Page 1

‫ﻗﻠﺐ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩﺗﺎﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭﻳﺎﺑﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪﺭﺿﺎ ﻣﻼﺣﻲ‪ -‬ﻣﺸﺎﻭﺭ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ‬

‫ﺭﻭﻳﮑﺮﺩ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻱ )‪(Process Approach‬‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ‬

‫ﻧﮕﺎﻫﯽ ﺑﻪ ﮐﻞ ﻣﻄﻠﺐ‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﺍﻋﺘﻘﺎﺩ ﺍﮐﺜﺮ ﺻﺎﺣﺐﻧﻈﺮﺍﻥ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻗﻠﺐ ﻳﮏ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺷﮑﺴﺖ ﮐﺎﺭ‬ ‫)‪(Work Breakdown Structure‬‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﻣﻲﺗﭙﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻳﻬﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺳﻼﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﻗﻠﺐ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﺩﺭ ﻃﻲ ﭼﺮﺧﻪ ﻋﻤﺮ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ‬ ‫)‪ (Project life Cycle‬ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺖ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻭﻳـﮋﻩﺍﻱ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﻳﮏ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺷﮑﺴﺖ ﮐﺎﺭ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﻭ ﺳﺎﺯﮔﺎﺭ ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺖ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﺩﺭ ﮐﻨﺎﺭ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻣﻮﻓﻘﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ ﺭﺍ ﺗﻀﻤﻴﻦ ﮐﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ ﻭ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﻲ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺷﮑﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﮐﺎﺭ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻨﺘﺸﺮ ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺳﻮﻱ ﻣﺆﺳﺴﻪ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ )‪(PMI‬‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ )‪(Project Management‬‬ ‫ﺗﻼﺷﻲ ﻳﮑﭙﺎﺭﭼﻪ ﻭ ﻣﻨﺴﺠﻢ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺑﺪﻳﻦ ﻣﻌﻨﺎ ﮐﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻳﺎ ﻋﺪﻡﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ ﻓﻌﻠﻲ ﺩﺭ ﻳﮏ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ ﺍﺯ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ‬ ‫‪INDEN.IR‬ﺍﺛﺮ ﻣﻲﮔﺬﺍﺭﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺑﺮ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﮐﻨﺶﻫﺎ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺭﻭﺷﻦ ﻭ ﺷﻔﺎﻑ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻧﺎﺁﺷﻨﺎ ﻭ ﻣﺒﻬﻢ ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ؛ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ ﻳﮏ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﴼ ﻫﻤﻴﺸﻪ ﺑﺮ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﮔﺬﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﻲ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻤﮑﻦ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺮ ﺭﻭﺣﻴﻪ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ‬

‫ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪﺭﻳﺰﻱ‬

‫ﻳﺎ ﮐﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ )ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ( ﻣﺆﺛﺮ ﺑﻮﺩﻩ ﻳﺎ ﮐﺎﻣ ً‬ ‫ﻼ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻲﺍﺛﺮ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺩﺭﮎ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﻣﺎﻫﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﮑﭙﺎﺭﭼﻪ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻒ ﺁﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺩﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻱ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﮐﻨﺶﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻴﺎﻥ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺑﻪ ‪ ۵‬ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻱ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﺪﻫﻲ ﮐﺮﺩ‬ ‫)ﻃﺒﻖ ﺷﮑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪(۱‬؛ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻨﺪ ﺍﺯ‪:‬‬ ‫‪-۱‬‬ ‫‪-۲‬‬ ‫‪-۳‬‬ ‫‪-۴‬‬ ‫‪-۵‬‬

‫ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﻏﺎﺯﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪﺭﻳﺰﻱ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻟﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺧﺘﺘﺎﻣﻲ‬

‫ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﺁﻏﺎﺯﻳﻦ‬

‫ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻟﻲ‬

‫ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻳﻲ‬

‫ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺧﺘﺘﺎﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺷﮑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪ :۱‬ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ ﻣﻴﺎﻥ ﮔﺮﻭﻫﻬﺎﯼ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﯼ ‪PMBOK -‬‬

‫‪٢١‬‬


‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﮔﺮﻭﻩﻫﺎﻱ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺑﻪ ﻳﮑﺪﻳﮕﺮ ﭘﻴﻮﻧﺪ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﻧﺪ؛ ﺑﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﺎ ﮐﻪ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻲ ﻳﮏ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﺍﺯ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﴼ‬ ‫ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻱ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ )ﺭﻭﻳﮑﺮﺩ‬

