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The Delhi University Publications NO. 2.

HOME

THE

OF THE ARYAS WITH

Notes, references, appendix, etc.

BY Pandit.

Laohhml Dhar Kalla M.A

,

M.O L

,

Shastrl.

PANJAB UNIVERSITY GOLD MEDALLIST, LATE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA RESEARCH SCHOLAR IN ARCHAEOLOGY, READER AND HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT OF SANSKRIT AND HINDI DELHI UNIVERSITY ;

LECTURER, ST. STEPHEN'S COLLEGE, DELHI.

1930,


To THE ARYAN FATHERS who

united the ancient world by the priceless gift of their language and the mentality born of that language, and to whom the modern world is indebted for its garment of thought in the form of

Greek, Latin, German, French, English, Russian, Sanskritt Persian, Hindi, Urdu and many more languages of civilization of the ancient and the

modern world.


FOREWORD. a short paper on the home of the Aryas embodies discussion in during the summary of the subject that arose course oE a series oE lectures on comparative philology delivered

This

to the post-graduate student* oE the Delhi University

1927

year

to

The subject

1929.

oE the

home

from the

Aryas as

oE the

we

It all know is as Eascinating as it is difficult to deal with. has occupied the best minds among Sanskrit scholars all over the world. Enormous literature has already grown up round

the

subject and yet

no

final

word has been

said on

studies in comparative philology that had always

most encouraged me cal

point oE

problems

oE

view,

accent

to

it.

attracted

My me

approach the subject from the philologi-

primarily. in

As it

language,

was brooding on

I

almost

the

suddenly flashed

upon me that the unity of accent between the 'Indo-European' tongue and th.it oE the Vedic must be a sure indication o the

home

oE the Arya*. to

happened

be in

Dr.

Glassenapp oE the Berlin University As I discussed the Delhi, in those days.

matter with him, he remarked that it was a new line oE attack on the subject altogether. I concentrated on the point and collected

material

my argument on the home Aryas in the Himalayas which conclusion I was Eorced to arrive at on the basis oE the unity oE accent oE the Indo-Europenn mother-tongue with the Vedic. Thus I have made eleven to

re-inEorce

oE the

chieE

points

Himalayas

may

that

favour

the

home

that are discussed in the

brieEly be noted as

below

oE

body oE

the this

Aryas

in

the

paper and that

:

J.

The unity

2.

The growth and development

oE accent uE the

hypothetical Indo-European mother tongne with that oE the Vedic language whose first speakers seem to have lived round the Himulayns and their Eootlands.

in

India

prior

to

the

oE the

Vedic literature

growth and development oE

on Aryan literature in outerlands inhabited by the

Aryan-speaking nations.


II 3.

Exuberance of names and grammatical forms in the Vedio language and literature as compared with those of the different

Aryan languages and

literature

that flourished outside India all over the world. 4.

The archaic character literature of

the

the

of

In Jo- A ry as

Vedic

language and

who never

lived

in

amid strange people' in India. The conforof the Vedic language with the standard mity

'isolation

Indo-European mother-fcongne to-gether with its continuous historical growth from its archaic form into

modern languages

the

in the

same geographical

continuum, ns contrasted with the disruptive character of

the

different

in

Aryan languages

lands outside

India. 5.

Lack

of

traces

any foreign journey behind the

of

Vedic language and 6.

Common

literature.

vocables

various

in

the

of

languages

'Indo-European' mother-tongue, both in the east and the West denote objects that fit in best with the conditions

of

life

of

the

ancient

Aryas and

their

language, in the Himalayas and their footlands. 7.

Absence of any tradition or suggestion in the Veda which is supposed to be an immediate record of the admission

home 8.

of

the

Aryas into India, regarding their

in outer-lands.

The home

of

the

neighbourhood

of

of

the

bifurcation

Centum and

the

Aryas mint he sought for Asiatic

Turkistan the

in the

land into

of

the

Aryan-mother tongue Satem groups, and that may on the

support of other important evidences be located round the Himalayas and not round the kble-laud of Central Asia

the

Himalayas

(however a distant neighbour

of the Asiatic Turkistan )

with

it*

being historically connected

[n other words, the

Himalayas occupying a

prominent central place immediately

looking over tha


Ill

and those of the plains of the Satan-speaking Punjab, be Centum-speaking Tnkharistan at some distance, may the

home

Aryan or

the

of the original speakers of

"Indo-European" mother-tongue using that parent form of sound which on the one hand gave birth to the

Centum and on

Satem group

the other -band to the

of

languages.

The

9.

evidence supplied by different Vedic India MS the radiating

archaeological

countries

points to the

centre of the languages of ancient Aryas, culture and civilisation into different lands. 10.

The narrations of the deluge by the Semitic, the Iranian, and the Indians can best be reconciled a historical deluge of the Kashmirmay synchronise in date with the

to

by referring lake which

dispersion of the to the

11.

their

home

The Indian

home

of

distant lands, and point

in

Aryas

of the Aryus in the Himalayas. tradition

supports

in the

Aryas

the

of

theory

the

Himalayas and the migration

of the ancient Aryas to distant lands.

may be

It

noted

that the nature of

supplied above in defence of

Now

could

before I

some time paper

is

of the

to

clear

theory

the ground

of

evidence

I

have

cumulative in essence.

these

points

took

it

me

about half the size of the

;

devoted to the setting up of the problem of the Aryas and an approach to the subject from points of view and a survey and refutation of

therefore

home

the various

the various theories in

my own

my

make some

is

the

before final presentation of

field

views on the subject. this

that

The reader I

differ

will note

on many

goes through paper with the new school of comparative philology-such as origin of 6 and 6 vowels, law of palatalization in

as he

vital points

the

Sanskrit, gutturaltzatiou and sibiiization of the hypothetical Indo-European palaial sound, substitution of a simple guttural in Sanskrit for

the supposed Indo-European in

Sanskrit and

rotization

labio-velar,

of the

1

origin

of

cerebrals

-sound etc; and for that I


bis patience with

request for

me, lor he will see

i

he consults

notes and references in this paper that I have my reasons to support my views. The detailed examination of all these

my

interesting problems of

a part of this

and in

paper, I

comparative philology does not form have therefore reserved it for another,

paper hinted only general principles-supported by examples of course that were necessary to illustrate my this

argnment in this thesis-on the basis of which I beg to differ from the modern philologist however famous he may be-for there

nothing sacred in naraes-in his conclusions on these

is

problems.

Now who

in India, he in

writer

the

home

the

fixes

moved by

cases

He

prejudices in the

when

all

paper happens

Aryas

Indian

of

is

be an Indian

therefore wants

mind of

it.

than

to

the readers

if

by

the

true

is

and European writers

be

to

of

spirit

guard against any such it is necessary to do so

his reasons are already set forth.

of patriotism

to

in the Himalayas, that is

motives rather

patriotic

scholarship.

this

the

therefore in this case be supposed as

may

other

many

of of

The

writer's sense

not that of love of his country over and against

humanity but to him it stands for expansion of his personal and his family-life into a wider field of humanity for greater opportunity of service. He believes in the dictum

the

1

rest

of

Vamdhaiva kutumba&am.

Also,

I

should like to guard myself

against any charge of partiality for the ancient Indo-European or the Aryan people. I may be told that 'I have said many sweet

words

good praise of the noble Aryas and their works of I may point out that my words in the world.

lisation

appear nweet but in are nob nntru*.

1

not confound

my

present

leave or

European people the

st'ite of

speak of the

the ancient

Aryas

works

moment

they

readers

must

knowledge, with the Indo-

Aryas.

My

of this book with the Arya-Samajists

of

civilisation

of

that I hold

Again

when

the ancient Aryas I

do

any low estimate

of

and the indebtedness of the modern world suggest for a

may

I believe

to others to find fault

it

of toduy-I do not say anything about the latter. I

civi-

in

to

them,

not .

the


Semitic

ancient

people,

their

and

culture

civilisation.

have ranged themselves Unfortunately the writers in the West I can speak issue. against each other on this unnecessary admiration for myself that I cannot look without the greatest

civilisations and Egyptian and the Babylonian I only their great contributions to the progress of humanity. hold took submit that where-ever the Aryas had gone, they added civilisations of the land, of the of the

for the ancient

strings

pre-existing

own, to form a new pattern that was distinctly an improvement on the older one. Thus the Aryas had their own place in history and I believe it would not be a heresy to

them

to

say

fulfil!

their

if

may

it

be said

of

the

Aryas

that they

came

to

The monogamous Arya, who knew to destroy. of the third metal probably the iron, who had a quick

and not

the use

horse at his service which carried him from country to country,

who worshipped the bright forces of nature as God's powers and hated black intigic, was certainly, as compared with the non-Aryan races, far ahead of his times, in point of culture and The Aryas

civilisation.

or

their

linguistic

descendants have

been doing the advanced thinking for the world for many centuries. We cannot wipe out the facts in history which tell

Aryan languages both eastern and westernPersian, Greek, Latin, German, French, English

us that the

Sanskrit,

and the mentality born of these languages tlieir culture and civilisation, are a distinct advance on the ancient Semitic

etc.

towards the higher progress of humanity. The Aryan language brought the east and the west together and served as a

bond of unity between the two. But all this does not speak low of the achievements of other ancient or modern civilisations.

From

all

this

I

should not be understood to say either

that the Aryas had no defect of their own-T hold no brief the Aryas ; but the for study of the character of the

We

are concerned of this paper. Now I of the Aryas. home the with original preHent of iho a of home the out worked time have for the first theory

Aryas does not form a part at

the

north-westen Himalayas and their footlnnds in

Aryns

in

India

on the basis

of material that is at

present

supplied

to


Vi us by comparative philology, sou roes historical other

anthropology archaeology, I do not use the term

and

north-western

the

Himalayas in

the

of

sense

geological

north-western ranges of the Himalayas bat 1 mean the north -western regions oE the Himalayas in India that look over the plains of the Punjab and I shall be the first person

abandon

to

this

theory

submit

therefore

thesis

this

and

criticism

sympathetic

if

I find cogent reasons to to

the.

world

learned

illuminating

do

suggestions

so.

I

for

its

on

the

subject.

My

thanks

ure

due

money

for

publication

sanctioned

the

to

Delhi of

University

the

thesis

which

on

the

recommendation of the Academic Council which was guided

by the opinion of the learned scholars such as Woolner Esq., Principal Oriental College Lahore, who

in its decision

A. 0.

noted that the paper 'bears evidence oE considerable study of the and of a considerable thought,' that it

literature of the subject

deals with Mines of argument* 'that

and that

are

new 9

that

its

'treatment

an interesting attempt to approach a very difficult problem from various points of view and the work is of a quality that would justify its publication by the University

is

reasonable',

"it is

of Delhi;" the opinion of Dr.

Dhruvu

Principal Central

Hindu

College, Benares, who*noted that he was "glad to say to that the paper was very interesting and that it certainly deserves to be published', and the opinion of R. B.

pondent of the to

Archaeological

Hira Lai,

Hony. Corres-

Department India, who wrote him as 'provoking thought

that the paper had impressed

say

and as such

1

deserves to be published by the Delhi Universitv and widely circulated to oriental scholars and anthropologistei" and that 'it is a most interesting paper in the right direction

dealt with from certain

it

points of

view which nre altogether

Original." [

am

also deeply thankful to

my

esteemed

friend

and

colleague R. g. Capron Esq., M. A, who took grent pains to correct over it hundred pages of this book. But in that extremely hot weather I wanted

to

save

my

friend

Mr.

Capron from

further sweating on these proofs. I thought that the press could


VII do the notes and references they assured

me

to do.

Bat

at least,

fairly

accurately,

which have

I regret to find that the press

introduced the printer's devil even in places corrected by Mr, noie 4 have not Capron. I am sorry that the equations

undgr

come out

quite accurately. I would beg the scholars to correct these misprints which are obvious and are not of a disputable

character.

1

subjoin an errata towards the end indicating some

errors that have been

brought to

Ram Singh M. "A., of whom I offer my sincere Mr.

my

notice by

St.

my own

Stephen's College, thanks.

pupil

Delhi.,

to

LAOHHMI DHAR, July

1st,

1930.

ST. STEPHEN'S

COLLKGE, DELHI


THE HOME OF THE ART AS. The

of Sanskrit

'Discovery'

by the West,

also,

on

Sanskrit, the foundation of the science of comparative philology which was described by Hegel as the discovery of a new world, are of no less importance

the

of

basis

indeed, in the history and

mankind than America by the West at an

civilization

of

the geographical discovery of If the discovery of America earlier date.

has

led to the

material growth and expansion of the nations of Europe in the West, the 'discovery' of Sanskrit is leading in no

small degree to the gradual widening of the intellectual and of the educated people in religious outlook and horizon

the West, and

is

in

its

own way,

responsible for the

new

and promising birth of a feeling of kinship on the part of the West with the ancient Aryas of India and through

them with the people

of India to-day.

Thus our interest in the ancient Aryas, who, as we have come to know, have played such an important and leading part in the history of human culture and civilization through distant ages, in the East or in the

is

deepening day by day,

West who speak

We

their language turn

them

quite naturally, with a fetling which is due to our forefathers who first taught us our language. The ancient Aryas may or may not be the ethnic forefathers

to

of the Aryan-speaking nations of to-day both eastern and western for it is well pointed out by anthropologists

that

identity

of

any more than

speech does not imply identity of race

of speech implies diversity of that are but their race; they linguistic forefathers, no one can deny 1 In our opinion, the ancient Aryas must originally diversity

.

belong to a definite type of race, for

we fail

to

understand

how

otherwise the ancient Aryan language in its first fonnulative stage could acquire a homogeneous character

with regard to

its

aooent,

phonetics, and grammatical


a set of heterogeneous people with alien speech habits of accent and pronunciation etc. We also structure

in.

growth of numerous Aryan languages from the parent Aryan language could not be made possible without some degree of intermixture of the Aryan believe that the

fclood

with the non-Aryan.

We

who speak

the

Aryan

therefore have a strain of

language may our veins and

may

Aryan blood in therefore claim to be not only the

linguistic descendants but also the lineal descendants of the ancient Aryas. However, from the point of view of

the language that the ancient Aryas have framed for us a language that has stood triumphant in its march in different countries for thousands of years in the history of the world as the chief language of culture and civilization of a large section of humanity; these ancient Aryas our great admiration and excite our still

deserve greater

curiosity.

Vasistha

and

Zarathustra,

Homer

and Hesiod, Virgil and Dante, Milton and Shakespeare, Goethe and Moliere, Firdausi and Hafiz, Kalidasa and all speak the language of Tulsidasa, Zauq and Ghalib the ancient Aryas and sing their choicest songs in it. All the important languages of Europe such as Greek, Latin, Celtic, Teutonic and Slavonic; all the Sanskritic languages of India containing more than a dozen important vernaculars of to-day and their numerous dialects, all the langua-

ges of Persia with their many dialects such as the Kurdish, the Pushtu, the Baluchi and others and many more dialects of the ancient East, the Armenian, the Albanian

and the Tokharian are now

definitely

known

as belonging

to the great linguistic family of the Aryan they are all recognized as members of the Aryan brotherhood.

Now, it is

we inherit the language of the ancient but natural that we also inherit sortie essen-

aid

Atyas, tHI features of their culture.

For example, the

Parliament, a gigantic tree which

is

said to

have

British its

foots


3 in the primitive teutonic institutions such as the "Witenagemots* or meetings of the Wise, may in the remotest forth out of the seed past be discovered as sprouting the anoient Aryas of from of the Ganas or Jan as

grew the civic polity of the Greek GanaSj The the Latin Gens and the Indian rule by Ganas. which seed

also

the 'King' etymologically and historically the father of ancient the of the is the or Janaka State father-king

Thus the Indians and the British may be said same traditions of political to inherit originally the constitution in their language and history. Again, the Aryan creed of the family-hearth and of the common possession of the cattle-herd and land for agriculture, has led to

Aryas.

the organization of the family and social life known in India as the Gotra, also the Greek Phratria, (Latin Prater^ Sanskrit Bhratarah, modern Hindi Biradari, and Latin Patria, Sanskrit Pitaras; their cult of the dead into

developing

Shraddha in India has furnished a basis for the law of

property such as that of primogeniture in ancient India and abroad. Their love for the order of things in nature Sanskrit Rta,

buds forth in the

Roman law and

the

1*

and grace ancient laws of Manu, their sense of beauty added to the perfection of the late Grecian art and gave ,

Their religious us our anoient art and music intuition, Latin Credo or Sanskrit. Shraddfiah&a blossomed in

forth into our Bhakti cult, the

India.

mysticism of the Sufis,

the exalted morality of Buddhism and the most precious and delicate flower of Christianity that has come out on

branch of Buddhism transplanted on the soil of Judaea already marked with the Aryan religion of Zara* the

8

keen faculty of perceiving things aft Sanskrit Jnana, Latin Gnosis*, their intense they are to see the Divine Light behind the Sun Sanslonging krit Deva, Gr. Dios, Latin Ztaa, English Teu* ; their incessent thirst and hunger of the soul and their endless toil and pursuit to see God, the Ultimate Reality behind thustra

.

.Their


the forces of nature, have led to some of the boldest generalizations in the realm of spiritual knowledge that man has ever made, such as, 'Netinetityatma Not this,

not

this, is

all this is

the Self;

Brahman

Sarvam Khalvidam Brahma l

;

Aham BrahmaxmP

Brahman, 'TattvamasF

That thou art

I !

Verily the

am

Thus we are

struck to note that the earliest springs of the life-history of the Aryan-speaking nations in various countries are lying embedded in the common rock of the Aryan ancestors, namely those who were, so to speak, the first-speakers of

the

Aryan language; and no student

cultural evolution of

of the history of the

mankind, therefore, can afford to

neglect the study of the ancient Aryas who were the forerunners of the essential features of tha civilization of the

Aryan-speaking nations of today, and whose civilization it came in composition with alien civilizations produced

as

still

vigorous forms of civilization, and

who by

the

gift

of their language were in the past a supreme force in the unity of mankind. It is little wonder, then, that we seek to discover the

home

of

these

the important people ancient Aryas; whose language which has indelibly stamped its genius on our minds, we still speak, and whose ways of thinking have not yet altogether deserted us.

Let us enquire.

We

find

to-day that the Aryan languages are scattered throughout the length and breadth of the world. Miles and miles away from each other, with oceans and mountain-barriers between them, there are people such as the British, the Greeks, the Russians, the Persians and the Indians who speak the

languages that share inflexion of

occurence

common

rules

of

syntax,

common

nouns and verbs, common words of daily names of family relationship such as father,

mother, brother, daughter etc; of domestic animals such as cow, sheep, dog, horse etc; pronouns such as he, she, it; and numerals such as eight, ten, hundred etc. and such


other numerous roots and

words as can not be explained

loan-words or mere accidental resemblances in the various languages but can only be understood as belonging to a common stock from which the diverse languages as

have drawn and thus point to the origin of those cognate 4 languages as derived from a common mother-tongue.

Now

it is

not possible to explain the primitive and

fundamental unity of the mother-tongue which gave birth many languages in Europe and Asia without presup-

to so

posing as its necessary condition the primitive unity of land which the Aryas must have occupied before they for the mother-tongue which separated in distant lands is traceable as a common factor in the various Indo-Euro;

pean languages of the Aryan family must essentially be homogeneous in character, and it could not maintain its

homogeneous character and retain its intelligibility to all its speakers unless it was cultivated amon'g people who formed some sort of unity among themselves, who were not geographically removed far from each other, who were not cut asunder by insurmountable barriers of land and sea and such other factors as break the primitive unity of a language, who did not live in wholly scattered lands

but lived in a more or less circumscribed area, possessed common fields to raise their crops and pasture-lands to feed their cattle,

and who found shelter for themselves under a

roof after a full day's work. The fact that the languages are found to-day scattered in distant

common Aryan

lands can only be explained by the later dispersal of the main Aryan stock from its common beehive. The question therefore is: Under what did the Aryan fathers of

sky

our Aryan languages served as their cradle

first

flourish,

what part of land

and rocked that primitive race that gave promise of such a bright career in this world and had such a mighty future before it? In short, the question is: What is the home of the Aryas before their 5 migration to distant lands ?


6

We call these people

Arya and

their language as

Aryan,

for the term

Arya has not only the advantage of both being short and compact but because it is the right term to use, for the term Arya generally speaking, is found to exist wherever the Aryan language has penetrated both in the East and in the West, as a part of the designation of persons or of the countries which these people had occupied. The term Mndo-German' favoured by Germany on patriotic grounds

and the term 'Indo-European* as designations of these people and their language have not only the disadvantage of being

modern geographical names

for the ancient people and but both are clumsy and inaccurate:-the term 'Judo-German' excludes important languages outside

their language,

the Germanic and the

Indie group such as Greek, Latin and the term etc., Indo-European excludes the important languages of the Iranian group and such other languages as the Armenian and the Tokhariau etc., and certainly neither of the terms can with any cogency of reason apply

people who took ihier language from one country to another. The term 'Viros' suggested by Prof. Giles as the name of these people, is not so happy as the

to the original

term Arya.

not accurate either, for in the Aryan mother-tongue, the terra 'Viras' only signified a man* or 'a hero and was never used as a designation of the people It is

4

9

,

as a whole, as perhaps the term Arya was 6 Now the question of the home of the Aryas bristles with enormous difficulties and still awaits a right solution. .

The

fact is that the ancient

world have

left

some

Aryas

as*

they went round the

traces of migration,

chiefly

their

language and other marks of culture, behind them both iu the East and in the West, and we have to trace their original home on the basis afs their language and marks of civilization iu different countries, which is by no means an easy task. The migration of the Aryas ia different a railway-trfuti running on the rail-road from one end of the world to the other. The railroad countries

is

like


may and

still it is

be there but the railway train has already run left to the ingeneous surveyors of the an-

now

world to trace which way the train has run, from the east to the west or from the west to the

cient history of the

The bond

of ancient Aryan-language and its culture between the east arid the west is now discoverved but the

east.

speakers of the ancient Aryan language have already finished the course of their journey, ages ago, and are now settled in their homes both in the east and in the west

with whatever

relics

of the ancient

Aryan heritage

of

language and culture they may happen to possess at this and we are curious to learn which way they date;

Thus the deception in locating the home of the Aryas arises from the fact that each of the originally

started!

Aryan-speaking countries possesses its own heirloom of the ancient heritage of the Aryan language and culture, and from this it is not easy to discover which of these

honour of being the original home of

countries has the

the

Aryan ancestors before

they

separated themselves in distant parts of the world. the ancient Aryas originally Europeans and the

Were

the

joint-family

European

of

invaders

of

India"

as

some

of the

"first

notable

English writers would state with a sense of pride and Or, if they were Europeans were they self-glorification? originally

Germans,

the patriotic German scholars as some or non-Germans believe, as

would like us to French writers out of their dislike for Germans would attempt to prove? Or again were .the ancient Aryas people

belonging to Babylonia, as the believers in the Hebrew tradition of the migration of the

of the East, originally

family

of

Japhet

from the plains of

Shinar would

assume, or did they belong to Persia or to Central Asia as some a priori arguments based on imagination would lead some writers to believe, or even to India as the Brafcmanical tradition in the Manu-Samhita dictates to us?


