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WORLDWIDE REFINERY PROCESSING REVIEW Monitoring Technology Development and Competition in One Single Source

Fourth Quarter 2013 Fluid Catalytic Cracking, and Visbreaking & Thermal Cracking Plus

Latest Refining Technology Developments & Licensing

HYDROCARBON PUBLISHING COMPANY Translating Knowledge into Profitability

P.O. Box 661 Southeastern, PA 19399 (U.S.A.)

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Phone: (610) 408-0117/ Fax: (610) 408-0118 Review@Hydrocarbonpublishing.com


TABLE OF CONTENTS 4Q 2013 Review Fluid Catalytic Cracking and Visbreaking & Thermal Cracking 1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................... 1 2. Fluid Catalytic Cracking ................................................................................................................ 5 2.1 

2.2 

MARKET/TECHNOLOGY TRENDS & OPPORTUNITIES ............................................................................................. 5  2.1.1  Introduction .............................................................................................................................................. 5  2.1.2  Market Conditions and Outlook................................................................................................................ 5  2.1.2.1  Worldwide Transportation Fuel Demand ................................................................................... 5  2.1.2.1.1  Global Dieselization .................................................................................................. 7  2.1.2.1.2  Growing Propylene Consumption ............................................................................. 8  2.1.2.2  FCC Capacity and Expansion ................................................................................................... 10  2.1.2.3  New Units Oriented Towards Changes in Feeds, Products ...................................................... 11  2.1.2.3.1  Processing Heavier Feeds ........................................................................................ 11  2.1.2.3.2  Challenges and Opportunities for Processing Tight Oil .......................................... 12  2.1.2.4  Fuel Specifications and Unit Emissions Considerations .......................................................... 16  2.1.2.4.1  Transportation Fuels ................................................................................................ 16  2.1.2.4.2  FCC Unit Emissions ................................................................................................ 17  2.1.2.5  Current Status of FCC Catalyst Market .................................................................................... 18  2.1.2.5.1  Near-term FCC Market Outlook.............................................................................. 19  2.1.3  Technology Directions, Competition, and Future Prospects .................................................................. 20  2.1.3.1  Producing High-quality Gasoline and Increasing Yield ........................................................... 24  2.1.3.2  Light Olefins Production Enhancement .................................................................................... 25  2.1.3.3  Boosting LCO Yield and Quality ............................................................................................. 28  2.1.3.4  Improving Operational Flexibility in Gasoline/Propylene and LCO Production Modes ......... 30  2.1.3.5  Processing Resid and Biofeeds ................................................................................................. 32  2.1.3.6  Regenerator Pollution Abatement and GHG Concerns ............................................................ 34  2.1.3.7  Process Modeling, Monitoring, and Control ............................................................................ 36  2.1.4  Conclusion .............................................................................................................................................. 37  STATE-OF-THE-ART TECHNOLOGY ..................................................................................................................... 38  2.2.1  Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 38  2.2.2  Commercial Processes and Hardware ................................................................................................... 39  2.2.2.1  ExxonMobil/KBR ..................................................................................................................... 40  2.2.2.1.1  Flexicracking III ...................................................................................................... 40  2.2.2.1.2  Orthoflow ................................................................................................................ 42  2.2.2.1.3  Propylene Production .............................................................................................. 45  2.2.2.2  Lummus Technology ................................................................................................................ 46  2.2.2.2.1  Fuels Production ...................................................................................................... 46  2.2.2.2.2  Indmax FCC (I-FCC) .............................................................................................. 49  2.2.2.3  Nippon/Saudi Aramco .............................................................................................................. 49  2.2.2.4  Petrobras ................................................................................................................................... 55  2.2.2.4.1  Fuels Production ...................................................................................................... 55  2.2.2.4.2  Propylene Production .............................................................................................. 57  2.2.2.5  Shaw Group/Stone & Webster and Axens................................................................................ 57  2.2.2.5.1  Fuels Production ...................................................................................................... 58  2.2.2.5.2  Propylene Production .............................................................................................. 62  2.2.2.6  Shell Global Solutions .............................................................................................................. 64  2.2.2.6.1  FCC ......................................................................................................................... 64  2.2.2.6.2  MILOS..................................................................................................................... 69 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS 2.2.2.7  Sinopec ...................................................................................................................................... 