‫ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻱ ‪ .(ISO9004:00‬ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻱ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ‪ ،‬ﻫﺮ ﻳﮏ ﺍﺯ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺫﮐﺮ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪﻩ ﻣﺠﻤﻮﻋﻪﺍﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﻪﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺹ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ )ﺷﮑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫‪ (۲‬ﻭ ﻫﺮ ﮐﺪﺍﻡ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﻪ ﻫﺎ ﺷﺎﻣﻞ ﻭﺭﻭﺩﻱ‪،‬‬

‫ﻓﺮاﯾﻨﺪ ﻫﺎي اﺟﺮاﯾﯽ‬

‫ﺧﺮوﺟﯽ‬

‫روﺷﻬﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﺑﺰارﻫﺎ‬

‫ﻓﺮاﯾﻨﺪ ﻫﺎي آﻏﺎزﯾﻦ‬

‫ﻓﺮاﯾﻨﺪ ﻫﺎي ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ رﯾﺰي‬

‫روﺷﻬﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﺑﺰارﻫﺎ‬

‫ورودﯽ ‪ -‬ﺧﺮوﺟﯽ‬

‫ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﻭ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻲ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺩﺍﺧﻞ ﻳﮑﻲ ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎ )ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪﺭﻳﺰﻱ ـ ﺁﻏﺎﺯﻳﻦ (‪ ،‬ﮔﺮﻭﻩ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺷﮑﺴﺖ ﮐﺎﺭ‬ ‫)‪ ،(WBS‬ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻡ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ ﻭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﻣﻲ ﮐﻨﺪ‪.‬‬

‫ورودﯽ ‪ -‬ﺧﺮوﺟﯽ‬

‫روﺷﻬﺎ‬ ‫و‬ ‫اﺑﺰارﻫﺎ‬

‫ورود ي ﻫﺎ‬

‫ﺷﮑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪ : ۲‬ﺭﻭﻳﮑﺮﺩ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﯼ ﺩﺭ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ‬

‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ )ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ‪ (WBS‬ﺑﻪ ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ ﮐﻪ ﮐﻠﻴﻪ ﮐﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﺎ ﻳﮏ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺨﺮﺍﺝ ﻭ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ ﻭ ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪ .‬ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻲ ﮐﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ ﺑﺎ ﺑﻬﺮﻩﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ )ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﺣﺎﺻﻠﻪ ﻳﺎ ‪ ،EVM‬ﮔﺎﻫﻲ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﻳﺎ ‪ CAPS‬ﻧﻴﺰ ﮔﻔﺘﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ(‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪﺭﻳﺰﻱ‪ ،‬ﺑﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩ ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻭ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﺒﻨﺪﻱ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﻣﺠﻮﺯﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻤﺎﻣﻲ ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ ﻳﺎﺩ ﺷﺪﻩ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﮐﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﻣﻲﺍﻧﺠﺎﻣﺪ‪ .‬ﻫﻤﺎﻥ ﻃﻮﺭ ﮐﻪ‬ ‫ﺫﮐﺮ ﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺷﮑﺴﺖ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺯﻳﺮﺑﻨﺎﻱ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖﻫﺎ ﻫﻤﭽﻮﻥ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪﺭﻳﺰﻱ‪ ،‬ﺯﻣﺎﻧﺒﻨﺪﻱ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﺒﻨﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺮ ﭘﻴﺶﺑﻴﻨﻲ ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺪﻳﻨﮕﻲ )‪ (Cash Flow‬ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺑﺪﻳﻬﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ ﺑﺪﻭﻥ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﻳﮏ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺷﮑﺴﺖ ﮐﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‪ ،‬ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖﻫﺎﻱ ﻭﺍﺑﺴﺘﻪ )ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺮﺧﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﺷﺪ( ﻧﻴﺰ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺭﺳﺘﻲ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﻧﺸﺪﻩ ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ ﺑﻪ ﺷﮑﺴﺖ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺷﮑﺴﺖ ﮐﺎﺭ )‪ (WBS‬ﻧﻮﻋﻲ ﮔﺮﻭﻩﺑﻨﺪﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﻪﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺍﺟﺰﺍﻱ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ؛ ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻭﻩﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻗﻼﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﻋﺮﺿﻪ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﺪﻫﻲ ﻭ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﮐﻠﻲ ﺁﻥ ﻣﻲﭘﺮﺩﺍﺯﺩ )‪ .(PMBOK:00‬ﺑﺪﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺗﻴﺐ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻲ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ‬ ‫ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ )ﺷﮑﻞ ﺷﻤﺎﺭﻩ ‪. (۳‬‬