8 of the leading questions and most fascinating aspects of this important problem in the ancients history of the world. Unfortunately, the element of national

iMiese are

some

owning the great Aryas as our kith and kin and expropriating them from adversary or the people whom pride in

we happen

to govern,

the truth.

It

may own

has obscured our right vision pf be that the ancient Aryas may belong

country, but he in order to prove it, must not be actuated by any patriotic or political motives

to the writer's

as has been the case even with eminent

writers in India

and abroad that only adds to our difficulty in arriving at the right solution of the problem. Our real difficulty however is that for the present, the evidence at our disposal is so scanty and uncertain" that we find that even the best scholars are hopelessly divided on the subject and the

home of theAryas has been shifted by them according to their own whims and caprices, from time to time, from one end of the world to the other and fixed in different countries,

now far

in Asia,

away

now

in

Europe and now

in the Arctic regions

to the North at the top of the world*

In this conflict of opinion regarding the home of the Aryas the right course for us would be not to hazard

any a

priori conclusion based

some

on imagination

as has

been

For example, it is held, that the path of the Aryan migration must be the path of the Sun from the east to the west, EX ORIENTE LUX.; or

the case with

writers.

that the energetic ancient Aryan race could be no other than the energetic European race whioh, as in the present so in the past, had conquered the lethargic East, with this difference, we would suggest, that the present again,

.

European conquers the East for purposes of exploitation for the West and finally returns to Europe while the ancient left his home in Europe for good, conquered the East, settled down in Persia and India and made these 'countries his own home.

European Arya


9

"We on oar part have no wish to indulge in sentiment and we wish to confine ourselves to facts only. In 'our

the

enquiry therefore we shall start from the known to shall make an attempt to trace back the

unknown and

Aryas, from the separated Aryan-speaking people as known to us in different countries, to the undivided Aryan stock, that will

lead us to think of the world as far back as 3000

B.C. at least; for tentative dates have been suggested for the various Aryan-speaking nations as they may have first

India at B.C.

different countries which they now For example, tne Vedio Aryas, if they invaded all are supposed to have invaded it at about 1500 The Kassite Aryas in Babylonia are found in

occupied the

inhabit.

(?)

1760 B.

Bogus Keui and the Tel-el-amarna Aryas Mesopotamia in 1400 B.O., the Aryan people called the Mandas are said to have been in possession of western 0.,

the

in

Persia in 2,500 B.C., the Zoroastrian Aryas may be noted in Iran about 1200 B.C. according to one calculation and 600

B.C. according to another, the Hellenic Aryas in Greece in 1100 B.C. or still earlier, and the Latin Aryas in Rome in 900 B. C.

Now, giving an allowance of another 500 years first Aryan occupation of Persia in 2,500 B. C. to the days of their earliest march from their

from the date of the undivided Home,

we may

B. C. as the lowest limit,

arrive at a date, say about

when

the Aryas were

still

3000

united

geographically and

linguistically and were not yet divided as Indians, Greeks, Romans, Persians etc. At some

such hypothetical date as this, the condition of the world was that there was no Sanskrit -or Zend or Greek or Latin but there was the one homogeneous Aryan

language limited to a definitely

circumscribed area, with

minor dialectical variations, which as lime went on and as foreign elements came in composition with it grew its

into different languages in different countries. Thus the chief evidence that gives us an clue to the

home

of the

Aryas

at

such

important

an early date as


10 aay 3000 B* 0., is furnished by the comparative study of the Aryan languages which we happen to possess such as the Vedic, Zend, Greek or Latin etc., leading up to the reconstruction of the hypothetical Aryan mother-tongue that the undivided Aryas must have spoken. Unfortuthe methods of reconstruction of the Aryan nately,

mother-tongue as employed by modern philologists are 7 faulty and this has in our opinion made further complicathe

tions in

solution of the

problem of the home of the

However, the evidence of the comparative

study Aryas. the Aryan languages is our main support and with all its defect* is of considerable help to us in the solution of of

The evidence supplied by the comparative Aryan languages -their accent; and semantics, supported by the study phonetics, syntax of the comparative mythology, religion and literature of our problem.

study of the history of the

the

receives

Aryan-speaking nations,

determining the

home

sources as well, such

as,

of the

Aryas

further

aid

in

from several other

prehistoric archaeology, anthro-

pology, oraniology, botany and geology.

The geological evidence

is

conditions of the world

climatic

useful as

it tells

and points out

us of the

to us

the

of land and sea during the course of so on the earth; it helps us in determining milleniums many the right course of the migration of the Aryas from one

transfiguration

country to another, and in settling their original home in such favourable topographical and climatic conditions of the are revealed to us in their language and literaseveral thousand years ago. But in this connectioq.

world as ture

we would

like to point out that the

fact, of

problem of the home of

not the problem of geology or as a matter of they botany or craniology or anthropology

the Aryas

is

the problem of the primitive home of in our opinion the problem of the primitive

are mere aids to

the Aryas,

is

Aryan language

it,

in relation to race, country

and

historical


11 traditions traced back to prehistoric times in

an unbroken

continuity. It is the problem of the language that was spoken by a distinct set of people living under distinct

geographical conditions, a language which on the one hand, could account for the evolution of different Aryan

languages in different countries, and on the other hand, could be shown as placidly flowing in a continuous stream

from prehistoric times to the present day, thus pointing to the geographical continuum as the ancient home of the Aryas and their land of diffusion

to

different

countries.

Thus we can not like Dr. Das ofthe Calcutta University, and Mr. Pavgee of Mahara^tra who press geology to the services of the Veda in defence of their theory of the indie origin of the Aryas,

make

much of geology nor can we agree with

too

of this essentially linguistic problem; Tilak and De Morgan who place the Aryas on the North

Pole and Siberia on grounds of geology or the geological We know, that the concluinterpretation of the Veda.

Geology regarding the early stratification of land and the eras and the epochs in which the formation of Earth not yet firmly established-which is divided and their dates some of the writers on the home of are so often quoted by sions of

the Aryas do not concern us at

Indeed, for purposes take the Aryas back, as some writers do, to such an ancient geological past as ten or twenty or thirty thousand years B. 0., for all the of our present enquiry

all.

we can not

facts that are able to explain the growth of various

Aryan

languages in different countries from the original stock, can well be supposed to have taken place at a comparatively far later date: they can not certainly be linked together with such an ancient above.

geological

Now, the botanical and the

zoological

of the various parts of the world are

they can be compared with the

past

flora

as

noted

conditions

worth studying as and fauna known


12 to the Aryas, as

reflected in

their

language.

argument on the home of the Aryas based on the

But the and

flora

fauna of a country has serious limitations. We know human beings, trees and animals have also their

that like

migratory character, and the names of the trees and the animals found at the original home may be transferred by the migrating Aryas to the new types of trees and ani8 mals on some basis of similarity, in their new homes; and ,

it is quite probable that the migrating Aryas may even forget altogether, the old names for trees and animals

which are no longer found Again, the absence of in the various

object

in their new place of residence. common names for common objects,

Aryan languages does not prove that the

was unknown

to

the

undivided Aryas*,

for

the

Aryan mother-tongue may be known by names more than one; each name being separately retainobject in the

ed by the separated sections of the migrating Aryas.

Thus in view

of the above limitations in

the

argu-

ment

in hand, Benfey's argument adopted by Q-eiger followed by other writers that Asia can not be the

and origi-

home of the Aryas for the Aryan languages have no common names for such Asiatic animals as the elephant, camel, lion and tiger loses much of its force; and the old nal

argument repeated by Giles in the latest edition of the that since the Indo-EuroCambridge History of India pean languages do not possess vocables representing the Indian flora and fauna, India therefore can not be original

home

of the Aryas;

and the negative portion

the of

Jarl Carpenter's argument for the home of the Ayras in Central Asia on the basis of absence of common names in

the

different

Aryan languages for fruit-treee and and salt can not seriously be maintained, nor vegetables can the beech-argument so cleverly suggested by Sohra<for and others, and later writers vigorously adopted by believed in the European

home

of the Aryas originally


13 confined

the

'to

beech-zone

of

meet

Europe,

our

Not the possession of isolated names of acceptance. the different things, by Aryan-speaking nations, nor the absence of such isolated names in the different Aryan languages can furnish us with a clue to the home of the Aryas, but a whole collection of the names of trees and animals and

other

objects,

commonly

stored

by many

Aryan-speaking nations in their memories, with the support of other important evidence in the same direction can spot out for us the original certainty.

We

shall

home

of the Aryas with a tolerable

therefore, as

we

deal

with

other

evidences, turn only to the positive cumulative evidence of the names of the flora and fauna known tD the Aryas in their original home.

Let us

now weigh

the evidence supplied by anthrotakes pology. Anthropology up the study of the history of man and his culture from his first appearance on earth

and divides the human population of the earth into various types of races such as the Aryan, the Semitic, the Mongolian, or the Nordics, the Alpines, the Mediterraneans etc

and divides various stages of culture of man on earth into the palaeolothic, neolothic, pastoral, nomadic and

No doubt, agricultural stages and the others that follow. of our us in the use to is of study problem anthropology home and culture anthropology we are able

Aryas as with the deduce certain import-

of the ancient

of the

aid of

to

ant conclusions regarding the ancient language, but we have to point out again that in no case is the problem of the

home

of the Aryas the problem of anthropology or ethno-metrics as some writers seem to have argued, for

race and language as they migrate do nob always go to-* gether. Ultimately, no doubt, when we study the origins,

we

hold,

we must assume

a

particular type of race assotype of language, but since no

ciated with a particular ancient type of race owing

to

intermixture

of

blood,


a*m**d

this

to

in

day

all

ia different since difibreot people

physical

of the conditions similar to each racial of typa ia

reprewmt a similarity oould indicate the are left with no sore test that

]

with the primitive Afjft* Ittgftftge, Atyan type connected branch of Anthropology* which m*lr<* Oraniology, a study of the

human

skull

and divides

man

into aaoh

dams

as short-headed of long-headed races, brachy^wphtiie or according to the cephalic iackfe wkidh a

dolico-cephalic,

man

by no means a sure guide to Ufat fciti* the cephalic index-test of a maa't ttmt ^ftte

represents,

direction, for

is

of blood of etihtf woe*, owing to the profuse inter-mixture in noted a* 0*erdivision can not be regarded as cerfcain-the

"lapping

and we do not know what the original Aryan type

was like. Thus Penka's argument that the Aryas, who migrated over the whole world- who must have been full of energy, tall

and

fair

people-were of Scandinavian origin, for the

Scandinavians represent the energetic, tall, and fair type of race to this date; and Posohe's argument that the tall

and

fair

Aryas must originally have come from Germany

for the (Germans fully represent a tall dolico-oephalio type

of race which

the Aryas

must have possessed, are both

based on supposition only, for the original Aryan type of race is never known to us beyond certain points- that may

be inferred from the ancient writings of the Aryas such 10 as the Veda but which may be points of contrart only between the two alien races; and both the ,

arguments

adopted as

they are

by

later

writers are futile, for the

G-ermans and the Scandinavians or as a matter of fact the inhabitants of Northern

Europe are not the only fall, tto* and long-headed people on the surface of this Earth 1 1 and ,

tke Europeans are not the only people, as is wsongiy SugWindersmidt and other European gested by who writeifj

enough

vitality to

migrate to dittant


immemorial their colonies

xn

dis^iliias^ Let us finally estimate tb* value

of the evidence in prehistoric archaeology settling the home

supplied by of the Aryas*

Archaeology no doubt is a sure help and Ancient objects of use such as pottery

guide to philology.

and weapons and other important historical documents lying briried in the" ground on layers of different depth, as they are got out of the bowels of the earth and tools

brought to

light, reveal to the trained

eye of the archaeo*

which the world has the course of undergone during many miHeniums. Such ancient finds as an eastern object on the western soil and

strata of civilization logist different

a western object lying buried in the East may supply us with a clue to the ancient history of migration of people from one part of the world to another. Indeed the history of the ancient world has to be re- written in the light of the numerous archaeological finds recently discovered in

Mesopotamia, Turkistan and at

M oh enjo Daro

or other

Our problem may wait for a final word on grounds of Archaeology; till Archaeoin the Near East and India, which are excavations logical in their initial stages, are made complete and the evidence

places in India. to be said on it

thus collected

is

carefully studied.

In the meantime, let it suffice to say that our main support in our enquiry into the home of the Aryas, is language and incidents relating to language only. other evidences fail, the evidence of language

all

by

us.

In the absence and decay of

monuments that eould

relate to

all

When stands

the

physical us the history of the

of to-day we have the living monument that language that lives with us as we live and changes in itsu form antf meaning as we change in our

ancient Aryas their


16

which changes retains its constancy of character, its genius never dies, which serves as a continued thread that leads us out of the labyrinth of ages of change to the primitive unity of language which, as we know, the undivided Aryas

must have possessed

in

their

common

land.

soon find that the primitive language gives

We

shall

us a clue to

the primitive home of the Aryas But before we proceed with

.

we

our line of argument would like to give a brief historical sketch of the

theories of the

Aryas that have been advanced in the time, and some of which are still

home

of the

from time to field, and try to refute them

all, if

we

can.

Previous to the evidence supplied by the comparative study of the 'Indo-European languages, the popular belief 7

Europe was that Hebrew was the primitive language mankind and that the diversity of human speech dated from the confusion of tongues at Babel. 19 * But with the discovery of the Sanskrit language by the West which

in

of all

unity of most of the belief in the Hebrew

led to the discovery of the original

Indo-European languages, that origin of languages had to be abandoned: thus the Aryan language that had made its conquests both in the East and

West came

to be recognized

the mother-tongue of the various Indo-European languages, and the original speakers of the Aryan language namely the Aryas were

the

as

held to have been people of the East who had migrated to Europe, till Latham in 1851, for the first time, disputed the Asiatic origin of the Aryas

and struck out the theory of

European home. It was first believed that the Aryas had originally come from the banks of tjie Saraswati but that belief was their

given up in favour of the Iranian legend dealing with the home of the Aryas in the first Chapter of the Vendidad, which in the opinion of some writers, pointed to Bactria or the valley between the Oxus and the Jaxartes as the true cradle of the Indo-European or Aryan race; .Rhode, .

,


17

Pott and Lassen were the chief adherents

of this theory.

favour of the original home of the Aryas in Central Asia as a central plaoe from which the Aryas could be supposed to have migrated to all countries;

Piotet too argued in

it

being pointed out that since Zend

and Sanskrit were

compared with the European languages such as Greek and Latin, that since the Asiatic languages deviated less from the Aryan mother-tongue than the sister-European languages and conformed more

more archaic

in character as

with the original standard, the speakers of the Asiatic languages must be regarded as situated round the regions where the original standard language or the Aryan mother it was tongue was spoken, for the greater was the distance, the was the change in language; and there-

greater argued, fore the speakers of the Aryan the Aryas, must have originally

mother-tongue,

namely,

come from Central

Asia.

the Aryas in the placed the home of and some writers valley of the Tigris and the Euphrates, the Aryan between went so far as to trace relationship

Mommsen

however,

and the Semitic speech. Monier Williams placed the Aryas on the table-land of Pamir, the roof of the world. of the MaxMuller, who had lived long to see the theory never gave his home of the Aryas flourish,

European

he stuck fast support to it and to the last days of his life, to the belief that the original home of the Aryas must be found "somewhere in Asia".

But the theory of the European home of the Aryas had gradually been gaining in strength during the latter half of the last century, and it had made many notable converts to it such as Sayoe and others. Soon after

Latham had advanced

his

"European theory", Benfey

by pointing out that common designations and Aryan languages in Europe for European trees and and bear and beech wolf, animals such as birch and absence of common names in the Asiatic group of Aryan supported

in the

it


18 languages for Asiatic animals-such as lion and tiger and camel, go to prove the European home of the Aryas. He put the home of the Aryas in the region north of the Black Sea. Geiger followed Benfey's line of

out that since the undivided for

wood and snow, they had

argument and pointed Aryas had common names

originally

come from north

Posohe appealed to Europe, somewhere in Germany. and that since the tall, blue-eyed, anthropology suggested fair-skinned Germans with dolicho-cephalio skulls were the only genuine Aryas by blood, the Aryas had originated in the great Rokitno Swamp in Germany.

Penka on the other hand, argued that the Scandinavians were the only ethnic representatives of the ancient Aryas who should therefore be located round the forest-valleys of Sweden and Norway. In defence of the European home of the Aryas it was pointed out that ethnically-speaking, there was no trace of an invasion of foreign Aryan blood in Europe,

modern European ethnic type could be traced back neolithic age in Europe and that man was found to exist in Europe from the earliest Thus it was argued that the post-glacial period. for a

to its ancestral type in the

ancient

Aryas were autochtonous people in Europe. Attempts were made to spot the geographical area in Europe which could best correspond with the conditions of

life in

the undivided

home

Schrader was more inclined

of the ancient .to

Aryas. Thus Aryas on the

put the and Grierson followed

steppes in South Russia, in Europe, Schrader.

Now, Giles locates the ancient Aryas round we now call Hungary, Austria and Bohemia and Bender confines them in the plains of Cent-

the tract which

ral

and

South-Eastern

Europe

the

present Poland, Lithuania, Ukraine and Russia, south and west of the Volga, the ancient habitat of the Lithuanian stock of

people whom Bender regards as the lineal descedante of the ancient Aryas. De Morgan on geological grounds


19

Aryas in Siberia and Tilak, too, leads them to the North Pole. Ohilde on grounds of archaeology is unable Keith to choose between South-Russia and Scandinavia;

locates the

like old

Whitney appears

waver and seems

to

to cast a

longing glance on Central Asia. Jarl Carpenter of Upeala has taken a definite turn against the current views and has fixed his' eyes again on Central Asia. Meyer on archaeological grounds would place the original home of the Aryas somewhere between Syria and India, probably the plateau of Iraq. Such is the present situation

regarding our problem the home of the Aryas is being oscillated between the two poles on the globe of this earth.

Indeed the problem still presents itself as a stumbling block that has baffled the atttmpts of many a scholar at its right solution. Our task therefore is by no means an easy one. Before we set ourselves to cut this tangle in our humble way, we ought to prove that most of the

arguments in defence of the 'Asiatic' or the 'European' home of the Aryas, that we have heard so far, are indeed shadowy and far from being convincing.

We

the outset dispose of Tilak's argument Tilak has pressed his of the arctic home of the Aryas. the later meaning in certain passages of the Veda and of the to Dawn, long Sanskrit literature, relating pairs l.a.

must

at

in his opinion, indinights and the solar solstices, which cated the Aurora Borealis and other allied phenomena of of the the arctic regions to prove the arctic home mere knowledge of the Aryas. Now in the first place, arctic

phenomena on the part

could be

gathered

from a

home

of the Vedic people,

variety

of sources

which

could not

been in the arctic regions, seem to indicate such a not do secondly, the Vedio passages of meaning as Tilak would suggest, for the natural meaning have not need we that distinct and is so clear the

prove their original

to have

passages recourse to a forced interpretation of our meaning in them. This theory therefore need not detain us longer.


1 .b.

De Morgan's hypothesis

of Siberia as the original

home

of the Aryas too, lacks support of proper evidence. Geological reasons advanced in support of the theory may

with equal force apply to any other ancient cold regions in the world such as the Himalayas. De Morgan's theory is

therefore untenable.

Monier William's theory of the Pamir as the cradle of Aryan race can not meet with the approval of scholars since the Pamir does not suit the conditions of life of 2.

the

the

ancient

Aryas and

highly improbable that a barren and inhospitable region like the Pamir could be the original home of the prolific race. it is

Aryan

3.

Iran

From it

the archaic character of the Avestan language of can not be argued that the highlands of central

Asia were the true cradle of the primitive Aryas, which served as a central place for the Aryas to enter Europe on the one hand and India on the other: For in the first place the Avestan language of Iran does not really represent

most archaic type of the Aryan mother-tongue, the Vedic language being on the whole more archaic in character than the Avestan14 ; and, secondly, the migration of a people need not begin at a central it might, geogplace, the

raphical conditions permitting, like several other migrations in history, begin at any part of the world.

We

therefore, do not see any cogency in the remarks of Sir Richard Temple who while reviewing lectures

Carpenter's seeks for a central place as the original home of the Indo16 Europeans. Thus he observes :-" I have always felt that

the only safe assumption for the Aryan migration into India and Europe was that thoy must have started from Central Asia, east of the Caspian. With that assumption as a base, the argument is straight-forward and

compara-

With the assumption that the original moving Iribes came from somewhere in Europe ever tively

from

easy.

South Russia

the argument is obscure and difficult 1


w*

shall see,

argument

is

though on different grounds, that the easier if we posit the Aryas in the

still

Himalayas. 4.

Again, the Baotrian

home

since

to

maintained,

allusion

of the Aryas oan not be if any, in the Vendi-

it

dad of the Parsees might indicate a secondary home and not the original and primitive home of the Aryas. Likewise Tokharistan in Asiatic Turkistan, which possesses the Tokharian language of the Centum group can not be the

home

18

suggested by Keith. For Tokharistan might furnish a base for differentiation of the Centum and the Satem group of languages, but from this original

it

does

of the Aryas as

not follow that

it

is

was

also the

primary home of

the Aryas. Professor Carpenter makes a comparative stu17 dy of the common vocables in the Aryan languages and arrives at a conclusion that the fathers

of the Indo-Euro-

peans who were nomads were the near neighbours of the mode Mongolians, ETuns eto.-tribes who led the same nomadic of life as the Aryas; and that no part of Asia could satisfy the conditions of their home 'except the regions to the east of

the Caspian sea which are generally called central Asia, with the neighbouring plains of Turkistan where formerly conditions of living were far easier than nowadays'. Professor Carpenter argues that the fathers of the Indolived in a mountainous country with a tempe-

Europeans

rate climate but they did

not

know

the use of shell-fish.

They used the horse for riding nd knew of the bird^, of fruit^ willow, and fir among trees, but had no knowledge had no and trees and vegetables. They could crush eorn This was because they probably Jived chiefly on meat and milk and thus led a nomadic

acquaintance with

salt.

dressed being no agriculturists. They seem to have in skin* mid woollen stuffs only and those they got from tOifeata On the basis of facts such as these, Prof. Carpen}ife,

9

.

ter conclude* that tbe original

home

of the Aiyas was in


22 Cfcatral Asia.

very well

fit

and there

is

Bat the conditions of

in with the conditions of

no

sp3oial reason

why

noted above can

life

be chosen as the cradle-land of the Aryas

Aryan

cradle-land

'jhasha'~as the

languages go

must

common

the Himalayas

life in

Central

Asia should

18

Besides, the

.

contain lakes and fishes

{

mira? and

vocables in various Indo-European

to prove, both of

which Professor Carpenter Certainly, the Aryas could

finds missing in Central Asia not be supposed to be the ancient neighbours of the Asiatic hordes of people such as the Mongols or the Huns

for the

Aryan language

totally differs

from the language

betrays no indication of its being a neighbour to them, and further it is wrong to suppose themselves 19 .that the undivided Aryas were nomads of these people

and

.

Carpenter tells us that the Aryas could crush corn, but where did they get the corn to crush, if they were not agriculturists and were nomads only. Mr. Carpen-

Prof.

argument that the Aryas left their common country in Central Asia, under the pressure of the Mongols, may ter's

apply to the secondary dispersion of the Aryas who may have their original home in the Himalayas the primary seat of their dispersion

round the world.