70  2.2.2.7.1  Clean Gasoline and Propylene ................................................................................. 71  2.2.2.7.2  Maximizing Iso-paraffins......................................................................................... 73  2.2.2.7.3  Flexible Dual-riser Fluid Catalytic Cracking ........................................................... 73  2.2.2.7.4  Maximum Gas and Diesel ........................................................................................ 76  2.2.2.7.5  Maximum Liquefied Gas and High-octane Gasoline ............................................... 77  2.2.2.7.6  Propylene Production ............................................................................................... 77  2.2.2.8  UOP........................................................................................................................................... 78  2.2.2.8.1  FCC .......................................................................................................................... 78  2.2.2.8.2  MSCC ...................................................................................................................... 86  2.2.2.8.3  Propylene Production ............................................................................................... 87  2.2.2.9  Summary of Commercial FCC Processes and Hardware .......................................................... 88  2.2.3  Other Commercial Hardware ................................................................................................................. 95  2.2.3.1  Fisher-Klosterman ..................................................................................................................... 95  2.2.3.2  Koch-Glitsch ............................................................................................................................. 95  2.2.3.3  Lawrence Pumps ....................................................................................................................... 96  2.2.4  Commercial Catalysts and Additives....................................................................................................... 96  2.2.4.1  Albemarle .................................................................................................................................. 97  2.2.4.1.1  Cracking Catalysts to Increase Liquid Products ...................................................... 99  2.2.4.1.2  Gasoline Olefins and Octane Additives ................................................................. 108  2.2.4.1.3  SOX Reduction Additives....................................................................................... 109  2.2.4.1.4  Bottoms Cracking Additives .................................................................................. 110  2.2.4.1.5  Microfine Reduction Catalyst Technology ............................................................ 114  2.2.4.1.6  Catalyst Circulation Improvement Additives ......................................................... 115  2.2.4.1.7  Combustion Promoters........................................................................................... 115  2.2.4.1.8  Propylene Production ............................................................................................. 116  2.2.4.2  Ambur Chemical Co. .............................................................................................................. 119  2.2.4.3  BASF Catalysts ....................................................................................................................... 119  2.2.4.3.1  Cracking Catalysts to Increase Liquid Products .................................................... 122  2.2.4.3.2  Co-catalysts ............................................................................................................ 126  2.2.4.3.3  Gasoline Olefins and Octane Additives ................................................................. 128  2.2.4.3.4  Gasoline Sulfur Reduction Formulations ............................................................... 128  2.2.4.3.5  SOX Reduction Additives....................................................................................... 129  2.2.4.3.6  Microfine Reduction Catalyst Technology ............................................................ 129  2.2.4.3.7  Catalyst Circulation Improvement Additive .......................................................... 130  2.2.4.3.8  Combustion Promoters........................................................................................... 130  2.2.4.3.9  Propylene Production ............................................................................................. 131  2.2.4.4  Grace ....................................................................................................................................... 132  2.2.4.4.1  Cracking Catalysts to Increase Liquid Products .................................................... 137  2.2.4.4.2  Gasoline Sulfur Reduction Formulations ............................................................... 151  2.2.4.4.3  SOX Reduction Additives....................................................................................... 153  2.2.4.4.4  Catalyst Circulation Improvement Additive .......................................................... 155  2.2.4.4.5  Combustion Promoters........................................................................................... 156  2.2.4.4.6  Propylene Production ............................................................................................. 158  2.2.4.5  Inst. Mexicano del Petróleo..................................................................................................... 159  2.2.4.6  INTERCAT/Johnson Matthey ................................................................................................ 159  2.2.4.6.1  Gasoline Olefins Reduction Additives ................................................................... 160  2.2.4.6.2  Gasoline Sulfur Reduction Additives .................................................................... 160  2.2.4.6.3  SOX Reduction Additives....................................................................................... 161  2.2.4.6.4  Bottoms Cracking Additives .................................................................................. 162  2.2.4.6.5  Catalyst Enhancement Additives ........................................................................... 164  2.2.4.6.6  Combustion Promoters........................................................................................... 166  2.2.4.6.7  Propylene Production ............................................................................................. 166 

