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Table of Contents: Chapter 21


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Section 1: Changing Ways of Life………………………………..Pg o Rural and Urban Differences o The Prohibition Experiment o Science and Religion Clash Section 2: The Twenties Woman………………………………….Pg o Young Women Change the Rules o Women Shed Old Roles at Home and at Work Section 3: Education and Popular Culture………………............Pg o Schools and the Mass Media Shape Culture o America Chases New Heroes and Old Dreams Section 4: The Harlem Renaissance……………………………...Pg o African-American Voices in the 1920s o The Harlem Renaissance Flowers in New York

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Changing Ways of Life Rural and Urban Differences American changed effectively before 1920s. In the years between 1922 and 1929, migration and immigration came to the cities increased highly, more than 2 million people. That made New York became the top of big cities at that time with a population of 5.6 million; Chicago was the second (3 million) and Philadelphia was the third (nearly 2 million). Life in the big cities was pretty much different from the other smaller cities. In small cities and towns, town migrants had to get used to the urban environment, their thinking and everyday working and living got changed. City dwellers enjoyed and tolerated for drinking, gambling and casual dating which were found out as shocked and sinful activities in small towns and small cities. The American found themselves got mixed between urban life and rural cultures. By that time, hard workers, strict moral Americans against anonymous crowds, moneymakers and pleasure seekers.

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The Prohibition Experiment Prohibition means the manufacture, sale, and transportation of alcoholic beverages was legally prohibited. Reformers in America thought that drinking led to crime, wife and child abuse, accidents for job that was why rural South and West supported the Prohibition. Speakeasies means to obtain liquor illegally, drinkers went underground to hidden saloons and nightclubs.

One of the prohibitions about drugs and alcohol.

Bootleggers means smuggler’s practice of carrying liquor in the legs of boot Prohibition contributed a big impact on American society at that time, it organized crimes in major cities.

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Some of the pictures were captured in the nightclubs and bars. Portrait of Al Capone

At that time, Al Capone, a gangster whose bootlegging empire netted over $60 million a year, controlled a big system of selling alcohol.

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Science and Religion Clash Fundamentalism – the Protestants movement grounded in a literal, or nonsymbolic, interpretation of the Bibles.

Some information about Fundamentalist beliefs The belief in God created everything in 6 days rejected the theory of revolution advanced by Darwin in 19th century. On March 1925, the first law that made it a crime to teach evolution was passed out in Tennessee. Fundamentalist symbol The Scope’s trial is a fight over evolution and the role of the sciences and religion in public schools and in US History. Clarence Darrow was the most famous trial lawyer of the day and he attended into The Scope’s trial for making a speech there.

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The picture below is of Clarence Darrow raising his fist and making a speech at the Scopes Trial in 1925.

http://rackjite.com/archives/2428-Alcohol-Prohibition-Repealed-75-Years-Ago,Other-Drugs-Next,-Ever.html http://www.downbythehipster.com/blog/2009/6/3/breaking-news-speakeasies-areback.html http://drinkboston.com/tag/december-5/ http://prohibitiontimes.piratenews.org/1920.html http://www.cleanmpg.com/photos/showphoto.php/photo/7424 http://gurudeva.org/resources/books/dws/dws_r5_truth-faiths.html http://anarchyfiles.wordpress.com/anarchist-art/ http://evyrevy.blogspot.com/

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The Twenties Woman Young Women Change the Rules By the 1920s, many factors such as the World War I, the pull of cities, the experience that older generation had never faced before, the innovative thoughts and new ideas, had reshaped the world for many young Americans especially women. The rebellious atmosphere aroused with women began to emphasize their own independence, reject the values of the 19th century and seek for the same freedom as men. During this period, a totally new and fresh idea was introduced by many womenthe flapper- "an emancipated young woman who embraced the new fashion and urban attitudes of the day. They wore new clothes, had new hair styles and were more liberal. "Close-fitting felt hats, bright waist-less dresses an inch above the knees, skin-toned silk stockings, sleek pumps, and strings of beads" were common amongst those flappers.

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Moreover, actions that used to be seemed as unacceptable and could destroyed woman's reputation such as smoking cigarettes, drinking in public, and talking comfortably about sex were then appeared in some women. At the night club, they danced, sang and socialized their lives.