Thus on the

above grounds no tract of country in Central Asia can be supposed to be the original home of the Aryas. Central Asia may be a halting-place of the Aryas on their

march

to distant countries but not their primary

home*

4a Meyer's argument that 'as Indian civilization must date at least from 1500 B.C. and as at about that time, the

Indo-Europeans are

sculptures

in

Syria,

the

in

the

home

of

depicted original

Egyption the

Indo-

Europeans might have been somewhere between Syria and India, probably in the plateau of Iraq,' 19* is based <m

A

false premise that the Indian civilization originated in India in 1500 B.C. For the Indian civilization might

be of a

still

earlier

date

19b

as is

borne out by the


Sindh valley 8000 B.C. 1Q

civilization ;

spreading

which itself

dated

approximately

'to Iraq

and Syria and

is

on

further west. 4b.

The argument

the basis

for the Babylonian home of the Aryas on of identity of certain Semitic and Aryan words

can not stand. For the few Semitic words in the Aryan languages may be purely accidental resemblances, or loan-

words due to trade-connections from ancient times, or words as were picked up by the Aryas during the period

A

of their sojourn in later times in the land of Babylon. few resemblances of words and roots do not prove any close

and permanent contiguity of the Aryas in the land of Semites* For the grammatical structures of the Aryan and the

Semitic languages fundamentally differ from each The mingling of the Aryan decimal system and

other.

the Babylonian duo-decimal system of numerals the result of trade connections between the two

may

be

nations*

a close communication between the two people may also be inferred from their mutual borrowings of religious names and ideas, as Tilak has shewn80 The common .

of the legend of the Deluge

possession

by the Aryan and

the Semitic people does not prove the home of the Aryas in the Semitic land, for the legend may be a borrowing on the part of the Semitics -like several other religious

names and

ideas 20 from the Aryas ,

who

are

known

to

history as having reached the Semitic country during the Thus it is course of their expansion round the world81 is comthat futile to argue that the legend of the Deluge .

mon among in

the Indo-Aryas, the [ranians and the Semitic a Semitic origin and that the Aryas who

of

people possessed the Semitic legend must have come from the land of Semites. It is difficult to understand why the

legend of the deluge should be traced to Semitic origin onlywas the ancient world outside the range of the Semitic will be pointed people free from such oaatclyms? But it


24 <mt that

we have a definite record of Noah's deluge in the Semitic literature. have to point out in reply thai we have an ancient and defiaite record of the equally deluge of snow and excessive winter in the second book of the Vendidad of the Iranians and also an e^ully definite record of the deluge of waters in the ancient literature of the Indo-Aryas such as the Satapatha Brahmana, and later works such as the Mahabharat* and the Bhagvata Purana. There is nothing to prove that the deluge in the Satapatha Brahmana is a borrowing of the account of

We

Noah's deluge, it 11 may just be the reverse, and Manu's deluge may have given birth to Noah's deluge as the Aryas migrated from India to Semitic lands of which we have now ample records. It is difficult to explain the

origin of the deluge of assumption of Noah's

snow

in the

Vendidad on the

deluge of waters as its source, and no theory of can be accepted unless it explains all deluge the three narrations taken together, -the Indian, the Iranian and the Semitic. We shall trace the origin of the deluge in connection with the proofs of the Indian home we prooeal now discuss the argument based on distinction between the Centum and the

We

of the Aryas, as

Satem languages.

On the basis of distinction between the Centum and the Satem languages as the representatives of the European 6.

au<J the Asiatic

of the Aryas

is

languages of the Aryan family, the home sought to be fixed somewhere on the border-

land between Asia and 1** on Europe say in South Russia the side of Europe. But the theory has received a rude -rfiQck by the discovery of the TokharUn language ip Asiatic

Turkiatan,

pronunciation.

It

representing the

would be

idle

to

Centum form suppose that

of

the

Tokhariana were some late immigrants from Europe to for th^e is jio proof of such l*te immgr&ion to Turkistan and the Tokhariana are known to us on the

^


the

authority of

Mahabharata as a more ancient and

the East than the late migration from would make them to be wb Nor can the original Europe home of the Centum-speaking people round Tokharistan settled people

of

be considered as the original home of the indo-Europeans as is held by Feist and Meyer and supported by Keith,

who on

treatment of gutturals and the 'retention' of the vowels e and o besides a, in the Tokharian the

of the

basis

language considers

reasonable to

it

suppose that the

'Indo-European home lay in the source of the later for

the simple

the plateau of Central Asia, Mongolian invaders of the West';

reason,

that

the

Centum-speech might be of a result of the

influence of

upon the non-Aryan

characteristics of

later

growth only

the as a

the

foreign Aryan language substratum in Central Asia and not

at all belong to the early 'Indo-European' mother-tongue 23 which might have its home else-where in the neighbour-

hood of Tokharistan (say, at some distance in the Himalayas) which in Indian literature and history is known to us as connected with India from ancient times.

The

and the Iranian marks of languages traced on the Indian Dardio languages and the Ghalchah languages of the Pamirs do not necessarily point to the first Aryan invasion in India from outside, as Grieraon has wrongly emphasised,

which

'Proto-Iranian'

Grierson

has

but they may be explained as the result of later closer communications 23* between the Northern-Himalaya people

and the Iranians or the

'Proto-Iranians', as Grierson calls

point that the Man d as in Media were later Aryan immigrants to India has nothing to support it and the argument may well be reversed as we shall see

them.

later

Grierson's

on.

Again Grierson'a argument that the archaic the Vedio as compared with the Iranian

character of

in India language is the result of the isolation of Aryas a strange population the rate of development in


26

India being slower than in Persia, is faulty, since it is based on comparison of the two non-contemporaneous languages, and does not take into account the influences of alien speech-habits on the

Aryan tongue. The Isolation of

Vedic Aryas in India amid strange people is again a supposition of scholars meant to square with the supposed the

fact of

an Aryan home outside India.

We

shall fully criti-

argument elsewhere in the sequel of this paper. Thus Central Asia might be the secondary home of the Aryas the birth place of the characterisation of the Centum languages which were carried to Europe; but their primary cize the

home may be

situated outside

Hence wo

layas.

Hima-

Central Asia, in the

the Asiatic

find nothing left to support

origin of the Aryas, outside India. 6.

to

We

now

refute the argument, that since

have inhabited Europe from the

whose language

is

man

is

known

earliest times, the

Aryas

Europe did not come from their origin in Europe; for, wo

spoken in

outside Europe, but had hold, that man may have been an inhabitant of

Europe from

the earliest times yet there is no proof that the first man in Europe was the Arya who spoke the Aryan language.

Thus the ethnic continuity of race in Europe from ancient times is no proof that the first man in Europe was an Arya. Indeed the question is, What is an Arya? The racial type of the primitive Arya is never known to us; the primitive Aryan type may have resembled any of the European types of race

and yet

may have flourished outside Europe under physical

conditions similar to those of Europe Himalayas in India which have also their

say in the snowy tall

and

fair

24

people racial the of the as Europe has. Again, type Aryas which invaded Europe in comparatively small numbers

might have absorbed itself into the numerically dominating type of the European races. The gypsies who wandered all their way from India to Europe are a notable example of the depigmentation of colour and other ethnic


87 characteristics in Asia

and Europe.

The

racial

affinity

between the northern Indians, the Persians and the Europeans and their gradual shading in colour and other typical due to change in climate and occupation, well be explained by starting the Aryas from may equally India to Europe instead of starting them from Europe to characteristics

India; the ethnic continuity of the Aryan race in northern India being traceable to the earliest times known to us 2 * 1

.

7.

The argument

of the

European home of the Aryas

based on similarity between the Aryan and the Finnic languages can not be held, since the borrowing of words on the part of the Finnic languages may belong to a later date

when

the Aryas had migrated into the land

of

the Finns, and need not point to the original home of the Aryas in Finland, the morphological similarity between the

two languages being of no consequence since in cases of distant languages as a result of

unity 8.

24b

occur

may

man's psychic

.

The claims

race on the basis

may

it

of Lithuania as

of

the

the cradle of the

archaic

character of

25 easily be set aside for Slavonic

is

even

Aryan

Slavonic

less

archaic

Avestan which, in its turn, is less archaic than the Vedio language which 'conforms most with in character than the

Thus the archaic character may follow from a still more archaic character of the Vedic language that was

the

Aryan mother-tongue.

of the Slavonic and the Avestan

in close touch with and proximity to the original home of the Aryas, as a result of free communication between

Russia and the North of

and

on the one hand, Persia and the North-west of India on the other. India

Now the

strongest argument that is brought forward in favour of the European origin of the Aryas, which 9.

must now

be "

discredited,

is

"

that

of

common

voca-

and Indo-European languages But the animals and other objects found in Europe. is on based the for false Argument birch, the premises bles

in

the

for trees


28 bear, the wolf the

names

of

1

which occur in 'Indo-European

languages, are found not only in Europe but in India too, as in the Himalayas. Indeed we do not know of a single or animal that is entirely European in object tree origin having a common of the East and the West. its

name Of

in the

Aryan languages

the

beech-argument

late,

much

advertised by the promoters of the European But the term for of the home of the Aryas. theory 'beech' might have been coined by the Aryan settlers in

is

Europe only where the

name beech may be derived from 'Bak'. If we compare the variants in various

Fagus

Or

tree grew.

in Back-mast,

Buohha

for the as

term

Phegos

also

'beech*

in

in Teutonic (OHQ-.) and

English, and

in

European term

Indo- Aryan

the

European languages such

in Latin,

the

Greek,

Buck

as

compare Buk in a common radical

we might arrivo at 'Bak' as sound for all these words. Only in conformity with Grimm's law 'Bak must transform itself into Bhak before it can pass into Phagus in Greek and Fagus in Latin, like the term Dvftra which must" assume the form Dhvfcra before it can give birth to Latin fores. But it is a

Persian,

?

mistake to suppose that the aspirated form must be the original Aryan word, for aspiration in such cases as this

be the result of alien speech-habits on non-aspirate sounds in their transmission from India to foreign lands ***. Thus the radical Bak like Dvara, in our opinion, may be

may

the original sound which in Sanskrit may be detected in the term Bakula the name of a famous Indian tree (and

a drug), which is reported to grow also on the northwestern Himalayas26 It is quite possible that the term .

'Bak' as

it

travelled

from India abroad was employed for

different purposes as a general

and a particular name like the Indian radical

for

name

for

wood

in

Persia

oak in Greek and beech in Latin

'Dru', a general

name

for

wood

or tree, in Sanskrit Deva Daru or Drama, which in its migratory course was restricted in its meaning to fir in


29 Lithuanian and oak in Greek and Celtic. Generalization

aad specialization of meanings of words

may

indeed take

any migration people, and the uniformity in the form of a word among many people does not indicate the uniformity of the meaning as well. 17 Again the uniformity of the meaning of a word among some groups of people, can not lead us to conclude that the meaning of the word was also known to another place independent of

of

group of people who preserved the uniformity of the form only, for the word might originally be a generic term having for its meaning many varieties of the same class, for each or any variety of which the term might be specialized

in

different

countries

in

different times*

Thus the term 'beech' which signifies 'beech' in Latin and several teutonic languages and signifies not beech Greek and elm or alder in East-European languages, can not prove that the ancient Aryas had We have come from the beech-regions of Europe. but oak

in

.

already traced the stem 'beech* to

which

archetype 'bhak* or gave us bakula It is

its

in Sanskrit,

generic 'bak', remarkable that the Indian bakula (Hindi Maulsiri) bears !

the case with the European beech, oak and the sweet chestnut trees denoted by the relative stem in edible nuts as

is

the various Germanic languages, and in Latin and Greek.

The Lithuanian stem is said to mean both beech bearing an edible nut and 'alder' (Persia Buk). The bakula in India denoted a tree with edible nuts, in

does

the stem beech

bak

to

later

The beech-argument therefore on which much stress is laid by the advocates of the European

India abroad so

so

migrations Europe. May not the stem which gave us our bakula have migrated from

its

home

of the

!

Aryas has

little to

attract us.

Again the absence of common names in the IndoEuropean languages for such Asiatic animals as the lion the tiger and the camel, can not prove the European


80 origin of the Aryas, for the names of such animals as are peculiar to the East might easily be forgotten by the people in the "West where those animals were not

found or

it is

synonyms*

8

very probable, that there

for

the same

object in

may

the

be several

Aryan mother-

one tribe of the Aryas in Asia or India having taken fancy for one name while the other for another. We have already pointed out, that from the the

tongue

common name for fire in the Indo-European such as Greek in Europe and Sanskrit in India, languages none can argue that fire was unknown to the undivided

absence of a

Aryas, or just because Greek skips over the Aryan name no one is going to conclude that sisters were not

for sister,

recognized in the ancient family of the Aryas, or from the absence of a common Aryan name for milk, none can inf3r that milk was unknown to the primitive Aryas.

Thus the fcrgumept that the flora and fauna primitive home of the Aryas must be represented various

up

branches

later at

of

different

the

of

the

in the

Aryan languages that sprang

times

and in different countries

is

futile and we can not base our conclusions on such weak premises as these. It is surprising to note Pro-

fessor

that

Giles arguing in the

the

Aryas

could not be

Cambridge History the

natives

of India

of India, for

Aryan languages do not record names for flora and fauna that are peculiar to India. Professor Giles is an

the

advocate of the European home of the Aryas. He ought to have seen that his argument cuts both ways, for the names of European flora and fauna do not exist in the Asiatic

not

be

either. Really it should understand that the names for trees

Aryan languages

difficult

to

and animals disappear as the trees and the animals themselves disappear. Thus no argument can be drawn from the absence of names of objects in case of the absence of the objects themselves.


31

Arguments based on identity of a few isolated words Aryan languages do not conclusively prove

in different

home

the

the

of

denoted by the

Aryas, for the objects

words may singly be found scattered in different parts of the world. Thus Geiger's point which is given much prominence by later writers, that the common term for

snow

Indo-European languages, and on this his conclusion, that the undivided Aryas must in the

exists

basis,

originally belong to the cold regions of North Europe, is a weak point and a hasty conclusion indeed. For 'snow'

taken singly can not decide the home of the Aryas, as it is not found in one part of the world .only the cold regions

of

in

this

world,

fit

in

North-Europe are not the only cold regions Besides the snow and the winter and the wolf and the bear and the birch and the trees, with which the ancient Aryas are so closely associated exactly with the

the

Himalayas -the abode of 'Hima'

common Indo-European word. Not every land of snow and winter can be the home of the Aryas. Snow coupled with other objects known to the undivided Aryas-the whole of

collection

part

of

the

which can be found only in one compact world, can spot out for us, the original and

home

Aryas provided the evidence is further supported by important linguistic and historical Now if we posit the Aryas in the North- Western proofs. primitive

of

the

Himalayas, we need not have common I. E. words for camel and tiger which are not the denizens of the North-

Western Himalyas. As for the no common Indo-European word, that

it

may

originally

be

known

lion for it

may

to the

which there

is

be pointed out,

Aryan

tribes

by

various names, lion according to some writers itself being traceable to 'Ravant', the roaring one !

The distinction of the Aryan mother-tongue Centum and the Satem groups of languages scholars

to

believe

that the original

home

into

the

led

some

of the Aryas


33

be found in a central place which could account for the growth and spread of the two phonetic types of languages in distant parts of the world. Thus Schrader thought that South-Russia would eminently suit the Grierson echoed Schrader.

purpose.

The

philologist

in

order to explain the origin of the two groups of languages posited an original palatal sound in the Aryan mother-

tongue which in his opinion gave birth to sibilization in

Satem group and the gutturalization in the Centum group. The promoters 'of the European theory took their lead from the who philologist, argued that the distinction was of a later date and might have grown the

after

the

Aryas had

Europe and branched off in divisions the Centum group remaining in Europe and the Satem group carrying itself on to Asia. But the left

two

the Tokharian language in the Asiatic with its Centum of form Turkistan, pronunciation turns the tables against the European hypothesis of the Aryan

discovery

home and home of

of

creates a presumption in favour of the original the Aryas in the east. But that does not make

Tokharistan Tokharistan

the

original

may

be

a

home

of

the

Aryas

either.

seat of differentiation of the

two

phonetic sounds, but as we have already pointed out, this does not prove that it wan also the original home of the on our part do not believe in the theory that Aryas.

We

the sibilization

On

is

a corruption of the original patalal sound. 281

we find it simpler to believe that the Indian sibilant or some sound akin to it was original under the influence of alien speaoh-habits of the Tokhathe

contrary,

rians corrupted

that

into a guttural

form of pronunciation

was carried on by one

set of people to Europe while the other set of people in Asia retained the original like sibilant. This is the simplest explanation that one can ofier to the existence of the

Centum form

of pronunciation in Tokharistan and the explanation becomes all the more


88

we

posit the home of the Aryas with their sound in the Himalayas in India with which Tokharistan was historically connected in ancient times.

'clear to us if

original sibilant

the original sound that gave birth to the Centum form of pronunciation were not a sibilant but an "unknown"

Even

if

parent-form that gave birth to the Satem and the Centum both, the Himalayas midway between the Satem land of the

Veda and the Centum land

of Tokharistan

would

suit

best as the home of the speakers of the Aryan motherin tongue. This exhausts all the important arguments

the European or the Asiatic home of

favour of the Aryas.

Thus we have seen that the chapter of the home of the Aryas in outer-Asia or in Europe is the chapter of a great scientific delusion in the ancient history of mankind. There is not an- iota of proof that the Aryas had their original

We

home

now

shall

as the primitive

in

Europe or

proceed to

home

in Asia outside India.

examine the case of India

of the Aryas

who

in course of ages

sent their colonies round the whole world.

Of

late, several

of the attempts have been made to fix the primitive home to Aryas in India. Reference has already been made

the

geological arguments of Mr. and of Dr. A. C- Dass of Calcutta

Pavgee of Maharastra and their free plttjr of

imagination in setting the home of the Aryas in Iftdia. Mr. Pargiter who settles the primitive Aryas in India

from the most

ancient

times unnecessarily dabblten in

philology and not only brings to discredit the philological evidence in the eyes of the world but also ruins the cause for

which he invokes the

who

Pargiter the Puranas

identifies

the

aid of philology.

ancient

Thus Mr.

"Aila" dynasty of

with the primitive 'Aryas' on grounds of

and etymology excites the laughter of the philologist India in the creates a bias against the origin of Aryas which he so ably pleads on grounds of Indian tradition.


84 is inclined to believe in India as the original of the Aryas, but he offers no proof to support his belief beyond the fallacious argument based on analogy that

Elphinstone

home

all movements in history were from the east to the west. Gurzon a writer on the subject in the journal of the Boyal Asiatic Society, London, argued in favour of the

Indian home of the

but his a priori arguments have not met with the approval of scholars. In conformity with the Indian tradition related by Manu, some writers Aryas,

believed that the ancient

the banks of the

soon revealed a

Aryas had originally come from

Saraswati but

the

study of the Veda

more ancient period of history of north and the north-west of India, and

still

the Aryas in the

Satyavrata Samashrama, a notable writer in Sanskrit, has argued on the authority of the Veda that the original home of the Aryas was round about Afghanistan in the

North- West of India when Suvastu or the modern Swat

was regarded as a sacred place of pilgrimage29 But the Vedas themselves can not be the final authority on .

the

home

singers

of the

the

of

ancient

Veda

Aryas for the home of the

may

not

be the

home

the

of

Aryas who stand behind the Veda. than a hundred years ago, Adelung who is said to be the

More

undivided

father of comparative philology, placed the cradle of the Aryan'race in the valley of Kashmir, 'the garden of the East'.

But in our opinion,

this too

can not be true, for

name suggests, is known to the primitive not as a place of residence but as a lake of Aryan people 80 Thus Kashmir may originally be KashyapaKashyapa

Kashmir, as

its

.

Mira,

the Aryan

term 'Mira' signifying a lake, (note

Haarlam Mira in Holland, Winder-men in England also note English moore) and Kashyapa being an eminent leader of an ancient Indo- Aryan tribe that travelled abroad, across ;

the northern boundary

Caspian sea

is

known to

of India, this day.

after

whose name the


85

Now the

home

own

theory regarding

of the anoient Aryas in India,

some preliminary

before

we

our

discuss

and important objections against a theory such

may

first

be set aside.

The

1.

as this,

objection

that the

Aryan languages

outside

India do not represent names of flora and fauna characteristic of India and therefore India can not be the home of the Aryas has already been set aside on the ground, that the disappearance of the Indian flora and fauna in foreign lands

Aryan languages see

that

Indian as they

the

life

may be

But we

outside India.

objection

is

invalid,

shall presently

reminiscences of

for

found scattered in the

are

outside India.

disappearance of their names in the

the

to

led

Aryan

nations,

from the various Aryan languages objection that there is no common name

culled

The

for the Indian 'lion*

among

the

and the western

eastern

language proves nothing, for as we have already pointed out, there is no common name among the eastern and the western branches of the root branches of the Aryan

language of the ancient Aryas

and

who were

fire- worshippers

and milk even and 'the king may have been known to the ancient

cattle-breeders, for fire

of the forest'

Indo-Aryas

who

;

lived in tribes in the secluded

valleys of

the Himalyan regions, by different names. The argument that since the Avesta and the 2.

Vedio Sanskrit so closely resemble each other, both of which conform with the primitive standard of the Aryan mother-tongue

we

must

seek

for

a

central-place

to India, India, whence the Aryas could migrate can we For based on imagination. very well is account for the close relationship of the Avestan and the

outside

Vedio Sanskrit and their conformity with the primitive standard of the Aryan mother-tongue by locating the a start into Aryas first in India and then giving them into Iran foreign lands by later migration or expansion


36

two

unbroken between the

means of communication

with

In

countries.

fact,

the

stage of the to Iranian is a clear

transitional

sub-Pamir languages from Vedic indication of the

out-flow of the

form the northern Himalayas land 31 for the

foreign

,

Indo-Aryan population neighbouring

to Iran or its

growth of the Aryan

facts of the

by taking the wave of the Aryan people from India abroad, and not vice-versa

languages can

best be explained

as Grierson has suggested.

The argument from the geographical indications since in the Veda the Aryas are found

3.

in the Veda, that

situated mostly in the north and the north-west frontier of India and the northern Punjab, and since in their later

history in the Veda, they are the east and the south of the

known

as migrating

towards

Punjab therefore they came the north-west frontier of India from

through Afghanistan in outside India has no foundation except in our own imagination. "We seem to read our meaning in the Veda when we read

it

with the assumption that the Aryas were foreigners But the assumption is unwarranted.

in the land of the Veda.

We

have assumed what we have actually got to prove a glaring case of petitio principii Moreover, the assumpNo doubt, tion does not explain the facts in the Veda. the Vedic Aryas are most familiar with the north or the I

north-west frontier of India and

but there

is

not the

slightest

,the

northern

indication in the

Punjab,

Veda

to

prove that the Aryas had entered the Punjab through the north-west frontier from outside India. for aught

we know, autochtonous people

They may

be,

in that part of the

country with which they are most familiar and to which they refer most in their works, that is, the northern Panjab, or the north or the north-west frontier of India. 4.

