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English for undergraduates notes Chapter 1 - A Traffic Nightmare Summary The people living on Beach Road strongly protest due to the traffic problem, which has made their lives miserable. One Beach Road was oneway road but now two-way road has been made here, the load of traffic has also been increased. These changes were made only last Saturday. These new changes have produced difficulties. Especially the students are facing great difficulties in crossing the roads because there are a number of schools on this road. Parents are also facing problems in picking and dropping there from schools. All the traffic South to North is passing from Beach these days. The residents have to wait a longtime to cross the road. The Government authorities said that these changes have been introduced to make betterment in the traffic. When they heard the news of protest they paid no attention and expected it could be die down soon. They also refused to install any traffic signals or a Zebra crossing, or an overhead bridge. The Government said that they were monitoring the situation and hoped that the situation would become normal again as the people of this area got used to the new reality. The committee of the Beach Road associations is arranging a meeting to discover the way o fulfillment of their demands or to press the authorities for the cancellation of these new traffic arrangement. We will have to wait and see where this situation leads to. The situation is under control and no incident has taken place yet. We hope that problems facing by the residents of Beach Road will be solved soon and peacefully. Difficult Words Protest ---------------- disapproval Squeezed --------------- exert pressure, to force Hitherto --------------- untile this time, up to now

Inconvenient ----------- causing trouble, difficulty Inhabitants ------------ person who lives in a place Monitor ---------------- person or device for checking, watch closely Install ---------------- place in position Die down --------------- become fewer

Question and Answers

Q.1 Why are the residents of Beach Road protesting against the new traffic arrangements? Ans. The residents of Beach road are protesting against the new traffic arrangements because they were facing great difficulties due to them. This road used to be one-way and there was very light traffic on this road. Now the situation has become completely changed. It has been turned into two-way road and heavy traffic is passing from here. Q.2 Why are parents and their children facing problems in picking and dropping? Ans. There are many schools on this road. Parents are facing problems in parking. The students are having great difficulties in parking. The students are getting late for schools. It has also become very risky for the younger students to go to their schools. Q.3 What are the reasons that authorities are not paying any attention to the citizens? Ans. The authorities do not have any resources to provide any facility to the citizens. They have the opinion that the protest will be die down soon. Q.4 What are the citizens doing for press there demands? Ans. The citizens are doing their best to press for their demand. They are conducting meetings, processions, press conferences and sending their delegates to the concerned authorities.

Q.5 What evidence is there to show that the residents of Beach Road are against the new traffic arrangements? Ans. The residents of Beach Road are against the new traffic arrangements and it is obvious due to their protest against it through holding meetings, processions, press conferences and sending their delegates to the concerned. Q.6 What do you think the conclusion will be? Ans. The conclusion will be the same it always happens in developing country like Pakistan. The authorities do no pay any attention to the citizens demands and protest. The officers consider themselves as master and people as their slaves.

Chapter 2 - Gentle Giants Summary There are many misconceptions about the nature and life style of Gorillas. Gorillas are considered to be ferocious and and tenacious creatures, they are, in fact, gentle and tender. It was due to some images of them in which they looked beastly that made people scared of them. An American explorer published a book about hunting of gorillas in the African jungle. He produced a photograph of an injured gorilla standing on the body of a hunter in a very aggressive style. Hollywood made a film "King Kong" in 1930 making as a terror to people. Gorillas are not hostile to man. They are vegetarians, they do not attack on other animals. They look after their children with great care and are loving creatures. They only show their anger and fierce whey they are attacked or treated badly. They also become hostile when they are kept separated in the cages from their families; they even attacked their keeper. The zoological gardens are now treating animals scientifically. They try to provide them the natural environment. The tribute therefore, goes to the zoos, which are taking cares of animals efficiently and affectionately. As a result the animals are behaving themselves. They are inoffensive and non-aggressive. It is pity that the number gorillas is decreasing alarmingly due to the activities of man. Man is cutting forests where they live. Their

number is now limited to a few thousand. man exults in killing them. The wilds life is on the verge of extinction as the natural abode of the animals is disappearing from the globe of the World. To sum up, gorillas, which and rightly called the "Gentle Giant", are also endangered species like other wild life. We should do something for protecting wild life.

Difficult Words Images ------------------------- pictures, mental pictures Offspring ---------------------- child, young Rip ---------------------------- tear Ramp --------------------------- to play about energetically Charge ------------------------- attack Clamber ------------------------ to climb with difficulty Spoiling ----------------------- showing great affection for Enclosure ---------------------- place surrounded by a wall Inoffensive animals ------------ animals that are harmless Dies hard ---------------------- It is difficult to forget Adored grand-children ---------- grand-children that are greatly loved

Questions and Answers Q.1 What did make the bad reputation of gorillas according to the lesson "Gentle Giants"? Ans. Some pictures in which the gorillas have been shown as wild creatures and in some movies they have been shown dangerous to men made the bad reputation o gorillas. In the book of an American explorer about hunting gorillas contained many pictures in which gorillas are in ferocious state.

Q.2 How do gorillas live in the thick forests of Africa? Ans. Gorillas are almost vegetarian and spend their days eating leaves and juicy stems in the thick forest of Africa. Q.3 Describe the nature and behaviour of gorillas according to lesson "Gentle Giants"? Ans. Gorillas are not hostile to man and other animals unless they are attacked or treated badly. They also become hostile and fierce whey they are kept separated in the cages from their families. Q.4 How do the gorillas bring up their children? Ans. The gorillas love their children too much. They are vegetarians. They don't attack on other animals. They have kind nature and love specially children. They even try to play and show their mischievous behaviour. Q.5 Why did the author David Attenborough want to tell us about gorillas and saying them "Gentle Giants"? Ans. The and tell this way gorillas animals.

author David Attenborough wanted to clear the misconceptions the nature of gorillas so he called them "Gentle Giants". In the author is trying to convince the readers that the are big animals but they are not harmful to man and for other

Q.6 What is the procedure that is being used to keep the animals in the zoological gardens? Ans. Scientific methods and techniques are being used to keep the animals in zoological gardens, a natural environment is provided to keep the animals their survival. all the animals are treated with love and become non agressive. Q.7 What is future of gorillas according to the lession "Gentle Giants"? Ans. gorillas are becoming endangered in the wild life. No more than a few thousand low land gorillas like jumbo still survive. His slightly bigger, shaggier relatives, the mountain gorilla are now reduced to only few hundred. Man has destroyed the forests on which they depend. The hunting of gorillas becoming common therefore the future of gorilla is in danger.