This new spirit of women received contradicts opinions. It was quite a controversy. Magazines, newspapers, and advertisement promoted the image of the flapper. However, the flapper was more a spontaneous image of the rebellious youth than a widespread reality. "It did not reflect the attitudes and the true values of young people". Traditionalist were strongly against those new ideas and actions.

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A new set of principal that favoured sexual freedom to men more than women, known as the "double standard", applied stricter standards for women. Women were then trapped in between the old and the new.

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Women Shed Old Roles at Home and at Work After the World War I, the industrial economy and technology boomed creating mew changes in the work place and family life. By that, it also offered new opportunities for women in offices, factories, stores and professions. Despite of the women's contribution to the work force and their successes during the war, many men called for the replacement of female workers. Nevertheless, it didn't prevent women from seeking for paid employment. Educated women often work as teachers, nurses and librarians. Because of the increasing demand for office's works such as typing, secretary and office-machine operation, women got more chance to fill in those job. Some continued to work in stores or factories. Works like flying airplane or drilling oil wells used to be thought as a male job, were held by some women. By 1930, 10 million women were earring wages. Whatever the case might be, wherever they worked, they still received lower salaries than men did. The

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inequality and discrimination for women in job were obvious. As the economic system changed, society also developed in a positive way. The birth rate had been reducing due to the available birth-control information. Margaret Sanger found the American Birth Control League in 1921 and fought for the legal rights of doctors to acknowledge their patients. Housework and family life became simpler thanks to social and technology innovations. Stores were full of readymade clothes, sliced bread, and canned foods. Public paid more attention on people' health especially the elder and the sick. Other policies were also offered for unemployed workers.

Marriage was increasingly based on love and companionship in which women experienced greater equality. The amount of children that worked in factories declined. They spent most of the time in school and other organized activities. Parents were more concerned about child care. Adolescents studied, socialized with other at their ages and wanted to spend less time with families.

http://www.fashion-era.com/flapper_fashion_1920s.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flapper http://students.umf.maine.edu/mccormka/public.www/history/index.htm http://socyberty.com/history/the-womens-rights-movement-in-the-1920s/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roaring_Twenties

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Education and Popular Culture Schools and the Mass Media Shape Culture From 1914 to 1926, American students increased from 1 million to 4 million. After World War I, immigrants increased rapidly. As a result, teachers met a new challenge: many of them spoke no English. Teachers created a large pool of literate Americans. School taxes and costs doubled.

Figure 1: American School in the 1920s

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Mass-circulation magazines flourished during the 1920s. A huge amount of newspaper and magazines were published to serve American readers, especially townspeople. They provided daily and weekly news, both foreign and domestic. They also hook the readers by telling stories about celebrities and imitating the sensational stories in the tabloids. The first condensed weekly magazine was the Time magazine published the first time in March 1923. Another popular one was the Reader’s Digest which became the world's most widely read magazine in 1996 - over 27 million copies sold in 19 languages bought monthly.

Reader's Digest is still popular today.

An old newspaper in 1920s.

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In 1920s, radio became a product of the mass market and the most popular kind of entertainment. Customers stood in line to order radios after dealers had sold out. Between 1923 and 1930, 60 percent of American families purchased radios. By 1922, 600 radio stations had been established around the United States. People could hear many programs on radios, such as popular music, classical music, sporting events, fictional stories, weather reports, market updates, and so on. Therefore, many programs overlapped and listeners of one program were frequently interrupted by overlapping programs. During 1920s, manufacturers produced many kinds of radios. This radio is crafted in the cathedral style. Other radios were made in the tombstone style or in the crystal radio style, shown before. Radios were made in plastic, wood, or metal.

Crystal Radio- Roger's Batteryless Receiver Model 130 (1925)

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America Chases New heroes and Old Dreams: In 1929, Americans spent $4.5 billion on entertainment. Their favorite games were crossword puzzles and mahjong – a Chinese game. People invested three hours of their time playing a single game every day. Besides, board games such as Halma, Parcheesi, Cribbage, and Snakes and Ladders were becoming popular during this time also. Americans also spent time in sports like. At that time, many sports heroes appeared. The most popular swimmer was Gertrude Ederle, who became the first women to swim to the English Channel at the age 19 in 1925. She covered 56 km in 14 hours 31 minutes. Babe Ruth was the most gifted and popular baseball player in the U.S. history. In 1927 his 60 home runs in 154 games. Jack Dempsey was American professional boxer who became world heavyweight champion in 1919 after defeating another American boxer Jess Willard.