-could

We now

not

<&amely the

take up the argument that the Aryas be the natives of India, for the two races

Aryas and the Dravidians in India could


flourish sicta by aide in the same geographical area from the most ancient times since it is held, that the Dravidians who are now found in the south of India

Hot

:

appear to be earlier immigrants from west or north-west into northern India, who drove away the Austrics or the Mundas the still earlier immigrants from the north-east to India, and

who

themselves

in

their

turn were driven

southwards

We

fry the later Aryan immigrants to north-India; suggest the argument is futile, for the Auatrics who

entered India from the north-east and the

Dravidiana

from the west or the north-west, may have formed a belt round the Aryas in North India who may still be autochtonous to that part of the country and may have into collision with each other in later times when

come

the Aryan expansion began in or outside India. The territory which the Aryas occupied in India may not at all be co-extensive with the territory which the Dravidians or the Kolerians ever possessed. There is nothing to prove that

the

Dravidians or the Kolerians

ever formed an earlier

substratum of population in northern India than the Aryas, But it is pointed out that Dravidian and Kolerian

on the Sanskrit language are now traceable31 and they may be due to the early contact of the Aryas with the Dravidians and the Kolerians. But we suggest that the influences

early contact

may

only begin with the later expansion of

the Aryas from their primitive home in the Himalayas in North India and the Afyas may even in their home have been attacked by these people. Thus the Dravidian or the Kolerian influences on Sanskrit do not preclude the possibility

pointed

of

the

out that

Aryan home there

is

in

India.

Again

the evidence of the

it

is

'Brahui'

language in Baluchistan which is Dravidian in character and which shows the existence of the Dravidian people in ancient

times in Baluchistan.

Dravidians in Baluchistan

It is suggested that the

might have

arrived

from


i Babylon whose earliest civilization, namely the Sumerian, held by some to be essentially Dravidian in character. It is further suggested that the recent "archaeological finds and

round Mohenjo Daru in the Larkana District in Sindh and at Harappa round Montgomery script

discovered

resemble the Sumerian finds and script

discovered

in

Babylon, and since it is held that the Sumerian culture is Dravidian in character, these Sumero-Dravidians must have started from Babylon and entered Siudh via Baluchistan

where 'Brahui' the

relic of the

ancient Dra-

vidian language is still spoken. Now in our opinion all these facts can best be reconciled if we posit the

Dravidians

have lived

where they are known to from the most ancient times, and give them

in

South

a start from the

India

south to reach

Baluchistan

across the

Whatever way the Sindh on their way to Babylon. Dravidians had started, Babylonia could be connected with South-India across the Sindh through Biluchistan or the Persian gulf the passage to the North Punjab being shut either way on account of Us Aryan obstruction. Thus

for the purposes of the 'Brahni' language in the west in Baluchistan and the ancient Dravidian culture on

the lower waters of the Sindh and even up to Harappa81 in the Panjab, the Dravidians need not be supposed the ancient inhabitants of the north of India or

still

more

definitely the north-west Himalayas and its footlands which the Aryas might have occupied as their original home

from the most ancient times. ethnic traces of

Now,

if

there

are

any

the Dravidian population in the Panjab

they like the foreign linguistic traces on Sanskrit, if any, might be accounted for as the result of intermixture of blood belonging to a much later date when the Aryas had in contract with the Dravidians, during the course of their expansion from their originalh ome in North

come

India.

Or the Dravidians might even have made inroads


89

from the South Panjab right up to the northern home of the Aryas the Aryas, who as we know from the Veda are not always the aggressive party-a position which could lead us to suppose that they were the conquerors of the land, for the non-Aryas frequently played the

aggressive

Veda whilst the Aryas were the aggressed. 88 The Aryas fought among the Aryas themselves but they part in

the

do not appear on that account,

by some India.

as is

wrongly suggested

writers, as the earlier or the

Thus we have no grounds

to

Dravidians ever formed a population

later

occupants of

suppose that the of northern India.

The suggestion sweep

of

the

women and

more The foes of the Aryas round the Panjab were by no means an easy prey to the they fought

'

that the invading Aryas made a clean Dravidians in the Punjab against whom

their

like a piece of fiction

children alike -reads

than history.

Aryas against whom they fought, for they often resisted encroachment of the Aryas with equal success as we learn from the Veda itself nay, they were brave enough te make encroachment upon the Aryas themselves. The

the

Aryas round the Panjab could not be totally exterminated for that would leave the problem of the origin of the Dasa class amongst the Aryas unexplained. Again the Aryan "invaders" of Tndia, who were certainly foes of the

not nomads 14 could

not be supposed to have brought a sufficient number of women with them so as to avoid all with the vanquished Dravidian population of the Punjab, which could not be totally des-

matrimonial

relationship

Now if the

Aryas were invaders in India, the fusion of the Aryan and the Dravidian blood must have taken place in the Panjab enormously, for which there are no ethnic

troyed.

grounds for supposing that

it

was

everything to Even the assure us.

so, there is

oppose it whilst anthropologists still Churhas of the Panjab do not betray their Dravidian origin. The Aryas in the North and the Dravidians in South-India,


40 mountain

with, the

barriers

of the

Vindhya

between

them, always lived as foreigners to each other, till the days of the Bamayana whioh refers to the Dravidians of the South as strange creatures-bears and monkeys, indeed! need not therefore invoke the ghost of the Dravidians

We

in the in

northern Panjab in order to dispel it. The Aryas need not be in a state of permanent

India therefore

contiguity

with an alien 85

alien

race they may have their but not rivals on the same land. The

neighbours 36 Kolerians may pentrate India from the north-east and the Dravidians may spread over from the west or the south ,

but

upwards,

whioh

North-India,

they might have

entered ouly to be enslaved but which in their bold adventures they could not conquer, presented them with a solid

Aryan obstruction and supremacy. The Vedio scholars are of opinion that the Vedic Aryas were not familiar

block

of

with the sea87 and they only reached the low-waters of the jSindh in their later expansion from the north or the north-

But

west frontier of India.

home

as

far

as our theory of the

Himalayas and its immaterial whether the Panjab

of the Aryas in the north-western

footlands

is

concerned

it is

was ever populated with an

alien population or not.

Even

our theory, for the Panjab or the land of the Sapta Sindhus was only the first empire of the Aryas but not their cradle-land which

if it

was,

it

does not

affect

,

we

.locate

round about the head-waters

waters of some

of

the

Sapta

Sindhu

or

the

rivers

in

upper the

Himalayas, and not below on the plains. Even in the extensive Himalayas, the Aryas may have had to fight their

enemies of alien-race, that hovered round their home, and

made

raids

on

it.

87 '

The ancient Aryas therefore may

have been hillmeu secluded in the valleys in the Himalayas and their footlands, but not shut out from all contact with alien races tl^it totally surrounded them and whom they encountered with originally

north-western


4f frequent success during the course cf their later expansion in and outside India. Thus both from the linguistic and

the anthropological point of view there is nothing- to debar us from thinking that the Aryas were autochtonons people to the north of India.

But

it

Aryas do appear and if they did not

will again be objected that the

as a fighting people DravidiansortheKolerians in the Panjab the fight against

in the

Rig-Veda

some of whom they must have fought against some foes, admit that the Aryas were certainly non-Aryas.

We

the they fought against the Aryas non-Aryas too, but that does not signify that invaded the were were foreign invaders and the non-Aryas

Were a fighting race and

that

Dasyus in the round Veda, we have already suggested, formed a belt the home of the Aryas in the north-west Himalayas

Indians.

and

its

The non-Aryas known

lowlands,

as the

and frequently

country of the Aryas,

who

raided

iu return, routed

the

fertile

them back

to

The Himalayas and the Panjab, in their own country. the north, form a vast tract of hill and plain and there is and the Panjab with their vast mountainous regions, thick forests, and numerous barriers of hills and lands and rivers and a

no reason

to suppose

that the Himalayas

should not variety of climatic and physical conditions have furnished a home for more than one ethnic type of race from the most ancient times, which different types of race as their

number grew and

with each other in

Ifcter

times,

as they

came

in contact

led themselves to warfare

and the consequent subordination of the weaker and that superior race. It is obvious nonthe incident of warfare among the Aryas and the in their Aryas led, in cbufse of time, to mutual influences

the domination of the

But they way fight languages, tod thei* art of living. and yet be the natives of the same country. Thua the on the objection against the Aryan home in India based


42 assumption of the plurality of races in that country loses its force when we have in view the vastness and extensive area of that country before us. The north-western regions of the Himalayas with its footland and the northern

Panjab are not known to have been infested with the non-Aryas-that territory would serve as a oradle-land of the Aryas, where the Aryas were sometimes attacked by the foreigners, where they fought among their own tribes as they

lived

or divided by natural and mountains, and where they set

secluded in valleys

divisions of rivers

they grew in number, to distant lands. The Big-Veda no doubt records the battles of the Aryas in

out,

as

the Panjab but it does not bring them from outside India we supply that information from our own imagi-

The Veda may even betray the local non-A.ryan influences but the Arya stands behind the Veda and yet not outside India, the Veda growing with the growth

nation.

and expansion of the Aryas in India from the Himalayas

down

in the plains.

We

now deal with

Hoernle's theory of the double invasion of India by the Aryas. Grierson first seemed to support it but he has now given it up. Hoernle invented 6.

the theory of the double incursion of Aryas into India, one from Kabul and the other via Chitral in order to account for certain stages of linguistic development of the

modern

Indian vernaculars. But his theory can not meet with the 875 For the facts of language shown approval of scholars.

by him

the outer and the inner band of vernaculars-can

well be explained in the light of several other factors at play that influence the growth of language, the chief

being in the present case, the influence of the non-Aryan languages which came in composition with the Indo- Aryan dialects,

which

important

factor

in

the

characteristic

development of modern vernaculars, Hoernle seems to

have ignored.


48 7.

A

Griersona's

passing reference

again be made to Pamir and the Dardio

may

argument that since the

languages show greater affinity with the Iranian and the Proto- Iranian languagas than with Sanskrit, the Aryas in the north must have come from outside India: But the said

our humble opinion,

affinity, in

can best be

explained on the basis of closer communication of the northern Aryas with the Iranians than with the Aryas

and we need not

of India proper

who

therefore take

away the Arya from India

cultivated

Sanskrit,

in order to

account for the proposed affinity between the Indian and the Iranian languages The Vedio language itself cannot

be said to be free from

Another view of the

88

dialectical variety

facts

in North-India.

noted by Grierson

may

also

be taken, according to which the Pamir languages may be said ta mark a transitional stage between the Vedio

and the Iranian languages as the Vedio or the Pre-vadio people Aryas or non-Aryas adopting the Aryan languages- passed on from India to Iran. With regard to the Dardio languages, it, can be said with confidence on the 89 authority of good Indian tradition, that the speakers of the language the Pisaoha* or the non-Aryas, belonged to the same race of PisacTias in India as outside India.

The Indian Pisaehas formed an intermediary

link between

Thus they India and in the carried the Aryan language outside mouth of these non-Aryas, the Pre-Vedio- Vedio-Sanskrit the outer-Pisachas

and the Indian Aryas.

assumed a shape which distinguished the Iranian from the Vedio language. Grierson makes no further point to prove the immigration

of

Aryas

into

India.

His

40

The Aryas references to the Vedio passages are futile . and Veda with the the in yet they may may fight Aryas not be the earlier or the later occupants of India. Such fights are quite

we

natural in a tribal

notioe in the Veda.

form of society which


44

Thus there

is

nothing

left to

prove that the ancient

Aryas whose immediate lineal- descendants composed the Veda and who laid the foundations of the ancient Sanskrit language and literature in India which language both reflect the Aryan genius, in its

atnd literature

in a mirror,

were originally Europeans who had found their way to India from such distant lands as the north of the Blaok Sea in Europe, or the Bockitno Swamps in Germany, or Sweden and Norway, {nllness,

as

if

pr the forests

Europe, or the woodlands of Bohemia, or that they had come from the southern steppes of Russia, or Siberia or from the high-lands of Persia or of Central

Armenia or Anatolia or from Central Asia or from the Semitic Valley of the Euphrates and the Tigris, or from above the arctic regions in the post-glacial epoch of the earth's history. In their zeal to support the theory of the

European home of the Aryas even such cautious writers and notable scholars of today, as Macdonell and others, have made occasional use of their

free imagination

and

have attempted to turn a piece of fiction into a fact of For example, it is pointed out that the Aryas history. out-side India did not know an elephant and as they entered India for the

first time, they were struck by the animal and thus strange they gave it the name of Hastin, or an 'animal with a hand. One fails to understand what has the admission of Aryas into India to do 7

got

with the appellative name Hasti. Why could not the be natives of India and at the same time Aryas give

tho elephant a

name

such, as Hastin or

an 'animal with a

marking it out from all other animals of th* forest, having been struck naturally by the animal's unique and prominent trunk. The Sanskrit language is full of such appellative names as Vfi-nara, Sftkh&-Mrig^ hand',

$ikhand-in, etc. etc, Now in order to explain the origin of each of these names pointing out some prominent


45 these animals, we do not propose each time, a fresh invasion of the Aryas into India from Europe or of

features

The fact is that when man names to animals, he must have gave

any country outside for the

time

first

India.

been struck by the prominent feature of the animal, according to which he designated it. Now in course of time, under the influence of the

some words retained

it,

lost their

wear and tear of language,

appellative force, while

the

and therefore they always appear

others as fresh

and newly invented.

This should be simple enough to a student of the history of language. Thus the Aryas may originally belong to India and their words may breathe

freshness of meanings.

These words

may

be missing in the

India, as the objects for which were themselves The language of they missing. the Aryas again cannot be said to have any traces of were not behind it. The therefore long journeying Aryas

Aryan languages outside stood

among some

the

wild

scholars

Asiatic

European invaders into them.

described

hordes

have supposed,

We

India,

shall

who invaded

nor were

see

as

India,

they the

first

as Macdonell has fondly

that

Providence

had

Himalayas which gave them their character, intelligence, and strength in fact all that they possessed and gave to the world. put

originally

the

Aryas

in the

having cleared the ground so far, we now establish our theory of the primitive home of the

Thus, proceed to

Aryas in India. Our reasons

may

be set forth as below

:

I.

Every student of the science of comparative philology knows that the Vedic Sanskrit preserves most faithfully the accent of the Aryan mother-tongue, although, quite naturally, traces of the original Aryan accent are also noticeable

Aryan languages such as the Greek and the Pre-Qermanic languages etc. But as Brugmann notes, " The Hindus preserved on the whole the primitive

in

*

some other


46 Indo-Q-ermanic position of the word-accent

As regards

sentence- accent,

the

preserved

old

position

Sanskrit

almost

appears

to

invariably".

have

With stated

regard to the other Indo-European languages, that there is no information of the accentuation of the old it is

Iranian dialects41 that the accentuation of the old Armenian ;

Greek the secondary accent conquered the primitive Indo-Germanic accent, and there was considerable levelling of the accent in the case form,

was only expiratory

;

that in

and that the Greek acute and the circumflex resembled the broken tone and the slurred tone which Lithuanian could preserve and with regard to Latin it is pointed out that the primitive Indo-Qermanic accentuation had already during the primitive Italic unity, undergone a complete ;

and given birth

revolution Irish;

it is

to initial

pointed out that even

accentuation in old

the primitive Celtio accent had developed

in

an expiratory secondary and that the Germanic languages during the primitive Germanic period had a new expiratory accent similar to period

that of Celtic

and the Balto-Slavonic languages; and

it is

further stated that Lithuanian and a part of the Slavonic languages show freedom of accentuation from the primitive

Balto-Slavonic period, etc. etc Thus we note that the new principles of accentuation enter into Indo-European

languages from the most primitive time and that the Vedic

most faithfully or word sentence-accent. primitive Tndo-germanic

Sanskrit the

stands isolated

The Vedio Sanskrit from

its

itself

home round

and the change may

in representing

has lost

its

accent as

it

proceeded

the Punjab to the Gangetic valley all be due to the overwhelming

influence of the alien speech-habits of the non-Aryas on the The question therefore arises how to Vedic-Sauskrit.

account for the unity of the Vedio accent with the accent the Aryan mother-tongue also known as the Indo-

of

European or the Indo-Germanic language.

If the 'Indo-


European plains

9

of

mother-tongue was originally spoken on the

Europe or Asia, how

is

it

that as the speakers

from Europe to they were able

the language travelled all their way Asia and then finally settled in India, of

to

retain

India

in

alone

of

all

countries

their

final

destination which they must have reached after a course several centuries almost exactly the same accent on

of

words which their European fore-fathers used to possess

Europe or their Asiatic fathers on the table-land of Asia away from India, but which their brethren in different countries and centuries

before

in

forest-home

their

in

their descendants in later times in India could not preserve. The quality of accent however stern, is certainly not so

rigidly fixed in language that

proof of

it is

it

resists all

that the Indo-European

change and the

accent

undergone a change in various countries and in India

in

too.

It is true

that

when we

itself

has

later times

learn a foreign

language we

give our own accent to foreign words but that does not endow our own accent with freedom from all .

change that

it

may undergo

various influences. Indeed as

accentuation of a language

in course of time

Brugmann has put

may undergo

fication in a

and under it,

" The

complete modiWe do not know

comparatively short time". ancient or modern language that retains its accent any unaltered during the course of centuries though spoken of

same country and by the same people not to speak of a language that was carried from country to country across many physical barriers and a variety of climatic conditions amidst various sorts of people, thing, which do in the

influence the character of accent in a language. language carried to a foreign land may, in a state of

not

A

fail to

amid strange people, retain its archaic character idiom but not in accent, whatever the character of

isolation

in

accent

may

influence

be,

only

stress or musical; for it is

but also the

new

not the ethnio

geographical and the


48 climatic

habits

and the consequent change in the country- which influences

conditions

of

living in a foreign

can not be avoided

that determine a certain change in

the

accent.

character

language one

may

our

of

may

detect

be described

American accent accent

more or

of expression that

Shakesperean in style but the American. We know distinctly

is

a

less

matter

that

language,

accent

turns

as

of fashion in a spoken with the changes changing times. The accent in its own country is not the English

is

modern same as

many

In the modern American

it

used to be sometime ago42 arid the American ,

we have

as

remarkably different already said, from the original English accent carried to America, and from the modern English accent too, in spite of the

modern nations.

facility

of

is

communication

The accent

of

French

in

between

two

the

Switzerland

is

not

exactly the same as the French accent in France. The accent of the Kashmiri language among the Kashmiri families

who have become* domiciled

outside

travesty of the original accent in Kashmir. Delhi bears a different accent from that of

doubt a few words of daily oocurence and ty as for as

mama

father is

or papa

in

Kashmir

a

of close familiari-

English or the Aryan equivalents

or mother in the ancient Germanic

shown by

is

The Urdu of Luoknow. No

Werner's

Law, or numerals

languages such a<*

septem in Latin have a tendency to retain their accent in a uniform manner for a longer period of time, but this can not be said of the whole lot of words in a language, which undergoes a rapid change in accent in a foreign country.

The Aryan language could not be supposed

to be stationary* in character, in accent, in its early days of creative energy when the language was the

spoken language

in the daily its

struggle for existence and had not

hieratic character or the verse-form

said to serve as a check

employed assumed

which might be

upon change in accent,

till

late in the


49

Vedicage in India.

We

know

interval in time, distance in

space, the physical character of a country and its climatic * conditions48 , the speech- habits of races as they come in contact with each other, and the important changes in the living of a people, religions, political, and social 41* 1 have all their destructive influence on the upheavals

ways of

,

quality and the uniform character of accent in a language.

Now

the question

these influences

is:

Were

not the Aryas subjected to all their course of travel

started

as

they from Europe or outer-Asia to India or as they expanded themselves from North India to the South. No one can

deny that the Aryas as they started from their European home to India must have faced different climatic conditions and crossed physical barriers which could not have failed to influence the

can the

character

of

their

speech-accent.

Nor

Aryas be supposed to have passed

through an ethnic vacuum as they started their journey from Europe or outer-Asia and travelled across thousands of miles of land before they could reach India, and escaped the influence of alien speech-habits on their language. They could not

be supposed to have darted like an arrow in no time from Europe to India traversing outer-Asia, or like the flight of a bird from tree to tree so as to avoid all touch and influence of an alien people whom they might have

encountered on land, for the Aryas are known to us from their most ancient historical records as a fighting race and wherever they went, they had to win land for themselves, superior strength and ability in war. Indeed the evidence of the Aryan languages in various countries outside India namely, the distorted and

inch

by

inch,

by

their

disruptive character of these languages-bears out the belief that the Aryas in their journeyings in Europe or Asia outside India could not avoid the foreign touch, but, on the con* trary, were overwhelmingly swamped by alien people

and

thus were indissolubly mixed

up with the non-


60

A similar phenomenon

Aryas.

has taken

place

in

India

during the course of the Aryan passage from the North The to the South or the East or the West of India. the accent with their lost of North India original Aryas

mingling of the non-Aryan population of the rest of India. Thus the unity of the Vedic accent with the accent of the Aryan mother-tongue is a sure indication of the fact that the Aryan mother-tongue was not much out-distanced in time or place or culture by the Vedic But the most important factor of change in accent in the case of the Aryan language is the element Sanskrit.

of alien speech habits of ethnically alien people in various countries.

from

lips

"We know that the original accent passes only to lips. Ultimately there must be an Englishman

Ultimately there must be an Indian to teach an Englishman correct Hindus-

to teach Indians correct English accent. tani accent, and generally

speaking, an Englishman alone the correct reproduce English accent and a Hindustani a Hindustani accent. The non-Arab Moslems in India

can

mastery of the Koran can not be said to reproduce the proper Arab-accent of the language of the Koran. The race and the accent ultimately go together48 *2

with

their

all

.

We

have a tendency to mould foreign accent into our Thus the ethnic disturbances have disturbed

own 421

*

"

.

the original Aryan accent in outer-Asia or Europe or in later times in India too. But the continuity of the original Aryan accent in ancient India implies the un-

broken geographical and ethnic continuity of the Aryan race from the most primitive times in India. Thus the unity of the Vedic and the Aryan accent serves as a crucial instance which not only confirms and proves the hypothesis of the Indian home of the Aryas but also diates all other hypotheses that posit the primitive

repu-

home home of

of the Aryas in Europe or outer-Asia. Thus the the. speakers of the primitive Aryan language can be


51 located round the

home

Vedio speakers, who possessed almost exactly the same word or sentence-accent as their Aryan fathers did. The speakers of the Veda are of the

shown on grounds ofaccent,

to be the lineal descendants of

the undivided primitive Aryas who on grounds of accent again, are seen to be not far removed in time or place or culture from their Vedic descendants.

The contingencies

of

the unity of the Aryan with the Vedic accent require that the ancient Aryas and the Vedic Aryas must be the same

people in general, and must have lived, very much under the same sky. Thus the Vedic Aryas in general, belong

same ethnic stock

to the

ancient Aryas, having continuum as the base of geographical

almost the same

the

as

their future expansion in the world, as the

had.

India

is

admitted

the Vedic speakers. their primitive in accent

Aryan

on

all

ancient Aryas hands to be the home of

India therefore must be the fathers.

Whatever

home

of

slight differences

between the Vedic and the

Aryan mother-tongue be noted, they may be explained as due to a slight change in the abode of the Vedic Aryas from that of the primi tive Aryas. The Vedic Aryas largely belong to the plains of the Sapta Sindhu but the original Aryas, as we shall see, belonged to the regions of the Sapta Sindhu rivers in the

Himalayas.