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2.3 

2.2.4.7  JGC Catalysts and Chemicals ................................................................................................. 169  2.2.4.8  Nalco Energy Services/Refining Process Services ................................................................. 169  2.2.4.8.1  MVP ...................................................................................................................... 170  2.2.4.8.2  NPP ........................................................................................................................ 171  2.2.4.9  Sinopec ................................................................................................................................... 172  2.2.4.9.1  Diesel Maximizing Catalysts ................................................................................. 172  2.2.4.9.2  Gasoline Olefins Reduction Formulations............................................................. 173  2.2.4.9.3  Gasoline Sulfur Reduction Additives .................................................................... 174  2.2.4.9.4  Propylene Production ............................................................................................ 174  2.2.4.10  Summary of Commercially Available FCC Catalysts ............................................................ 175  2.2.4.11  Summary of Commercially Available FCC Additives ........................................................... 176  2.2.5  Alternative Catalyst Technologies ........................................................................................................ 177  2.2.5.1  Albemarle ............................................................................................................................... 178  2.2.5.2  Grace....................................................................................................................................... 178  2.2.5.3  INTERCAT ............................................................................................................................ 179  2.2.5.4  KBR ........................................................................................................................................ 182  2.2.5.5  Nippon Oil .............................................................................................................................. 182  2.2.6  Advanced Process Control Systems ...................................................................................................... 183  2.2.6.1  ABB ........................................................................................................................................ 183  2.2.6.2  AspenTech .............................................................................................................................. 183  2.2.6.3  Cutler Technology Corp. ........................................................................................................ 184  2.2.6.4  Expertune ................................................................................................................................ 185  2.2.6.5  Honeywell Industry Solutions ................................................................................................ 185  2.2.6.6  Invensys .................................................................................................................................. 186  2.2.6.7  Petrocontrol ............................................................................................................................ 186  2.2.6.8  Yokogawa ............................................................................................................................... 187  2.2.6.9  Summary of Commercially Available Advanced Control Systems ........................................ 187  2.2.7  Process Models and Simulation ............................................................................................................ 189  2.2.7.1  AspenTech .............................................................................................................................. 191  2.2.7.2  Computational Particle Fluid Dynamics ................................................................................. 191  2.2.7.3  Eurotek Refining Services ...................................................................................................... 192  2.2.7.4  KBC Advanced Technologies ................................................................................................ 192  2.2.7.5  Petrobras ................................................................................................................................. 193  2.2.7.6  Shell ........................................................................................................................................ 193  2.2.7.7  Topnir Systems ....................................................................................................................... 194  2.2.7.8  Summary of Commercially Available Process Models and Simulation Software .................. 194  2.2.8  Resid Fluid Catalytic Cracking............................................................................................................. 195  2.2.9  Renewable Fluid Catalytic Cracking .................................................................................................... 205  PLANT OPERATIONS AND PRACTICES ................................................................................................................ 207  2.3.1  Feed Considerations ............................................................................................................................. 207  2.3.1.1  Effect of FCC Feed Contaminants on Unit Operation ............................................................ 207  2.3.1.2  Impact of VGO Hydrogen Content on FCC Operation .......................................................... 209  2.3.1.3  Minimizing Diesel-range Material in FCC Feed .................................................................... 210  2.3.1.4  Processing Tight Oil ............................................................................................................... 212  2.3.1.5  Optimizing FCC Feed Preheat Temperature........................................................................... 214  2.3.2  Improving FCC Gasoline Output and Quality ...................................................................................... 215  2.3.2.1  Enhancing Gasoline Octane .................................................................................................... 216  2.3.2.2  FCC Gasoline Sulfur Reduction ............................................................................................. 216  2.3.2.3  Lowering FCC Gasoline Olefinicity ....................................................................................... 217  2.3.2.4  Lowering the Benzene Content of FCC Gasoline .................................................................. 