Gertrude Ederle

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Figure 5: Jack Dempsey

Lindbergh’s Flight The most beloved hero of the time was a pilot named Charles A. Lindbergh. He was the first person to fly solo across the Atlantic, from New York to Paris. On the morning of May 20, 1927, Lindbergh took off from Long Island. He flew over England and the Channel, and landed down at Paris, 33 hours and 30 minutes after he left Long Island. His daring 3610-mile journey made him an international hero and gave him $25,000 prize.

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Lindbergh's flight

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The 20's were known as the "Jazz Age." This decade was known as the "Jazz Age" because jazz was very popular and just beginning to show off the talents. George Gershwin produced some of America's most popular music in the 1920's. He composed songs, musical comedies, film scores, and the opera, "Porgy and Bess." Until the late 1920s, films were silent, sometimes accompanied by music from a piano or organ, or even an orchestra in the best cinemas. An actor might also speak lines or a lecturer to explain the plot. The Jazz Singer, the first movie with sound, arrived in 1927. Paintings expressed the realities and dreams of Americans. Georgia O’Keeffe was a one of the most successful painter who created many canvases to reflect the splendor of New York. Keeffe’s paintings

The 1920s also was the richest time in the U.S. literature. Many excellent writers appeared. Some of their writings criticized strictly the ugly sides of American society such as the Babbitt by Sinclair Lewis - the first American who won a Nobel Prize in literature. American writers also expressed the realities after the war. F. Scott Fitzgerald, whom used the term “Jazz Age” to describe the 1920s, reflected the restless, pleasure-hungry, defiant mood of the 1920s in The Great Gatsby.

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Sinclair Lewis

Fitzgerald

Another writer names Ernest Hemingway used to be an ambulance driver in World War I. Therefore, he witnessed violence and death in the war. The Sun Also Rises and A Farewell to Arms are generally considered his best novels. In 1953, he won the Nobel Prize in Literature. There were also many other popular writers like Dorothy Parker and Edna St. Vincent Millay – a modern young woman.

Sources: http://xroads.virginia.edu/~ug00/3on1/radioshow/1920radio.htm http://library.thinkquest.org/J0111064/20entertain.htm http://www.acepilots.com/lindbergh.html http://library.thinkquest.org/27629/themes/media/md20s.html http://www.angelfire.com/anime4/sephirothbadazz/Reports/sports.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_literature Chapter 21


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The Harlem Renaissance African-American Voices in the 1920s In the 1920s, America witnessed the progressive era of African-Americans. More and more people moved North seeking the ways to upgrade themselves and gained respect from white. During the Great Migration, 5.2 million of the nation’s 12 million African-Americans, over 40 percent, became cities’ residents. However, problem went along with that migration- 25 urban riots in the summer of 1919.

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In 1909, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) was founded to encourage African-Americans to protest against racial violence. Leading a parade of 10000 African-Americans in New York and using the magazine “The Crisis”, Du Bois, one of the founders of the NAACP, did set some important prints in the struggle for civil rights.

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As a executive secretary of the NAACP, James Weldon Johnson, a poet and a lawyer, made legislation to protect African-Americans his priority especially anti-lynching bills- bill that go against the practice of killing and hanging AfricanAmericans. In 1919, although three of them were proposed, the Congress rejected all. However, the campaign continued to flourish. Consequently, the number of lynchings dropped. The NAACP which ensured “political, education, social and economic equality of minority groups of US” was the role model for later civil rights organization.

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On the other hand, Marcus Garvey, a Jamaican immigrant, stated his own campaign aiming to build a separate society of only black people. In 1914, Garvey established the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA). 4 years later, to obtain followers, he moved the UNIA and its office to a big city like New York.

Under Garvey’s leadership, the UNIA held many mass meetings, parades and many programs to promote African-Americans business. Garvey himself delivered speeches, many oratories and encouraged his followers to “return to Africa and build a mighty nation”. The movement came to an end in the mid-1920s when Garvey was put in prison because of committing mail fraud. Despite its ending, the movement and Garvey’s legacy influenced and inspired many African-Americans on a large scale about the black pride, economic independence and reverence for Africa.

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It will be a significant shortcoming not to talk specifically about one the greatest movements in the US history- the Harlem Renaissance. As a student, one might hear about the term before but entirely understand it is not simple. The term refers to “the flowering of African-Americans intellectual life during the 1920s and 1930s” centered in the Harlem neighborhood of New York City- the biggest black urban community in the world. Chapter 21


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The image cannot be displayed. Your computer may not hav e enough memory to open the image, or the image may hav e been corrupted. Restart your computer, and then open the file again. If the red x still appears, y ou may hav e to delete the image and then insert it again.