But

home

will be asked

it

of the

Aryas

how Greek spoken

far

away from the Aryan

in India succeeds in retaining the

Our answer is: exactly American English has partially retained

accent, though to a partial degree.

the same the

way

original

Kashmiris

as

English

outside

accent,

or

Kashmir, retain

in

as

for

India,

some

the

time

they acquire new speech habits the relics of the We do not suggest for a original accent in Kashmir. moment that all traces of original accent are lost in a

till

foreign country at once. of

the

It is impossible.

The speakers

to a foreign language must carry their accent


62 whiob, amidst alien people they could not Greek has deviated from the original faithfully preserve. accent the it has departed in time or place to extent Aryan

eounfcry at

first,

or culture or race from the original home of the Aryas in India, and has subjected itself to the succeeding influences of travel from India abroad; and whatever it

has

retained

be

may

due

to

Aryan accent

a particular

of

force

communication being maintained tradition, owing between Greece and India as is further evidenced by the to the

community

of

words of warfare and religion between

India and Greece alone. possible to wriggle out of this situation and that the less archaic character of the Greek accent suggest as compared with the Vedic can not be established, for it is not safe to reach a conclusion from the comparison of thf* It is

ancient Vedio

We

accent with the comparatively late Greek

do not know Greek accent at such an early date as we happen to know the Vedic accent. It is likely that if we had possessed the ancient Greek of a contemporary date with the Vedic, we might detect accent in Greek accent.

identical with the

Greek ever There

is

Aryan

accent.

But the point

is,

did

contemporaneous with the Vedic-Sanskrit? nothing to support this belief* This is a priori exist

from their primitive home must take time to reach one country If another. ancient Greek existed and before perished, ancient Latin ought to have existed, if both of

impossible

them

for

the

Aryas as they

start

one expects, that the

Celtic, Teutonic, Slavonio or any other Aryan language with the Aryan accent, should have existed outside India, at least con-

perished,

temporaneous

if

not earlier than the Vedio.

The

fact

is

is no record of the Aryan languages with the accent outside India at such an early date as the Aryan Vedio that they perished one and all is more than what

that

there

we can

believe.

In

all

probability

they never existed

,


contemporaneous

with

the

Veda.

Chronology

is

our

best guide in matters like this. Aryan aooent as it was carried to distant lands was like an exotic plant that did

not thrive in a foreign country amid tions as

it

condi-

inhospitable

did as an indigenous plant in

its

native soil in

India.

Now we the

home

must

we

state that

of the Aryas

was

base our conclusion that

in India

on the firm

basis of

the unity of the Vedic accent with the aooent in the Aryan mother-tongue, and not on the basis of a comparison of the

Vedic with Greek or any other Aryan language. "We

Greek or other Aryan languages only by way of tion of the

general principle

that

illustra-

accent changes with

change in time and place and culture and do not yet possess an example that is

the

We

versive of

the

Aryan

race.

sub-

The objection that general principle. and the character of the form hieratio

this

metrical

Veda

cite

responsible for preservation of the ancient accent in India, and that the unity of the Vedio

are

aooent with the Aryan aooent has nothing to do with the home of the Aryas in India, is gratituous, for the simple reason, that the objection may apply to the later preservation of the

Vedic

aooent

when

the

Veda was already

form and had already assumed composed its hieratic character, but it can not apply at a still earlier date to the ancient Aryan language which supplied accent in the metrical

they came to India from outside brought their accent with them, and their daily speech before they entered India could not be

to the

Veda

itself.

The Aryas,

if

supposed to be in metrical feet or having hieratic character,

so as to retain the original

Aryan accent

in

India,

The Vedas are distinctly an Indian composiinherit the Aryan accent from an earlier must They date. The Aryas on their way from Europe or outer-Asia to India could not have kept the original accent intact unaltered.

tion.


64 hand

over to the Vedic singers, just as the descendants of the Vedio singers as they came in composition with alien races in later times in India itself could not to

it

Thus the unity of preserve the original Vedic accent. the Aryan or the Indo-European accent with the Vedic accent

a sure sign and an unmistakeable proof of the home of the Aryas in India. The objection may be raised that in our discussions above we have used the word accent is

indiscriminately, that is not only in the 'old' sense of the term in which Brugmann uses it, but also in the modern general

But the 'old' accent has now disappeared and we can not illustrate it in modern languages, However, the fact is there, that all the Aryan languages

sense as intonation.

outside India have

ever

its

character

undergone a change in accent, whatmay be, but the 'Indo-European' accent

Veda remains practically unchanged. From our discussions above, it follows, that, the constancy the Indo-European accent in the Veda is the result

in the

all

of of

the general purity of the race of the Vedic speakers, that the ethnic is, general identity of the Vedic people with the 'undivided* Aryas; which general purity of race could not if the speakers of the Vedic ac'cent were far

be retained

removed

in time or place

from the speakers of the Indo-

The European' accent, whose home we seek to know. the of Vedic accent speakers belong to the Punjab, the speakers of

the

Aryan

or

'Indo-European*

accent the

immediate fathers of the Vedic people on grounds of accent itself, may be placed round the Punjab, in the Himalayas, as we shall definitely state later on. II.

Our second point emerges from the first. The Aryan literature namely the Veda has grown up in India earlier than in any other country peopled the by Aryas. How are we to account for the fact that India which is to be the supposed


66 of the Aryan-race produces the first or the moat ancient record of the Aryas, the like of which is not pro-

home

last

duced by them in their homes in Europe or in Asia outside

may be proposed

India? Various alternatives it;

to account for

that the Aryas were barbarians or nomadic hordes before entered India where they reached a higher stage

they of

civilization, therefore,

literature outside India

;

they

not produce any

could

that the Aryas

who were

civilized outside India met with more favourable

stances in India that enabled

them

to

equally

ciroum-

produce a literature

that the Aryas did produce a literature outside India but they could not preserve it there as they did in India,

there

;

Now, none

of these alternatives

explains

the facts satis-

Aryas were certainly not barbarians or nomads before they could be supposed to have entered of a higher India, for the ancient words of civilization and a higher stage order, and words denoting agriculture Vedic of civilization are shared in common with the First, the

factorily.

outside India and language by the Aryan languages works of civilizing influence of the Aryas in Europe and 43 There is Asia outside India are now well-known to us .

as no evidence to support the view that the barbaric Aryas into a civilized people. they entered India were converted

did not find they entered India life at once, where they could enjoy

Secondly, the Aryas it

a bed of roses all

peacefully,

if

and immediately compose the Veda which

is

the It can not be maintained that war song. the on itself more fully Aryan genius was able to unfold cold regions of Europe the in of India than

not

all

tropical plains

or in the bracing climate

of

outer-Asia.

We

do not

conditions that European or Asiatic in obstructed the growth of the innate Aryan genius were the Aryas those countries in ancient times, Besides, or They Europe. not a sterile race either in outer-Asia

know

of

any

special

have their Zend Avesta and Homer which come only

later

-


58

Europe or Asia than the Vedic preserves an equally ancient record of the Aryan language simply because the Aryan language in Europe or Asia outside India, came into

being at a later date than the Vedic which at or nearer the ancient home of the Aryas.

do

not

the

earlier

come

into

We

make a

however the

was

general proposition that the earlier will its literature language,

being.

Bat our

point

cumstances known to

us,

or Iranian

could

languages

is

that

in

the

cir-

Greek or Latin or Lithuanian not produce as

ancient a

literature as Vedio, since these languages did not exist at as early a date as the Vedio the greater the distance

from the primitive Indian home of the Aryas, quite naturally the later in date was the birth of a new Aryan language and literature. We have elsewhere stated that we do not use the term Vedic in the sense of the language strictly restricted to the book called the Veda, but in a wider sense denoting a general type of language that is best reflected in the Veda and that may sometime be earlier than the of the Veda itself. composition

Now

the

before us are that like every other country peopled by the Aryas, India has rapidly evolved new types of languages which have far out-stripped the archaic Sanskrit or the Vedic languages; but unlike other facts

countries, India also produces the

record

of the archaic

language which closely resembles the Aryan mothertongue and thus carries back the unbroken thread of the

modern Aryan languages and literature, to its earliest beginnings; from which the inference is, that India alone and not every other country, possesses. the of the Aryas, not because the ancient record

and

lost in other countries for if it

was produced

one country no reasonwhy it should be lost in all other counexcept India; nor because an ancient literature was not

there tries

were

earliest record

is

lost in


59 at all produced outside India for this would be contrary to the later facts in history and to the gepius of the Aryan

people themselves: but because the languages in which those records could have appeared in different countries did not exist at the. language not be argued

such an early date as the Vedic or immediately preceding the Vedio. It can all at

that

the religious

character of the

Veda

responsible for the preservation of the Vedio language in India, for the religious character of the people was already with them before they set out to compose the

is

Veda or before they had entered

India,

and there

is

no

reason

why

the

earliest

religious records should perish

in

countries

outside

India while

all

the Vedio record

Thus the production of an ancient Aryan language on the part of India which no other country was able to show creates a should

flourish.

record

of

the

archaic

presumption in favour of the Indian home of the Aryas, American-English language and literature traced back to the mediaeval English literature as

the

origin

the

of

makes England the mother-country

of

the

first

speakers

of English in America.

Ill

Ancient Sanskrit possesses the greatest number of roots and words and the greatest variety of grammatical forms, belonging

compared with All the other in

the Aryan mother-tongue, when other Aryan languages in the world. languages outside India are lacking

to

all

Aryan

such fulness and exuberance

and words

Now must

41b

of grammatical forms the ancient Vedic Sanskrit.

as is displayed by the Aryas had come to India, from abroad, Sanskrit have received a thorough shaking of the numerous

if

grammatical forms of the Aryan mother-tongue, in India, and there must have taken place a considerable amount

pruning down of the large number 'of the Aryan synonyms and homonyms in Sanskrit in its passage from Europe or outer-Asia to India, during the course

of


60 of

many

On

long centuries.

the

Sanskrit

contrary,

Aryan roots and words and grammatical forms as compared with all the Aryan languages outside India which must have chronologically possesses- the

number

largest

of

proceeded the Vedio language if the Aryas had come to India from outside. The overwhelming majority of such

forms and words can naturally be expected to be retained at

the

original

home

the

of

language

a

large uninterruptedly spoken by As that stayed at home in India.

home

where

it

was

majority of people the speakers of the

lands, in sections, they language can naturally be expected to carry a fraction of language with them, that prospered at home in all its variety. left

In India,

Muslim

when

for foreign

the Kashmiris under the persecution of the Kashmir and became domiciled in other

rule, left

parts of India, the domiciled

community that was cut

from the main stream of the Kashmiri language

at

off

home,

a fragment of the luxuriant Kashmiri which fragment itself gradually diminished to a language, considerable extent almost to a point of nullity amid

could

retain

only

influences of foreign languages. left

their

home

in India, they

with

the

Similarly,

as the

Aryas

took large fragments

-of.

them which gradually

Aryan mother-tongue and thinnel in the midst of the non-Aryan languages in foreign lands, and which could not represent thinned

and variety of the Aryan mother-tongue at The Aryan mother-tongue was like an indigenous plant in India growing freely and spreading on all sides unhampered on its native soil; and the paucity of the Aryan vocabulary and the grammatical structures in the the

fulness

home.

Aryan languages outside in

the light

of

the

India,

theory

can best be explained Indian home of the

of the

That the Avestan language retains its variety of forms and words next to the Vedic is due to its

Aryas.

contiguity with the Aryan-land in India.

The

objection


61

we do not

that

possess

the

Aryan languages

outside

an earlier stage and had it been so we should have found an equally large variety of forms and words elsewhere as in the Yedio language, need not be repeated India at

we have

as

here,

that there of

is

already set it aside, by pointing out no proof or possibility of an earlier existence

these languages outside India, for

if

they had existed

they would not have perished, one and country, leaving the Vedio Sanskrit alone India.

the

all,

in

every

to flourish in

Nothing short of a general to

Aryan people

conspiracy among archaic forms of their

the

kill

The language outside India could explain the situation. the home of the Indian based on Aryas objection against analogy of languages retaining primitive character in a foreign land, will next be refuted.

VI

Now

the primitive character of the Vedio Sanskrit conforming with the standard of the Arya mother-tongue

can not be doubted.

It is

wrong

to

suppose that Greek

more primitive in But it will be urged that the conclusion that the home of the Aryas was in India based on the primitiveness of the Vedic Sanskrit can not be or Lithuanian

or

the

Avestan are

character than the Vedic Sanskrit.4*

for it is pointed out 'thai if primitiveness of could settle the home of those who speak it, language Iceland would be the general home of the Scandinavians, and the Danube that of all the Germans45 /! Again, it is

accepted,

pointed out, that in America, "the local Spanish dialects are much more archaic and much more like the Spanish of the sixteenth century than is the language spoken now in

Spain";

and in American

expression survive

regards

as

mainly

English,

"many forms

of

which the modern Englishman now biblical;

46

and,

"that

much

of the

English spoken by the lower classes in Ireland is not a correct form of modern English but is the English of


62 Elizabethan

48*

Therefore on grounds of analogy, the primitiveness of Sanskrit can not be held as proof of India being the home of the we understand that days,

;

Aryas

the analogy applies to the primitiveness of idiom only, for the primitiveness of accent, as we have already explained, does not survive long intervals of time and great distance in space.

Now we

can npt make such sweeping statements as we see, that the migration of a people

those noted above for

and the primitiveness of their language do not always go together, and the

in a foreign

country

primitiveness of a lan-

in its native country may historically be traceable. In Chile, in America, the invaders from Spain are said to have produced a new Spanish dialect. The Turks, in India,

guage

have produced our Urdu, a new dialect, in the streets of Delhi. There is such a thing as pidgin-English in foreign and modern lands, English may be traced to old English in

England

know

itself.

the

Thus

various

if

factors

analogy holds good we must

and conditions of migration

and habitation in each

case, that determine the primitiveness of a language in a foreign conntry. For one thing, it will be pointed out, that isolation of invaders in a

foreign country is responsible for the primitive character of their language in that country; and it will be argued, that as the fair-complexioned Aryan invaders of India, as their

lived

word in

for caste, 48b ^varna?,

a

state

of

isolation

meaning colour, suggests; from the dark-skinned

460

natives of India, whom they called Dasas, they were able to retain the primitive character of their language. Now,

we submit

that there

is

nothing to prove that 'Varna* sig-

nifying colour formed a basis of social

distinction in the

Veda, for terms like Krishna-varna or the 'black-colour' used for the enemies of the Aryas in the Veda may mark only an ethnic and a political distinction and need not

Aryas and the Non-Aryas who met together in war and even in

represent

a

social

boycott

between the


63 peace; for the Dasas, Giles points out,

they were the blaok non-Aryas, as historically speaking, form a class

if

did,

by themselves who attended the Aryas at all times as 47 their menial servants, some of whose women-folk Dasis, ranked as wives of the Eishis

too; or

speaking etymologi-

cally, they always came in contact with the Aryas as their 'harassers'. As to the term Krishna Varna applied to the it may be pointed out that even the Aryas had names as 'Krishna,' the black,-vide E, V. VIII (85-4-5) and also names such as Asita 'the black' Kashyapa. The

Dasas,

Krishna Tvacah or the 'black skin'

may by metaphor

dark clouds, the enemies of Indra, mean an even of fair complexion, just as we speak in Urdu enemy of an evil-door as the 'black-faced' Syah-ru, also note, Syahof

the

qalb, Syah-bakht. literally true of

Certainly the Krishna tvacah

were black-skinned but

was no and

social

may

be

some of the enemies of the Aryas who

the Aryas even

it

did

not indicate that there

between the black-skinned people

contact

they fought together nay the way round as we have just pointed

if

evidences are the other

Thus there was no such exclusion between the dark Dasas and the white Aryas as Giles would presume to support his theory of the isolation of the Aryas amid a out above.

strange population in India. The Varna signifying caste in later times in India may originally mean not colour but exterior

form of dress or description which the people of

mark of distinction from which Varna may be said to

various denominations observed as the

among them

root vri

be derived signifying a 'covering'. Besides, we must not lay much stress on colour as the basis of social division for

even the dark people show a liking for a white complexion and dislike for the black this is something psychological and need not denote a historical truth. Thus varna, the caste

say

may have nothing

that

to

do with varna, the colour.

To

the caste grew in India in the early days of the


64

Veda

is

not the slightest inin the earliest portion of the Big-Veda

to say too

dication of 'caste'

much, for there

and the only reference

is

to a four-fold division

that appears in the Rig- Veda

is

in the

of

mankind

form of an allegory

and that too in the tenth book of the Rig- Veda that decidedly a

much

later

production

representing a

is

much

Vedic language than the one that we possess in the early books of the Rig- Veda that conform in their language with the standard of the Aryan mother-

later stage of the

tongue.

The

attribution of the primitiveness of the Vedic

language conforming with the standard of the Aryan mother-

tongue to the isolation of the Aryas in India, presupposes their state of isolation all along their way from Europe or outer-Asia to India.

To suppose

that

all

along their

way

from Europe to India, the Aryas remained in a state of isolation and were also caste-bound is to suppose the between Europe and India to have been free from vestiges of human population other than the Aryan and

territory all

add that the Aryas were already caste-bound outside The Aryas can India, is to say something quite absurd.

to

not be supposed to have possessed their caste before their admission to India. It can not be supposed either that

they met no dark-skinned people in outer- Asia such as they met in India so as to create the caste in India alone, on the basis of colour.

It

can not be held that the Iranian

caste preceded the Indian caste system. The Iranian caste must be a loose replica of the later Indian caste, for if

there were

a pre-existing Iranian caste implying the ethnic purity, the Avestan would have preserved the purity of the Aryan consonants to a greater degree

Iranian

than the Vedic,

which

it

does

not

The Vedic people

preserved the purity of the Aryan consonants not because they were caste-bound but because they were the lineal

descendants of the ancient Aryas forming an over-whelm-

ing majority of people

at

home

in India.

Thus

caste


whatever

its

origin in later

times in India

may be can

not be as old as the invasion of the Aryas in India, whose language has its record in the early books of the Big Veda. Caste

came

when

the Aryas were already a settled people in the Gangetio plains, and not when they were the builders of the Sapta Sindhn Empire. Restrictions late

in India

common practice of intermarriage between the and the non- Aryas seems to have been laid down first Aryas in the late Vedic age of the Yajur-Veda only, for which

in the

compare, the Yajur

Veda XXHI,

30, 81.

the passages indicate the common practice of intermarriage in the early Vedic age, against which a voice is raised.

Again

if

Dasa was a name given

invading Aryas

it

to the

only proves as

out, nfct isolation but

an

earlier

non-Aryas by the

we have

already pointed mixture and friendship of

the Aryas with the non-Aryan population of India, for the ancient Aryas did not hesitate to give that name to their

King Sudasa and his father Divodasa and other persons among the Aryas such as Dasa-Vesha and others. Indeed the forms of Prakritization in the Veda and the early

best

Prakritization of the

Vedio language as

is

evident

from

the Mitanni evidence of words such as 'Satta' for Sanskrit, Sapta, go to prove the existence of alien ethnic influences on the language of the Veda in India. Therefore the Vedio

Aryas if they had invaded India at all could not be supposed to have lived in isolation from the non-Aryan tribes of India so as to be able to retain the primitive of

caste gives

their

character

no protection

language. Besides, against the foreign influences of language. The Parsees who have a caste of their own in India gave up the Pehlvi

and adopted

Q-ujrati as their

mother- tongue. The Kashmiri

Pandits outside Kashmir forming a caste by themselves do not speak the Kashmiri language. Thus the Aryas if they entered

India from outside must have lost a good deal of


66 their

language as they have actually done in other Their entry into India was not like that of

countries.

the English into America for that the ancient Aryas

who

it is

evident

from the Veda

are supposed to have

entered

India from outside could have entered only as warriors and conquerors of the land and not as peaceful immigrants as is

wrongly held by some war with the Dasyus, surrounded them on

The Aryas had to wage who were equally strong, who

writers.

all sides,

and therefore they could not

possibly have avoided their touch.

The Veda has

its

Pra-

kritisms; and the Prakrit forms, such as the one noted above, have travelled from ancient India to far-Asia, and the

ancient Aryan kings have Dasa as a part of their name and the Bishis have Dasis as their wives, and the caste had not yet

grown up and

it

could

not have

grown up amidst a

conquering and an assimilating people, and the secluded valleys of the Himalayas and the mountain ranges which the Aryas had occupied in India were no safeguard to the primitiveness of their language as they were open to the

frequent incursions of the non- Aryas as noted in the Veda, and communication with them. In these very secluded valleys of the Himalayas, the intermingling of the Aryas with the non- Aryas is certain as it is reflected not only in the language of the Veda but also in the non-Aryan beliefs

and practice? in black magic, incantations to Sinivali etc, that have found their way into the Rig Veda itself. The isolation of

Aryas

in India

amid strange people therefore

remains unproved. The main support of argument by analoof the survival of the primitive character of a language in a foreign country is thus destroyed and the analogy is

gy

therefore rendered otiose.

Other factors

of migration or

invasion of the Aryas into India, their state of oivilisatian, the number of their men and women, the route which

they adopted, the manner and conditions of the journey, the people whom they came into contact with all. such


67 about a change

faotors as bring

in

the

character of the

language, not being proved as identical in the case of the immigrants, who could maintain the primitive character of their languages in a foreign country,

Aryan

'invaders'

into

India,

the

and the case of the analogy

of

those

languages could not guide-us in the case of the primitive Sanskrit in India. Again, the analogy of the languages retaining their primitive character in a foreign country not appropriate in our case, for the Sanskrit respresents not only its most archaic character in. the ancient

is

literature in India but also its

most modern form in the

shape of our vernaculars. It is not only the primitivenss of Sanskrit but its unbroken historical continuity from

most archaic type resembling the Aryan mothertongufe to the most up-to-date form of our vernaculars the

that lends

its

support to the

home

of

the

Aryas in India

on the grounds of

linguistic development. India possesses both the primitive and the modern forms of the continued stream of the Aryan language in the same geographical area.

It

represents

the

historical

of

continuity

the

Aryan language and its geographical continuum, both of which single it out from the cases of analogy of other countries

that

represent

a foreign language,

at a stage

appear as primitive or otherwise in comparison with another form of the language in another only,

that

may

country, as the rate of the progress in different countries may be; but never as a whole. Again, a few turns of primitive character, such as we find in American-English, do not give a primitive character to

expression

of

the American language as compared with modern English, forms of for a modern language may show many archaisms, life

47 *

for

than others.

some words may have a longer

Now

the Sanskrit

lease of

does not represent a

few archaic turns of expression like the Amerioo-Spanish or the American-English but it represents the character of


8 tke Aryan mother-tongue in

all its

fulness. Primitiveneas

is a delusive term as it is based on comparison with a modern form of the language. Total conformity of the Vedic with the hypothetical Aryan mother-tongue breaks

the tries

analogy of the primitive languages in foreign counand makes^ [ndia the origitial home of the Aryas.

Again we cannot lay much stress on an argument by analogy for the argument from analogy is not conclusive, since it does not establish any causal connection between the point of resemblance and the point that has to be For proved. instance, in the present case, there is no evidence to connect the primitivenss of the language with to which it is carried. The primiforeign country tiveness of Sanskrit is no of its proof being brought from the

that we can say on the grounds of analogy is, that it is likely that it may be so, but there is no evidence to connect the point by way of

foreign

lands

causation.

to

On

India.

