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26 FOUNTAINS Water as an element of social cohesion — Lisbon Architecture Triennale, 2013

The main problem, arising from the "social

connected to it, that ensured the water

existing of the problem, through the media.

fallout of recession" and "cultural and civic

transport to lower areas of the city, and

Using Lisbon Architecture Triennale as a

deficit raging in crisis-ridden Europe", is in

which are now framed in an urban Lisbon in

medium, taking place between September

our opinion the current crisis of values,

constant mutation and crossed through by a

12 and December 15 (only during week-

that is reflected in a financial and economic

big net of roads .

ends) will be installed a network of

crisis. We believe that the amazing amount

intercoms, in each of the fountains, allowing,

of cheap energy that in the last decades

We see the water as a possibility to connect

through open-channel, that anyone can use

gave way to a disconnection with the

communities and to make this link with what

this technology to communicate with

biophysics structures of the city, is also

are the landscape-nature structures of the

another person and hear the soundscape of

ireflected directly in the planning strategy of

city. We are also part of nature, man finds

another fountain (fig. 3). Through this

Lisbon through the absence of a

his social activities through the

installation we intend to establish a new

consequent dialogue between the various

interconnection of activities. We want this

network between the system of fountains

stakeholders who live and govern the city..

project to rise awareness of the importance

(fig. 1), encouraging dialogue between

of water in the city and use that as a

people and capturing media attention. With

possibility to build up social cohesion.

the aim to retrieve the popular imaginary

“(...) an imense construction work of gorgeous aqueducts that will last eternally(...)”

also will be installed in each of the fountains The project, to be conducted in three

a speaker which plays the sound of running

This phrase inscribed in the Amoreiras Arch

phases, intends to reactivate the whole

water, currently lacking in most of these

is the motto of the project "Water as an

system through a process that encourages

structures.

element of social cohesion", which aims

dialogue between residents and local

The second phase will correspond to the

to reactivate a set of 26 fountains, which

authorities (neighborhood associations,

process for mobilizing communities towards

are part of the ancient system of water

parish councils, etc.), mobilizing

organizing themselves in order to obtain the

distribution and the collective memory of

communities around each of the fountains in

necessary support to carry out the

city. The Aguas Livres Aqueduct, the most

order to bring back the water and the

restoration work (fig. 4).

visible structure of this complex system,

citizens to those noble spaces of the city

The third and last phase, corresponds to

started in 1731 with the aim of solving water

(fig. 2).

the restoration of each of the fountains,

absence, which always afflicted the City of

even if this looks a bit utopic we believe that

Lisbon, today lost its original purpose. The

In a first phase, is the stage for raising

it should be possible to bring water back into

same happened to most fountains that were

media attention and awareness of the

the fountains,”as a metaphor” (fig. 5).

1


26 FOUNTAINS Water as an element of social cohesion — Lisbon Architecture Triennale, 2013

Budget and Schedule

Research and logistics Installation 26 fountains Civil society engagement Fountains with water

1st Phase Research and logistics Installation - woki toki + speakers logistics Logistics on site

June - September

200 €

August - September

1800 €

September - December

500 €

TOTAL

2500 €

2nd and 3rd Phase It will be suported by sponsors and the residents' association (Santos-o-Velho’s Civil Parish, Sao Domingos de Benfica, Sao Francisco Xavier’s and Santa Maria de Belem’s Civil Parish, Penha de Franca, Alcantara); the basic work is mettings and burocratic works, contacts with the local authorities. This work will start during the Lisbon Architecture Triennale and it will be helped by the media attention of the event. 2


26 FOUNTAINS Water as an element of social cohesion — Lisbon Architecture Triennale, 2013

Conceptual Plan and Public Fountains

Fig. 1 - Location plan of fountains and communication network proposal between them.