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Its residents were diverse and came from many places, many backgrounds. Although Harlem suffered urban problems such as unemployment, poverty and sanitation like other big cities in America, the Harlem Renaissance seemed to cover all. The Harlem Renaissance flourished in many literary facets: novels, music, poetry, drama and art and led by well-educated, middle-class African-Americans. Many African-Americans writers at this time wrote about the hardship and discrimination that blacks had to suffer to reveal to the world the injustice and inequality of the society. Moreover, they also celebrated their own cultures and customs to gain respect for the black community. Newspapers such as “The Crisis” or “The New Negro” not only enhanced the movement but also provided young talented writers a chance to contribute their works and spread their ideas. Claude McKay, a novelist and poet, a major figure of the era, published three influential books Home to Harlem (1928), a best-seller, Banjo (1929), and Banana Bottom (1933). Besides those three, McKay had other books of poems that were also well-known. His theme was to describe the searching of "black individuality to set a cultural identity".

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Another key player at this time was Langston Hughes. He was considered one of the most well-known poet of this period with many poems in which he Hughes described the difficulties of the working-class African-American. Zora Neale Hurston, in many of her poems, novels, storied and books of folklore, illustrated the lives of uneducated blacks people. Claude McKay

The spirit and talent of the Harlem Renaissance went far beyond literature. During the 1920s, African Americans in performing arts won large support from public. Many plays and musical such as "Africana" and "Othello" was widely acclaimed and performed in many places. Paul Robeson became a influential dramatic actor who was not only a talented artist but also an outstanding singer who enthralled audiences around the world.

Zora Neale Hurston

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Paul Robeson- was a slave and became a famous major dramatic actor. Ol’ Man River- Paul Robeson (Showboat- 1936). http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eh9WayN7R-s Paul Robeson discussed about Othello (Shakes) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-DF7YQrC7HM Jazz was born in the early 20th century in New Orleans where musicians mixed the instrumental ragtime and vocal blues to create a new sound and brought to North by Joe "King" Oliver and his Creole Jazz Band. In 1922, Louis Armstrong join the band becoming to be famous for his talent in improvising and his astounding sense of rhythm. After joining the Fletcher Henderson's band- the biggest band in New York, he went on to become the most important musician in the jazz's history. Louis Armstrong- a young trumpet; joined in a group which became known as the Creole Jazz Band. He became one of the outstanding talented men in the jazz world. Louis Armstrong performed Hello Dolly http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kmfeKUNDDYs&feature=related

The Fletcher Henderson Orchestra: one the famous jazz band at that time. Chapter 21


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My Pretty Girl- The Fletcher Henderson Orchestra: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IkPIxRFZ150 Sugarfoot Stomp- The Fletcher Henderson Orchestra: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CU0ybjKEuX8&feature=related

Jazz was very popular in many cities and the main kind of music for dancing. Many exotic nightclubs were full of whites every night. A jazz pianist and composer, Edward Kennedy "Duke" Ellington, leading the orchestra at Cotton Club, was considered one of the best American composers and a jazz legend.

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Bessie Smith- a blues singer, she was known as the outstanding vocals of the decade. She became the highest- pain black history in the world when she achieved a huge amount of popularity. http://www.last.fm/music/Be ssie+Smith/+images/602234 Bessie Smith sang St. Louis Blues (1929) with a beautiful voice http://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=8Who6fTHJ34 The Harlem Renaissance brought to America a new fresh spirit of enthusiasm. It not only changed the way whites men viewed black people but also represent great social and cultural changes that are an essential part of American history. With new ideas and values, significant achievement in literature,art and music, the emphasis of personal freedom and individuality, the Harlem Renaissance was one of the greatest movements in the history of US. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Migration_(African_American) http://www.naacp.org/about/history/ http://americanhistory.si.edu/brown/history/3-organized/naacp.html http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/twenty/tkeyinfo/garvey.htm http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/garvey/timeline/timeline2.html http://www.jcu.edu/harlem/Education/page_1.htm http://www.csustan.edu/english/reuben/pal/chap9/hughes.html http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/255397/Harlem-Renaissance

