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DEVELOPMENTAL NEPHROLOGY: FROM EMBRYOLOGY TO METABOLOMICS Edited by V. Fanos R. L. Chevalier G. Faa L. Cataldi

11 FIGURES 20 TABLES 2011


DEVELOPMENTAL NEPHROLOGY: FROM EMBRYOLOGY TO METABOLOMICS © 2011 Hygeia Press di Corridori Marinella Via Montecatini, 53 – Quartu Sant’Elena (Cagliari) – Italy www.hygeiapress.com First edition: October 2011 ISBN 9788890438929 Cover picture: the proximal extreme of each “S-shaped body” develops into the proximal and the distal tube which fuses with the ureteric bud tip, undergoes cavitation and then transforms into a collecting duct (Prof. G. Faa, with permission).

Editing: Marinella Corridori Editorial coordination: Eleonora Fanos English revision: David C. Nilson Printing and binding: Grafiche Ghiani srl S.S. 131 km 17,450 – Z. I. – Monastir (CA) – Italy

Disclaimer. Care has been taken to confirm the accuracy of the information presented and to describe generally accepted practices. However, the authors, editors, and publisher are not responsible for errors or omissions or for any consequences from application of the information in this book and make no warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the currency, completeness, or accuracy of the contents of this publication. Drug dosage. The authors, editors and publisher have exerted every effort to be certain that drug selection and dosage set forth in this book are in accordance with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any change in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new or infrequently employed drug. All rights reserved. All materials are protected by Italian law and by international conventions. No part of this work may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of the publisher.


Contents

1.

Contributors

13

Preface

17

Abbreviations

19

Kidney embryogenesis: how to look at old things with new eyes Gavino Faa, Clara Gerosa, Daniela Fanni, Sonia Nemolato, Guido Monga, Vassilios Fanos A fascinating traffic of cells and tissues • Morphological sequence of events in human kidney development • Molecular regulation of nephrogenesis • Embryology and carcinogenesis: how to better understand kidney tumors by studying tissue expression of transcription factors • Kidney development: can we trace adult kidney behavior to the nine months before birth? • Conclusions and future challenges • References

2.

23

Obstructive uropathy: the state of the art Robert L. Chevalier Pathogenesis of obstructive uropathy: animal models • Cellular and molecular mechanisms of obstructive renal injury • Renal growth and glomerular injury • Renal tubular injury • Renal interstitial injury • The role of angiotensin • Evaluation and management of upper tract obstruction • Evaluation and management of lower tract obstruction • Long-term follow-up and the future • References

3.

47

Perinatal programming: long-term consequences for the kidney Melania Puddu, Luigi Cataldi, Gavino Faa, Murat Yurdakök, Silvio Maringhini, Vassilios Fanos Is the neonate the father of the adult? • Developmental programming of the kidney and epigenetics • Low neonatal weight and kidney diseases: a dangerous couple • From epidemiology to the clinic and experimentation... • …to pathological anatomy • Renal programming in the VLBW and ELBW: old and new • The influence of pre- and postnatal nutrition • The final number of nephrons as the key factor in the health of the kidney and the organism • Drugs and modulation of nephrogenesis • Future directions • References

57


4.

Aquaporins: implications for the newborn infants Jacob V. Aranda, Elisabetta Puxeddu, Nataliya Chorny, Morris Shoeneman, Gloria B. Valencia, Kay D. Beharry Aquaporins • Clinical relevance for the newborn infant •Aquaporins in the eyes • Renal ontogeny of aquaporins • References

5.

75

Pediatric nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis Maria Antonietta Marcialis, Angelica Dessì, Maria Cristina Pintus, Bernadette Pinna, Luigi Ruggeri, Vassilios Fanos Mechanism of action of AVP • Frequency of NSIAD • Symptomatology • Therapy • Future directions • Take-home messages • References

6.

87

Nutrition and kidney in preterm infant Mario De Curtis, Jacques Rigo Intrauterine growth and kidney development • Effect of nutrition and growth on the kidney in the postnatal period • Hypercalciuria in preterm infants fed human milk • Maturation of renal function • Renal solute load in preterm infants • Metabolic acidosis and feeding of preterm infants • References

7.