Chapter 3 - The Age of the Probot

Summary Computer have become a common place thing today and so will become robots in only few year's time. They will change the life style of man living in the modern world of the 21st century. A robot is a kind of machine which works like a man. It is constructed in a shape, which gives a description of man, today computers are being used in every field of life and therefore a computer with a body and moving parts with wheels is called Probot. Hence we can say this is the age of Probot. A personal computer can be changed to a probot doing all the works o household like sweeping, dusting and washing clothes. Besides these, they can also do more difficult jobs like teaching children, making meal in the kitchen, guarding the house and playing with you in the leisure time. Though robots are working in factories, their effects cannot be felt in the society. Robots are beings used in many fields of life such as agriculture and industry. Industrial robots can increase the gross national product of a country. One robot will be able to do the work of at least ten men. oweve they can create the problem of unemployment. However, the probot's influence on the society can be felt at once. The probots work at homes making our lives comfortable, easier, safer and more pleasant. The life will become certainly change in the future because of these robots and probots. Now people have a profound slumber as robots are there to guard their houses. The robots sellers demonstrates their potential at their showrooms. Hence we can say shortly that the probots are an example of the exciting advance technology. People using robots do not need a strenuous life style, they become rather easy going and having a lot of spare time at their disposal. They will have more effect on society than any other invention.

Difficult Words Slumber -------------------- sleep Strenuous ------------------ energetic, needing energy

Profound ------------------- deep Demonstrate ---------------- to show by doing practical Portray -------------------- to show, to describe Whisk ---------------------- to move quickly Utopia --------------------- imaginary perfect world Extensive ------------------ very vast Formidable ----------------- difficult Chore ---------------------- piece of routine work Question and Answers Q.1 Why computers are becoming common now days? Ans. Computers are helping us in calculation, drawing pictures, keeping the records, making some analysis and so many other purposes. In other words you can say computer is helping us in every field of life, that is why they are becoming so common now-a-days. Q.2 What is probot and what is the difference between a robot and a probot? Ans. A probot is a modified form of personal computer, which is made by fitting some moving parts and wheels of machine in a shape like a man for doing different purposes. Q.3 What household chores can a robot do? Ans. A robot can almost do all the household chores, for example, dusting, washing, cooking, guarding the house, teaching the children and entertaining the people and many more. Q.4 Why can people sleep soundly at their home? Ans. The robot can guard homes efficiently so people can sleep soundly in their homes. Q.5 What are the benefits of an industrial robot? What will happen in the world if many robots are started to use in different industries?

Ans. Industrial robots are designed to do different kind of works in industries. One industrial robot has ability to do the work of ten men. Industrial robots can increase the gross national product of a country and they can make to do work more easily. If the trend of using so many industrial robots become common in the world then the whole world will be suffered by the dangerous problems of unemployment. Q.6 What type of robot will produce the changes in the standard of living of people? Ans. The type of robot, will produce the great changes in the standard of living of people, is known as personal robot, which is called as Probot. A probot is basically a personal computer with a body and if it is equipped with wheels, is enabled to move from one place to another place. It can do many household works as well. Q.7 How do you think that a probot is useful than an industrial robot? Ans. A probot is more useful than an industrial robot because industrial robot is designed for special kind of work while a probot will be used at every home and will be able to do many household jobs simultaneously.

Chapter 4 - The Door Swings Open

Summary There was a time when women were not allowed to become doctor. This profession only restricted to man. People thought that women were not too strong that could bear the stress to become a doctor. Elizabeth Black was the first lady, American lady, got the admission in a medical college. An influential doctor recommends her for admission. The administrator of the college did not refuse the doctor but they also did not want a female student in their college. They decided to put the matter before students, hoping that her admission will be refused. The college authorities were surprised that the student body approved her admission. Some of the students thought that women should have equal rights. Some of them thought it would be amusing to be the only medical college in the country where a woman doctor had been trained.

So the vote in favor was carried and the college authorities gave permission to admit Elizabeth n the medical college. Eventually, Elizabeth get the acceptance letter and proceeds in Geneva College. The dean introduced her to all the students in her class. Initially when she came to college they behaved very badly, but after joining the class, the whole situation started changing. The presence of a lady proved that it is beneficial in the discipline of the medical college. Now a days women are working side by side with men, women are playing very crucial role in society by joining all sorts of professions and careers.

Difficult Words Nuisance ------------ person, thing or circumstance causing trouble or annoyance Prevail ------------- 1.(often foll, by against, over) be victorious or gain 2. be the more usual or predominant Offend -------------- 1. cause offense to , upset 2. Displease, Anger Student Body --------- all student member of college Influential ---------- having great influence Diffident ----------- shy, lacking self-confidence Unanimously ---------- all in agreement (committee was unanimous) Authorities ---------- favouring or enforcing strict obedience to authority

Question and Answers Q.1 Why it is thought that man could be doctor according to the lesson "The Door Swings Open"? Ans. According to the lesson " The Door Swings Open" people thought that women were not too strong that could bear the stress to become a doctor or could carry out their duties properly as doctor.

Q.2 How did Elizabeth get admission in the medical college? Ans. An influential and famous American doctor recommended her for the admission in medical college. The administration could not refuse the doctor so they put the matter in front of student union hoping that they would refuse her admission but unfortunately the students gave their vote in favour so the administrator of college had to admit her in the medical college. Q.3 Why did college authorities not wish to give an admission in their medical college for a woman? Ans. the college authorities not wish to give an admission in the college for a woman because they were influenced under the traditions of those days that a woman could not perform her duties properly as doctor. Q.4 What was the behaviour of the male students when the dean of the college introduced Elizabeth as a female student? Ans. The Dean of the college introduced Elizabeth to her classmates. The class numbering about 150 students was composed largely of young men from neighbouring town. They all become surprised and showed complete silence in the class room. Q.5 What effects did appear in the presence of a woman student among the male students in the medical college? Ans. The male students were rude but after the admission of Elizabeth as a woman student the whole situation was changed. Hence the presence of a lady proved to be more beneficial in the discipline of the college than the rules. Q.6 Now days are women treated equally with men in medical colleges or in other professions? Ans. Now a days women are working side by side with men. they are playing very active role in modern society. They are playing an even increasing role in all kinds of careers and professions. In hospitals we can see a lot of female doctors with male doctors working with great devotion and love for their medical profession.