218  2.3.2.5  Variables Influencing Gasoline Aromatics Content ............................................................... 219  2.3.2.6  FCC Gasoline Stability ........................................................................................................... 219  2.3.2.7  Effect of Long-term Storage on FCC Gasoline Quality ......................................................... 220 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS 2.3.3  Increasing FCC LCO Production ......................................................................................................... 220  2.3.3.1  Catalyst Modifications to Improve FCC LCO Yields ............................................................. 226  2.3.3.2  Improving LCO Recovery from the Main Fractionator Bottoms Product .............................. 229  2.3.4  Increasing Production of Light Olefins in the FCCU ........................................................................... 230  2.3.4.1  Improving FCC Propylene Production.................................................................................... 230  2.3.4.2  Managing Revamp Costs for Producing/Recovering Higher Yields of FCC Propylene ........ 236  2.3.4.3  Balancing Propylene Production with FCC Fuel Products ..................................................... 238  2.3.4.4  Increasing FCC Isobutane and Isobutylene Production .......................................................... 240  2.3.4.5  Factors Influencing the FCC Propylene-to-Butylene Production Ratio .................................. 241  2.3.5  Resid Fluid Catalytic Cracking ............................................................................................................. 241  2.3.5.1  Responding to Opportunity Crudes......................................................................................... 242  2.3.5.2  Fouling Prevention for Resid Processing ................................................................................ 244  2.3.5.3  Proper Feed Injection System Design for RFCCUs ................................................................ 245  2.3.5.4  Dual Regenerator Designs for RFCCUs ................................................................................. 246  2.3.5.5  Running an RFCCU on Lighter Feeds: Maintaining Regenerator Temperature ..................... 246  2.3.5.6  New Method for Feedstock Characterization and Yield Predictions for a RFCCU................ 247  2.3.5.7  RFCC Slurry Pumps Design and Service Life ........................................................................ 248  2.3.6  Operational Monitoring and Process Simulation ................................................................................. 248  2.3.6.1  Multivariate Statistical Modeling ............................................................................................ 248  2.3.6.2  Monitoring Fresh Feed Flowrate ............................................................................................. 249  2.3.6.3  Monitoring Entrained Oxygen Sources in FCC Fuel Gas ....................................................... 250  2.3.6.4  Monitoring Bottoms Level in the Main Fractionator .............................................................. 251  2.3.6.5  Measuring Cyanide Content in CO2 Rich FCCU Flue Gas..................................................... 252  2.3.6.6  Inspecting and Monitoring Expansion Joints in Catalyst Standpipes ..................................... 253  2.3.6.7  Vapor Line Sampling .............................................................................................................. 254  2.3.6.8  Applying Advanced Simulation Techniques........................................................................... 254  2.3.7  Fouling, Degradation, and Erosion Problems ...................................................................................... 255  2.3.7.1  Slurry Exchanger Fouling ....................................................................................................... 255  2.3.7.2  Fouling in Main Air Blower.................................................................................................... 257  2.3.7.3  Refractory Material Degradation in FCCU Catalyst Transfer Lines....................................... 257  2.3.7.4  Hot Spots in FCCU Piping and Transfer Lines ....................................................................... 258  2.3.7.5  Mitigating Erosion Problems in FCC Cyclones ...................................................................... 258  2.3.8  FCCU Hardware Considerations and Improvements ........................................................................... 262  2.3.8.1  Reactor .................................................................................................................................... 262  2.3.8.1.1  Reactor Design ....................................................................................................... 262  2.3.8.1.2  Riser Nozzle Design .............................................................................................. 262  2.3.8.1.3  Optimizing Riser Mixing ....................................................................................... 263  2.3.8.1.4  Improving Air-Steam Distribution ......................................................................... 263  2.3.8.1.5  Minimizing Coke Buildup in the Reactor .............................................................. 264  2.3.8.1.6  Methods to Control Secondary Cracking in the FCC Reactor ............................... 266  2.3.8.2  Regenerator ............................................................................................................................. 266  2.3.8.2.1  Available Configurations for Catalyst Regeneration ............................................. 266  2.3.8.2.2  Meeting Regenerator Temperature Constraints ..................................................... 267  2.3.8.2.3  Regenerator Combustion Mode: Effect on Contaminant Mobility and Activity ... 269  2.3.8.2.4  Operating Partial Burn Regenerators in Total Combustion Mode ......................... 270  2.3.8.2.5  Benefits and Drawbacks of Oxygen Enrichment in Regenerators ......................... 270  2.3.8.2.6  Minimizing Inerts Entrained in Catalyst Exiting the Regenerator ......................... 272  2.3.8.3  Stripper Vessel ........................................................................................................................ 273  2.3.8.3.1  Improving Stripper Performance ........................................................................... 273  2.3.8.3.2  Measuring Stripper Efficiency ............................................................................... 274  2.3.8.4  Main Fractionator .................................................................................................................... 274  2.3.8.4.1  Overhead Line Coking and Corrosion ................................................................... 274  2.3.8.4.2  Avoiding Salt Deposition Problems ....................................................................... 275 

