foundations, Government, Private Companies, Community Benefit Districts, Crowdfunding, and Payper-use.
Foundations Several foundations have been identified whose goals overlap with the goals of the ecological public restroom project, particularly those with a focus on public health, homelessness, and/or community livability. The foundation list at right are recommended to pursue; none have yet committed funding. In many cases, foundations require application by a 501(c)3 status, meaning the NoM-TL CBD will be the designated funding applicant. Benefits: • No required payback • No use of taxpayer money • Grant writing sharpens project vision/purpose Challenges: • Grant writing is time consuming • Grant awards are highly competitive • Funds typically awarded months after grant application (time lag)
Foundations -Evelyn & Walter Haas Jr. Fund -Hewlett Foundation Environment Program: Bay Area Communities. -Rockefeller Foundation -Wayne & Gladys Valley Foundation -Cummings Foundation -Steifel Family Foundation -Ford Foundation -Gordon & Betty Moore Foundation -Gates Foundation Reinvent the Toilet Initiative -James Irvine Foundation -Skoll Foundation
Government -HUD (US Department of Housing and Urban Development) -EDA (Economic Development Administration) -US Dept of Commerce -2012 i6 Challenge -CA Dept of Housing and Community Development -SF Community Challenge -SF County Transport Auth.
Private Companies -Clif Bar -Wells Fargo -PG&E -Visa -Charles Schwab -Home Depot -Bank of the West -Oracle -Peet’s
France has attended restrooms all over the place. The crotchety old bathroom lady is a fixture, but you used to get a supervised, semi-clean experience for the cost of 1 franc (now a eurodime). Provides employment, too.” - comment sourced from online press “Its Time to Raise a Stink Over Public Toilets” SF Gate Saturday, December 10, 2011
There are select opportunities for federal, state, and local grant money that could be used for the ecological restroom project. Opportunities for grants and government sources of funding include those listed at left. Benefits: • No required payback • Grant-writing sharpens project vision/purpose • Amounts granted may be large Challenges: • Use of taxpayer money unpopular • Grant writing is time consuming (especially government grants) • Grant awards are very competitive • Funds typically awarded months after grant application (time lag)
Private Companies There is some overlap between private companies and private foundations, and some of the companies we examined have corporate giving policies and therefore are similar to foundations. The list at left shows companies that are either located in the Bay Area or have a history of giving to Bay Area organizations and projects. Benefits: • No required payback • Minimal grant writing requirements • Timely awarding of funds Challenges: • Requires significant time making relationships • Some expectation of advertising • Lack of transparency about funding amounts
Funding Models 99
Community Benefit Districts The Tenderloin Community Benefit District may be willing to fund part of the operations and maintenance budget of the ecological restroom project. However, neighboring benefit districts could also make financial contributions towards capital or O&M costs. Potential partners in this realm could include the Yerba Buena CBD, Civic Center CBD, the Central Market CBD, and the Union Square CBD. Another potential funding source is the Tourism Improvement District. Benefits: • No required payback • Minimal grant writing requirements • Timely awarding of grants Challenges: • Must convince these districts of the need, even if initial project is outside their district • Funding amounts may be low due to tight budgets
Crowdfunding Another potential funding avenue includes crowd-sourced funding models such as Kickstarter, RocketHub, and GlobalGiving. With Kickstarter and RocketHub, each contributor must receive something in return. GlobalGiving is for charitable causes. Benefits: • Increased online visibility • Funding coming from wide variety of people; good barometer for project’s overal appeal • Timely awarding of funds