Chapter 5 - How to Study?

Summary People have great misunderstanding about studying. The majority of students have not learnt the rule of practicable working. Most of the students are unaware about the principles of good study. Suppose a graph is plotted between the learning and studying hours for a student in a day. If he does not study, he will learn nothing (point 0). If he studies for an hour, he will learn something (point 1). If he studies for two hours, he will learn two times (point 2). If he studies more, he will learn more (point 3). If he studies all the time say about 23 hours a day, he will be almost spent and will remember nothing and will learn far less (point 4). If he studies less, he learns more (point 5). It must have a topmost point, which shows the maximum learning for someone in a day.This is called the optimum or the best learning. It's balance between learning and getting tired also called fatigue. If u neglect and gain less than optimum. There will be exhaustion and loss of concentration. The majority of student's optimum is five hours a day. Taking rest can restore the activeness of the body but changing the subject of taking another variety obtains the relaxation of mind. Mind gets rest by variety. Mind does not rest even in sleep. To rest mind. you can start some other type of work.

Difficult Words Optimum ------------- best Fatigue ------------- tiredness Crest --------------- highest point Adequate ------------ enough Chip ---------------- cut Relaxation ---------- rest Conserve ------------ save Exhausted ----------- tired, completely used up

Accord -------------- agreement Odious -------------- hateful, horrible Prejudice ----------- (unjust) feelings against someone Varies -------------- differ, changes Achieve ------------- get, obtain Question and Answers Q.1 Explain the term optimum in the context of the lesson "How to Study"? Ans. The maximum learning for someone in a day, is called optimum. A student should keep this principle of the optimum mind when he feel exhausted, he should sleep and stop reading. Q.2 What is the misunderstanding about study according to the author of the lesson "How to Study"? Ans. There are many misunderstandings about studying. Many students do not know about the principles of studying. The author of the less "How to Study" explains an effective period of study which is generally misunderstood by the student. Q.3 What are the common misconceptions about studying and how best can we achieve our optimum? Ans. The common misconceptions are listed below: 1. The students study without knowing their most favourable period and effective period for their study, which is called as optimum point. 2. The students cannot know the efficient functioning of mind. 3. Everyone tries to study but totally neglecting his physical approach and mental efficiency We can achieve our optimum by discovering the most favourable period and the function of mind. Q.4 How can you differentiate between the working of mind and working of body?

Ans. People generally think that like body mind also gets rest during sleep, but this is a wrong conception. Sleep just gives the rest to body while choosing a variety of work or change of work only does the relaxation of mind. Q.5 How can student realize that he has reached his optimum point? Ans. When the mind is tired, student cannot concentrate on his studies and cannot learn anymore. It is the sign that he has reached his optimum point of his study. Q.6 How is mind compared to a storeroom? Ans. Everything is arranged line wise in the storeroom. In the opinion of the author, the mind is like storeroom. Its efficiency depends on the fact that how it is cataloged. When the examinations are near new material should not be attemted because it cannot be assimilated by mind however the revision should be beneficial.

Chapter 6 - The Tripods

Summary The Tripods had been ruled over the earth for more than hundred years. They governed simply and effectively by dominating the minds of men. They capped everyone at the age of fourteen. The caps used by the tripods were meshes of silvery metal fitted over the skull and woven into the flesh of their wears. The capping of child took place at the age of adulthood with a ceremony. they considered it a routing thing. The story of tripods has been described and explained in detail by the boy who belonged to the tripods in the languages. He was doubtful about the process of capping, when the capping ceremony was being held with his cousin Jack, he became anxious about his own capping ceremony which was being held done the following years after the ceremony of his cousin. When Ozymandias came to his village, he told the boy a strange story about the tripods. He said that tripods were not the well-wishers of man in fact they were enemies. They ruled over whole planet of earth. Very few people survived on earth found in few places. He also told the boy that he knew such a free man who lived in White Mountains. He asked the boy to join the group who dislike capped men and women. He invited the boy to join him in the journey towards south. Boy's cousin

also went with him. Once they fought with a tripod and killed him with a weapon. After the long journey they reached the White Mountains. Difficult Words Subdue ---------------- to conquer Defy ------------------ disobey Recruit --------------- people to work Antagonist ------------ rival Oppressor ------------- unjust ruler / disorders Harness --------------- (to a cart) attach a horse Vagrant --------------- tramp Dominate -------------- to be obvious to rule Feast ----------------- large meal Choose the Correct Answer For each of the bold words or phrases, two meanings are given. Choose the correct answer.

1. Capping was taken for granted by the young people on earth. a) Welcomed b) Treated as something ordinary

2. Feasting and celebration attended the capping. a) Accompanied b) Followed

3. I had misgivings about the practice of capping. a) Trust in

b) Doubts

4. However, I kept silent because no one ever queried the information of capping. a) Agreed on b) Asked questions about

5. Defying my parents, I spoke to my parents. a) Tricking b) Disobeying

6. He explained that the Tripods were not our benefactors. a) Leaders b) Helpers

7. He said the Tripods were our oppressor. a) Unjust rulers b) Inferiors

8. I agree to journey to the White Mountains while Ozymandias looked for new recruits. a) People to work for b) People to join him

Question and Answers Q.1 What is one of the changes in behaviour mentioned in the passage, that show one is becoming an adult? Ans. One ceased to be a child and began to think for oneself show one

is becoming an adult. It usually occurred at the age of fourteen. Q.2 Why did no one ever raise the question of whether capping was right or wrong? Ans. No one ever queried the rightness of capping because for them it was an expected and looked for thing accompanied with feasting and celebration. Q.3 How did the tripods dominate the human mind? Ans. For brain washing the human beings and dominating on their minds the tripods used special type of mashes of silvery metal filled in caps which were closely fixed around the skulls and they were woven into the flesh of the humans. All the boys and girls when attained the age of fourteen years were compulsorily capped and even such a thing was attended by large number of friends and relatives by feasting and celebrations. Q.4 In the world ruled over by the Tripods what kinds of people were called vagrants and how they behaved? Ans. Due to some technical defects in capping process some of the people could not by controlled by telepathy. Their mind refused to accept the conditions of the Tripods. They traveled from place to place. They did not remain in one place for a long time. they never looked after by the tripods and even capped human beings also disliked them. These vagrants were building anti-tripods thinking among the capped people so that to over through the tripods. Q.5 What do you know about Ozymandias the vagrant? Ans. Ozymandias was a big, a red haired bearded man. He was a romantic man interested in poetry and singing songs. He was not very intelligent and could not differentiate between sense and non-sense. In true sense he was posing as vagrant so that he could freely travel through the land without being challenged. He wore a bogus cap to cheat the people and the tripods. He openly told the people that tripods were enemies of human beings and they were Alien invaders and not all benefactors of human beings. Q.6 What had probably caused the ruin of great cities? Ans. Some natural calamity such as earth quakes, floods or epidemics caused the ruin of the great cities or they were destroyed in war.

