A distinction is suggested between plurality and pluralism. Plurality will be used in a descriptive sense, referring both to the religious plurality which is typical of many modern societies, and to the plurality of modernity itself. The latter expression will be used to describe the range of life-styles, cultural and political stances and so on which form the social context within which religious plurality is situated. These descriptions will be distinguished from pluralism, which will be used in a normative sense, indicating the various values, attitudes, ethical implications and so on which arise in response to plurality. The implications of these distinctions for religious education will be discussed with special reference to the relationship between plurality and pluralism.