‫ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﻳﮏ‪ WBS‬ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﮐﻨﻴﻢ؟‬

‫‪INDEN.IR‬‬

‫ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﺯ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻳﻲ )ﺩﺭ ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﮐﺎﺭﻱ( ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ‪WBS‬ﻫﺎﻱ ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﻭ ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﺒﻪﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻱ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﻟﮕﻮﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺑﻪ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺑﺮﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ؛ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺩﺍﻳﺮﻩ ﺩﻓﺎﻋﻲ ﺍﻳﺎﻟﺖ ﻣﺘﺤﺪﻩ ﺍﻣﺮﻳﮑﺎ‪ WBS،‬ﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩﻱ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﺩﻭﺍﺕ ﻧﻈﺎﻣﻲ ﻭ ﺩﻓﺎﻋﻲ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ )‪.(MIL-HDBK-881‬‬ ‫‪٢٢‬‬

‫ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺭﻭﻳﮑﺮﺩ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻱ ﮐﻪ ‪ PMI‬ﺑﻪ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‪ ،‬ﺍﮔﺮ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺷﮑﺴﺖ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺩﺭ ﻗﺎﻟﺐ ﻳﮏ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻲ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻲ ﺁﻥ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺷﮑﺴﺖ ﮐﺎﺭ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﮐﻪ ﺑﻪ ﺗﺒﻴﻴﻦ ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ ﻭ ﻣﻘﺎﺻﺪ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ )ﮐﻪ ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ‪ WBS‬ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ(‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﺘﺪﺍﻭﻟﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻧﺠﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﻣﻮﺭﺩ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻗﺮﺍﺭ ﻣﻲﮔﻴﺮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﻓﺎﻥ ﻓﻜﺮﻱ )‪ (Brain Storming‬ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ ﮐﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﮐﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ ﺍﺛﺮﺑﺨﺸﻲ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﺍﺳﺖ؛‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻣﻌﻴﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ ﻛﺎﺭﻛﺮﺩﻱ ـ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩﻱ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ )‪ ،(Project Planning‬ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩﻱ‬ ‫ـ ﻓﻨﻲ ﻭ ﻏﻴﺮﻩ ﻧﻴﺰ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻲ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺷﮑﺴﺖ ﮐﺎﺭ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﺗﻠﻘﻲ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺣﻴﻦ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺷﮑﺴﺖ ﮐﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ )‪ (Project Scope‬ﺍﺯ ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ ﻭﻳﮋﻩﺍﻱ ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺯﻳﺮﺍ ﻣﻌﻤﻮﻻً ﺟﻨﺒﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩﻱ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺣﻮﺯﻩ ﻛﺎﺭﻱ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﺩﺭ ﺣﺎﻟﻲ ﮐﻪ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﺯﻩﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﺭﻱ ﺁﻥ ﻧﻴﺰ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻗﺪﻡ ﺑﻌﺪﻱ ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺷﮑﺴﺖ ﮐﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺳﻄﻮﺡ ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ .‬ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻗﺎﻟﺐ ﺑﺴﺘﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﮐﺎﺭﻱ‬ ‫)‪ (Work Package‬ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢﺑﻨﺪﻱ ﻣﻲﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻭﻩ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﺍﻣﮑﺎﻥ ﻣﻲﺩﻫﺪ ﮐﻪ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﺧﻮﺩ ﺭﺍ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﮐﻨﻨﺪ‪ .‬ﺿﺮﺏﺍﻟﻤﺜﻞ ﺯﻳﺮ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﺭﮎ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻴﻪﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲﮐﻤﮏﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‪:‬‬