Chapter 7 - The Great Jewel Robbery Summary Details of Robbery On 18th June at about 2:50 pm two robbers wearing loose white coats like dentists, covering their faces with Mickey Mouse masks rushed into the main branch of New Era Jewelers at 10 Main Street. One of them was holding a revolver pointed at the staff of the shop. Another had a heavy hammer in his hand. He shouted "hands up or we shot". The armed robber with his hammer smashed the showcase. He took out plastic bag from his pocket and filled it with jewelery worth of a million rupees. Then the dacoit hit with ships and entered the street and tore off their masks jumping into a waiting white Datsun drove away. There was a driver in the car who drove the car. Mr Saigal, the manager of the Jewelery shop chased the running robbers but he failed to see the faces of the robbers and also could not note the number of the white Datsun due to his weak eyesight.

Report of Traffic Census Department: At the time when the robbery was being committed a traffic survey was being conducted in the area of Main Street by Traffic Census Department. The department had set up TV monitors at Bank Road and Ash Lane to record traffic leaving the area and from the film of TV camera it was revealed that on 18th June in the period of 2:46 pm to 3:30 pm only two White Datsun cars left the area bearing license numbers (i) GAL-4926 and (ii) LHE-2197 However by the TV camera set up on Bank Road a third White Van was seen at 2:30 pm. That car was a stolen car which did not leave the area but turned sight from Bank Road and ran along Park Street in the direction of East. Its license number was recorded RIT-7868

Police Investigation About the Three White Cars Inspector Azam who was assigned the job to investigate the jewel Robbery had sent his men to make full inquiry of the three suspected white cars spotted in the area of the robbery incident and following information was collected: Datsun Van GAL-4926

This car was owned by Mr. Masud Hasan. On 18th June he drove it with his friend Mr. Asif Jan to the National Bank and parked the car in the car park opposite to the Bank. Datsun Van RIT-7868 According to the report of the owner of this car namely Mrs. Eva Chinoy she drove this car with her friend Miss Simi Aziz to the Elegance hair Salon in Main Street and arrived there at 1:30 pm where she dropped Miss Aziz and parked the car in the park opposite and went to Nadim Restaurant to relish a snack. This restaurant is located in Cat Lane round the corner from the Elegance Salon. She added in her statement that she stayed in the restaurant for an hour there and went back to the car park and waited for Miss Aziz who came out at about 3:30 and then she drove back home via Main Street and Main Road. The Car park record proved the arrival and departure stated by Mrs. Chinoy. Report by Detective Niaz As directed by the head of Police investigation team. Inspector Azam and detective Niaz investigated Mr. Asif Jan, Miss Simi Aziz and Mr. Nadim Ismail and provided following information about their whereabouts in the afternoon of 18th-June. (i) Miss Aziz was in elegance Hair Salon from about 1:30 pm to 3:30 pm (ii) Mr. Jan was in the National Bank from about 2:30 pm to 3:30 pm (iii) Miss Chinoy visited the Nadim Restaurant in all afternoon of June 18 and left the restaurant at 2:30pm

Consolidation of Investigation Data and Preparation of Situation Chart Mr. Azam put all the data of investigation on a chart on the white board and got a street plan of robbery area. Then he had a detailed comprehensive discussion on the robbery case with his staff and made a list of suspects and decided to hold further questioning to apprehend the real criminals. In this case the prime suspect seems to be Mrs. Eva Chinoy as it is not known as to what she was doing between 1:30 to 2:30 and again between 2:30 to 3:30 on 18th June in the robbery area.

Difficult Words Postpone --------------- delay Detective -------------- a person who investigate Champaign -------------- organized method of working Sufficient ------------- enough Commit ----------------- carry out a crime Compensation ----------- payment for the damage Establish -------------- set up

Question and Answers Q.1 What sort of evidences the police tries to collect after a crime has been committed? Ans. Police attaches great importance to interview the eyewitnesses who were present at the time at place of committed crime. They as the victims of the crime if they could identify the criminals, if not, whether the eyewitnesses describe the features and appearance of the criminals. The license number car/vans/motorcycles used by the criminals if read by the victims of crime then they should be noted. Next their owners should be located and interviewed. People living in the neighbourhood of the spot of crime are also included in the investigation. All such steps are taken to have a clue to lead to hide out the criminals. Q.2 Is it necessary for the police to visit the scene of the crime after the criminals have already escaped? Ans. Whatever degree of intelligence a criminal possesses he/she bound to commit some mistake in his/her haste to escape from the spot of crime. He/she may leave some clue behind which may help police to chase the criminal or by smelling such things by police dogs the way of escaping criminals can be traced. The criminals may leave behind things like handkerchief visiting card or cover of the cartridge used for shooting or some fingerprints etc. Hence the police and detectives should visit the crime spot to find such clues even after the crime.