“Throughout much of Europe, there are such supervised facilities. They charge admission, usually 20 cents (of a euro). Now in all fairness, in most cities (I am most familiar with Amsterdam) there are not NEARLY enough such facilities, but they’re going in the right direction. These places are nearly always clean and pleasant.” - comments sourced from online press “Its Time to Raise a Stink Over Public Toilets” SF Gate Saturday, December 10, 2011
Challenges: • For Kickstarter and RocketHub, must give donor something similar in value to the contribution amount • Project must have a great video
Funding Models 100
Pay-Per-Use Although keeping the toilet free for very low-income users is still recommended, having a pay-per-use system for the majority of users could help pay for operations and maintenance costs associated with the restrooms. Potential revenues associated with pay-per-use: 100 paid uses per day, 50 users with cash, 50 with credit Toilet costs 25 cents, 50 cents with credit/debit: =Toilet Revenue Per day: $37.50 If 200 paid users per day, all paying 50 cents per use: =Toilet Revenue per day: $100 Benefits: • People may not mistreat restrooms if asked to pay • Contributes to paying for attendants, maintenance Challenges: • Requires mechanism for allowing certain people to enter for free • Bathroom use is a human right; don’t want to discourage use of toilets because of the fee
The Yerba Buena Community Benefit District also needs toilets. Why not combine forces? Image Source: wikipedia.com
Pay Toilets often require exact change for use, but we are considering pay by credit, Clipper card, or phone options. Image Source: wired.com
Funding Models 101
Funding Models 102
Get Involved! Here are some ways you can get involved: Join the toilet mailing list: Email your name, affiliation, and comments to email@example.com Like us on facebook: Tenderloin Toilets: firstname.lastname@example.org Donate: Give money to NoM-TL CBD and specify it is for TL Toilet project. Find us on kickstarter.com Volunteer: We can always use some grantwriting and volunteer hands. Drop us a line: Hyphae Phone: 510-455-4474 Email: email@example.com nom-tlcbd.org
Community member feedback via the Tenderloin Toilet Project postcard.
Talking toilets despite the rainy night at the Luggage Store Gallery Annex. April, 2012. Image Source: Eric Olsen, Hyphae Design Lab
“I live in San Francisco, and the problem with any new idea for a sidewalk restroom is that it will have the same problems as the JC Decaux toilets. It won’t have the public’s support, except among people who find human waste outside their front doorways every morning. Unfortunately, good public policy works only when the public cooperates, and too many people don’t cooperate when it comes to handling personal bodily functions.” - comment sourced from online press “Solving the Poop Problem” The Atlantic Cities Wednesday, December 14, 2011
Get Involved 105
Appendix Summary Systems Calculations References Toilet Press Toilet Resources Sample RFP
Hand drawn map of JC Decaux public toilet locations in San Francisco. Image source: www.heatsignature.com 106
Systems Calculations Waste Calculation Assumptions Toilet feces
Users per day, MAX
Users per day, MIN
Volume per day, MAX, liters Volume per day, MIN, liters
Tank Sources Container Type Bulk Containers With Lids - Shipping And Storage Bulk Containers With Lids - Shipping RV Tank
Assumptions Assumes 3 min average time in toilet stall; half of people using for feces, half for urine. 24 hrs per day * 60 min per hour * (50% feces) / (3 min per use). For Urinal, assume 3 min interval between uses, with 2 urinals Min users sourced from "86 users per day on average for JCDecaux toilets" In Europe, average is 50-60 per day. Assume half for feces, half for urine. For urinal, guess 80.
Outside Dimensions (L,W,H) (inches)
48, 24.5, 24 43.5, 30, 24 36, 30, 14 60, 30, 18
Sullivan, Kathleen. (1998) "Neighborhoods want more JCDecaux toilets," SFGate.com.
Habermann, Thomas. Assumes .2 L per fecal deposit, .35 (2007) Mayo Clinic L per urine deposit Internal Medicine Review, 2006-2007, Assumes .2 L per poop, .35 L per CRC Press: USA, pp pee 262-264
125 RV Tank RV Tank 60 RV TANK 130 Low Profile Hauling 250 Tank Part# 1014 PET Low Profile Storage Tanks G 500 LP 500 G 900 LP 900 G 1000 LP 1000 Waste Holding 300
Source Maximums estimated based on interviews with local service organization daily toilet usage, particularly Glide and Hospitality House.
Whytock, Sandra. (2006) "PostOperative Retention," presentation to Providence Health Care.