All

the other hand, there

is

good evidence on

the side of Sanskrit in India to disconnect

from foreign

lands,

probative

force

character

of

this

its

evidence

primitiveness the destroys

the analogy in hand the disruptive the ancient Aryan languages, such as

of

all

and

:

the Germanic, Greek, Lithuanian, and Zend, in different countries outside India all of which could hot be the

home

of

the Aryas, and the smooth and placid flow of the Aryan mother-tongue into the stream of the ancient Vedio-Sanskrit in India, free from the phonetic, grammatical and syntactical disturbances, prompts us to original

believe

and

in

unbroken continuity, in time, and place of the Aryan race in India. We have

the

culture,

already shown that the primitiveness of Sanskrit cannot be associated with the isolation of the Aryas in India, for no such isolation of the Aryas in India is known to have existed.

Thus the analogy of the languages retaining


character in

primitive

a

foreign country does not hold

good in the case of the Yedic language conforming with Aryan mother-tongue in India. It would therefore be

the

a case of

analog/ to argue the migration of the Aryas from abroad on the basis of the primitiveness of

false

into India

language and not to oonclude India to have been their We have already pointed out that the primitive home.

their

and manner of the migration and habitation the ancient Aryas differ from those of other people.

conditions of

We

do not know of a migration similar to that of the Aryas from Europe or outer-Asia to India which

covered

and

hundreds not

occupied reached their

less

than

thousands several

destination

final

of

centuries

and yet

'and

miles

before they that people

speaking in their last home, as the Aryas speak in India, almost exactly the same language with the same intonation

of

accent

words, without or a grammatical

forgetting

a

word

form of construction

or

its

which

grammatical forms and words are in rich abundance in Sanskrit and which, it must be presumed, the Aryan forefathers were accustomed to speak in distant lands say in their forest homes in Europe or somewhere in Asia outside

India.

We may

lose all

our sense of time and

notions of language and thought and altogether forget that language undergoes change with our constantly changing thought, or consider the intelligent Aryan race as immensely stupid and dull with

space and revise our

no new ideas

to bring

about change in language, or take

rout* of the Aryas from Europe to India was miraculously converted into a land of ethnic vacuum, under some strange talisman, to enable the Aryaa it

for granted,

that

the

to pass on to India without being affected by any speechhabits of an alien people, before we come to believe such

an absurd proposition as the migration of the Aryas from foreign lands such, as Europe or Asia to India, which


w we

are asked to believe on the false analogy of somie fonnd

of archaisms of language in a foreign land, and disbelieve the theory of the primitive home of the Aryas in India,' as it the uniform character of not

supported

only by

is,

the ancient Vedic Sanskrit with the

Aryan mother-tongue

in point of accent, phonetics and' grammar but also by the destructive evidence of the analogy in hand, namely,-

Aryan languages outmight again' be argued that no comparison

the disruptive side India.

character of

It

all

the

between the two languages that are not contemporaneous. We do not possess Greek, Latin and could be drawn

Lithuanian at such an early date as we happen to possess the Vedic. Our answer is that we could not possess those '

such an early date as the Vedic if we gave the Aryas a start from India. Indeed whatever may be the starting point of the Aryas from one compact area of at

languages

East or in the West, the various eastern or the western Aryan )anguages by the very nature

land to another in

'

the

of the gase cannot be quite contemporary with each other we must provide some time for the travel of language :

one country to another. This accounts for the comparative degree of archaic forms in the various Aryan

from

Now

languages.

we cannot have

since

Aryan

we can not

the Vedic

languages at such an exact date as dwell

those

on their archaic character belonging to the Vedic

These languages must have come into being after the Aryas had left India and settled in various countries.

age.

Thus India,

resembles

next Greek that

mean

to

etc.

From

this

a

in

say

form of a

distant is

this,

language

of

foreign that

in

we do a

in

Next comes Slavonic,

Vedic most.

the

primitive form

the

retained

home

Avestan being nearer the Aryan

the

not mean to say

language country.

cannot All

that

be

we

the analogy of the primitive,

a foreign

country

may

apply


Tl to

individual

taken

cases

singly,

but

not

to

the

he case of the Vedio, linked Avesian, Slavonic, Greek, together, in order of succession from a more to a less primitive form of tlfibroken scries of languages, as in all

language, thus forming a stair-case from the most ancient to the modern form. Now if -at the top Of the stair-case

wo put

the

Aryan mother -tongue round the geographical

area of the

Vedic language, the descent of the modern languages as we pags on from one

succeeding

archaic

neighbouring land to another becomes explicit- Prevedic, Vedic, Iranian, Slavonic, Greek, Latin etc. But if we posit the

Aryan

the stair-case

outer-Asia,

and the

the

mother-tongue

facts

stair-case

distance

only

as

in

of in

place,

is

elsewhere,

in

broken, the order

Europe is

or

reversed,

language remain unexplained. Again of language may not be the result time in it be formed by interval

may

we have

the

of the Vedic-Sanskrit-

stair-case

Here we get tbe historical continuity of the Vedic language as combined with the geographical continuity of its growth within India traced* one which step more continuity if

Prakrit- Vernacular

from

the

in

same

land.

Vedio would lead us back to the dawn of the

the

Aryan mother-tongue, if it is not the Vedic itself, in the same country, Thus on every consideration, the argument by analogy of a primitive language

in a

foreign country, present case; the archaic character of the ancient Vedic-Sanskrit and its historical

is

found

inadmissible in- the

continuity

up

geographical character of

to area,

the

most modern form in the same

its

ad

contrasted

Aryan languages

with the disruptive in

various countries

outside India, may be'taken as an additional ground that the Aryas in or supports the hypothesis of the home ofabout "the land**f the Veda that -formed a nucleus for the later

India.

dispersal of the

Aryan language within or without >


v As an

instance

of

agreement in support of our it may be n*>ted

theory of the Indian liome of the Aryas,

absolutely free from any foreign objects that may remind us of the home of the Aryas in Europe or Asia outside India that

the

anoient

Vedic-Sanskrit

is

designation of

few Semitic words in the Vedio language may be explained as loan-words due to the ancient trade cona

On the contrary, nections between India and Babylonia. as we shall presently show, the names of objects popularly found in the Himalayas in India are found Scattered in the

various

Aryan languages outside our view that in

agrees with

and of the

India.

Keith also

the case of the

Rigveda

Vedic texts, no instances of borrowing (from outer-Asia) are hinted at and that the religion of the Rigveda seems to stand free of foreign elements. later

VI.

Common names may

in

point out the objects

and may other

the

various

known

to the

Aryan languages undivided Aryas

point out the geographical and conditions of the undivided home of the

further

still

physical

which on a close study will be found to exactly with the north-western Himalayas and their Aryas,

fit

in

foot-

lands rather than with any other part of the world. Objects such as snow, hills, the birch, honey implying honeybees, trees, corn

such as dhana, vrihi and yava or barley,

the cow, sheep, horse, goose, cuckoo, wool, withy, lakes and fish, and the ploughed lands and metal, common names for which occur in

may not

singly

serve

The point

be as

the various Indo-European languages found in distant countries which could

a compact home for the undivided Aryas. is to single out a piece of land on the

therefore

which alone of all other parts of the world should be an abode for the collection of all those objects which are

earth,

*


T8

known to the undivided Aryas in their primitive home; common names for which objects still survive in the Various Aryan or Indo-European languages. The home of

the

the

Aryas must be sufficiently extensive to include whole collection of those objects for which common

names occur in"* the various Aryan or Indo-European languages. Thus the home of the Aryas must include hills, whose tops are covered with snow, it must be the home of the birch and various other trees,

and give shelter

to the

honey-bees which supplied the Aryas with honey, it must contain watery-places with withy growing on the banks, or lakes to attract swans and to include fish and turtles, it must contain .forests where the trees grow in abundance and where the cuckoo coos. It must contain hilly to give protection to the calf and open fields to a foal room to run and pasture-grounds for the sheep give to graze which supplied the Aryas with wool. It must

regions

furnish the

with land for ploughing and ores

Aryas

for

Such an yielding metal for their tools and weapons. extensive area of plains and hills including the collection of things enumerated above can by process of eliminaout

tion

be

the

north-western

the

singled

Himalayan

snow

as

the

mountainous regions

of

foot-lands; Himalayas with mountains and their valleys where the their

grows, the honey-bees swarm, the swans flutter, the trees such as the pine and the fir and other varieties grow, the cuckoo coos, the lakes (Aryanfalls,

the

birch

mira like the ancient Kashyapa-mira) with their fish, turtles, and swans are situated, where the swift horses, the prolific

cows and the woolly pheep are in abundance and where 47 * 1 there are karewas for cultivation of rice and barley,

and meadows for pasturing metal

such

cattle,

and mountain ores for Animals known to the

the iron or ay as. ancient Aryas such as the bear, wolf, weasel, deer, rabbit, as

mouse, ox, goat, pig, dog, eagle, hawk, owl, snake,

tortoise,


74 It is significrab, ant, fish are all found in the Himalayas, cant that there is no common name for salt in the Aryan said, is generally not found in large north-western Himalayas, though we cannot deduce any conclusion from argumentum ex silentio.

languages, which, quantities in the

It is

it is

no salt is found sound the Kashmir but certain salt-licks exist towhich th* valley stags resort in the spring. It is the that salt may be word suggested definitely stated that

derived from the Sanskrit word Salila which in

may

mean

that case

that might have been obtained round the salt-licks or any scattered deposits of salt in the Thus the area ot the extensive Himalayas. originally

Himalayas can

a brackish water

be described as the cradle of the enor-

fitly

mous Aryan

race that

the whole

world.

grew and expanded itself throughout The home of the Aryas must indeed be

an area of compact land and scattered

hills in the mountains that included such a of flora and fauna as described variety above. Such A compact and scattered character of the

home of

of the

their

Aryas

language.

Aryan language of

their

is

habitation

borne out by the character

The homogeneous character

of the

the result of the circumscribed area

the Himalayas which the Aryas first, and the multiplicity of names

in

had occupied from the and

also

is

a

superficial variety of grammatical forms in their language is the result of the scattered character of their abode marked by dales and valleys, secluded mountain

by

yet

to

close

communication

to ensure the

open homogeneity of the general life of the Aryan language and race. The variety of names and forms in the Aryan mother-tongue fully survives in the Vedic language. The mountainous home of the ancient Aryas therefore imist walls,

be in the neighbourhood of the home of the Vedic speakers This points to the Himalayas. It is admitted by eminent scholars that the ancient Aryas were not acquainted with the sea, they cannot therefore originally belong to the coast-line of Europe, in the Panjab.


75 held, can they be said to belong to

nor,

it is

the

south

or the

the north or

west of Europe, for these tracts of

were early occupied by the non-Aryan people; nor

land

can the Aryas be said to belong to the Teutonic territory in Europe, for the Teutonic languages are exceedingly disruptive in character the as belonging to

and they can hardly be conceived

home

the Aryas. than other Aryas the Himalayas do not furnish us with the full list of the requirements of the ancient Aryan home. For example, primitive of

The various suggested homes

or south-eastern

the

plains

own

a swift native horse

of

central

of

the

Europe do not

the Indo-European asva as its a quick horse (of. Skr. 3*w, Q-r. alcus

etymologj suggests was Lat acer swifO, the European variety being steppes of South-Russia do not furnish a 7

a

heavy one-the

common

'Indo-

74 * 8

which Schrader imagines might descend European bear every now and then on the Aryan home from the North Pole; and the mountainous regions in Central Asia are wanting in the prominent 'Indo-European' lakes and the the Aryan, 'mira', English, rnoore; and the Aryan jhasha, Latin pische, English fish all important objects in the ancient home of the Aryas. Again as Childe has fishes

noted,

North Europe possesses a

slow horse but

the

Aryas possessed a quick one, the asva as we have noted above, North Europe has a common product amber as has pointedout but the Aryas have no name for it. Poland, Lithuania and the Danube valley can not furnish us with the original home of the Aryas for their ancient

De Morgan

geographical conditions were not as suitable as they are past to-day and it is wrong to conclude the

found

geographical conditions of the land from the present ones. may be a home for a pastoral people if

South Russia

home but

an agricultural people. certainly agriculturists. Besides, South Russia does not supply us with salmon, the Vedio jhasha.

they have any

But the Aryas were

for not


U It is significrab, ant, fish are all found in the Himalayas. cant that there is no common name for salt in the Aryan

languages, which, quantities in the

said, is generally

it is

not found in large

though we cannot deduce any conclusion from argumentum ex silentio. It is definitely stated that no salt is found Bound the Kashmir north-western

Himalayas,

resort in valley but certain salt-licks exist towhich tha stags the spring. It is suggested that the word salt may be

derived from the Sanskrit word Salila which in

may

originally

mean

a brackish water

been obtained round the

that case

have

that might

any scattered deposits the extensive area of the

salt-licks or

Himalayas. Thus enorHimalayas can fitly be described as the cradle of the mous Aryan race that grew and expanded itself throughout the whole world. The home of the Aryas must indeed be an area of compact land and scattered hills in the mountains

of

salt in the

that included such a variety of flora and fauna as described above. Such <a compact and scattered character of the

home of

of the

their

Aryas

is

language.

Aryan language

is

also

borne out by the character

The homogeneous character

of the

the result of the circumscribed area

in the Himalayas which the Aryas of names the from had occupied first, and the multiplicity and a superficial variety of grammatical forms in their

of

their

habitation

of

their

language is the result of the scattered character abode marked by dales and valleys, secluded by mountain ensure the walls, yet open to close communication to

homogeneity of the general life of the Aryan language and race. The variety of names and forms in the Aryan, The mother-tongue fully survives in the Vedic language. must therefore ancient the mountainous home of Aryas be in the neighbourhood of the home of the Vedic speakers This points to the Himalayas. It is admitted by eminent seholars that the ancient Aryas were not acquainted with the sea, they cannot

in the Panjab.

therefore

originally

belong

to the

coast-line of Europe,


76 held, can they be said to belong to

nor,

it is

the

south

or the

the north 01

west of Europe, for these tracts of

were early occupied by the non-Aryan people; nor

land

can the Aryas be said to belong to the Teutonic territory in Europe, for the Teutonic languages are exceedingly disruptive in character and they can hardly be conceived the as belonging to home of the Aryas. primitive The various suggested homes of the Aryas other than

the Himalayas do not furnish us with the requirements of the ancient Aryan home.

full

list

of the

For example, the plains of central or south-eastern Europe do not

own

the Indo-European asva as its etymologj suggests was a quick horse (cf. Skr. Qtu, Gr. akus Lat acer swift\ the European variety being a heavy one-the a swift native horse r

steppes of South-Russia do not furnish a common 'Indo74 * 3 which Schrader imagines might descend European bear

every

now and

Pole: and

the

home from

then on the Aryan

mountainous regions

the North

in Central Asia are

in the prominent 'Indo-European' lakes and the the Aryan, 'niira', English, moore; and the Aryan jhasha, Latin pische, English fish all important objects in the ancient home of the Aryas. Again as Childe has

wanting fishes

noted,

North Europe possesses

a

slow horse but the

Aryas possessed a quick one, the asva as we have noted above, North Europe has a common product amber as

De Morgan

has pointedout but the Aryas have no name for it. Poland, Lithuania and the Danube valley can not furnish us with the original home of the Aryas for their ancient

geographical conditions were not as suitable as they are to-day and it is wrong to conclude the past

found

geographical conditions of the land from the present ones. may be a home for a pastoral people if

South Russia

they have any

home but

an agricultural people. But the Aryas were certainly agriculturists. Besides, South Russia does not supply us with salmon, the Vedic jhasba. for not


78 breed of Afghanistan (Kamboja) was always at the service of the Aryas which carried them from victory to victory in distant lands over alien people who were at a disadvantage on that score because they did not know how to ride

The Indo- Aryan conquerors

a horse.

of Babylonia appear

as teachers in the art of breeding horses in

that country discovered at Mittani document from the may appear Bogus Keui in Mesopotamia. The Aryas introduced the as

quick horse into Europe as is evident from the discovery of a figure showing the importation of the horse into Crete 47b The Aryas introduced the use of the third metal .

intoEurope-possibly iron, ores of which were found in the

The home of the Aryas, as we have already mountainous regions pointed out, must primarily be

Himalayas. arid

no other mountainous region on the surface of the

earth in Europe or Asia satisfies all the conditions of the of the Aryas than the Himalayas. The fair com-

home

plexion which the primitive Aryas are said to have possessed, their tall stature, strong build, virile

and enterprising

nature are just the qualities that are not found wanting even to this day in the hill-men of the northern Himalayas

and

their

foot-lands,

of their

inspite

subservianoe and fusion of blood with

the course of so

Himalayas

and

tract

of

centuries,

their

foot-lands

land

political

races during

Thus the north-western seem to us the most the ancient Aryas, for no

many

suitable place of habitation for

other

long

alien

on earth in Europe or outer-Asia

the conditions of the original home of the Aryas are warranted by the comparative study of the

fulfils all

that

Aryan-speaking nations on from the Mongols is required to stir pressure the Aryas from their supposed original home in Central

linguistic palaentology of the

earth.

No

Asia, as is held

by Carpenter,

for the

Aryan mother-tongue

betrays no sign of contact with the Mongols of Asia a country which does ifot satisfy the full

Central require-


70 ments of the home of the Aryas as they are known to us from the common vocables in the various Aryan languages. On the other hand the Himalayas provide us with more and historical grounds for the dispersal of the from their original home, as we shall discuss later Aryas on. Thus we have refuted the various arguments of Giles, Bender and Carpenter who located the Aryas, reliable

on grounds of some common vocables, in Central Europe, South Eastern Europe and Central Asia respectively, and have also established on similar but surer

chiefly

grounds our theory regarding the home of the Aryas in the Himalayas. The highlands in central Asia, or south eastern Europe or central Europe may a certain number of objects such j

which

horse etc.,

known

not the quick Aryan horse to the undivided Aryas. But

supply us with the

grounds

as

it

will be seen, tha$ '

full

with

cow the the that

sheep does

they do not

Indo-European' inventory of

Himalayas do. On linguistic and other regions other than the Himalayas may be

the

too,

rejected as the original tive

the

is

not decide the case. For

objects

supply us

evidence favours

home the

of the Aryas.

home

of

the

The cumulaAryas in the

Himalayas. VII.

Now

it

is

agreed

upon that the Veda dates back

from the times of the invasion of the Aryas into India.

But the Veda does not speak of the primitive home of the Aryas outside India. Babar the conqueror of India who settled in India too, fondly remembers in his memoirs his home outside India. So does every conqueror a foreign land if he settles there. It may be that the descendants of the conquerors such as the Greek of

and the Italian may forget the earlier home of their fore-fathers and invent in later times new stories of their original home, in Greece or Borne, but this cannot be said of the Vedic Aryas whose STeda,


80 which reveals warfare

in the north-west of India, of

temporaneous with their so-called invasion strange that the Aryas who conquerors of India should observe

Thus

it is

regarding side

India.

their

con-

India.

are said to be the

a perfect silence

attachment to their primitive home out*

The

singers

earlier singers of songs

of their ancestors

is

of

Veda speak

the

of

still

than themselves, they also speak they revere, such as the Bhrigus,

whom

the Navagvas and the Angirasas, but not once do they Was refer to the foreign home of their fore-fathers. there nothing to recommend it to them in their previous ? The Iranians speak of their earlier home in

home

Arayana-Vija,

the

India

Parsees in

know they had Bed

from Persia underjjfuslim persucution, so do the Kashmiris know who live on the plains in India. It may be that ages the early tradition of conquest or migration may be lost by the later descendants of the But the Vedic Aryas can settlers of the land. early

in

course

not be

of

supposed to come so

late in history, after the

conquest of India or migration to that land was made Complete, as to have forgotten the tradition of the early

home

of their fore-fathers.

Indeed

if

there were any con-

querors of India, they could be no other than

And Aryas themselves. isolation from the natives

the

Vedic

Vedic Aryas lived in of India and were conscious

if

the

of their superior race to the subject Indians, as Professor Giles would have us believe, there for

the more

reason

homes which they had before they entered India. The Mughul con-

their

just left

is all

remembering

their

knew they were foreigners in the land. India know it very well. Why should not the

querors of India

Englishmen in

Vedio conquerors of India have also known it ? They ought to have known it all the more because they are said to have lived in isolation.

But such

is

not the case.


Thus absence

of

any suggestion on the part of the

Vedio Aryas regarding their foreign home belies all our hopes and expectations of the European or the Asiatio

On the contrary, origin of the Aryas outside India. ihere are clear indications in the Veda of the Aryan people 470 Indeed the migrating to foreign lands- from India Veda seems to support the home of the Aryas in India. .

For on grounds

of comparative philology and comparative have come to learn that the Veda conserves

raytHblogy we not only the language of the undivided Aryas but also their entire religion, spirit and culture which it could not

have succeeded a land far the

in retaining if it had been composed in from the original home of the Aryas, as away

literary

compositions of the other Aryan tribes in could not retain, in all its purity, the

different countries

language and culture, of the undivided Aryas.

The Vedic

which count the year by winter months, (Sanskrit Himaj might have been composed in the cold regions of the Himalayas, and the later calculations in

of

the

verses

by autumn months (Sanskrit Sarada)

year

Veda might

the

from the Himalayas, and tiguous plains in India. the

year by

the

indicate

winters

their

descent of the Aryas expansion on the con-

The Vedic hymns which count could

not

be composed in colder Vedic hymns

regions outside India on whose plains the

which count the year by sarada were composed, for the winter-hymns do not differ much from the sarada-hymns in poiiht of style and therefore they do not imply much lapse of time between their composition, which would be explain change in location, if the Aryas India from foreign lands. The winter-hymns therefore must have been composed in the Himalayas required

came

in the

to

to

vicinity

of

the

Indian

plains

where

autumn

reigned supreme. The topography and the flora and fauna of the hills and foot-lands of the north western


82

are best reflected

home

the

Himalayas in India,

Vedic language with the Aryan in

point of accent, as the immediate

Aryas

Aryan

in the

fathers,

ancient Aryas, uniformity of the

the

The

Veda.

the

in

of

mother-tongue

chiefly

the Vedic already noted, makes

lineal

same

descendants

of the

early

land.

VIII. It

on the

based already pointed out that the argument Centum and the Satem group of languages

is

now set aside by the discovery of a Centum language, known as the Tokharian, in Turkistan. The argument may now be reversed and the home of the Aryas may now be which favoured the European home of the Aryas,

is

Centum-speaking TokhaIt would rians, are known as inhabitants of the East. be idle to suppose that the Tokharians were a colony of the Europeans in the East "at some later period in sought for in the East,

history,

for

the

Tokharians

along

with

known

to the ancient

East* 7d

.

the

for the

ancient

are

Khasas

Mahabharata

early related to India

of

Northern

as the

India,

Tusharas in the

Recent explorations in Asiatic Turkistan have

shown the presence

Aryan Buddhists in that land iu times mediaeval Thus Tukharistan in ancient times may have received a colony of the Aryas from India which got mixed together with the native population 47d

of

*

Asiatic Turkistan and produced the gutturalisation of the original sibilant sound for the first time in Turkistan,

of

which played such an important part in the history of European languages. Thus the Aryas with the Centum languages may have passed from Central Asia to Europe. But they were not the original Aryas in their original home, wrongly supposed by some scholars. These scholars by the conclusions of the philologists who the Centum and the Satem group of language* suggests as the two varieties of the supposed Indo-European palatal as is

are

misled


8 and the vooalio sounds and thus they seek for a central

home

of the speakers of the Indo-European mother-tongue,

which could account for the

of

the

and

growth

Centum and the Satem group

expansion

of languages in

But we hold that the characteristics of Centum languages are chiefly the result of foreign speech-habits on the Satem which form the characteristics

different lauds.

the

Indo-European or the Aryan mothertongue. The original Satem language of the Himalayas as it was conveyed to Asiatic Turkistan was given the the

of

original

characteristics of the

Centum language by

lation

its

the

in

according

to

own

its

speech-habits.