Q.3 What sorts of people are interviewed by Police after crime has been committed? Ans. Police keeps a list of habitual criminal their fingerprints, etc. so to have a clue to trace the criminals. Some such history sheets are interviewed tactfully. Further in interviews the staff of the organization or shop in which crime is committed is included to find out whether the accomplice of the criminals is not a disloyal member of the shop. Sometimes the watchman and other staff members co-operate with criminals in committing crimes so such people have also to be interviewed and interrogated. Q.4 Why police takes written statements from the people to interview? Ans. Police takes written statements to contract an investigation plan to ponder over and to discuss in order to have a clue to locate the criminals. Q.5 How police detects that a statement is not truthful? Ans. Police interviews and obtains the statements of some selected witnesses or the person who in some way know some facts of the crime. Then they record them in one file and compare them. In this comparison if they find that a particular statement is quite different from all other statements then they come to know that the statement is untrue and it makes further queries from the maker of such statement to find the truth or clue to trace the criminals. Q.6 What do you think the police do with the statements and evidence they collect? Ans. The police examine the evidence and try to establish certain links which might lead them to criminals. Without the evidence and eyewitness accounts, it impossible for the police to solve the mystery of a crime

other thoroughly reach the is almost

Q.7 What might be reasons behind a crime/ Ans. There might be a single reason or a number of reasons behind a crime. An important single reason is that crimes are mostly committed for the sake of money. The criminals want big money without any labour. They want to become rich over night. The other reason might include animostly, hatred, prejudice, jealousy and revenge. Of these animosity or enmity is the most powerful driving force which is only second to the greed of wealth. Q.8 Would you consider it sufficient for the police to interview and obtain a statement from one person only? Give reasons for your

answers. Ans. It is deficient to interview and obtain a statement from only one person. In fact, the more people they interview, the more information they get. If there are clashes between the statements of the people, they might also be removed after talking to many people.

Chapter 8 - London Road Summary All the people who live in UK, USA and the European countries are rich and well to do. In every country there exist vast countrysides inhabited by poor, old-fashioned, hand to mouth rustic people. Most of them lead nomadic life like gypsies. A famous English author Laurie Lee has written a novel about the life of a cotswold youth who left his countryside home located in the range of hills of southern England to migrate London city roughly a hundred miles away from his native place to be approached by London Road. The youth spent his life in London for one year by playing his traditional violin and labouring on a London building site as a construction labour. The main character of the novel is a rustic English youth who had three sisters and four brothers (including him). Their mother was still alive. It was the year 1924 when the family of the youth still residing in the home country consisted of mother and three sons in all four. Probably their father had belonged to ages long before. Now the second son of the family also resolved to leave home and to proceed to London leaving behind a small family of mother and her two sons in all three persons. One sunny Midsummer morning on June 1934 the adventurous rustic youth was provided a heavy breakfast by his mother who was apparently a little bit aggrieved or worried about her separation from her second son. She did not utter a single word but her motherly instincts unconsciously forced to put her hand on chain sitting on which the youth relished his breakfast probably the last thing cooked affectionately by his mother. It was really a pathetic state of affair. The old lady made no fuss, no appeals, and no attempts to weep and did not advise the youth. She did not tax him with any kind of persuasion and revelation of any kind of grief. She was brave women born to bear the trouble of separation from her Kith and Kin as an ideal rustic mother who believed that poverty is the fate of rural

population world over. The youth who was about 19 years old was not a fully matured man indeed a brave and self-confident person who believed that if he tried he would surely make good fortune. His food provision of journey consisted of a tin of treacle biscuits and some cheese not sufficient for a 100 miles journey on foot on a dusty road. He was bit excited. He had vain glorious feelings. he did not know as to how far he would be required to walk. He saw around the last glimpse of the cottage walls narrowing like the arms of an iron maiden. He recollected the secret whispering of rustic lasses "MARRY AND SETTLE DOWN". He set aside this type of psychological stimuli because he has grown tired of his wandering in the lily area, joblessly and naturally painfully. He was wearing a pair of heavy strong boots and had a hazel stick in his hand. The brave son of Adam traveled alone when his village paradise was lost. He tramped through the treeless hills of Wiltshire on a dusty track. At time he had a strange feelings of home-sickness and his sub-conscious heard the sound of hurrying footsteps coming after him and the voices of his two brothers and mother call him back. the reality was that he was alone; he was free to go where ever he wanted at his sweet will and pleasure. His inner self murmured, "You asked for it. Its up to you now. You are on your own and nobody's going to stop you". It is a human instinct that one cannot over come the feeling of the home sickness so when he stepped forward to London Road he heard the echoes of home by tinkling sound of her kitchen, shafts of sun from the windows falling across his household furniture's across his bedroom and the very bed which he had left at his village home!! Difficult Words Inevitable --------------------- unavoidable Mournfully --------------------- sadly Taunted ------------------------ hurt Echoes ------------------------- repeated sounds Familiar ----------------------- well known

Reluctance --------------------- unwillingness Vainglorious ------------------- very proud / arrogant Gnarled ------------------------ rough Propelled ---------------------- persuaded to leave

Question and Answers Q.1 What was the part of the writer's life that he closed forever? Ans. The days passed in the village where he grew up and got education in the school were ended. The period of his country life is closed for good. Q.2 How did writer's mother feel about his leaving home and how did she sow her feelings? Ans. The writer's mother felt sorrow about his leaving home. Her three daughters and a son had already left her. She showed her feelings by looking at him progressively without saying any words just raising her hand in farewell and blessing. Q.3 The writer says that before his departure his mother gave him only a long and searching look. What do you think the look was searching for/ Ans. She was looking for his maternal love. She wanted that he did not go but she did not utter a single word to convince him not to go. Q.4 Do you think the writer's home life was a happy one? Ans. No, the writer had spent months of restless unease before leaving home. Q.5 Did the writer enjoy the feeling that he was now free? Ans. When nobody stopped him from going, he became very pleased feeling himself free. He was on his own. He could do what ever liked. He cherished his freedom. Q.6 Quote the words that tell us that the writer had an optimistic nature?

Ans. He had an optimistic nature. His nature is exposed in these words : "Go where you will. It's all yours. You asked for it. It's up to you now. You are on your won, and nobody's going to stop you." Q.7 Why did the writer spend months wandering about the hills before he left the home? Ans. It is very hard task to leave one's native place forever. He loved the scenery and the people of his country home. He, therefore, took many months to make the final decision of going to London.

Chapter 9 - Early Autumn Summary Bill and Mary had been in love many years ago. They spent many nights walking and talking together. However, they got angry at each other on a trifle. Impulsively, she had married a man she though she loved. Bill went away, bitter about women. Bill became a lawyer and worked with a nice firm in downtown. He also got married to a girl. After several years had passed, they ran across each other under the trees of Washington square. It was Marry who saw him and called by name. Bill did not recognize her at first sight. She looked old. Anyway, he came to recognize her. Unconsciously she lifted her face as though wanting a kiss, but Bill restricted himself to shaking hands with Mary. They asked about each other families. Bill told that he was a lawyer and had two children. Marry told him that she was working in Bursar's office and she had three kinds. Both of them invited each other to their homes. It was early autumn; the leaves were falling from the trees without wind. They did not have much time talking to each other. Mary bus came and she got on it. She wanted to tell Bill something but she could not. The bus went off. They even could not tell each other their addresses. Mary could not even tell Bill that her youngest son was name Bill.

