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WORLDWIDE REFINERY PROCESSING REVIEW Monitoring Technology Development and Competition in One Single Source

First Quarter 2014 Coking Plus

Latest Refining Technology Developments & Licensing

HYDROCARBON PUBLISHING COMPANY Translating Knowledge into Profitability

P.O. Box 661 Southeastern, PA 19399 (U.S.A.)

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Phone: (610) 408-0117/ Fax: (610) 408-0118

Review@Hydrocarbonpublishing.com


TABLE OF CONTENTS 1Q 2014 Review Coking 1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 1 2. Coking .............................................................................................................................................. 5 2.1 

2.2 

MARKET/TECHNOLOGY TRENDS & OPPORTUNITIES ............................................................................................. 5  2.1.1  Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 5  2.1.2  Market Conditions and Outlook................................................................................................................ 5  2.1.2.1  Refined Products Supply and Demand .................................................................................... 5  2.1.2.2  Increasing Use of Opportunity Crudes .................................................................................... 8  2.1.2.3  Bottoms Upgrading Capacity and Expansion: Focus on Coking ........................................... 13  2.1.2.4  Construction ........................................................................................................................... 14  2.1.2.5  Petroleum Coke Production, Quality, and Use ...................................................................... 14  2.1.2.6  Government Legislation ........................................................................................................ 17  2.1.3  Technology Competition, Directions, and Future Prospects .................................................................. 18  2.1.3.1  Bottom-of-the-Barrel Upgrading Technology Trends ........................................................... 18  2.1.3.2  Latest Developments in Coking Technology ......................................................................... 22  2.1.4  Conclusion .............................................................................................................................................. 26  STATE-OF-THE-ART TECHNOLOGY ..................................................................................................................... 27  2.2.1  Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 27  2.2.2  Commercial Processes ............................................................................................................................ 29  2.2.2.1  Bechtel ................................................................................................................................... 29  2.2.2.1.1  ThruPlus .............................................................................................................. 29  2.2.2.1.2  Integration with Power Generation ..................................................................... 32  2.2.2.2  ExxonMobil ........................................................................................................................... 34  2.2.2.2.1  FLUID COKING ................................................................................................ 35  2.2.2.2.2  FLEXICOKING .................................................................................................. 37  2.2.2.3  Foster Wheeler/UOP .............................................................................................................. 41  2.2.2.3.1  SYDEC................................................................................................................ 41  2.2.2.3.2  Integration Opportunities .................................................................................... 45  2.2.2.3.2.1  Combined Coking and Deasphalting ............................................. 45  2.2.2.3.2.2  Petropower and Combined Gasification-CFB Plants..................... 48  2.2.2.4  KBR ....................................................................................................................................... 50  2.2.2.4.1  Delayed Coking ................................................................................................... 50  2.2.2.4.2  Integrated Solvent Deasphalting-Coking ............................................................ 52  2.2.2.5  Lummus Technology, a CB&I Company .............................................................................. 52  2.2.2.5.1  Delayed Coking ................................................................................................... 52  2.2.2.5.2  Maruzen-Lummus Process .................................................................................. 55  2.2.2.5.3  Vertical Plate Coke Drum ................................................................................... 55  2.2.2.6  Petrobras ................................................................................................................................ 57  2.2.2.7  Sinopec & LPEC.................................................................................................................... 57  2.2.3  Summary of Commercial Coking Processes ........................................................................................... 59  2.2.4  Additional Coking Technologies ............................................................................................................. 61  2.2.4.1  Automated/Remote Unheading .............................................................................................. 61  2.2.4.1.1  CITGO ................................................................................................................ 61  2.2.4.1.2  Curtiss Wright Flow Control ............................................................................... 62  2.2.4.1.3  Flowserve ............................................................................................................ 62  2.2.4.1.4  Metso ................................................................................................................... 63 