‫ﺳﺆﺍﻝ‪ :‬ﻳﻚ ﻓﻴﻞ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﻳﻚ ﻧﻔﺮ ﺧﻮﺭﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ؟‬ ‫ﭘﺎﺳﺦ‪ :‬ﺩﺭ ﻫﺮ ﺩﻓﻌﻪ ﻳﻚ ﮔﺎﺯ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﻣﻲﺯﻧﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲﺷﻜﺴﺖﻛﺎﺭ‪،‬ﺭﻭﺷﻲﺍﺳﺖﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ ﻓﻴﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺴﻤﺖﻫﺎﻱ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺑﻠﻌﻴﺪﻥ؛ ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﻳﮑﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺍﺳﺖ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﻪﻫﺎﻱ ﺳﺎﺩﻩﺗﺮ ﺗﻘﺴﻴﻢ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﮐﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺩﺍﺭﻩ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩﻫﺎﻱ ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ ﻣﻨﺠﺮ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ ﺷﮑﺴﺖ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﭘﺮﺳﺶﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ ﺑﻪ ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖﻫﺎ ﺭﺍ )ﮐﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﺳﻄﺢ ‪WBS‬‬ ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ(‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﺷﻔﺎﻑ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﮐﻨﺪ؛ ﭘﺮﺳﺶﻫﺎﻳﻲ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫‪-۱‬‬ ‫‪-۲‬‬ ‫‪-۳‬‬ ‫‪-۴‬‬ ‫‪-۵‬‬

‫ﭼﻪ ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﻳﻲ؟‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ ﭼﻪ ﻛﺴﻲ؟‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﭼﻪ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﻭﻳﮋﻩﺍﻱ؟‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﭼﻪ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﻛﻴﻔﻲ؟‬ ‫ﺑﺎ ﭼﻪ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ )ﺑﺎﺯﺭﺳﻲ( ﻫﺎﻳﻲ؟‬

‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﭘﺎﺳﺨﮕﻮﻳﻲ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﺆﺍﻻﺕ‪ ،‬ﺗﻬﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﺗﺮﻳﺲﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻫﻤﭽﻮﻥ ﻣﺎﺗﺮﻳﺲ ﻣﺴﺆﻭﻟﻴﺖ ﻭ ﻏﻴﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ ﺑﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ ﺳﻌﻲ ﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺩﻭ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﻪ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻭ ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﮔﻲ ﻳﺎﻣﺨﺎﻃﺮﺍﺕ‪،‬ﻣﻮﺍﺯﻧﻪﺑﺮﻗﺮﺍﺭﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ‬ ‫)‪ (Decomposition‬ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺷﮑﺴﺖ ﮐﺎﺭ ﺟﻬﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺍﺯ ﺭﻭﺵﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻫﻤﭽﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻ ﺑﻪ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ ﻭ ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ ﺑﻪ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ ﺑﻌﺪﻱ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ ﺭﻭﺍﺑﻂ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺩﺭ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺗﻘﺪﻡ ﻭ ﺗﺄﺧﺮ ﻭ ﻧﻴﺰ ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﻲ ﻭﺍﺑﺴﺘﮕﻲ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺩﺭ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﻓﻬﺮﺳﺖ ﺍﺟﺰﺍﻱ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﺍﻗﻼﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ )‪ (Deliverable‬ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﻭﻳﮋﻩﺍﻱ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺑﻪ ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‪ ،‬ﺑﻪ ﻫﻴﭻ ﻭﺟﻪ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺷﮑﺴﺖ ﮐﺎﺭ ﻣﺒﺘﻨﻲ ﺑﺮ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻳﺎ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻭﻥﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻨﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﻪ ﻧﻤﻲﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟﺰﺀ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ )‪ (Deliverable‬ﻃﺒﻖ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫‪ PMBOK‬ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺍﺳﺖ ﺍﺯ‪ :‬ﻫﺮ ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ ﻣﺤﺴﻮﺱ‪ ،‬ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﺛﺒﺎﺕ‪ ،‬ﺳﻨﺠﺶﭘﺬﻳﺮ ﻭ ﻳﺎ ﻫﺮ ﻣﻮﺭﺩﻱ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﻳﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ ﺗﮑﻤﻴﻞ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﻳﺎ ﺑﺨﺸﻲ ﺍﺯ ﺁﻥ ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺍﻗﻼﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﮐﻠﻴﺪﻱ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﻧﻈﻴﺮ ﺍﺧﺬ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﻮﺯﻫﺎﻱ ﻧﻈﺎﺭﺗﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻗﺖ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻳﻲ ﺷﺪﻩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺍﻗﻼﻡﮐﻠﻴﺪﻱﻗﺎﺑﻞﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭ ﻗﺎﻟﺐ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎﻱ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻳﻲ ﮐﺮﺩ‪:‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﻒ( ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺏ( ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺗﺪﺍﺭﻛﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺝ( ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ ﻭ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩ( ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪﺳﺎﺯﻱ‪ /‬ﺍﺩﺍﺭﻱ‪ /‬ﺁﻣﻮﺯﺵ‪ /‬ﻧﺮﻡﺍﻓﺰﺍﺭ‪ /‬ﻭ ﻏﻴﺮﻩ‬