Difficult Words Impulsively --------------------- without thinking Bitter -------------------------- not sweet Bursar -------------------------- person in charge of Finance of an school/college

Desperately --------------------- urgently Grin ---------------------------- to smile, wide smile Mist ---------------------------- thin fog Avenue -------------------------- wide, tree-line road in a city Utter --------------------------- to say Shriek -------------------------- scream sound Recognize ----------------------- identify as already known Trifle -------------------------- thing of slight value or importance Offend -------------------------- cause offense to, upset

Question and Answers Q.1 Why did Mary and Bill not marry when they were young? Ans. Although Mary and Bill were in love with each. They offended by something unimportant. They stopped talking to each other and got away from each others life. Thus they could not marry each other when they were young. Q.2 What effect did this youthful breakup have on each of them? Ans. Bill went away feeling bitter about woman. Mary impulsively got married with a man. Bill settled as lawyer and married some girl. Bill did not seem to have had effects as he forgot his affair with Mary soon. However, Mary seemed to have regretted for the break-up between them. She looked old and unhappy. She did not sy anything about her husband while Bill mentioned his wife's name too. Q.3 Did marry and Bill show-similar emotions when they met after several years? Ans. Mary seemed more emotional than Bill. It was Mary who spotted Bill and Mary thought that Bill would kiss her because they had been in love with each other in the past. Bill only restricted himself to shaking hands with Mary. Even Mary wanted to tell Bill something but she did not have time or courage to do so. Bill was calm and composed

and showed no strong emotion. Q.4 What might Mary want to Bill which she was unable to express? Ans. I think Mary wanted to tell bill that she really regretted missing Bill. She did not look happy with her marriage. The person to whom she married did not love her much. She looked old and disturbed. She did not her husband's name or his profession. Q.5 Make one question from this story for class discussion? Ans. One question from the story comes to mind. The question is "Are love marriages more successful?" students might make points for or against. Some people think love marriages are mostly failures. Other thinks they are very successful. No hard and fast rule can be made. It all depends on husbands and wives whether they have good understanding and tolerance of each other or not. Love after marriage is more important than love before marriage.

Chapter 10 - Charles Summary Laurie five years old student of kindergarten had just started go to school wearing his blue jeans with a beldt, accompanied with a next door older girl. Apparently like other children of his age he was not pleased to attend the school. On returning from the school on his very first day he slammed the door abruptly threw his cap ruthlessly on the floor and shouted in raucous manner. "isn't anybody here?" At Lunch he spoke insolently to his father. Next he spilled the milk of his baby sister. His affectionate mother and father still thought that he was a very well behaved lad. To add to misery his small devilish mind created an imaginary classmate namely Charles and attributed to him all kinds of naughty and evil qualities of being rough with his classmate insolent with his teacher. Laurie narrated day to day account of charles misdeeds at school and his cruel and ill treatment with his classmates in such a way that his parents were convinced that there existed a devilish child namely Charles who had created a kind of terror in the kindergarten school. Laurie's mother thought about the helpless mother of Charles and resolved to meet her in the school on the occasion of PTA meeting next week. On Friday of that week Laurie informed his mother that Charles had become abusive and instigated a girl of her

class to use bad words. It was rather an alarming news for the parents of Laurie and they discussed about it somewhat seriously. When on the scheduled day off PTA meeting Laurie's mother visited her son's school. She tried to locate Charles mother in order to sympathize and console her for being a troubled mother of a Devil boy like Charles. She thought Charles' mother to be present in PTA meeting but during discussion with the teacher of school about Charles and his strange character the teacher remarked with surprise. "Charles?" She said "We don't have any Charles in the kindergarten." (This was the demise of the imaginary devil-child Charles so artistically created by the mastermind of Laurie!!!).

Difficult Words Rude ---------------- impolite Strain -------------- stress; physical tension Renounce ------------ to give up officially Swagger ------------- proud way of walking Spank --------------- to beat; to smack on the behind Insanely ------------ madly Insolent ------------ rude Choose the Correct Answer For each of the bold words or phrases, three meanings are given. Choose the best answer.

1. Fresh a) Recently printed or published b) In fairly good condition c) Disrespectful; impudent; bold and outspoken

2. (To) have your hands full a) Be very busy; be occupied with many things b) Receive many gifts; accept a number of presents c) Life heavy things; move large objects

3. Haggard a) Scholastic b)Professional, bookish c) Looking tired; weary and care worn

4. (To) Spank a) Punish by striking or slapping b) Say hello to someone c) Write a shortly note

5. (To) take the name of the lord in vain a) Swear or curse; use bad language b) Call or advertise for help ; broadcast c) Steal money and valuables from church; rob poor people

True and False 1. Laurie doesn't want his mother to treat him like a baby. (True) 2. Laurie's parents are not interested in his welfare or school life. (False) 3. Laurie's mother and Charles's mother know each other. (False)

4. Sometimes Charles seems to be very good, well behaved child. (True) 5. Charles never attended Kindergarten. (True)

Question and Answers Q.1 What are the some characteristics of Laurie? Ans. Laurie was a devilish genius for his age. He had a creative mind with evil designs. He was naturally mischievous and he wanted to behave as thought about Charles. He was rough in his attitude with his parents and baby sister. What he wanted to do and could not do he attributed all such desired in the form of characteristics of the imaginary child Charles. Q.2 Did Laurie's mother ever meet Charles mother? Ans. It was out of question because when Charles himself was an imaginary child then how come his mother would exist. Q.3 Why did Laurie's mother believe in cock and bull stories about Charles? Ans. She loved her son so madly that regarded her son to be an angleboy and believed that Laurie was thousand times better than Charles and hence he deserved more affection and favour less he would also become as Charles. Q.4 What is PTA meeting? What are some of its activities? Ans. A PTA is a parent teachers association. It's a type of get together where both parents and teachers can discuss students problems. Q.5 How does the teacher seem to react to "Charles"? What kinds of things does she have him do in the classroom? Ans. The teacher seems to react to Charles in a normal way. She punishes him slightly by spanking him in a corner of the class room or staying there after the school. Then asked him to give the crayons around and pick up the books. Q.6 What are the some of the characteristics of Charles? How does Laurie let his parents and teacher know what kind of person Charles is?