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2.2.4.1.5  SIS-Tech .............................................................................................................. 64  2.2.4.1.6  Zimmermann & Jansen ........................................................................................ 64  2.2.4.2  Hydrocyclones........................................................................................................................ 64  2.2.4.3  Coker Heater Tube Coating.................................................................................................... 64  2.2.5  Alternatives to Conventional Coking Technologies ................................................................................ 65  2.2.5.1  Chiyoda .................................................................................................................................. 65  2.2.5.2  ETX Systems .......................................................................................................................... 69  2.2.5.3  Toyo Engineering ................................................................................................................... 70  2.2.5.4  Non-commercial Coking Process Technologies .................................................................... 71  2.2.6  Comparison of Commercially Available Advanced Control and Optimization Systems ......................... 72  PLANT OPERATIONS AND PRACTICES................................................................................................................... 75  2.3.1  Meeting Feed Challenges ........................................................................................................................ 75  2.3.1.1  Processing Refinery Sludge ................................................................................................... 75  2.3.1.2  Hydrotreated VGO and Resid Streams .................................................................................. 76  2.3.1.3  FCC Slurry Oil Addition ........................................................................................................ 77  2.3.1.4  Coping with High Asphaltene and CCR Feeds ...................................................................... 78  2.3.1.5  Processing Tight Oil ............................................................................................................... 79  2.3.2  Process Operating Variables .................................................................................................................. 79  2.3.2.1  Impact on Product Distribution .............................................................................................. 79  2.3.2.2  Significance of Coke Drum Pressure and Recycle Rate ........................................................ 80  2.3.2.3  Influence of Operating Conditions on Heater Run Lengths ................................................... 82  2.3.2.4  Operational Recommendations to Avoid Feed Line Plugging ............................................... 82  2.3.2.5  Optimal Transfer Line Quench Injection Angle to Improve Heat Transfer ........................... 83  2.3.2.6  Impact of Steam Rates ............................................................................................................ 83  2.3.2.7  Effect of Changing Coke Drum Cycle Time .......................................................................... 84  2.3.3  Mitigating Coker Fouling and Corrosion ............................................................................................... 84  2.3.3.1  Handling of Solids.................................................................................................................. 84  2.3.3.2  Minimizing Heater Tube Coking ........................................................................................... 85  2.3.3.3  Online vs. Offline Cleaning Methods: Spalling and Pigging ................................................. 89  2.3.3.4  Frequency of Overhead Vapor Line Cleanings ...................................................................... 92  2.3.3.5  Fractionator Fouling ............................................................................................................... 93  2.3.3.6  Coker Naphtha Reboiler Fouling ........................................................................................... 94  2.3.3.7  Plugging in Resid Lines ......................................................................................................... 95  2.3.4  Coke Drum Foaming Issues .................................................................................................................... 95  2.3.4.1  Primary Causes and Solutions ................................................................................................ 95  2.3.4.2  Antifoam Additive Use in Coke Drums and Associated Problems ........................................ 97  2.3.5  Enhancing Liquid Products ..................................................................................................................... 98  2.3.5.1  Balancing LCGO and HCGO Yield to Optimize Refinery Products ..................................... 98  2.3.5.2  Methods to Desulfurize Coker Naphtha ................................................................................. 99  2.3.5.3  Coker Additives to Increase Liquid Yield ............................................................................ 100  2.3.5.4  Reducing Naphtha Yield to Increase Liquid Yield .............................................................. 101  2.3.6  Coke Product Considerations ............................................................................................................... 101  2.3.6.1  Coke Grades and Morphology ............................................................................................. 101  2.3.6.2  Coke Density ........................................................................................................................ 103  2.3.6.3  Influencing Coke Quality ..................................................................................................... 103  2.3.6.4  Controlling Shot Coke Formation ........................................................................................ 105  2.3.7  Synergies with Other Bottoms Conversion Units .................................................................................. 107  2.3.7.1  Vacuum Distillation ............................................................................................................. 107  2.3.7.2  Solvent Deasphalting ........................................................................................................... 108  2.3.7.3  Hydrocracker ........................................................................................................................ 110  2.3.7.4  Gasification and/or CFB for Utilities Cogeneration ............................................................. 113  2.3.8  Hardware Solutions............................................................................................................................... 115  2.3.8.1  Metallurgy for Coker Heater Tubes ..................................................................................... 115 

