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edited by Vassilios Fanos and Murat Yurdakรถk

Children of the Mother Goddess History of Mediterranean Neonates


CHILDREN OF THE MOTHER GODDESS HISTORY OF MEDITERRANEAN NEONATES © 2010 Hygeia Press di Corridori Marinella Via Montecatini, 53 – Quartu Sant'Elena (Cagliari) – Italy www.hygeiapress.com Lyrics by Gian Paolo Donzelli are published by courtesy of the author.

First edition: October 2010 ISBN 9788890438974 Cover picture: Bruno y mami by César Boillos Jimeno Illustrations: all images are vector illustrations by Eleonora Fanos Thanks to Gian Marco Ibba for supervision on illustrations on pages 42, 45, 98, 134, 180 Translation of chapters 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 12, and revision of the other chapters: David C. Nilson Translation of appendix: Susan Cadby Editing: Marinella Corridori Editorial coordination: Eleonora Fanos Printing and binding: Grafiche Ghiani srl S.S. 131 km 17,450 – Z. I. – Monastir (CA) – Italy

All rights reserved. All materials are protected by Italian law and by international conventions. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of the publisher.


Contents

Page

Presentation by Giuseppe Buonocore...................................................................

11

Presentation by Paolo Giliberti.............................................................................

13

Presentation by Gian Paolo Donzelli....................................................................

15

Introduction Vassilios Fanos, Murat Yurdakök ....................................................

17

1. Birth in Mediterranean Cultures: Searching for the Roots Luigi Cataldi, M. Giuseppina Gregorio The Mother Goddess and the evolution of a culture • The sacred marriage of the Goddess: the Mediterranean culture .......................

21

2. Birth in Ancient Anatolia Murat Yurdakök 12,000 years ago • Neolithic times • Hattians and Hittites • Ottoman times ................................................................................................. 3. Birth and Care of the Newborn in Ancient Greece Vassilios Fanos, Alessandra Atzei, Marinella Corridori Childbirth • Rituals following birth • Breastfeeding • Abandonment and infanticide • Parents' attachment to their children ..................... 4. Extraordinary Births in the Gods' Delivery Room Vassilios Fanos, Thamianos Fanos, Marinella Corridori The birth of Athena from Zeus's head • The birth of Dionysus from Zeus's thigh • Aphrodite's birth from Uranus's member • The birth of Agdistis and Erichthonius from the Earth • When the mothers are those who engender ......................................................................... 5. The Newborn and the Child in Magna Graecia Giovanni Corsello History • Philosophy, science, myth and religion • Play • Nutrition.....................................................................................

27

37

51

63


8

Contents

6. Birth and Care of the Newborn in Ancient Rome Marinella Corridori, Vassilios Fanos The reproductive role of the woman • Midwives • Illustrations of childbirth • Factors considered important for childbirth: girdles and knots • Divinities and childbirth • Childbirth and the first treatments of the newborn • Neonatal mortality • Recognition of the neonate • The abandonment (or exposure) of the newborn • The neonate's bath, swaddling clothes and crib • Breastfeeding • The name .........

71

7. Fertility Rites Italo Farnetani, Vassilios Fanos, Marinella Corridori Ethnobiology of reproduction • Fertility rites • The power of light ..................................................................................................

89

8. History of Breastfeeding Marcella Testa, Kyriakì Tsotra The Egyptians • The Greeks • The Etruscans and Italic peoples • The Romans • Conclusions ..............................................................

97

9. History of Adoption Francesco Tregnaghi Adoption in Babylon • The Old Testament • Ancient Egypt • Ancient Greece • Ancient Rome • The Middle Ages • The French Revolution • Modern times: France and Italy ..................................

109

10. Neonatal Medicine in Ancient Art Murat Yurdakök Breastfeeding • The first neonatologists • Caesarean birth • The fetus • Congenital anomalies • Twins • Circumcision .....................

119

11. Birth Defects through History Luigi Memo, Matteo Della Monica, Roberto Mauri, Alice Vuoso-Mauri Ancient Egypt • The Middle East • Ancient Greek and Roman Worlds • The Middle Ages and the Renaissance • 16th to 18th Centuries • Victorian Curiosity • Eugenics and the Nazi madness • Current Perspectives • Conclusions ................................................. 12. "Extraordinary Birth". History of the Caesarean Section in the Western World Nadia Maria Filippini The birth of gods and heroes • The post mortem caesarean • The 18th-century revolution: Gian Battista Bianchi and Francesco Emanuele Cangiamila • The caesarean section on living women .......................................................................................

133

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Contents

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13. Myths about Childbirth Amélia Ricon-Ferraz, Hercília Guimarães, Cristina Areias, Teresa Tomé Pregnancy • Childbirth • Puerperium • The newborn ......................

163

14. Childhood Protection: Amulets and Talismans M. Giuseppina Gregorio, Luigi Cataldi Amulets • Talismans • The amulet as a jewel • Nowadays • Conclusions ......................................................................................

175

15. The Past and Future of European Newborns Hercília Guimarães, Amélia Ricon-Ferraz, Cristina Areias, Teresa Tomé Looking to the past • What about the future? • Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (NIDCAP) • Neonatal end-of-life decisions and palliative care • UENPS (Union of European Neonatal & Perinatal Societies) and EFCNI (European Foundation for the Care of Newborn Infants) • Neonatal mortality and morbidity • The near future ........................

187

Appendix. Birth (Lyrics) Gian Paolo Donzelli Choice • Essence • Premonition • Expectation • Labour • Birth • Life • Breastfeeding .........................................................................

203

References ............................................................................................................

207

List of authors.......................................................................................................

219


Children of the Mother Goddess. History of Mediterranean Neonates - Hygeia Press - Contents