Ans. The characteristics of Charles are not different from Laurie as it is Laurie who invented Charles. Charles is rude, badly behaved, naughty, free spirited, troublesome and problematic. Laurie lets his parents and teacher know about Charles by his fictitious stories about him. Q.7 What is the moral of the story "Charles"? Ans. Its moral is that "Extra affection spoils the child!" The parents should scold and check the children if they behave insolently and become naughty other wise the children may develop into a menace for the parents when they grow up. Chapter 11 - The Man who had No Eyes Summary Parsons and Markwardt both were labourers and both loved in Westbury. They worked in the firm run by some capitalist owner. They led hand to mouth life apparently when on one-day unfortunate bloody disaster occurred. There was a chemical explosion in which hundred and eight human lives were lost and over fifty people were rendered blind. A the time of explosion Parsons and Markwardt were in C-shop. Due to explosion the place was filled with dangerous poisonous gases. All the people in C-shop ran for their lives Parsons escaped unhurt probably and Markwardt hauled back on Parsons rushed out of C-shop and later was blinded by the effect of poisonous gases. For many years this disaster was not even mentioned in newspapers and the disaster was forgotten by the people. Parsons was fortunate; he was not all hurt in the explosion. He worked hard and became a successful insurance salesman and led a prosperous complacent life. Markwardt became blind beggar and walked in the streets with the help of battered cane and thumped his way before him. He became a shaggy thick necked person. His coat was greasy. He wore a black pouch slung over his shoulders which he carried cigarette lighters and sold them to passers by for one buck. Fourteen long years passed when by chance accidentally Markwardt collide with Parsons and he offered a lighter for sale to Parsons and also begged for help. Parsons gave two half dollar coins to Markwardt, which he readily pocketed. By chance Markwardt asked Markwardt about the cause of his blindness. Markwrdt mentioned the Westbury chemical explosion and C-shop. Then Parsons recognized Markwardt. Parsons pitied the plight of Markwardt. Markwardt recollected all past events

and in a painful voice uttered "You got away but i am blind! Do you hear? I'm ..." People overhead blind Markwardt in the street and turned and started looking the two persons. Parsons felt slightly awkward and remarked "Well - do not make such a row about it Markwardt - so Am I!" Difficult Words Shaggy ----------------- With long hair Splayed ---------------- turned outwards Reminisce -------------- to recollect the memory about the past events. Futile ----------------- useless Boorish ---------------- rude Haul ------------------- to pull with difficulty Wearily ---------------- in a tired way

Question and Answers Q.1 What is the difference in the description between the blind beggar and the insurance salesman? Ans. There was an obvious difference in the exterior of the blind beggar and the insurance salesman. The blind beggar was shaggy, thicknecked and dirty. He wore black pouch slung over his shoulder. In that pouch, he kept something (cigarette lighters) to sell. He assumed the role of a professional beggar. The insurance salesman was young, handsome, neat and clean and smartly dressed. He wore a clean and tidy gray suit and gray hat. He also kept Malaeca stick with, as he was blind too. Q.2 What did Mr. Parsons feel when he heard the blind man approach and why? Ans. Mr. Parsons felt immense sympathy for the blind because he knew that pain and misery of being as he himself got blind in an accident at his work.

Q.3 Why was blind beggar always eager to narrate his tale of how he lost his sight? Ans. He always ready to narrate his story because he looked more a professional beggar who always told his tragic stories to get money from people, arousing people's pity for him and extracting money from them. Q.4 Do you think Mr. parsons is blind? If yes, then how did you recognize who the beggar was? Ans. Yes, Mr. Parson he told that he was blind too. Besides, he also kept a stick with him like other blind people. Mr. Parsons recognized the beggar's identity when he mentioned the name of Westbury. Mr. Parsons even remembered the name of the blind man as Markwardt. It was Markwardt who had trampled him to escape hurriedly from the place. Q.5 What is the moral of the story? Ans. The moral of the story is that a man who has the will can do great deeds even he is handicapped.

Chapter 12 - Plan of Attack Summary In a pleasant spring afternoon Ella MeCarthy sat on a green painted chair in Kensington looking passively around. She was waiting for her boyfriend. Bertie Heasant in whose absence the pleasant spring atmosphere seemed gloomy to her. Her mood changed when Bertie came and the lover had a cordial and intimate talk. Ella thanked him for his present of the handkerchiefs, which he had sent to her but at the same time she seriously objected to the behaviour of Mrs. Heasant mother of Bertie who ws in the habit of opening all the private letters addressed to Bertie by his friends specially his girl friends. She thus posed as a big hurdle in the Ella-Bertie affair and Ella could not dare to write letters to Bertie and Bertie also was afraid to promote his pen friendship with Ella. By chance Bertie discussed his problem by one of his sincere friend Clovis Sangrail. Clovic made a separate scheme to set right the matter of Bertie's mother undue interference in his personal affairs. One fine day he sent a set of cunning letters on the address of Bertie

Heasant. The first letter was sent in a scented cover from an imaginary girl friend of Bertie namely Clotilde in which there was mentioned about jewels and Bertie was asked to be courageous to handle them. As usual on receipt of this letter, Mrs. Heasant opened that letter. Bertie ws not at home and when he came she made a great fuss on this letter and pestered Bertie by a large number of questions, scolding and threatening and made it difficult for him to breathe comfortably. He rushed into his room and closed it from inside. After an hour another letter was received in the name of Bertie, which really proved to be a bomb blast in the House of Heasant, which has been opened by Mrs. Heasant. This letter had a mysterious message to the simpleton Bertie. The letter said: "So you have really done it --- poor girl! Poor Dagmart you wicked boy, the servants all think that she killed herself and there will be best not to touch the jewels yet." Apparently when Mrs. Heasant read the above letter she was almost became hysteric. For her the life of his son seemed to be at stake. She suspected the theft of jewels and murder of a girl Dagmart was committed by Bertie. She ran to the room of Bertie upstairs and started to beat at the door madly. "Miserable boy what have you done to Dagmart." She yelled and wept and scolded Bertie non-stop. Bertie was also confused because he did not know as to who was the witch Clotilde who has haunted his life and was bent upon to destroy him and the entire House of Heasant.