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2.3.8.2  Selecting Main Fractionator Internals .................................................................................. 116  2.3.8.3  Valve Selection: Pros and Cons ........................................................................................... 117  2.3.8.4  Coker Drum Insulation Concerns ........................................................................................ 118  2.3.9  Revamps and Turnarounds ................................................................................................................... 119  2.3.9.1  Revamps to Boost Coker Capacity ...................................................................................... 119  2.3.9.1.1  Increasing Drum Size ........................................................................................ 119  2.3.9.1.2  Reducing Cycle Time and Adjusting Operating Parameters ............................. 122  2.3.9.2  Revamping to Recover Coke Drum Blowdown Vapor ....................................................... 125  2.3.9.3  Furnace Tube Revamp to Handle Significantly Heavier Feed............................................. 125  2.3.9.4  Retrofitting a Visbreaker to Eliminate Fuel Oil Production ................................................ 125  2.3.9.5  EPC Management Service to Optimize Coker Revamp Process ......................................... 126  2.3.9.6  New Revamp Approach Incorporating Modular Equipment ............................................... 126  2.3.9.7  Benefits of Structural Engineering Contractors ................................................................... 127  2.3.10  Energy Efficiency and Environmental Emissions ................................................................................. 127  2.3.10.1  Energy Characteristics ......................................................................................................... 127  2.3.10.1.1  Heat Integration ................................................................................................. 128  2.3.10.1.2  Steam Generation and Heat Recovery from Overhead Vapors ......................... 128�� 2.3.10.1.3  Saving Energy in the Main Fractionator ........................................................... 128  2.3.10.1.4  Optimization ...................................................................................................... 129  2.3.10.2  Controlling Emissions.......................................................................................................... 129  2.3.10.2.1  Coke Drum Emission Reduction ....................................................................... 129  2.3.10.2.2  CO2 Emissions Considerations .......................................................................... 130  2.3.10.2.3  Reduce Flaring from Closed Blowdown System .............................................. 130  2.3.10.2.4  Minimizing Post-Drum Coke Particulate Emissions ......................................... 131  2.3.11  Process Monitoring, Analytical Methods, and Instrumentation ........................................................... 131  2.3.11.1  Key Process Indicators......................................................................................................... 131  2.3.11.2  Heater Tube Fouling: Utilizing a Coke Stability Index to Characterize Potential Feeds..... 132  2.3.11.3  Methods of Coke Drum Level Detection ............................................................................. 135  2.3.11.4  Flowmeter Selection ............................................................................................................ 136  2.3.11.5  Utilizing Artificial Neural Networks to Model Coker Heater Performance ........................ 136  2.3.11.6  Monitoring Drum Wall Condition ....................................................................................... 137  2.3.12  Improving Coker Safety ........................................................................................................................ 138  2.3.12.1  General Guidelines .............................................................................................................. 138  2.3.12.2  Unheading and Coke Cutting Safety Measures ................................................................... 140  2.3.12.3  Avoid Low Heater-outlet Temperatures and Conditions for Hot Spots Formation ............. 141  2.3.12.4  Implement Independent Review of Practices and Management of Change Procedures ...... 142  2.3.12.5  Identifying and Preventing Drum Cracks and Pipe Failure ................................................. 143  2.3.12.6  Avoiding Exposure to H2S................................................................................................... 145  2.3.12.7  Mitigating Leak Issues ......................................................................................................... 145  2.3.12.8  Closed Processes .................................................................................................................. 146  2.3.12.8.1  Closed Coke Slurry System............................................................................... 146  2.3.12.8.2  Continuous Coking............................................................................................ 147  2.3.13  Coker Plant Water System .................................................................................................................... 148  2.3.13.1  Reducing Coker Fines in Cutting Water .............................................................................. 148  2.3.13.2  Performing a Coker Water Balance to Optimize Steam Purging and Sour Water Make ..... 149  2.3.14  Coke Bed Instability .............................................................................................................................. 150  REFINING R&D ALERT! .................................................................................................................................... 150  2.4.1  Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 150  2.4.2  Delayed Coking..................................................................................................................................... 154  2.4.2.1  Patents .................................................................................................................................. 154  2.4.2.1.1  Improving Liquid Quality/Yields ...................................................................... 155  2.4.2.1.2  Improved Decoking ........................................................................................... 158  2.4.2.1.3  Resolve Fouling/Foaming Issues ...................................................................... 160 

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2.7 

2.4.2.1.4  Continuous Delayed Coking .............................................................................. 164  2.4.2.1.5  Delayed Coking of Particular Feedstocks .......................................................... 165  2.4.2.1.6  Miscellaneous .................................................................................................... 166  2.4.2.2  Research ............................................................................................................................... 170  2.4.3  Fluidized-bed Coking ............................................................................................................................ 171  2.4.4  Integration ............................................................................................................................................. 172  2.4.4.1  Patents .................................................................................................................................. 172  2.4.4.2  Research ............................................................................................................................... 174  2.4.5  Specialized and Unconventional Feeds (excluding Bitumen) ............................................................... 175  2.4.5.1  Patents .................................................................................................................................. 175  2.4.5.2  Research ............................................................................................................................... 178  2.4.6  Product Fractionation and Treatment .................................................................................................. 179  2.4.6.1  Patents .................................................................................................................................. 179  2.4.6.2  Research ............................................................................................................................... 183  2.4.7  Coke Quality and Morphology .............................................................................................................. 183  2.4.8  Coker Additives ..................................................................................................................................... 187  2.4.9  Monitoring and Control ........................................................................................................................ 192  2.4.9.1  Patents .................................................................................................................................. 192  2.4.9.1.1  Remote Controlled Decoking ............................................................................ 192  2.4.9.1.2  Valves ................................................................................................................ 197  2.4.9.1.3  Analysis and Control ......................................................................................... 199  2.4.9.2  Research ............................................................................................................................... 202  2.4.10  Furnace ................................................................................................................................................. 202  2.4.10.1  Furnaces and Furnace Equipment ........................................................................................ 202  2.4.10.2  Furnace Fouling Prevention ................................................................................................. 208  2.4.11  Maintenance .......................................................................................................................................... 211  2.4.12  Hardware .............................................................................................................................................. 212  2.4.12.1  Coke Drums ......................................................................................................................... 212  2.4.12.2  Cutting Tools ........................................................................................................................ 213  2.4.12.3  Miscellaneous ....................................................................................................................... 215  2.4.13  Petroleum Coke Handling and Usage ................................................................................................... 217  2.4.14  Water Handling and Treatment ............................................................................................................. 217  2.4.14.1  Patents .................................................................................................................................. 217  2.4.14.2  Research ............................................................................................................................... 221  WORLDWIDE INSTALLED CAPACITY .................................................................................................................. 223  CONSTRUCTION ................................................................................................................................................. 225  2.6.1  Recent Construction Activity ................................................................................................................. 225  2.6.2  Completed Construction Projects.......................................................................................................... 229  REFERENCES ...................................................................................................................................................... 238 

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