Source Notes http://www.globalindustrial.com/g/st orage/bins-totesblue container containers/bulk/bulk-containers-lidsshipping-storage http://www.watertanks.com/product s/RO-RVB433 550 LBS http://www.watertanks.com/product s/RO-RVB247 1200 LBS
84, 40, 16
80,88,23 136,88,23 152,88,23 56, 95, 16
“In Australia and New Zealand even the tiniest town has a public bathroom downtown. We are barbarians in comparison.” - comments sourced from online press “Its Time to Raise a Stink Over Public Toilets” SF Gate Saturday, December 10, 2011
References Project Summary  Braverman, Irus, “Governing with Clean Hands: Automated Public Toilets and Sanitary Surveillance.” Surveillance & Society 8(1): 1-27) ”Going Public! Strategies for Meeting Public Restroom Need in Portland’s Central City,” Prepared for the Office of Mayor Tom Potter by Relief Works. <http://www.americanrestroom.org/us/ portland/psu_gopubliccvr3.pdf> Existing Conditions  Kelley, Tim. “Olympic Salt Water Company,” UC Riverside Library, Accessed 06/02/12. <http://scotty.ucr.edu/ record=b3912256~S5> “Lurline Baths” Early Motion Pictures, 1897 - 1920. Accessed 06/02/12. <http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/h?ammem/ papr:@ field(NUMBER+@band(edmp+0063))> “Up from the Deep. Part III: The Tenderloin.” Accessed 06/02/12. <http://upfromthedeep.com/ uptown- tenderloin/>)  2000 Census data and SF Human Rights Commission  Fribourg, Aimée, “San Francisco’s Single-Room Occupancy (SRO) Hotels: A Strategic Assessment of Residents and Their Human Service Needs” Conducted for the San Francisco Human Services Agency SF-HSA, San Francisco, California. Spring 2009. Precedent Analysis  “About us,” Sulabh International Social Service Organisation. Accessed 9 July 2012. <http://www.sulabhinternational.org/st/ public_private_partnership.php>. ” Wecome to Sulabh International Toilet Museum,” Sulabh International Toilet Museum. Accessed 9 July 2012. <http://www. sulabhtoiletmuseum.org/>.  Sen, Somnath and Yue Ma. “Improvement and Maintenance Management of Public Toilets in Liuzhou: A Study.” World Bank Netherlands Water Project, 2005. (pg.56, )  Kelly, Nigel; Rees, Rosemary; and Shuter, Jane. The Roman Empire and Medieval Realm. Heinemann Secondary Education, 1997, pp 39 and 44. (pg.58, )  Angelakis, A.N., “Water and Wastewater Technologies in Ancient Greece with an Emphasis on the Minoan Era,” IWA SG on Water and Wastewater in Ancient Civilizations and National Foundation for Agricultural Research (N.AG.RE.F.), Institute of Iraklion, Greece, 2011. (pg.58, )  Antonio, G.P. “Ancient Greek Lavatories: Operation with Reused Water,” Mays, L.W. (ed.) Ancient Water Technologies, Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2010 (pg.58,)
Precedent Analysis (continued)  Johnson, Steven. The Ghost Map: the story of London’s most terrifying epidemic - and how it changed science, cities, and the modern world. p. 1-10. Web. 17 April. 2010 (pg.59,)  “Night-Soil Men, the Human Waste Collectors of Georgian London,” Suite101.com: Online Magazine and Writers’ Network. Accessed 9 July 2012. <http://suite101.com/article/nightsoil-men-the-human-waste-collectors-of-georgian-londona226849#ixzz1xWIiUntb>. Design  United States. Department of Justice. ADA Standards for Accessible Design. Sect. 2. 201.3. GPO, 2010. Print.  United States. Department of Justice. ADA Standards for Accessible Design. Sect. 2. 213. GPO, 2010. Print.  United States. Department of Justice. ADA Standards for Accessible Design. Sect. 6. 603-604. GPO, 2010. Print. Notes about Permitting Toilet Typologies: Plaza / Free-standing Sidewalk Toilet (1) Space Permits (a) SF DPW: Major Encroachment Permits (2) Building Permits (a) SF Dept of Building Inspection: Central Permit Bureau (3) SFPUC: Water, Wastewater Hookups (4) PG&E: Electrical Hookup
StoreFront Toilet (1) Remodeling Permits (a) SF Dept of Building Inspection: Construction Permits (b) SF Dept of Building Inspection: Plumbing Permits