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Works Cited "» December 5." Drinkboston.com. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://drinkboston.com/tag/december-5/>. 1910, In. "Great Migration (African American)." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Migration_(African_American)>. "20's Entertainment." Oracle ThinkQuest Library. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://library.thinkquest.org/J0111064/20entertain.htm>. "Alcohol Prohibition Repealed 75 Years Ago, Other Drugs Next, Ever?" Kick! Making Politics Funny - A Liberal Dose of Political Comedy. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://rackjite.com/archives/2428-Alcohol-Prohibition-Repealed-75-Years-Ago,Other-Drugs-Next,-Ever.html>. "American Experience | Marcus Garvey | Timeline." PBS. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/garvey/timeline/timeline2.html>. "American Literature." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_literature>. "Art, Posters And Stickers «." Anarchy Library. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://anarchyfiles.wordpress.com/anarchist-art/>. "Bessie Smith Pictures ? Free Listening, Videos, Concerts, Stats, & Pictures at Last.fm." Last.fm - Listen to Free Music with Internet Radio and the Largest Music Catalogue Online. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://www.last.fm/music/Bessie+Smith/+images/602234>. "Breaking News: Speakeasies Are Back." Down By The Hipster - Down By The Hipster. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://www.downbythehipster.com/blog/2009/6/3/breakingnews-speakeasies-are-back.html>. "Charles Lindbergh Biography - Made First Solo Flight Across the Atlantic in 1927." WW2 and Aviation - Facts, History, and Pictures. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://www.acepilots.com/lindbergh.html>. "CleanMPG Photo Gallery - Al Capone Mugshot to Use for Avatar - Powered by PhotoPost." CleanMPG, An Authoritative Source on Fuel Economy and Hypermiling. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://www.cleanmpg.com/photos/showphoto.php/photo/7424>. "Dancing with Siva, Resource 5, Faiths and Movements." Kauai's Hindu Monastery. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://gurudeva.org/resources/books/dws/dws_r5_truthfaiths.html>. "Decades Project | Sports in the 1920's." Free Website Hosting ? Angelfire Free Website Templates to Make Your Own Free Website. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://www.angelfire.com/anime4/sephirothbadazz/Reports/sports.html>. Effeciency, Maximize Personal. "Media in the 1920s." Oracle ThinkQuest Library. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://library.thinkquest.org/27629/themes/media/md20s.html>. Chapter 21


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Evy Revy. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://evyrevy.blogspot.com/>. Fund, Educational. "NAACP - History." NAACP | National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://www.naacp.org/about/history/>. "Harlem Renaissance - Education - Home." John Carroll University - Educating for Leadership and Service in the Jesuit Tradition. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://www.jcu.edu/harlem/Education/page_1.htm>. "Harlem Renaissance (American Literature and Art) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia." Encyclopedia - Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/255397/Harlem-Renaissance>. "Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association, The Twentieth Century, Divining America: Religion in American History, TeacherServe, National Humanities Center." National Humanities Center - Welcome to the National Humanities Center. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/twenty/tkeyinfo/garvey.htm>. "The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People - Separate Is Not Equal." National Museum of American History. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://americanhistory.si.edu/brown/history/3-organized/naacp.html>. "PAL: Langston Hughes (1902-1967)." California State University Stanislaus | Home. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://www.csustan.edu/english/reuben/pal/chap9/hughes.html>. "Prohibition." The Prohibition Times - Table of Contents. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://prohibitiontimes.piratenews.org/1920.html>. "Untitled." American Studies @ The University of Virginia. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://xroads.virginia.edu/~ug00/3on1/radioshow/1920radio.htm>. "YouTube - Bessie Smith - St. Louis Blues (1929)." YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Who6fTHJ34>. "YouTube - Fletcher Henderson and His Orch. - SUGARFOOT STOMP." YouTube Broadcast Yourself. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CU0ybjKEuX8&feature=related>. "YouTube - Louis Armstrong - Hello Dolly Live." YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kmfeKUNDDYs&feature=related>. "YouTube - Paul Robeson - Ol' Man River (Showboat - 1936) J.Kern O. Hammerstein II." YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eh9WayN7R-s>. "YouTube - Paul Robeson Discusses Othello." YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-DF7YQrC7HM>. "YouTube - The Fletcher Henderson Orchestra MY PRETTY GIRL." YouTube - Broadcast Yourself. Web. 20 May 2010. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IkPIxRFZ150>.

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