Himalayas themselves

may have

alien

The

popu-

valleys

furnished

an

the homogeneous Aryan mother-tongue, which was later intensified by the Aryan people in foreign lands or in later times in India itself. of

indistinct dialectical

variety

For purposes

enquiry into tho

of our

original

home

of

the Aryas it is not necessary for us to discover whether the Satem characteristics of the 'Indo-European' or Aryan

mother-tongue were original or not, for the Tokharian with its Centum form of pronunciation in Asiatic Turkistan

the or

on the one hand and the Vedic with

other,

may

lead

us

to the original

Aryan mother-tongue with

its

Satem on

Indo-European

its 'indistinct'

parent-sound

which gave birth to the guttural sound on the one hand and the sibilant on the other. This parent-sound may be the placed in the neighbourhood of the two countries, Centum-land of Asiatic Turkistan and the Satem-land Panjab, on a prominent central place that commanded an easy access to these countries, which place may be identified with the Himalayas as we have already stated of the

on grounds of common vocables in the Aryan motherThus the original tongue as well as on other grounds.

home

of the

between

Aryan mother-tongue must bo sought midway and the Punjab, which on all

Turkistan


may be found to fit in well with the Himaancient home of the Khasas and of the

considerations,

the

layas,

Tusharas of Turkistan according to the Indian 'tradition. IX.

We in

now go on

support

India.

our

of

to quote the

archaeological evidence of the home of the Aryas in theory

It is as follows.

The recent excavations among the Hittite archives at Boghas Keui have brought to light a Mitanni document that deals with horse-breeding and relates the Aryan numerals thus: aika (one), terns (three), Penza (five), Satta (seven),

Nava

(nine).

Now Satta

In India

ficant.

we know

Satta

is

is

very signian ancient Prakrit form

signifying

seven,

Thus the Satta-speaking Aryas could not have invaded India from the upper Euphrates for the Indian Sapta can in no way be derived from the for Sanskrit Sapta.

western

Asiatic

"

Satta

"

(for

4

P'

would be inexplicable

were derived from Satta) but satta can from Sanskrit Sapta by way of assimilation of p with the contiguous t in We Satta, a form so familiar in the Indian Prakrits. recognise Satta as an Indian commodity in free use among in Sapta,

if it

easily be understood as derived '

'

;

'

the Aryan fighters of Mitanni on the land of Western are therefore not wrong in concluding that

Asia.

We

the

Satta-speaking people were originally the Indian invaders in Balylonia. The term satta used in 1400 B. C.

by the Indian conquerors of the upper-Euphrates indicates the process of an earlier Prakritization of Sanskrit in India than we are wont to believe. But it will be objected that this form of result of

Prakritization need not be the

an alien mixture with the Aryas in India or

outside India, but,

from Latin,

this

as

may

in

modern

Italic

that

is

derived

follow as a matter of course under the

phonetic laws of ease and economy in language. Indeed, we have forms of Prakritization even in the ancient


We

Veda.

need not therefore posit an alien race side by Aryas in India in order to explain the origin

side with the

of the Satta-form, for the Sanskrit

of

the

Aryan

Tommy

very well differ from its Parliamentary standard. we do not want to raise this issue here, although we

may

Now

hold a different opinion on the subject. ^e Be that as it may, for it dops not vitiate our proposition of the Aryan -

invasion

may

people of

Babylonia from India; the Satta-epeaking be pure Aryas or Aryas having the stamp

of

non-Aryan influences on their language from India,

does not matter, as long as it is recognized that the Satta-form is an Indian commodity on Western soil. it

Now

the

as

1400 B.

Satta

in

the Mitanni

we must give

C.,

document

is

dated

a margin of at least a hundred

years for the Satta-speaking emigrants to travel from India This brings us to about 1600 B. C. as the to" Babylonia. starting-point of is

the date

India

Aryan migration from

India.

But

this

when

for

the Aryas are supposed to have entered first time. How absurd to suppose a

the

'

speedy return of the invading Aryas from India with the stolen property of Indian Satta which they must' *

live

in

they

India

for

invaded India

sometime at all

to

must

possess

The Aryas

!

settle in India,

if

coin the

take centuries, and then go back to their Babylonian home, if India repelled them .or did not suit them well. In Babylonia itself, the Aryas do not appear Satta which

may

as a settled people but as conquerors only.

They

therefore

not originally .belong to Babylonia. The Sattespeaking people of Western Asia could not be the Aryan tribes from Iran either. For the Iranian word for seven is could

Hapta,

(another

form derived from Sapta) from wkteh

Similarly the phonetically be derived. i > Mitanni 'Aika' (one) is derived from Sanskrit Bfctt for in

Satta

cannot

Zend,

'one'

is'Aeva'.

original Sanskrit palatal

In

'

sound

Penza '

Oh

',

',

<Z'

represent*

which

tbd

is<*0 dttftaflt


86 to

people that it gave birth variant sounds among the Aryan-speaking people

pronounce for various

to

many

as

T

'

'

in Greak,

Kashmirian

'

Que

in Latin,

Z

and

Northern India as

dialects in

'

'

or

4

TS

ts6r

'

y

in the

for ohfir

(5) and 'Zlva' for Skr. Jiva. Thus the (4), Satta-speaking people of Mitanni were originally Indians and they can not be considered as a stray people returning from India to Babylonia, for they were the real conquerors of the land as early as 1400 B. 0. The rulers

'Panz' forPanch

names such

of Mitanni had Indian

as Sutarna, Dusratta

they signed solemn treaties and invoked the Indian gods Indra, Varuna, Mitra and Nfcsatya which names etc,

could not be derived from the Iranian branch of the Aryas, for

the

Mittra

is

Zend equivalent Mithra,

of

and in

the

by Ahuramazda and Indra

is

Naonhaitya, of

is

Nasatya

Zend, Varuna

degraded

as a

is

replaced

demon,

The

kings of Mitanni are not the only Indo- Aryan kings in Babylonia. The Tel-el -arnarna tablets mention Aryan in Syria and Palestine too, for example; Biridaswa of Yanoan, Suwardata of Keilash, Yasadata of Taanach. Now Biridaswa cannot be an Iranian

princes

king

for

Vistaspa.

the

Biridaswa

Vrihadaswa

47f

form

Iranian so

is

of

Aswa

the Prakrit form

of

in

Indian

name Birid

an

being the Prakrit form of the Sanskrit vrihat. is

as

to the Indian tradition

distinctly

familiar

Aspa

is

Sanskrit Yasadatta.

Yasadata

Names with

Datta as the second element of words as in Suwardata are quite

common

Deva Datta, as in the

just as

in India, as the proverbial

names with Parna

Somadatta or

as the second element

Vedic name Tfctuparna which has

its

derived

form in Greek Artaphernes are popular names in ancient India. Keith is wrong in holding that Arta in names, such as Artatama, a Mitanni prince, may be derived from the Iranian Arta.

For the patronymic Aryan names

type do occur in India

also,

of that

for example, note, Artabfthga


in the Brihdftranyaka deities are also found

a

Names

of Indo-Aryan

the Kassities,

who established

Up aa is had. among

royal dynasty Babylon about 1760 B.C-. such as Suria (Indian Surya) Maruttas (Indian Marutas) Bugus, (Indian Bhaga) Indas (Indian Indra). The Kassites also at

retain the

memory

of the

Himalayas as Simalia.

Later on

the Greeks converted the Himalayas into Emodos or Imaos. The Kassites are also said to have introduced the use of horses for drawing

chariots in the 'ancient East' and the

Babylonian name for horse 'Susu' the Aryan Asva' as *

The Kassite deity

'Aspa'.

said to be derived from

is

can not be derived from the Iranian

it

'Indas'

can not be derived

from the Iranian Indara signifying a demon. Similarly the ;iame Assara Mazas that occurs in the library of AssurAssyria (700 B. C.) can not be said to be derived from the Iranian Ahura mazda, the Assyrian Assur

banipal

is

more

of

related

to

the

Vedic Asura than to the Avestan

Ahura; arid the Assyrian Mazda, may be the precusor of the Iranian Mazda, derived by metathesis from the Vedic medhas-Asura and Medhas being the epithets of Varima in

Veda.

the

Now

if

the

names

of

the Indo-Aryaii

form a part and parcel of the important names of people in Western Asia as early as 1760 B. 0., and if the Indo- Aryas had migrated to Western Asia from India they deities

must be a

settled people in India

about 2000 B. C. before

they could possibly have invaded and conquered Babylonia in 1760 B. C. This tears into pieces the theory of the incur-

Aryas into India at 1600 B. C. Now if we do want to bring the Aryas into India from abroad, we must bring them not later than 2000 B. C. But such an early date of sion of the

the Aryan invasion into India cannot be upheld, for

not

fit

which

in with the linguistic is

dated at 600

and 800 or 1000 B.C.

form of the

B. 0. according to

earliest

it

will

Avestan

one calculation

utmost according to another, and which so closely resumbles the Vedic that the latter can at the


not be said to be separated from the former by such a long interval of one or one and a half millenium. But you may put the Aryan invasion into India at whatever date

you is

like,

the proposition will always remain^ untrue, for

it

not supported by any facts of language or history aa we it. The Aryan Mandas in Iran in 2500 B. C. (?) may

know

be one of the aforeign land,

Aryan tribes who left India for and we have no reason to believe that the earliest

Mandas had ever invaded

India.

We

have shown on

grounds of language that Indo-Aryas appear in history previous to the Aryas in Asia and that the Asiatic or the

Western Aryas are but a branch are therefore in absence of

ike earlier migration of of

any

of the Indo-Aryas.

We

historical proof regarding

Aryas to India from abroad, are

that the Indo-Aryas migrated from their foreign primitive home in India. Again it will be asked: Granting that there was no invasion from Western Asia into India, might not the Aryas have come to India from Central Asia or the Asiatic distinctly

to

opinion

lan'ds

Turkistan or from Iran

? Our answer is as we have elsewhere stated There was no Aryan migration into India from foreign lands none from the mountainous regions of :

Central Asia which do not provide us with the full list of objects necessary to the ancient home of the Aryas whose

language betrays no point of contact with the Mongolians of Central Asia; none from the plains of Asiatic Turkistan, for

was only the land of bifurcation of the Aryan mother-tongue and not its original home and none from that

Iran either- for the ancient Iranian language and literature,

which happily are available at their early stages so as to resemble closely with the Veda are marked with foreign 48 influences and point to the Indian The quesoriginals .

tion

might again be pressed in another form; could we not suppose a still more ancient period in the history of

the Aryan

race

when

the Aryas

who

lived in Iran or in


the neighbourhood of Iran outside India were not yet divided as Iranians and Indians, but formed one nation

the same language, possessed the same owned the same culture but whioh in later times literature, only divided itself into two nations, the Iranians, who kept at home in Iran, and the Jndians, who migrated to India; each of them after partition developing its own

which spoke

language and literature on Iranians having their their

having is,

A vesta

Veda and

its

own

individual lines

:

the

and the Zend and the Indians

Our answer

the Vedic Sanskrit.

that the

ancient period of the unity of the Aryan race neighbourhood of Iran outside India, before it split

in the itself

There

Indians

into is

and Iranians

no proof of

its

existence.

is

purely hypothetical.

We can not

assume

its

existence as

is order to prove it. It does n*t explain facts It is are and there are no grounds to support it. they

a figment .of our own imagination a pure myth and all evidence goes against it. The old Avestan language of Iran has distinct marks of deterioration from the original

Vedic standard in point of phonetics and several other characteristics in language and literature, and is not half pure as the Vedic-Sanskrit, though it is not much removed in date from the Vedic-Sanskrit, its earliest

as

has

literature is

religion

traces

a revolt

of

Indian

against

the

reminiscences

Vedic that

48

is

,

and

its

distinctly

All the important facts of the Iranian language and religion can be explained from our study of the Vedic. language and literature. We had stated above that Keith

Indian.

put the Aryas in Central Asia on the basis of the Tokharian language which resembled the European languages in treatment of vowels and appeared

to be inclined to

sibilants.

But we hold that the variation of vowels and

the gutturalization may not be of an ancient date -they may only be a later growth in the Aryan language as it

passed

on from India across Central Asia to Europe.


90 Indeed the Indian Prakrits and the Indian vernaculars follow

also

the

European

of

treatment

of

way

vowels and the sibilant. Note, Sanskrit Pushkara, Prakrit Pdkhara, Skr. Devara, Vern. DSara, Sanskrit Asru,

Bhadrawahi,

make

Would Keith on

Enkhru.

home

India the

of the

account

that

Aryas and not

these

treat

changes as due to the influences of alien speech-habits on their languages? If not, why should he make Tokharistan the probable

Keith

home

of the

We

Aryas?

guide us in matters of philology. According line of argument, Keith should best locate the

fails to

to his

own

Aryas

in the Himalayas, the central

European birth

must confess that

to

mother-tongue, the

distinct

which

home in

Centum form

of

later

of

the

Indo-

times

gave

pronunciation

amid influences of the non-Aryan speech-habits both in Europe or parts of Asia on the one hand, and India in later

still

on

times

the

other.

The contiguity

of the

Himalayas with the plains of India and the consequent force of the original Satem traditions in India did not permit tho indistinct

Centum

characteristics to

appreciable degree as

and as

e tan,

they grew

grow

in India to

in outer Asia, in

far as the particular vowels

any TokWri-

are concerned

acquired a place-value for them in the European languages. In face of all these facts before us, it would be futile to

turn back the tide of the Aryan migration from outer-Asia or Europe to India, instead of carrying it from India to

The Aryan languages outside India have undoubtedly sprung from the bosom of the Indo-Aryans. As 'the Indo- Aryans started their journey outer-Asia and to Europe.

'from

India

to

and

foreign lands, and

in

their

way,

alien

came

in composition with their language, the force of ancient tradition slackened in a foreign

ethnic elements

land, slowly but surely their language

underwent a change

and gave birth to many new languages as Greek, Latin, German, Lithuanian, Iranian etc, all of which from the time


91

we know them

are in a state

of decay

the

like

Indian

Prakrits, compared with the model supplied by the ancient Vedio Sanskrit. The ancient Vedic-Sanskrit barring as

a few isolated cases of archaic forms of words met with in the other of

Aryan languages, stands

Aryan language known

original standard of the

to us

as the

most archaic form

conforming best with the

Aryan mother-tongue

in point of

49 accent, phonetics and grammatical structure .

The purity of the word

or of the sentence accent, the

purity of the consonantal system, and the purity of the grammatical or the syntactical structure in a language, and not the presence of a few archaic forms of words or

turns of expression, go to prove the direct continuity of that language in its native country and its direct descent

among

its

lineal

descendants.

This triple purity of Vedic-Sanskrit in India,

language is observed in the which is vitiated in -the various Aryan languages that followed it. This argument favours the home of the ancient Aryas round about the home of the Vedic people that points to the Himalayas. Indeed, the threads of all our discovery in the realm of mythology or of religion, in the domain of languages or of culture and in the fields of archaeology, in different countries and among different

Arj>an-speaking people, meet at their centre in India. India is the radiating centre. There is no ray of light in Central Asia or Iran or Lithuania or Greece or Rome or

Germany

or Scandinavia that does not converge to a point

at the central sun in India.

India appears to conserve at

a central point all the Aryan forces that radiate in different directions in "Western Asia or Central Asia or

South Russia or Europe. Taking

by the Aryas such as Germany Lithuania or Iran into each the

country has ancestral

its

the countries peopled or Greece or Rome or all

consideration,

own

share

Aryan languages or

we

shall find that

of the religion

treasures of

or

culture


which may not be shared by the other country, but it is a significant fact that India possesses not only the Aryan Germay, Greece, Rome, Lithuania, or outer-Asia put together but something over and above them all. The language and literature of the In do- Aryantreasures of Scandinavia,

in general terms, be described as the

may

Veda,

theogony

the Aryan-speaking people of the world, in ancient times, For example, the Latin Mars, the Greek TJranos, the Slavonic Perkuna, the Teutonic as well as the lexicon of

all

Mannus, the Iranian Yima,

all

of them, the singular posses-

sions of each of the different people, are really the

possessions of the In do- A. ry as,

the Parjanya, the

The Indo-Aryas conglomerates

of

Manu could these

and the not

common

as the Marutsa, the Varuna,

Yama

be supposed

various

people, for

respectively.

be

the

their

most

to

primitive and general name of the Deity assumes a more developed sense among some of these people. Thus the Sanskrit Dyans, is anthropomorphized signifying sky in

Greek as Zeus,

in Teutonic

signifying

originally

the

as Zio; and the Skr.

'bright one*

is

Deva

given a reverse

demon in Zend, but is form of meaning as God in original 49 * Greek, Latin, Teutonic, Slav, and Celtic languages. Surely on grounds such as this, one canmiot help thinking that meaning

as

Daeva signifying

evil

allowed to retain the

the Indo-Aryas were the root cultural stock out of which branches had sprouted forth in various various

the

must be noted that the phonetic forms and the meanings of the few important Indo- Aryan terms illustrated above, do not only explain the form and meaning of their countries.

It

equivalents in the various languages and prove them as derivatives but these original Indo-Aryan names

their

are also admitted as identical in form and

moaning with the

names

Now

in the hyphothetical Indo-European mother-tongue. the question is, why could not these various languages

preserve

the

ancient

form or meanig of these terms as


M Vedio-Sanskrit was able to do t

the ancient

pointed oat again that their early stages

as

It

might be

we did not know these languages in we knew the Vedio Sanskrit. But,

surely these languages were not in a state of conspiracy If their past existed why did it perish to crush their past.

in the oase of on3 and all of these languages alike outside

India

?

of this,

There can only be one satisfactory explanation namely, that none of the languages flourished in

the home-land of the Aryas other than the Vedic-Sanskrit which alone could therefore conserve all the forces of the

mother-tongue at the centre, which forces were exhausted in different countries where the Aryas were swamped

The same phenomenon by people of alien ethnic stocks. took place in later times in India itself. As the Aryas from

their

home

in

the Himalayas and their

footlands,

spread

themselves in the south and the east and the west

of

they came in contact with folks of different type and the Vedic-Sanskrit quickly transmuted

India,

ethnic

into the classical Sanskrit, lost its accent and a of words and a variety of grammatical forms; stock large later and still on, under the force of the great ethnic

itself

assumed the full-fledged form of Prakrit changing into modern vernaculars, one of which namely Hindi having in recent times come in contact with the disturbances

Urdu which we now speak in and in most parts of India. have already refuted the argument of analogy

foreigners gave birth to the streets of Delhi

We of

the

languages preserving archaic

forms of expression in

foreign countries as inapplicable to the archaic form of Sanskrit in India. Thus" there is no difficulty in believing

thA

India was the base from which the conquering Aryas started their campaign into various lands-

now words uncommon common stock of Let ns

revert to our old

argument of tracing

Aryan languages to the the ancient Vedio-Sanskrit and add

to

various


94

same more examples

to

it,

by way

of

Take

illustration.

for example, the Teutonic ohunig, Lithuanian Ozy, Latin Uluous, Greek Polis, Avest. Hanzra, words uncommon to

these

different

Janaka,

Ulukas,

Aja,

common

but

languages

Paras,

to

Sanskrit as

and Sahasra.

Again the

grammatical forms are worn down in each of the Aryan languages outside India and all of them so clearly point to the Sanskrit or the Vedic originals, that they need not be mentioned here. Similarly there are forms of accent and

phonetic

peculiarities

belonging to each

of the

Aryan

languages outside India that are explicable only in the light of the original Vedic accent and phonetics. But it will be objected that there are words such as 'Star' in English and the grammatical forms such as Esthos' in Greek and the sound GH such as we meet in the Avest. Dughdar, which do not point to the Vedic originals. Bub this can '

not be true, for the terms, 'Stara', signifying a star, exists in the Veda, from which we get. the name of the Babydeity 'Ishtar' whose symbol the form Esthos may not occur in the

lonian

is

a

star.

Again

standard language known to Sanskrit

of the Veda but the original root 'As' is and the form 'As' is preserved in the singular present in

Sanskrit

(aster allopah).

of the prothetic

V in Greek.

above

late

the

is

may

It

Sanskrit

The sound

'gh* as referred to

with a

guttural form of ancient Indian

*h'

known

pronunciation

be a case of solecism or

to

the

already phoneticians as akuha Visarjantyandm

kanthah.

In

this

archaic forms to the

manner, many Vedio originals which in our ignorance we suppose to be Pre-Vedic in date. No doubt some really archaic forms do it

is

exist in the

possible to trace

Aryan languages outside

Pre- Vedio in date, and

it is

India,

that

very delightful to

map be

find them,

but a handful of suoh arohaio forms in the modern languages do not go to prove the ancient date of those languages. Later Prakrits also preserve such archaisms


95 in

India

place-values of e and o vowels, which are of may be of a later

the

supposed

V

be the variants

to

growth only in the European languages. Different marks of

Aryan culture peculiar to many in different countries outside India Aryan-speaking people are all common to ancient Indo-Aryas. For example, the 'Coloration' of the skeleton with red

ochre characteristic

observed to this day in North India in Kashmir where the face of the dead body is coloured of South-Russia

is

with red ochre and the explanation given is that the dead person thereby is made a Bhairava an attendant of

The perforated

Eudra. the Vedio Deity. is

the characteristic of

the

battle-axe,

which

European Nordics who are

described as the battle-axe folk,

is

characteristically

the

Indian battle-axe or 'Parasu'. (The leader of the battleaxepeople

in

was the famous Parasu Rama

India

preceded the later ashes

in

cinerary

who

of Eastern India and also fought

The cremation

with him). of

Rama

of the dead

urns

in

and the depositing

ancient

Italy,

Greece,

North Germany and among the Celts but not among the Iranians, was, as we know, a common practice in the Vedio age in India. The transcauoasian decorations on early ironage vases in Europe such as spirals, concentric circles and the famous Swastika are distinctly Indian motifs.

The Swastika which the Aryas have in their

native

land,

throughout

so widdly maintained the long course of

their life-history, can not be supposed to

have

its

origin

Europe or outer-Asia, largly to disappear in those countries and to reappear with a vehement force and with a vengeance we should say, in India, where we find it in

painted,

Casual

from door finds

of

to

Hindu houses. outer-lands do not make

door in orthodox

Swastika in

these lands the original home of the Swastika, as the find of an ancient solitary temple of the Virgin


96

Mary

in South-India

original

home

would not make that country the

Roman

of

Catholic

The

Christianity.

monolithic pillars and stone-circles found among the monuments of some people abroad are not missing in Thus it is surprising to note that the various culIndia.

marks of Aryan civilization scattered among various people in outer-Asia and Europe meet together in India. tural

The Indo-Aryas can not be supposed to be a oongerie of the different Aryan nations outside India, whose essential marks of civilization they possess. The conclusion is therefore,

irresistible,

the

that

Indo-Aryas

formdd a

parent-stock and possessed the unity of the ancient Aryan culture in India which diffused itself in various countries, as time rolled on.