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2.4 

2.3.8.4.3  Dealing with High Ash Content ............................................................................ 276  2.3.8.4.4  Benefits of a Staged Revamp on a FCCU Main Fractionator................................ 277  2.3.8.4.5  Isolation Valve Considerations .............................................................................. 278  2.3.9  Catalyst Management ........................................................................................................................... 279  2.3.9.1  Reducing Rare Earth Use........................................................................................................ 279  2.3.9.2  Evaluating FCC Catalyst Selection......................................................................................... 282  2.3.9.3  Additives for Feed Flexibility ................................................................................................. 284  2.3.9.4  Effect of Changing Catalyst Formulation on FCC Performance ............................................ 285  2.3.9.5  Catalyst Losses from the FCCU ............................................................................................. 285  2.3.9.6  Catalyst Circulation Problems ................................................................................................ 290  2.3.9.7  Preventing Catalyst Backflow ................................................................................................ 292  2.3.9.8  Diagnosing the Cause of Catalyst Deactivation...................................................................... 292  2.3.9.9  Maintaining FCC Ecat Activity .............................................................................................. 293  2.3.9.10  Disposing of FCC Ecat ........................................................................................................... 294  2.3.10  Energy Efficiency and Environmental Emissions ................................................................................. 295  2.3.10.1  Improving FCC Energy Efficiency ......................................................................................... 295  2.3.10.1.1  Key FCC Variables to Monitor for Energy Efficiency Improvements .................. 295  2.3.10.1.2  Heat Recovery in the Main Fractionator for Propylene Recovery ........................ 296  2.3.10.1.3  Installation of a Power Recovery System .............................................................. 296  2.3.10.2  Reducing Environmental Emissions from the FCCU ............................................................. 298  2.3.10.2.1  FCC Feed Pretreatment ......................................................................................... 298  2.3.10.2.2  Use of Electrostatic Precipitators to Reduce FCC Emissions ................................ 299  2.3.10.2.3  Proper Two-stage Cyclone System Design ........................................................... 300  2.3.10.2.4  Effect of FCC Operating Variables on SOX Emissions ......................................... 301  2.3.10.2.5  Flue Gas Scrubbers to Reduce FCC SOX Emissions ............................................. 302  2.3.10.2.6  SOX Additives to Meet Ultra-low SOX Emission Levels ...................................... 304  2.3.10.2.7  Effect of Regenerator Operations on NOX Emissions ........................................... 304  2.3.10.2.8  Effect of O2 Availability and Discharge Design on Regenerator NOX Emissions 306  2.3.10.2.9  Selective Catalytic Reduction Units for NOX Reduction ...................................... 307  2.3.10.2.10 Lowering FCC NOX Emissions............................................................................ 310  2.3.10.2.11 Lowering CO Emissions during FCCU Startup ................................................... 311  2.3.10.2.12 Options to Reduce Particulate Matter Emissions from Regenerators .................. 311  2.3.10.2.13 Preventing Clogging of FCC Flue Gas Equipment .............................................. 313  2.3.10.2.14 Measuring Sulfur Content in FCC Flue Gas ........................................................ 314  2.3.11  FCCU Safety Considerations ................................................................................................................ 315  2.3.11.1  Preventing Vapor Over-pressure Events during Startup ........................................................ 315  2.3.11.2  Emergency and Unplanned Shutdowns .................................................................................. 316  2.3.11.3  Operating in Dry Circulation Mode ........................................................................................ 317  2.3.11.4  Improving Catalyst Slide Valve Design to Improve Unit Safety............................................ 318  2.3.11.5  Relief Valves in the FCCU ..................................................................................................... 318  REFINING R&D ALERT! .................................................................................................................................... 319  2.4.1  Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 319  2.4.2  Gasoline Reformulation and Yield Enhancement ................................................................................. 323  2.4.2.1  Process .................................................................................................................................... 323  2.4.2.2  Catalysts.................................................................................................................................. 324  2.4.3  LCO Yield ............................................................................................................................................. 326  2.4.3.1  Patents..................................................................................................................................... 326  2.4.3.2  Research.................................................................................................................................. 327  2.4.4  Light Olefin Yield Maximization ........................................................................................................... 327  2.4.4.1  Process .................................................................................................................................... 327  2.4.4.1.1  Patents ................................................................................................................... 327  2.4.4.1.2  Research ................................................................................................................ 330 