Toilet Press Toilet Press Links: A New Plan for Public Toilets Shows Promise http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/02/us/02bcjames.html The Bathroom Reinvented: Hyphae http://www.dwell.com/videos/The-Bathroom-Reinvented-Hyphae.html Tenderloin Group Focuses on Green Public Toilet http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2011/12/29/BA951MEBRO.DTL Solving the Public Poop Problem http://www.theatlanticcities.com/neighborhoods/2011/12/solving-public-poop-problem/727/ It’s time to Raise a Stink Over Public Toilets http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2011/12/09/BAQH1MA4DV.DTL Despite Poop Problem, Tenderloin Toilet a Hard Sell http://www.nbcbayarea.com/news/local/Despite-Poop-Problem-Tenderloin-Toilet-a-Hard-Sell-149282625.html Sidewalk feces Spurs Toilet Talk in Tenderloin http://www.sfexaminer.com/news/2012/04/sidewalk-feces-spurs-toilet-talk-tenderloin San Francisco Working on Plan To Install Composting Public Toilets http://inhabitat.com/san-francisco-working-on-plan-to-install-composting-public-toilets/ San Francisco Aims to Be No. 1 at Dealing with... Number 2 http://www.baycitizen.org/columns/scott-james/plan-eco-public-toilets-parking-spaces/comments/#comments San Francisco Takes a Sniff at Composting Toilets http://www.sfexaminer.com/local/2011/12/san-francisco-takes-sniff-composting-toilets Hyphae: Art, Design, and Culture making http://peelpages.tumblr.com/post/12849815924/posted-by-hatty-porta-potties-arent-exactly-what Composting Toilets, Or ‘Pooplets’, Move One Step Closer To San Francisco Sidewalks http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/12/08/composting-toilets-pooplet-report_n_1137963.html Pooplets: Coming To A Sidewalk Near You http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/09/06/pooplets-coming-to-a-sidewalk-near-you_n_950579.html Welcome to Curbed SF http://sf.curbed.com/archives/2011/12/08/sf_considers_composting_toilets.php “Pooplets” For The People: Can Composting Toilets Help The Homeless? http://www.cbc.ca/strombo/social-issues/pooplets-for-the-people-can-composting-toilets-help-the-homeless.html [Science and Technology Press] New Word: “Pooplets” / San Francisco streets have really worsened. Sad. http://www.jw-archive.org/2011/09/science-and-technology-press-new-word.html San Francisco Pooplets Address Lack of Toilets for Homeless http://www.newsytype.com/10997-pooplets-homeless-eco-toilets/ Ekologisk toa http://www.cirkulation.com/2011/10/ekologisk-toa/
Toilet Resources Web-based Content: The National Public Toilet Map http://www.toiletmap.gov.au/ Clean, Green, and Wheelchair Accessible, Paris’ Public Toilets Are Pretty Sweet http://www.treehugger.com/sustainable-product-design/clean-green-and-wheelchair-accessible-paris-public-toilets-are-pretty-sweet.html Re-Bubble Concept Puts Your Old Soaps in Public Restrooms http://www.treehugger.com/bathroom-design/re-bubble-concept-puts-your-old-soaps-in-public-restrooms. html Composting Toilets of the World http://compostingtoilet.org/ About Composting Toilets Sewage Solutions http://greywateraction.org/content/about-composting-toilets Why Portland’s Public Toilets Succeeded Where Others Failed http://www.theatlanticcities.com/design/2012/01/why-portlands-public-toilets-succeeded-where-othersfailed/1020/ Feasibility Study for a Dry Composting Toilet and Urine Separation Demonstration Project http://www.ghdglobal.com/pdf/CompostingToilets.pdf Comparing Sanitation Systems Using Sustainability Criteria http://www.ecosanres.org/pdf_files/ESR2009-1-ComparingSanitationSystems.pdf Toilets of the World http://toiletsoftheworldbook.com/ Generating opportunities for government and citizens to work together by connecting civic challenges to community problem-solvers in San Francisco. http://www.improvesf.com/ A growing list of free public toilets around the world. http://thebathroomdiaries.com/: Information about San Francisco’s current Autuomatic Public Toilet Program with a list of locations. http://www.sfdpw.org/index.aspx?page=372 Portland, Oregon’s public restroom advocates. http://www.phlush.org/: Cloacina Development http://www.cloacina.org/ Women’s Public Restrooms in America https://www.ideals.illinois.edu/bitstream/handle/2142/11714/BT206KathrynAnthony.pdf?sequence=2:
Printed Works: Access to public conveniences: a handbook for the disabled person. (1974). London (34 Eccleston Sq., S.W.1): Central Council for the Disabled. Chen, C. L. (2007). Private Space: the design of public bathrooms. Shen Yang: LiaoNing Science and Technology Press. Del Valle Schuster, Cristina. 2005. Public Toilet Design. Buffalo, NY. Firefly Books (U.S.) Inc. Eichenbaum, K. (1990). The toilets of New York: a handy guide to the best (and the worst), public and semipublic relief stations for those with a need-to-know, includes walking and trotting maps. Milwaukee, Wis., USA: Litterati Books. Gahler, I. (2005). Flush!: modern toilet design. Basel: Birkhauser. Gershenson, O., & Penner, B. (2009). Ladies and gents: public toilets and gender. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Government response to the Communities and Local Government Committee report on the provision of public toilets. (2009). London: TSO]. Greed, C. (2003). Inclusive urban design: public toilets. Amsterdam: Architectural Press. Gregory, Morna E., and James, Sian. (2006). Toilets of the World. London, UK. Merrell Publishers Ltd. Improving public access to toilets guidance on community toilet schemes and SatLav. (2008). Wetherby: Communities and Local Government Publications. Jakes, W. C. (1994). The San Francisco Potty Guide!: for visitors, walkers, shoppers, and cyclists : with 27 maps and annotated directions, together with a compendium of important events in the history of the toilet. San Francisco: Handley Brown Pub. Co.. Jenkins, Joseph. (2005). The Humanure Handbook. Grove City, PA. Joseph Jenkins, Inc. Llewelyn, C. (1996). Toilet Issues: A survey of the provision and adequacy of public toilets in 18 towns and cities ; a Welsh Consumer Council Report. Cardiff: Welsh Consumer Council. Molotch, Harvey, et al. 2010. Toilet. New York, NY. New York University Press. Penner, Barbara and Gershenson, Olga. 2009. Ladies and Gents, Public Toilets and Gender. Philadelphia, PA. Temple University Press. Schuster, C. d. (2005). Designing Public Toilets (1. ed.). Savigliano: Gribaudo.
Sample Maintenance RFP REQUEST FOR PROPOSAL Restroom Cleaning & Maintenance Services for Tenderloin Public Toilet Proposal due by September 10, 2012 Proposals shall be made to: Dina Hilliard, Executive Director North of Market - Tenderloin Community Benefit District 134 Golden Gate Avenue, Suite A San Francisco, CA 94102 Request for Proposal Overview The North of Market – Tenderloin Community Benefit District (NoM-TL CBD) is currently exploring various options to provide restroom cleaning, tank pumping, plant care and emergency repair services for its community restroom project. This Request for Proposals exhibits one of the various options. The Tenderloin Public Toilet is a collaborative project between the NoM-TL CBD, Hyphae Design Lab, and the City of San Francisco. It will serve as a semi-permanent standalone structure occupying 2 parking spaces located in the Tenderloin neighborhood of San Francisco. The facility will be approximately 22 feet by 7 feet, including a single ADA-compliant toilet stall, 2 semi-private urinals, and a handicapped access ramp surrounded by planters. The toilet stall will consist of an ADA-compliant stainless steel dry toilet, a three roll tissue dispenser, and a hand sanitizer dispenser. The floor will be stainless steel with a drain that carries all wash water out to planter boxes outside of restroom. The exterior of the facility will be made of translucent PETG resin and stainless steel. The services requested in this request for proposal are inclusive of all the required labor, cleaning equipment, tools, and materials as outlined in the more detailed Scope of Work section of this Request for Proposal. The NoM-TL CBD is offering a one-year agreement with up to four one-year extensions. It is the bidder’s responsibility to assess the necessary labor required based on the Scope of Work. The bid shall be quoted based on an all-inclusive lump sum, per month, cost for the agreed scope of work including an additional hourly rate for any ad-hoc work requested that is outside the regular scope of work. The agreed price shall be constant with annual