3


26 FOUNTAINS Water as an element of social cohesion — Lisbon Architecture Triennale, 2013

1. KING’S PUBLIC FOUNTAIN

2. INNER PUBLIC FOUNTAIN

Terreiro do Trigo’s Square

Inner Public Fountain’s Square

Santo Estevao’s Civil Parish

Santo Estevao’s Civil Parish

Construction date: unknown

Construction date: unknown

Architect: unknown

Architect: unknown

Current state: no water

Current state: no water

3. SAO PAULO’S PUBLIC FOUNTAIN

4. JANELAS VERDES’ PUBLIC FOUNTAIN

Sao Paulo’s Square

Doutor José de Figueiredo Square

Sao Paulo’s Civil Parish

Prazeres’ Civil Parish

Construction date: 1848

Construction date: 1775

Architect: Malaquias Ferreira Leal

Architect: Reinaldo M. dos Santos

Current state: no water

Current state: no water

5. PUBLIC FOUNTAIN OF ARMADA’S SQUARE

6. NECESSIDADES’ PUBLIC FOUNTAIN

Armada’s Square

Necessidades’ Square

Prazeres’ Civil Parish

Prazeres’ Civil Parish

Construction date: 1845

Construction date: 1747

Architect: unknown

Architect: Manuel C. de Sousa (atribuído)

Current state: no water

7. JUNQUEIRA’S PUBLIC FOUNTAIN

Current state: water

8. BOA HORA’S PUBLIC FOUNTAIN

Junqueira’s Street

Calhariz’s New Street

Alcantara’s Civil Parish

Ajuda’s Civil Parish

Construction date: 1821

Construction date: 1838

Architect: Honorato José Correia

Architect: unknown

de Macedo e Sá Current state: no water

Current state: no water

4


26 FOUNTAINS Water as an element of social cohesion — Lisbon Architecture Triennale, 2013

9. PUBLIC FOUNTAIN OF MASTRO’S SQUARE

10. PUBLIC FOUNTAIN OF CARMO’S SQUARE

Mastro’s Square

Carmo’s Square

Pena’s Civil Parish

Sacramento’s Civil Parish

Construction date: 1848

Construction date: 1769

Architect: Malaquias Ferreira Leal

Architect: Miguel Ângelo de Blasco

Sculptor: Alexandre Gomes

(atribuído)

Current state: water

Current state: water

11. PUBLIC FOUNTAIN OF PRINCESA’S SQUARE

12. FORMOSA STREET’S PUBLIC FOUNTAIN

Princesa’s Square (Pedrouços)