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2.5  2.6 

2.7 

2.4.4.2  Catalysts .................................................................................................................................. 330  2.4.4.2.1  Patents .................................................................................................................... 330  2.4.4.2.2  Research ................................................................................................................. 333  2.4.5  Bottoms Cracking and Resid Feedstock ................................................................................................ 334  2.4.5.1  Process .................................................................................................................................... 334  2.4.5.2  Catalysts and Additives ........................................................................................................... 335  2.4.6  Aromatics Production............................................................................................................................ 336  2.4.6.1  Patents ..................................................................................................................................... 336  2.4.6.2  Research .................................................................................................................................. 338  2.4.7  Biofeeds ................................................................................................................................................. 338  2.4.7.1  Patents ..................................................................................................................................... 338  2.4.7.2  Research .................................................................................................................................. 340  2.4.8  Preparation of Catalysts and Additives ................................................................................................. 342  2.4.8.1  Patents ..................................................................................................................................... 342  2.4.8.2  Research .................................................................................................................................. 344  2.4.9  General Application: Process and Hardware ....................................................................................... 345  2.4.9.1  Feed Injection Nozzles ............................................................................................................ 345  2.4.9.2  Multi-stage and Dual Riser Processes ..................................................................................... 346  2.4.9.3  Catalyst Injection .................................................................................................................... 346  2.4.9.4  Catalyst Separation.................................................................................................................. 347  2.4.9.5  Catalyst Regeneration ............................................................................................................. 349  2.4.9.5.1  Patents .................................................................................................................... 349  2.4.9.5.2  Research ................................................................................................................. 350  2.4.9.6  Power Recovery ...................................................................................................................... 350  2.4.9.7  Other ....................................................................................................................................... 351  2.4.10  NOX, SOX, CO, and PM Emissions Additives ........................................................................................ 352  2.4.10.1  Patents ..................................................................................................................................... 352  2.4.10.2  Research .................................................................................................................................. 355  2.4.11  Process Monitoring, Control, and Optimization ................................................................................... 356  2.4.12  Integration ............................................................................................................................................. 357  WORLDWIDE INSTALLED CAPACITY .................................................................................................................. 358  CONSTRUCTION ................................................................................................................................................. 362  2.6.1  Recent Construction Activity ................................................................................................................. 362  2.6.2  Completed Construction Projects.......................................................................................................... 365  REFERENCES ...................................................................................................................................................... 382 

3. Visbreaking & Thermal Cracking ............................................................................................ 413 3.1 