increases considered on a performance-based review. The bidder must utilize prevailing wages in their bid and employee pay. The NoM-TL CBD is seeking services commencing December 1, 2012, or as soon as possible after December 1, 2012. Either party may cancel the contract with a 30 day written notice. Contractor shall perform the regular services daily, weekly, and monthly during mutually agreed upon hours. Contractor shall also be available for ad hoc cleaning services on an on call agreed upon fee for emergency cleaning and maintenance at any time of day. Scope of Work for Periodic Cleaning Twice daily: • Inspect facility for any damage. Report immediately any damage that will hamper operation. • Pressure wash interior and floor as needed for sanitation, Carefully wash toilet and seat without getting water into septic tank. Dry toilet seat. • Wash and dry urinals • Check and refill toilet tissue as needed. • Check and refill Purell dispenser. • Contractor to provide all cleaning supplies, toilet tissue and Purell hand cleaner. • Empty trash
Contractor to provide all cleaning supplies, toilet tissue and Purell hand cleaner. Empty trash
Once Weekly: • Pump out (with permitted waste hauler pump truck) septic tank • Pump out urinal tank • Pressure wash interior, exterior, floor, and surrounding sidewalk. • Check greywater irrigation lines to planters AND outfall from planters to sewer for proper operation. If clogged, provide maintenance. Once monthly: • Check and remove debris from roof for proper drainage. • Wipe solar panels clean Scope of Work for Emergency Cleaning and Maintenance The Contractor will be reachable by phone on a 24-hour per day, 7 day per week basis in the event of emergency maintenance or cleaning requirements. An hourly rate for such availability shall be estimated, to include the following potential activities: • • • • •
Pump out septic, urinal, or greywater tank Pressure wash toilet, interior, exterior, floor, and surrounding sidewalk Collect trash and remove any large items from toilet Repair irrigation lines and pumps Replace broken fixtures (tissue dispenser, hand sanitizer dispenser, toilet, etc)
General Assumptions • The contractor shall provide competent, trained, and experienced staff of the highest standards. • The contractor shall consider and plan for appropriate labor resources for illness, vacation, and other loss time events so service to WSTIP continues uninterrupted. • The contractor shall provide all necessary equipment, tools, and materials for cleaning services. • The contractor shall be responsible for any loss of NoM-TL CBD property due to errors, mistakes, malfeasance or misfeasance of its employees. • The contractor shall maintain appropriate insurance and workers compensation coverage for their employees. Required Proposal Format Consultant proposal must include the following: • • • • • •
An outline of work to be completed addressing the Scope of Work. An outline of equipment, materials, and supplies the contractor will provide for the project. Consultant’s experience in delivery of the services requested. A biography of the primary contact person assigned to the project that will be completing services. Project bid quoted all-inclusive lump sum, per month, cost for the scope of work including an additional hourly rate for any ad-hoc work requested that is outside the regular scope of work. The bidder must utilize prevailing wages in their bid and pay. List of References
Key Decision-Making Criteria Consultant experience (Low = 0-2 years, Medium = 2-5 years, and High = 5+ years) Cost (Low to High) Equipment supplied (minimum required vacuum, dusters, buckets, squeegees, personal protective equipment, disinfectant) References Submission Deadline
To Donate through Paypall Info@hyphae.net Subject: Public Toilets Photo taken during the Street Survey walk, showcasing one of the local businessâ€™ toilets that the surveyor was permitted to access. Image Source: Robert Brandreth
Published on Jul 23, 2012
A masterplan archiving the collaboration of Hyphae Design Laboratory, the North of Market - Tenderloin Community Benefit District, and SF Cl...