Seculo’s Street

S. Maria de Belem’s Civil Parish

Santa Catarina’s Civil Parish

Construction date: 1851

Construction date: 1762

Architects: Malaquias Ferreira Leal,

Architect: Carlos Mardel

Félix José da Costa Current state: no water

13. MAE DE AGUA’S PUBLIC FOUNTAIN

Current state: no water

14. PUBLIC FOUNTAIN OF FLORES’ SQUARE

Mae de Agua’s Street

Flores’ Square

Sao Jose’s Civil Parish

Merces’ Civil Parish

Construction date: XVIIIth century

Construction date: unknown

Architect: unknown

Architect: unknown

Current state: no water

Current state: no water

15. PUBLIC FOUNTAIN OF RATO’S SQUARE

16. FONTE SANTA’S PUBLIC FOUNTAIN

Rato’s Square

Possidonio da Silva Street

Sao Mamede’s Civil Parish

Prazeres’ Civil Parish

Construction date: 1754

Construction date: unknown

Architect: Carlos Mardel

Architect: unknown

Current state: no water

Current state: no water

5


26 FOUNTAINS Water as an element of social cohesion — Lisbon Architecture Triennale, 2013

17. ARCO CAVALHAO’S PUBLIC FOUNTAIN

18. PENHA DE FRANCA’S PUBLIC FOUNTAIN

Arco do Carvalhao’s Street

Penha de Franca’s Square

Campolide’s Civil Parish

Penha de Franca’s Civil Parish

Construction date: 1823

Construction date: 1870

Architect: Reinaldo M. dos Santos

Architect: unknown

Current state: no water

Current state: no water

19. CONVALESCENCA’S PUBLIC FOUNTAIN

20. LARANJEIRAS’ PUBLIC FOUNTAIN

Benfica’s Road

Laranjeiras’ Square

S. Domingos Benfica’s Civil Parish

S. Domingos Benfica’s Civil Parish

Construction date: 1817

Construction date: 1791

Architect: unknown

Architect: Manuel dos Santos, Francisco A. Ferreira Cangalhas

Current state: no water

21. BENFICA’S PUBLIC FOUNTAIN

Current state: no water

22. PUBLIC FOUNTAIN OF ANDALUZ’S SQUARE

Benfica’s Road

Andaluz’s Square

S. Domingos Benfica’s Civil Parish

Coracao de Jesus’ Civil Parish

Construction date: 1788

Construction date: 1336

Architect: Manuel dos Santos,

Architect: unknown

Francisco A. Ferreira Cangalhas Current state: no water

23. S. SEBASTIAO DA PEDREIRA‘S PUBLIC FOUNTAIN

Current state: no water

24. ENTRE-CAMPOS‘ PUBLIC FOUNTAIN

S. Sebastiao da Pedreira’s Street

Entrecampos’ Street

S. Sebastiao Pedreira’s Civil Parish

Alvalade’s Civil Parish

Construction date: 1791

Construction date: 1851

Architect: Francisco A. Ferreira

Architect: unknown

Cangalhas Current state: no water

Current state: no water

6


26 FOUNTAINS Water as an element of social cohesion — Lisbon Architecture Triennale, 2013

25. MOURAS‘ PUBLIC FOUNTAIN

26. ESPERANCA‘S PUBLIC FOUNTAIN

Correio-Mor’s Square

D. Carlos I Avenue

Lumiar’s Civil Parish

Santos-o-Velho’s Civil Parish

Construction date: 1815

Construction date: 1768

Architect: José Therésio Michelotti

Architect: Carlos Mardel

Current state: water

Current state: no water

Janelas Verdes’ Public Fountain - Case Study

Fig. 2 - Janelas Verdes’ Public Fountain in 1904.

7


26 FOUNTAINS Water as an element of social cohesion — Lisbon Architecture Triennale, 2013

1st Phase

Fig. 3 - Installation of intercoms and speakers concerning the first phase.

In a first phase, is the stage for raising media attention and awareness of the existing of the problem, through the media. Using Lisbon Architecture Triennale as a medium, taking place between September 12 and December 15 (only during week-ends) will be installed a network of intercoms, in each of the fountains, allowing, through open-channel, that anyone can use this technology to communicate with another person and hear the soundscape of another fountain (fig. 3). Through this installation we intend to establish a new network between the system of fountains (fig. 1), encouraging dialogue between people and capturing media attention. With the aim to retrieve the popular imaginary also will be installed in each of the fountains a speaker which plays the sound of running water, currently lacking in most of these structures. 8


26 FOUNTAINS Water as an element of social cohesion — Lisbon Architecture Triennale, 2013

2nd Phase

Fig. 4 - Participatory process organized by the residents' association during the second phase.

The second phase will correspond to the process for mobilizing communities towards organizing themselves in order to obtain the necessary support to carry out the restoration work (fig. 4).

9


26 FOUNTAINS Water as an element of social cohesion — Lisbon Architecture Triennale, 2013

3rd Phase

Fig. 5 - Janelas Verdes’ Public Fountain after completing the reactivation process.

The third and last phase, corresponds to the restoration of each of the fountains, even if this looks a bit utopic we believe that it should be possible to bring water back into the fountains,”as a metaphor” (fig. 5).

10


26 FOUNTAINS Water as an element of social cohesion — Lisbon Architecture Triennale, 2013

Bibliography Caetano, Joaquim O.; "Chafariz, Bicas e Poços", in Santana, Francisco; Sucena, Eduardo; Dicionário da História de Lisboa, Lisboa, Carlos Quintas e Associados, 1994, pp. 268 - 270 Viegas, Inês, M.; Dias, Luísa C.; Lisboa e o Aqueduto - Lisbon and the Aqueduct, Lisboa, Câmara Municipal de Lisboa, 1997, pp. 101

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