‫ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﻳﻚ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺷﻜﺴﺖ ﻛﺎﺭ‬

‫ﺑﻌﺪ ﺍﺯ ﺁﺷﻨﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎ ﻣﻔﺎﻫﻴﻤﻲ ﻫﻤﭽﻮﻥ ﺍﻗﻼﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺷﮑﺴﺖ ﮐﺎﺭ ﻭ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻠﻲ ﺷﮑﺴﺖ ﮐﺎﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭﺷﮑﺴﺖﮐﺎﺭ ﺗﻬﻴﻪﻣﻲﺷﻮﺩ؛ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞﺗﻬﻴﻪ‪WBS‬‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻨﺪﺍﺯ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺍﻳﻨﻜﻪ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ‬ ‫)‪ (Project Extreme Product‬ﭼﻴﺴﺖ؟ ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‪ ،‬ﭼﻪ ﭼﻴﺰﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺍﺭﺍﺋﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ ﺗﺎ ﻣﻮﻓﻘﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ .‬ﺭﻭﺷﻲ ﮐﻪ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻥ ﺟﻬﺖ ﺩﺭﮎ ﺑﻬﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲﺑﻪﮐﺎﺭﺑﺮﺩ‪،‬ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺕﺍﺳﺖﺍﺯﺑﺎﺯﻧﮕﺮﻱ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﻛﻠﻲ ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻩ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ‪ ،‬ﻫﻤﭽﻮﻥ ﺷﺮﺡ ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭﺩﺍﺩ‪ ،‬ﺩﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﻛﺎﺭ‪ ،‬ﺍﺳﻨﺎﺩ ﺍﻟﺰﺍﻣﺎﺕ ﻓﻨﻲ ﻭ ﻏﻴﺮﻩ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻗﻼﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺍﺻﻠﻲ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ )‪Project Main‬‬ ‫‪ (Deliverable‬ﺭﺍ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ ﮐﺮﺩﻩ ﻭ ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‪ .‬ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﻼﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﭘﻴﺶﻧﻴﺎﺯﻱ ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ ﻛﻪ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﻭﺭﻱ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﺍﻣﺎ ﺑﻪ ﺗﻨﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻛﺴﺐ ﻭ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﻧﻤﻲﻛﻨﻨﺪ )ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ ﻣﺸﺨﺼﺎﺕ ﻃﺮﺍﺣﻲ(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ - ۱‬ﺍﻗﻼﻡ ﺫﻛﺮ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺩﺭ ﺑﺎﻻ ﺭﺍ ﺗﺎ ﺳﻄﺢ ﺗﻔﺼﻴﻞ ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫‪INDEN.IR‬ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﻳﻜﭙﺎﺭﭼﻪ‪ ،‬ﺗﺠﺰﻳﻪ‬ ‫‪- ۲‬ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭﺷﻜﺴﺖﻛﺎﺭﺍﺯﻣﺆﻟﻔﻪﻫﺎﻳﻲﻫﻤﭽﻮﻥﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺭﻭﺍﺑﻂ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺁﻧﻬﺎ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺷﺪﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ؛ ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻪﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﻪﻫﺎﻧﮕﺮﺵﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻲﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ - ۳‬ﻋﻨﺎﻭﻳﻨﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﺴﺖ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﻣﻔﻴﺪ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺗﻨﺪ ﺍﺯ‪ :‬ﺑﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﺎﻥ ﻭ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻨﺒﻊﻳﺎﺑﻲ‪ ،‬ﺯﻣﺎﻧﺒﻨﺪﻱ‪ ،‬ﺑﻮﺩﺟﻪﺑﻨﺪﻱ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -۴‬ﺳﻌﻲﻛﻨﻴﺪﺗﺎﺑﻪ‪WBS‬ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩﺧﻮﺩﺩﻳﺪﻱﺳﻴﺴﺘﻤﻲ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻳﻜﭙﺎﺭﭼﻪ ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ ﺑﺎﺷﻴﺪ؛ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﻴﺪ ﺍﺑﻌﺎﺩﻱ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻮﻥ ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ )‪ ،(Cost‬ﺯﻣﺎﻥ )‪ (Time‬ﻭ ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ‬ ‫)‪ (Performance‬ﺭﺍ ﺩﺭ ﻧﻈﺮ ﺑﮕﻴﺮﻳﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫‪ - ۵‬ﺗﺎ ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺫﻱﻧﻔﻌﺎﻥ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﻣﺘﻘﺎﻋﺪ ﺷﻮﻧﺪ ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﺡﺭﻳﺰﻱ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﻣﻲﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ ﺍﺟﺮﺍ ﻭ ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ﻣﻮﻓﻘﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﺭﺍ ﻣﺤﻘﻖ ﺳﺎﺯﺩ‪ ،‬ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺷﻜﺴﺖ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺭﺍ ﺑﺎﺯﻧﮕﺮﻱ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻲ ﺩﻳﮕﺮ ﺍﺯ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﻛﻪ ﺩﺭ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ‪WBS‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺁﻥ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺷﻮﺩ‪ ،‬ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻣﺨﺎﻃﺮﺍﺕ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ‬ ‫)‪ (Project Risk Management‬ﺍﺳﺖ‪.‬‬