MARKET/TECHNOLOGY TRENDS & OPPORTUNITIES .......................................................................................... 413  3.1.1  Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 413  3.1.2  Coker vs. Visbreaker ............................................................................................................................. 413  3.1.3  Market Conditions and Outlook ............................................................................................................ 414  3.1.3.1  Declining Residual Oil Demand ............................................................................................. 415  3.1.3.2  Impact of Legislation on Residual Fuel Oil Outlets ................................................................ 416  3.1.3.3  Bottom of the Barrel Upgrading Capacity and Distribution ................................................... 420  3.1.3.4  Construction Projects .............................................................................................................. 423  3.1.4  Latest Developments in Visbreaking Technology and Marketing ......................................................... 423  3.1.4.1  Hardware Improvements ......................................................................................................... 424  3.1.4.2  Additive and Fouling Management ......................................................................................... 424  3.1.4.3  Optimization/Monitoring ........................................................................................................ 425  3.1.4.4  R&D Focus-Integration and Specialty Products ..................................................................... 426  3.1.5  Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................. 428 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS 3.2 

3.3 

STATE-OF-THE-ART TECHNOLOGY ................................................................................................................... 428  3.2.1  Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 428  3.2.2  Commercial Processes .......................................................................................................................... 431  3.2.2.1  Axens ...................................................................................................................................... 431  3.2.2.2  Eadie Oil ................................................................................................................................. 433  3.2.2.3  Foster Wheeler/UOP............................................................................................................... 434  3.2.2.3.1  Coil-type Visbreaking ........................................................................................... 434  3.2.2.3.2  Visbreaker with Vacuum Flash ............................................................................. 436  3.2.2.3.3  Two-stage Visbreaker/Thermal Cracker................................................................ 437  3.2.2.3.4  Wood's Technology ............................................................................................... 437  3.2.2.4  KBR ........................................................................................................................................ 438  3.2.2.5  Lummus Technology/Shell Global Solutions ......................................................................... 439  3.2.2.5.1  Shell Soaker Visbreaking ...................................................................................... 440  3.2.2.5.2  Shell Deep Thermal Conversion............................................................................ 442  3.2.2.5.3  Shell Thermal Gasoil Process and Shell Deep Thermal Gasoil Process ............... 444  3.2.2.6  PDVSA-Intevep ...................................................................................................................... 446  3.2.2.7  PetroBeam .............................................................................................................................. 450  3.2.2.8  Summary of Commercial Visbreaking Processes ................................................................... 451  3.2.3  Additives and Fouling Control.............................................................................................................. 453  3.2.3.1  Baker Hughes ......................................................................................................................... 453  3.2.3.2  Instituto Colombiano del Petróleo .......................................................................................... 455  3.2.3.3  GE Water & Process Technology ........................................................................................... 455  3.2.3.4  Nalco Energy Services............................................................................................................ 457  3.2.4  Optimization Programs ......................................................................................................................... 459  3.2.4.1  Axens ...................................................................................................................................... 459  3.2.4.2  Invensys .................................................................................................................................. 460  3.2.4.3  KBC ........................................................................................................................................ 460  3.2.5  Hardware .............................................................................................................................................. 460  3.2.5.1  Alfa Laval ............................................................................................................................... 460  3.2.5.2  Metso ...................................................................................................................................... 461  3.2.5.3  MOGAS .................................................................................................................................. 462  PLANT OPERATIONS AND PRACTICES ................................................................................................................ 463  3.3.1  Visbreaking Various Feeds ................................................................................................................... 463  3.3.2  Soaker Visbreaking vs. Coil-type Visbreaking ...................................................................................... 463  3.3.3  Vacuum Flashing to Increase Distillate Yields ..................................................................................... 464  3.3.4  Simulation of Visbreaker: Case Study .................................................................................................. 465  3.3.5  Controlling Fouling and Coking to Optimize Visbreaker Operation ................................................... 465  3.3.5.1  Operational and Design Heuristics to Reduce Coking ........................................................... 466  3.3.5.2  Monitoring Coke Formation and Applying Chemical Additives............................................ 467  3.3.5.3  Cleaning and Maintenance Strategies ..................................................................................... 468  3.3.5.4  Various Visbreaker Cleaning Methods ................................................................................... 470  3.3.5.5  Alternative Pigging Method ................................................................................................... 471  3.3.5.6  Identifying Carburization of Visbreaker Furnace Tubes ........................................................ 471  3.3.5.7  VisTec Repsol Tarragona Refinery: Case Study .................................................................... 473  3.3.6  Identification, Monitoring, and Prevention of Naphthenic Acid Corrosion ......................................... 473  3.3.7  Effects of FCCU Severity and Other Factors on Visbreaker Fuel Oil Stability ................................... 475  3.3.8  Revamping Distillation Units to Visbreakers ........................................................................................ 477  3.3.9  Energy Efficiency and Environmental Emissions ................................................................................. 478  3.3.10  Cogeneration Using Visbroken Residues .............................................................................................. 478 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS 3.4 