97

Vascular and renal problems among infants with intrauterine growth restriction Vincenzo Zanardo, Martina Bertin, Vassilios Fanos, Silvia Visentin, Daniele Trevisanuto, Erich Cosmi The Barker hypothesis and fetal programming of adult disease • Endothelial dysfunction • Fetal programming and renal consequences • Conclusion • References

8.

107

Antenatal non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the neonatal kidney Roberto Antonucci, Marco Zaffanello, Maria Dolores Pilloni, Vassilios Fanos NSAIDs use in pregnancy and the neonatal kidney: general remarks • Placental transfer of NSAIDs • Pathophysiology of COX inhibition • Metabolism and excretion of NSAIDs • Experimental studies in animals • Observational studies in humans • Histopathological findings • Laboratory assessment • Take-home messages • References

10

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Contents


9.

Renal safety of antifungals and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the newborn Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Roberto Antonucci, Laura Cuzzolin, Teresa Tomé, Hercília Guimarães Drug-induced renal damage in the newborn • Physiopathology • Renal safety of antifungals • Renal safety of NSAIDs • References

131

10. Clinical pharmacology of aminoglycosides and the developing kidney Karel Allegaert, John N. van den Anker Aminoglycoside pharmacokinetics: how does the developing kidney handle aminoglycosides? • Aminoglycoside pharmacodynamics: how do aminoglycosides affect the developing kidney? • Clinical relevance • References

149

11. The kidney in post-asphyctic syndrome: state of the art Vassilios Fanos, Luigi Atzori, Angelica Dessì, Ernesto D’Aloja, Gabriele Finco, Gavino Faa How big is the problem? • Physiopathology of postasphyctic kidney damage • Early diagnosis of hypoxic-ischemic kidney damage • Metabolomics in asphyxia • Prediction of acute postasphyctic renal insufficiency • Therapy and prevention • Prognosis • References

159

12. Renal consequences of perinatal asphyxia: the role of urinary biomarkers Kosmas Sarafidis AKI in perinatal asphyxia • Diagnosis of AKI in perinatal asphyxia • Biomarkers of AKI • AKI biomarkers and their potential use in perinatal asphyxia • Conclusions • References

181

13. Metabolomics in perinatal renal asphyxia Luigi Atzori, Antonio Noto, Luigi Barberini, Nicoletta Iacovidou, Viviana Marinelli, Vassilios Fanos The kidneys: the second highest consumers of oxygen after the brain • Perinatal programming theory • Intrauterine growth restriction • Metabolomics • Biological samples in metabolomics • Metabolomics and renal asphyxia • Conclusions • References

Contents

195

11


14. Biochemical markers in neonatal sepsis-induced acute kidney injury Michele Mussap, Vassilios Fanos Neonatal sepsis-induced AKI • Biomarkers for assessing AKI • Biomarkers for assessing systemic inflammation, sepsis, and septic shock • Sepsis-induced AKI biochemical markers • Future prospects • References

215

15. Ultrasounds and the kidney Rino Agostiniani The approach to newborns with suspected urinary tract malformations • Ultrasonography examination of the neonatal urinary tract • The Doppler techniques and the new tools • References

231

16. Pyelonephritis in the newborn Giovanni Ottonello, Alessandra Atzei, Angelica Dessì, Maria Elisabetta Trudu, Alice Melis, Vassilios Fanos Epidemiology/risk factors • Etiology • Clinical medicine • Diagnosis • Therapy • Conclusions • References

237

17. Ethical issues in the management of neonates with severe renal failure Fani Anatolitou, Helen Georgaki-Angelaki Ethical dilemmas • General theoretical basis • Clinical solutions • Quality of life or sanctity of life? • Withholding or withdrawing treatment • Legal aspects • Resource allocation – Socioeconomic factors • Decision-making process • Conclusions • References

247

18. The Neonatal Nephrology Study Group: 25 years of work Luigi Cataldi, Gavino Faa, Robert L. Chevalier, Vassilios Fanos; The Italian Society of Neonatology, The Neonatal Nephrology Study Group

12

Investigations • Teaching Program • Future directions • References

255

Index

263

Contents


Developmental Nephrology: from Embryology to Metabolomics - Hygeia Press - Contents