‫‪٢٣‬‬

‫ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﻠﻲ ﻫﺮ ﺁﻧﭽﻪ ﻛﻪ ﻧﺘﻮﺍﻥ ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﻩ ﺁﻥ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﻄﻌﻲ ﺻﺤﺒﺖ ﻧﻤﻮﺩ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﻃﺒﻊ ﺁﻥ ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢﮔﻴﺮﻱ ﻛﺮﺩ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺩﺭ ﺑﺮﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪﻩ ﺩﺭﺻﺪﻱ ﺍﺯ ﻣﺨﺎﻃﺮﻩ ﺍﺳﺖ‪ .‬ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﻟﺤﺎﻅ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩﻥ ﺍﻳﻦ ﻣﺆﻟﻔﻪ ﺩﺭ ﻓﺮﺍﻳﻨﺪ ﺗﻬﻴﻪ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭ ﺷﻜﺴﺖ ﻛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﻪ ﺳﺆﺍﻻﺕ ﺯﻳﺮ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﺷﻔﺎﻑ ﭘﺎﺳﺦ ﺩﺍﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪:‬‬ ‫‪ - ۱‬ﺁﻳﺎ ﺍﻗﻼﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﻛﺎﻣﻞ ﻭ ﺷﻔﺎﻑ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ‫ﻭ ﻣﺸﺨﺺ ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ؟‬ ‫‪ - ۲‬ﺁﻳﺎ ﻭﻗﺎﻳﻊ ﻭ ﺭﺧﺪﺍﺩﻫﺎﻱ ﻣﻬﻢ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ )‪(Milestone‬‬ ‫ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻳﻲ ﻭ ﺗﺒﻴﻴﻦ ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ؟‬ ‫‪ - ۳‬ﺁﻳﺎ ﺩﺭﻭﺍﺯﻩ ﻣﺮﺍﺣﻞ )‪،(Stage Gates‬‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻭﺟﻲﻫﺎﻱ ﻫﺮ ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ )‪ (Phase Exits‬ﻭ ﻧﻘﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻧﻲ )‪ (Kill Points‬ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮﺭ ﺷﻔﺎﻑ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺐ ﺷﺪﻩﺍﻧﺪ؟‬ ‫‪ - ۴‬ﺁﻳﺎ ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ ﻛﺎﺭ ﺍﺯ ﻃﺮﻳﻖ ﺑﺎﺯﺭﺳﻲ ﻭ ﺁﺯﻣﻮﻥ ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻲ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪﺷﺪ ﻭﺳﺎﺯﻭﮐﺎﺭﻱﺑﺮﺍﻱﺍﻳﻦﮐﺎﺭﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ ﺷﺪﻩﺍﺳﺖ؟‬