3.5  3.6 

3.7 

REFINING R&D ALERT! ..................................................................................................................................... 480  3.4.1  Introduction ........................................................................................................................................... 480  3.4.2  Process .................................................................................................................................................. 482  3.4.2.1  Patents ..................................................................................................................................... 482  3.4.2.1.1  Configuration ......................................................................................................... 482  3.4.2.1.2  Alternative Energy & Efficiency ........................................................................... 483  3.4.2.1.3  Yield Improvement ................................................................................................ 485  3.4.2.2  Research .................................................................................................................................. 488  3.4.2.2.1  Coke Suppression .................................................................................................. 488  3.4.3  Integration ............................................................................................................................................. 489  3.4.4  Additives and Fouling ........................................................................................................................... 491  3.4.5  Optimization/Monitoring ....................................................................................................................... 492  3.4.6  Modeling/Characterization ................................................................................................................... 493  3.4.7  Hardware .............................................................................................................................................. 495  3.4.7.1  Patents ..................................................................................................................................... 495  3.4.7.2  Research .................................................................................................................................. 496  3.4.8  Adsorbents ............................................................................................................................................. 496  WORLDWIDE INSTALLED CAPACITY .................................................................................................................. 497  CONSTRUCTION ................................................................................................................................................. 501  3.6.1  Recent Construction Activity ................................................................................................................. 501  3.6.2  Completed Construction Projects.......................................................................................................... 502  REFERENCES ...................................................................................................................................................... 505 

4. Latest Refining Technology Developments & Licensing ........................................................ 513 4.1  4.2  4.3  4.4  4.5  4.6  4.7  4.8  4.9  4.10  4.11  4.12  4.13  4.14  4.15  4.16  4.17  4.18 

HYDROTREATING (INCLUDING HDS) ................................................................................................................. 513  HYDROCRACKING .............................................................................................................................................. 513  CRUDE DISTILLATION ........................................................................................................................................ 514  COKING ............................................................................................................................................................. 514  DEASPHALTING.................................................................................................................................................. 514  HEAVY OIL, EXTRA-HEAVY OIL, AND BITUMEN UPGRADING ............................................................................ 515  HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND PURIFICATION ................................................................................................... 515  COGENERATION AND INTEGRATED GASIFICATION COMBINED CYCLE ............................................................... 515  SULFUR PLANT .................................................................................................................................................. 516  AROMATICS AND LIGHT OLEFINS PRODUCTION................................................................................................. 516  CATALYST AND CARRIER SUPPORT DEVELOPMENTS ......................................................................................... 517  PROCESS CONTROLS AND SIMULATION ............................................................................................................. 517  XTL (BIOMASS, GAS-, AND COAL-TO-LIQUID) .................................................................................................. 519  BIOFUELS PRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 521  ENERGY MANAGEMENT..................................................................................................................................... 525  CO2 EMISSIONS (CARBON CAPTURE AND SEQUESTRATION) .............................................................................. 525  PLANT SAFETY .................................................................................................................................................. 526  REFERENCES ...................................................................................................................................................... 527 

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Worldwide Refinery Processing Review - 4Q2013