In the evening a third letter arrived from Bertie's fast-friend Clovis Sangrail which solved all the mystery and he apologized for causing all the inconvenience by his first two letters disturbing and shaking the very foundation of Heasant who was in the habit of opening the private letters of Bertie. By this time Mrs. Heasant was so much badly tortured mentally and psychologically perplexed that she virtually repented for her bad habit of opening the private letters of Bertie and creating scenes in the house.

Difficult Words Inaudibly ---------------- which cannot be heard

Conscious ---------------- aware Confess ------------------ admit some fault Fetch -------------------- go and bring Drag --------------------- to pull someone or something Astonishing -------------- surprising Improbable --------------- unlikely Opportunity -------------- chance Reference ---------------- hint Eagerness ---------------- keenness Existence ---------------- being; life Anxiously ---------------- worried

Question And Answers Q.1 Why did Ella McCarthy's dull afternoon suddenly brighten up? Ans. Ella was sitting alone on a chair in Kensington Garden. There was no one to keep her company. That's why spring afternoon seems dull to her. The she say Bertie coming towards her. He was Ella's friend. On seeing Bertie, Ella's dull afternoon immediately turned bright. Q.2 List three of Bertie's mother qualities. Give examples. Ans. Bertie's mother's three qualities were maternal, interfering and inquisitive. She had a bad habit of opening others letters and reading them. Bertie's mother actually wanted to search for signs of youthful troubles and difficulties by reading her children's letters so that she could help them out. Reading others' letters however is basically regarded as interference in their private lives. Bertie and his sisters had quarreled with her about it a number of times but she did not care about it. When she received Clovis's letter to Bertie in the name of a girl, she became curious and started inquiring. Q.3 What role did Clovis play in resolving Bertie's problem?

Ans. Clovis solved Bertie's problem by sending three thrilling letters in one day. In the first letter he wrote to Bertie to be brave enough to get the jewels under the false name of girl Clotilde. In the second letter, Bertie was congratulated on carrying out the act of killing the girl effectively and warning him not to touch the jewels yet but to wait for some time. The third letter clarified the whole situation so that person reading the private letters of others might stop doing so and it certainly happened. In this way Clovis was triumphant at his attempt attempt of helping Bertie. Q.4 Who is most interesting character in this story? Ans. I think Bertie is the most interesting character of this story. He is about twenty but he can't solve a simple domestic problem. He could not convince his mother not to read his private letters. He is sorry about it in front of his girl friend Ella and states the problem to his friend Clovis. Bertie is, however, lucky to have a friend like Clovis who helps him get rid of his problem. Q.5 Why did Bertie's mother read all the letters that came to her home? Ans. She thought it maternal to know each and everything about her children in order to same them from any trouble of youth. She might also be of inquisitive nature.

Chapter 13 - The Story of An Hour Summary Mrs. Mallard was a heart patient. The news of her husband's death might take her life so her sister Josephine told the news of her husband's death in broken sentence. A friend of her husband who brought the news of the death of her husband. Friend of her husband was also there which he had got from the office of newspaper. When Mrs. Mallard heard the news of her husband she did not react unusually but she wept bitterly in the arms of her sister and after few moments she went to her room and closed the room's door and she sat on an armchair. First she felt the great intensity of his grief and felt loneliness then she realized that its the beauty of nature. She felt herself free from all tensions. She knew that she would look at the face of her dead husband who never loved her. She came to know that she would not live for anyone but for herself now.

Josephine came to the door and called her sister by name Louise and requested to open the door. But after ward she came down stairs clasping her at the waist of her sister where Richard was waiting. When they reached there someone suddenly open the door and came inside unconsciously. It was Mr. Mallard who had been away at the home of the railway accident this his life was saved. Richard tried to keep away Mr. Mallard from there but it was late, she had been died of heart attack.

Difficult Words Elusive ----------------- difficult to point out Veiled ------------------ hidden (To) haunt -------------- to return to mind mind repeatedly Unwittingly ------------- unintentional Tumultuously ------------ violent Afflicted --------------- suffered from Hastened ---------------- made a hurry Twitter ----------------- chirp, sing (of birds) Slender ----------------- weak Exhaustion -------------- tiredness Revealed ---------------- let out, disclosed Distant ----------------- remote

Question and Answers Q.1 What was Mrs. Mallard's first reaction to the news of her husband's alleged death? Ans. She wept at once, with sudden wild abandonment in her sister Josephine's arms. She rushed to her room and she stood facing the open window and sank into the armchair near the window. The weather was bit cloudy and the spring season had set it. She looked outside the window

with empty eyes. She threw back her head upon the cushion of the chair, calm and repressed. She expected that something was coming to her and she was waiting for it. Q.2 What was her later reaction? Ans. She felt a sense of freedom from bondage, as she did not lead a happy married life. She thought of the days ahead when she would live for herself. Q.3 What words did she use to express her later feelings? Ans. She said over and over under her breath with slightly parted lips. "Free, Free!" She was staring and had a terrified facial expression. Meanwhile her pulse was beating fast. Q.4 What is the surprise ending of the story? Ans. Although she was very badly shocked to hear the news of death of her husband death and was feeling that her unbearable grief would end her life, but she survived. She thought about the agony of lonely, dreadful of many years as a widow. Then all of a sudden Brently Mallard arrived from his outside tour. He was not on a train which faced accident. On his appearance Louise was so much overjoyed that she died by an extreme shock of joy. So she was killed by the great joy and not by the shock of alleged of her husband's death. Q.5 What is the central idea of this story? Ans. Sometimes extreme grief does not cause death but extreme joy can kill a person. Death is certain irrespective of the fact whether it occurs by the shock of grief or by the thunderbolt of an extreme joy. Q.6 What is your idea about the married life of Mr. and Mrs. Mallard after reading this story? Ans. Mr. Mallard and his wife were not passing the happy life. Mr. Mallard not love his wife and she felt her alone and normally she had deep attraction to her husband.

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English for undergraduates notes  

Undergraduates notes of english subject for university os sindh jamshoro board.

English for undergraduates notes  

Undergraduates notes of english subject for university os sindh jamshoro board.

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