‫ﺧﻼﺻﻪ‬

‫ ﺍﺯ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﻛﺎﺭ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﻳﻚ ﺗﺼﻮﻳﺮ ﺫﻫﻨﻲ ﺑﺮﺍﻱ ﺧﻮﺩ‬‫ﺑﺴﺎﺯﻳﺪ ﻭ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﻴﻨﺪﻳﺸﻴﺪ ﻛﻪ ﻫﺮ ﻳﻚ ﺍﺯ ﺍﺟﺰﺍﻱ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ‬ ‫ﭼﻪ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﻱ ﺑﺮ ﺍﻧﺘﻬﺎﻱ ﻛﺎﺭ ﻳﻚ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ ﮔﺬﺍﺷﺖ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻗﻼﻡ ﻗﺎﺑﻞ ﺗﺤﻮﻳﻞ ﺑﻪ ﺩﻳﺪ ﻛﻠﻲ ﺑﻨﮕﺮﻳﺪ ﻭ ﺳﻌﻲ‬‫ﮐﻨﻴﺪ ﺭﺍﻩﻫﺎﻱ ﺭﺳﻴﺪﻥ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺍﻗﻼﻡ ﺭﺍ ﺷﻨﺎﺳﺎﻳﻲ ﮐﻨﻴﺪ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﺑﻪ ﺍﻳﻦ ﺑﻴﻨﺪﻳﺸﻴﺪﻛﻪ‪۱ :‬ـ ﭼﻪ ﭼﻴﺰﻱ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ‬‫ﺷﻮﺩ ﻭ ‪۲‬ـ ﭼﻪ ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪﻱﻫﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺑﺮﺁﻭﺭﺩﻩ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬ ‫ ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ ﻧﻬﺎﻳﻲ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﺑﺎﻳﺪ ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻱ ﭼﻪ ﻭﻳﮋﮔﻲﻫﺎﻳﻲ‬‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ ﺗﺎ ﻣﻮﻓﻘﻴﺖ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﺣﺎﺻﻞ ﺷﻮﺩ‪.‬‬

‫ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫‪-۱‬‬

‫ﺭﺍﻫﻨﻤﺎﻱ ﮔﺴﺘﺮﻩ ﺩﺍﻧﺶ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ )‪PMBOK‬‬ ‫‪ (Guide‬ــ ﺗﺮﺟﻤﻪ ﻣﺠﺘﺒﻲ ﺍﺣﻤﺪﭘﻮﺭ ﻭ ﻣﻴﺜﻢ ﺁﻗﺎﺭﺿﺎﻳﻲ‬

‫‪-۲‬‬

‫ﺍﺳﺘﺎﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ ﺍﻧﺠﻤﻦ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎﺭﻫﺎﻱ‬ ‫ﺷﮑﺴﺖ ﮐﺎﺭ ــ ﺷﺮﮐﺖ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ ﺻﻨﺎﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﭘﺘﺮﻭﺷﻴﻤﻲ‬

‫‪-۳‬‬

‫ﻧﻈﺎﻡ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﮐﻨﺘﺮﻝ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ــ ﻧﺸﺮﻳﻪ ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﻭ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪﺭﻳﺰﻱ ﮐﺸﻮﺭ‬

‫‪-۴‬‬

‫ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﭘﺮﻭﮊﻩ ﺑﺎ ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ ﻣﺪﻳﺮﻳﺖ ﺍﺭﺯﺵ ﮐﺴﺐ ﺷﺪﻩ ــ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ ﻭﺍﺣﺪﻱ ﺩﻳﺰ‬ ‫‪ISO 10006:2003‬‬ ‫‪www.iranpm.com‬‬ ‫‪www.pmi.org‬‬

‫‪5‬‬‫‪6‬‬‫‪7-‬‬

‫‪www.eprojectcentral.com‬‬ ‫‪Harold kerzner – Project Management A‬‬ ‫‪System Aproach 8th ed-2002 john wiley‬‬ ‫‪–new york‬‬

‫‪8‬‬‫‪9-‬‬


proje  

project,inden

Advertisement
Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you