X Argument from the Delude,

The

Indian, the Iranian

and the Semitic literature all possess the tradition of an ancient deluge. Now if the Aryas had diffused from India abroad into Asia we must fincj, an actual deluge of waters and snow having taken place in ancient times in Northern India, which could furnish us with a basis for later accounts of the deluge outside India. in ancient India we have the deluge of waters

Now

at the

Mira

bursting a vivid

of

the

lake

account

of

of

Kashmir or Kashyapa

which

is

given

lacustrine

of

origin of

Kashmir

in

Kashmir or the bursting

ancient

India

is

also

the

in

Nilmat60 the ancient legendary history of Kashmir.

The

of the -lake

borne out by the

evidence supplied by geologists. The inundation of the huge volume of waters let loose from the Kashayapa Mira,

Kashmir, by the breaking down of the walls, as it swept over on all sides and down

or the lake

mountain

of

into the plains carrying it

men,

away everything

cattlo and* trees all alike

that

oame before

must have been

in

ancient times a potent factor in driving out the Aryan


inhabitants of the Himalayas

and

on

their'footlantU

to

t

plains below and into foreign countries. These Arya carried with them the accounts of the deluge of the waters

Kashyapa-kke which

of the

formed a

basis

for the

account of the Iranian deluge, the deluge of Noah, and Bat the the various accounts of the Indian deluge. not the deluge of the flood of waters, it is the deluge of snow and excessive winter and the Semitic deluge indicates heavy rains. No explanation of

'Iranian

is

deluge

the deluge of waters can be satisfactory unless it accounts both for rains and the fall of tmow, which appear in the

accounts of the Semitic and the Iranian deluge respectively. of snow cannot be said to be based

The Iranian deluge on the it

recollection of the Semitic deluge of rains,

be true vice versa

;

nor can

but both the accounts can be traced

back to a third source namely the floods of the waters of the Kashmir-lake accompanied by heavy rains and the fall

of-s&ow.

Thunder showers or heavy

snow, excessive

winter,

breaking

down

rains,

of

fall

hills

of

and

mountains are the usual phenomena in the Himalayas known even to this day. The floods of water in Kashmir are responsible for several migrations of the people from that

country to the south, even late in Thus heavy seasmic changes in the Himalayas

part

history.

of

the

took place in ancient times, which were accompanied by

snow and

the breaking down of the mounout tains, draining large volumes of water confined in the Kashmir lake. We note the three distinct accounts

rains,

winter,

of waters, of snow, and of rains preserved in the three narrations of the deluge, the Indian first recorded in of floods

the Satapafeh a

Brahman,

respectively, all pointing to

and the Semitic a common source which may

the

Iranian,

indicate the cataclysmic change in the Himalayas in the ihape of the floods of the waters of the Kashmir-lake

accompanied by thunder-showers

and snow and winter,


the faithful account of which ancient

local

tradition

is

only preserved in the

whioh

of

Kashmir, expression in the Nilmat, and whioh

is

finds

so amply

its

borne

out by the expert opinion of the geologists on the subject.

There seems

to

be no satisfactory way in whioh

account for the story of the deluge

common

to

we can different

people except by making the Himalayas the original home of the ancient Aryas, which, the Aryas, as they were threatened by the deluge, left for Asia and the plains of India

where they carried the accounts of the deluge whioh they had experienced at home* This supplies us with a strong reason for driving out the Aryas from their ancient home and lends support to our theory of the home of the Aryas

Himalayas and their adjoining valleys There plains. may be some other good reasons for whioh the Aryas were compelled to leave their home in in the Norths-western

and

the Himalayas, even before the deluge had actually taken place, namely, the over-population and the consequent

want of food-supply in the hilly tracts of the Himalayas, and the excessive winter whioh is said to be the main reason why the Iranians left the Ariana-Bija their original home whioh may be round the Himalayas. We need not therefore postulate the pressure of the Monguls lor the first great movement of the Aryas from their original

home. reasons it.

The deluge

in

the

we have mentioned,

The lowest

limit

Himalayas or various other will satisfactorily

of the date of the deluge

Kashyapa lake that may agree with the date

explain of the

of the deluge

according to the Hebrew tradition about 3000 B. C., which agrees with the tradition of the Sapta Bishi era now current in Kashmir the year 1930 A. D. correspon-

ding with the Sapta Bishi era 6002 pointing to 3072 B, 0. as the starting point of the Sapta Bishi era, which may be the date of the habitation of Kashmir by the Aryas aftirr it was cleared of its waters, as well as the date of the dis-


not necessarily for the

persal

time, of a large section

first

of the Aryas into distant lands. Eashyapa the founder of Kashmir has according to the Nilmat entered the valley

with his following from inside and not from outside India. India may send oat Mandas to outer-Asia in 2600 B. G.

Even

if

vitiate

the date of the deluge be

our theory of the

still

home

does not

earlier it

of the

in

the

based on Indian tradition.

We

Aryas

Himalayas.

XL Our

last

is

not believe in the anthentioity of a tradition

ourselves do

by

argument

but we have no grounds to reject

itself

it, if it

is

supported by strong reasons. We shall therefore not blindly follow the Indian tradition in this respect, but shall

make use

of

as far as

it

it

stands the

test of

reason

and

authority.

In the

first

place,

we know the Indian

tradition

regards the Himalayas, especially the Northern regions, the Uttara Khanda, as the most sacred spot on earth.

important gods and goddesses of the Hindus, their ancient sages and wise men from the most ancient Alt the

times, are said to reside in the

Northern or towards the

North-western Himalayas, and a pilgrimage to the Uttarft Khanda, at least once in life, is still considered as an act of piety

by the

Manu

religious Hindus.

records the tradition of the

Bhrahma

Varta,

the

country between the Saraswati and the DrishadThe usage which has been Vati, as fashioned by gods. the pure neighbourhood of the

traditionally received in that country

usage.

Brahma

Further Varta,

south is

in

situated

the

in the

is

called

Brahma

Bisi country,

the country of Kurukshetra, the Matsyas, the Panohalas, the Saurasenas, from which oountry all the men upon 51 earth are called upon by Manu to learn their respective


MO Next

tine in order comes the 'Madhya Deta, moanand the between the Vindhya country Himalayas tains, to the Bast of^the Saraswati and to the west of

duties.

!

Next 'follows the wider region of Ary*Varta the country between the Himalayas in the north, the Viodhyas in the south, and the ocean in the east Allahabad.

1

and the ocean in the west. In all these four regions mentioned by Maim, as the Brahma Varta, the Brahma Rishi country, the M&dhya Desha and the Arya Varta, one atety read the four successive stages

of

the expansion of

the Aryas in India from the banks of the Saraswati. The expansion of the Aryas in the east from the banks of the

Saraswati up to the Sadanira is further marked by the 'Mathava legend in the Satapatha Brahmana. Manu we

have seen in marking the boundary-line of the Arya Varta does not go farther south than the Vindhyas. The Puranas relate the legend of Agastya crossing the

Vindhya range mission

of

for

Agastya

the

first

in the

time;

south,

as

and the peaceful learn from the

we

Eamayana, was soon followed by the regular campaign from the east by Rama, who, according to the Bamayana, met the followers of Agastya in the south, formedalliances with the southern people and carried his victorious arms to the extreme south and linked Ceylon with India. Thus with the Eamayana the unity of India was made complete.

The northern Arya- Varta

to a wider Bh&ratavarsha.

of

But let us

Manu gave

birth

retrace our steps to

the banks of the Saraswati and seek the original cradle of the Aryas before they made further expansion in the south, or the east, or the west.

Now Manu

certainly does

not speak of the original home of the Aryas on the Saras wati though the Saraswati is held in great esteem 'both

in later as well us in the ancient Vedio times.

tradition of the pure usages in the ^Brahmft Varta batiks of Saraswati, as related by Manu, may

The

on the have


01

**Okd iorm in

-ttquired 4tt

aught

feave originated

eonatry oixly^ but ^fc aorbh in India iu the further .tiiat

;

We note that the Vedio people speak of their

Himalayas. as the Sap ta-Sindha, north of the Saras w^tit and the Iranian -tradition which refers to Hapta Hindu confirms

home

that view.

Yaska notes the Vedio

river Suvftstu,

or the

modern Swat, on the northern frontier of. India as a place of pilgrimage and of inaoh importance, to which the people

flocked

together

eagerly r*-^r

Savftstu seems to have been

(B. v, 6, 1, 35, 7).

with

good houses in those days as name suggests. Satyavrata the

the

famished

etymology

it as suggests are* we to reconcile

of

the probable home of the Aryas, How all these facts of tradition regarding the original home of the Aryas, the Brahmivarta of Manu, the Suvastu of

Yaska according to Satyavrata, and the Sapta Sindhu of the Yedic people. Indeed Yaska does not suggest Suv&stu but the neighbour-hood of the Suvftstu ,as the place residenceof Aryas .in the Vedic times. Note, gTT^5 gt^fttl'' Wfr qjir ^ ,

later

-

WCn^l. Noy

all

of If^ft

these facts of the if we down below on

habitation of the Aryas can best be reconciled

posit the original

home

of the Aryas not

-the plains of the Panjab or outside India but on the high Himalayas that look over the plains and command an

easy access to them within or without India. Our theory is that the Aryan folk lived in the secluded valleys of the ,

Himalayas, open to

communication with each

other.

This

geographical condition of their home accounts for the luxuriant variety of names and grammatical forms and the dialectical variety. in their

language with

its

homogeneity

ensured. It Accounts for their tribal form of living and th$ir tribal deities ^firer

and

common form of worship through eommoa d&voo& to the sun, both sources

with the

their

of 'great blessing

in

the cold Himalayas whose forests


102 of trees supplied the Aryas with ample fuel for FireworHere in the Himalayas the Aryas had their light *hip.

and occupations of pastoral

agriculture

life

combined.

Npw under the calamity of the deluge of the waters of the Kaahyapa lake or of excessive cold, or under pressure of own

increasing population and the search for land for cultivation, the Aryan tribes descended from the hills their

along the Himalayan streams the Sapta Sindhus as they flowed down into the Punjab and showed them the way to the plains

below where the Aryas had room enough on all sides. The Indus in the

themselves

to

spread north showed them the tributaries

did,

way

to the Punjab, as its other

and so did the Saraswati further south.

The former formed the northern boundary and the latter southern boundary of the first Aryan home on the

the

the Sapta Sindhu. Here for the

time the Aryas political problem of the greatest magnitude. The geographical conditions of their home were plains

first

were confronted with the

now changed and under new arisen,

situation

The Aryas were forced

new problems had

to live

more

closely

on

the plains and they had large vistas of conquest of land open before them. It is natural that the tribal jealousies for

supremacy should now

how

arise.

the

We

note in the Veda

themselves

for possesAryas fight among Yet the Aryas were wise enough not to overlook the unity of their raoeand language and culture as they had still greater problem to face, namely, the

sion of land.

consolidation

the

Empire in the Punjab Thus we note in the surrounding Veda, the busy Arya plodding his way, now, from tjie Indus to the Saraswati, now from the Saraswati to the Indus travelling in both directions, from the north to the south and from the south to the north as we notice in the famous Nadisukta of Yishvamitra. c At last the first Aryan Empire was built the Sapta Sindhu, against their

of

Aryan

foes.

.


103

which

easily spread itself in the north

and

and the northwest

the regions watered by the Suv&stu

include

so as to

the neighbouring

of

valleys

included the Brahxn&varta in the south

work

of the

unity

and

religion

of the

the

tribes, their

Aryan

and

Afghanistan, first

great

language,

and their synthesis with the

culture,

light

substratum of the non-Aryas who now found thexnseves in 61 The the fold of the Aryan population in the Punjab. passage of the Aryas from the Sapta Sindhu to the BrahmSvarta, and from the Brahm&varta to further east and south

is

easy enough to explain, as

is

the outflow

of the

Aryan population from Afghanistan or from the northern Himalayas to foreign lands. The Brahm&varta again supplied a reflex wave of the Aryas to Kashmir which was now cleared of its waters. 63 Now, as some Aryan tribes

in

search

sorts

in the Himalayas migrated into the

living of

open

home

at

fields

other

under

Aryan

Punjab

pressure of various more tribes situated

round the Kashyapa lake, under its Indian floods climbed heavy lofty hills, crossed the frontier even along the difficult route of Chitral and towards the north

found their way to Central Asia and Russia which led them to Europe. Other Aryan tribes ultimately situated

pass

more towards the northwest crossed the Khaibar

on their way

migrations Asia,

and

to

(which also received later

Iran,

54 Aryas, from India ) and to Western Europe; and others halted on the spurs

the

of

also to

of the Hindukush, again to spread themselves within

without

55

India

nan-Aryas

and

.

The struggle their

efforts

to

of

the

build

and

Aryas with the

new empires

in

foreign lands, though a most fascinating study in the ancient history of the world need not occupy us here.

We

are, tradition

at present, concerned with the ancient Indian which bears out the testimony of the expansion

of the Aryas from India

abroad.

The

tradition

of

the


'104 of the

Aryan

tribes

*toh as the Dfahyas and

frontier of India in

the

the north o* the

is noted by the Pttranas. Pafasti Eama is to^have eipeiled his 'sons from India who built

liieir

:

empires in foreign lauds. ^Manu also records the J

Aryan

who

tribes,

as they left India, gave

up

their old

'iisSgoa as they got mixed with the non- Aryas in foreign lands, The Uttara Kurus of wanton habits beyond the

*

of -northern

territory

India, the

whd married

iiorfchwest

beyond the

Gtendhfcras

their prinotes

to Dhritarashtra of

^

India, the Pirsik-as, ad thfc 6olohi68 of

and as the

the

all

remembered

Indo-Aryas in the foreign lands, We cannot discredit the tradition

fallen Aryas'.

some proof

without

know

'

And the Yavanas, are

fchat

the

to the contrary,

tradition

when we who in

specially

belongs to a people,

later times, are so exclusive in their habits as to claim

no

kinship with their own people as they got mixed up with others, nat to speak of claiming others, who ndver -belonged to them, The expansion of the Aryas in India and outside

India

from the north and

the

northwestern

Himalayas and their foot-lands may thus safely be assumed on 'the basis of tradition in India. The Vedio bards

themsWres exhort

their people to

55* go round the world

,

Thus on the' linguistie, anthropological, archaeoloand the traditional grounds 'mentioned iA this .

gical

we

:

papqr,

hiave

original

the

1

;

attempted to prove that the Atyas had their home not in Europe or outer-Asia, but in

Mountainous regions of the Himalayas

:

ihoHiitaiilous regions

th6

fteotesary

The

oh

the- surface

conditions

off

no other

the earth fulfilling

of *the ancient

home

of

^h

v^

German Soandiriafians, Daniibians, the Greeks, t^ Bonifcns, the south Btwsitws, Aryas.

tiie

Asia

the Celts, the !

'Iranian^the Kassltes iihd 'tbe Ulitannis of ^Western

may

:

be Aryas, that is, tho speakers of the Aryan ; languages, but the'hillmea of ItdMVlbdiA' to^atdft the all


10ft

northwester*

who

Himalaya* and their to^a^ were An Aryat

sent their colonies roumd

whole world. The Aryas agriculturist* bat they were a heroic people, as their whole history bells us. There be various reasons which led the Aryw away from may their narrow and secluded valley* of the Himalayas such tike

were not nomads or me**

as need for expansion owing to over-population ; some Bohiam, such as that of the Indo-Aryaa and the Iranians, or a oalastrope

home, such as the bursting of the Bat the most important of all the reasons Kashayapa-lake. which stirred the Aryas away from their home, was their * and intellectual curiosity for the spirit of enterprise at

1

Aryas were an exceedingly vital, energetic and alert race characteristics which marked the footsteps of the speakers of the

Aryan languages in every country. The Aryas with was the language of civilisation, were a conquering and an unconquered race. Lefevre aptly remarks. " 3?or two or three thousand years, the direction of the world has fallen to the Aryas and inspite of their language that

of Arabic, Mongolian, or Turkish have they kept the torch. They have carried into America, into Australia and returning to their

momentary

failures,

incursions it

by sea or by land they bear the light even into the heart of Africa, even into the dim twilight of the east. " The Aryas penetrated Europe during the early Iron Age. cradle

They admittedly stood they

left

their

for progress in

marks of

Europe

civilisation

in

;

so,

have

outer- Asia,

and the wonders of their civilisation in India are wellknown to us. The Aryas wherever they went and came in contact with lesser civilisations had worked as a leaven that leaveneth In the whole lump. Europe they have especially stood for science and art, in India for

art,

philosophy and religion.

They enkindled

tfceibme of higher civilisation in every country and kept the torch of light. Rto^ Truth Httiramg everywhere"


J06 Their greatest contribution to humanity is their language which has stamped its genius on a large section of humanity and has created a common mentality among the different nations, that has

ing and a

worked

for

closer unity of the world.

mutual understand-

The friendship

of the

innumerable races in India, Asia, and Europe, in ancient times, is cemented with the blood, so to speak, of the

Aryan language and the discovery of the common ;

the Aryan language

brought fresh

and

its

ancient culture has

tie of

now

Aryan brotherhood and

recognition of the

new hdpes of greater understanding between the East and the West. The Aryas of Europe who have retained successfully their white complexion in the cold

created

climate of their country may learn to recognize their brother in language and culture, if not always in blood relationship as to that, we are all made of one blood as St.

Paul has said

the dusky

Arya

by the sun on the

in India

whose face has been

plains

below the cold

regions of the snowy Himalayas which original cradle of the fair Aryan race.

had formed the

kissed

tropical

We have stated that

the Aryas in the past have always stood for larger synthesis of races with whom they met. In India they ha^e

given us the conception of the Bharata Yarsha, the united India of all races, Aryan or non-Aryan. So in the west, the Aryas have always come in composition with the

finally

non- Aryan races and given them a lift to the level of their o.wn culture, and thus united, they have both worked, the inner and the outer Aryas, for the general progress of humanity. And if it is true, that history repeats itself, the

Aryan genius of formulating larger and wider syntheses of people and cultures in the past will not fail us at this critical

juncture,

when India

stands at the parting of

pulsating with the new life. India, hoary with age and wisdom, will it not recognise its kinship" with the western world, that is in essence a creature of

the ways and

is


107

Aryan mind ? Again the Aryan-India will it hand of fellowship to the Semitic cultural groups that have come in composition with it and not form again a larger synthesis of Bharatavarsha as it was formulated before, and prepetuate the holy tradition of the ancient the ancient

refuse its

Aryan culture in this land t We believe in our past and trust the Aryan genius will not fail us in the future too it will be

our sure guide in the future

had been in the past

!

From

the

the beacon light, as it Aryan Empire, the

first

Sapta Sindhu, has sprung up the larger oonoeption of the Aryavarta which, later on, gives birth to a still larger oonoeption of the Bharatavarsha. The Aryas have already grown the into llindus in India, a complex of the Aryas, Dravidians, the Kolerians, the Nagas, and the other ancient people of India; and they are now growing into Hindustanis,

a

still

wider complex of the Hindus, the Muslims, and the

The

Christians etc.

^o-Hindustan, in which

vision of the

the races, the Aryas or the Semitios, unite together, of is before us. still larger vision of the unity mankind with its numerous races and creeds in the world

all

A

looms large before our eyes.

After centuries of work, now prepared the world for such a larger unity of mankind by creating a common mentality in different races through the diffusion of the Aryan language also

the Aryas have

in distant parts of the world. The dispersal of the speakers of the Aryan language in various countries was an act of

79T fiRJWStmust thank the ancient

great blessing of gods to humanity. 3TW?

sfewfr

tt

B. v. x. es. a. ) (

We

Arya, the 'Indo-European' man, who thus long ago laid the foundations of the unity of the East and the West,

and took the could find

of his civilization

fire

fa^r

*WWW: crfon:

But our best thanks are due cradled the

infant

to every

(

to the

home he

v, x. ss, is. )

Himalayas which

Aryan race and made

it

robust in


le

to

ft

*tt

idwoturow MI

<&*t, and imparted

atwprariag spirit, a t*sriy jMMb^ ad a pottien of tb*ir own aabMme faith in ^M Dmn, bfor it wa* flaaily Mit out to til* world witk tfcfrafctoge

<B.>. r H, g6 together. of God.

for es-8 ).

nplifhment.-f^ VfWW )${ fbe Aryaa and the Himalftyms both

it*

They both endure

to the etas-tatting glory


109

NOTES AND REFERENCES. In the CAM of the speakers of the Aryan languages we can

1,

point out to the ancient Arya as the pattr;

ci

fan farooraf

The term "Witen agemot' 1 may be noted as originally composed of the Sansk. Yid (Vidftm, of the wise) and the Sanskrit (Sam), gamanam, meeting Of. the Vedic, *Samgamanam Jan&n&m* 2.

;

the Zend,

Hyangamanam, The

2a,

aesthetic

description of the

Dawn

Persian,

Anjuman.

sense of the Aryas

in the

Veda

be noted in the

may

References to such 'sublime and

transcendental beauty of nature are missing in Jthe western

classical

literature.

3.

that these two tenets (Zoroastrian) of a future

ing principles in

human

then taken

life

were adopted by

A

over in their entirety by Christianity."

Lillies'

Buddha and Buddhism.

The

remarkable

was unknown to

it at

Butt's Civilization in Ancient India 1898 Vol.1 ch,

and

is

and of two contend*

nature, although the former

ancient Jewish religion,

the

" It

Vide. History of Greece by Rostovtzoff

last

a later time and Also, Of.

B. C.

XV PP 374-380

author however, in

our opinion, lacks the signs of a trained thinker and his conclusions therefore are not always trustworthy,

* in the

The following

Aryan languages

is .

a short illustration o!

common

vocables

-

Sank.

Zend.

Greek.

Latin,

Pitri

Paitar

Pater

Pater

Matri

llfttar

M6ter

Mater

Hater Mithir Moutar

Phratria Prater

Bratrn Britbir Brdther

Slav.

Celt.

Athir

Teut

t

Padar

Engtoh Father

Mother

(O.H.G.) Bhrfttri.

S* nil Dahitar

Go

Brfttar.

Han * Dughdar Thugater

Gio

Sunn

Synu boua

Duster bos

gow

bo

Brother

Son.

Dauhtar Daughter. ehuo cow


110 San*.

atra

Zend.

L*tm.

018

ovis

avi

equu<*

aszvo

spa

hippos

Sfat.

T*ut.

Gelt. oi

ech

E*gUA

an

(sheep)

ehfc

(horse)

(old saion)

vrika

vehrka

lupus

Riksha

vlukn

kheo

hansa

anser

kokknx cuculus

kokila

feel

*alf

arth

ursus

.

wolf

(Bear)

has (Boh)

getes

kans

kukavica

coi

kuckuk

cuckoo

kruk

cm

hruoh

crow

irvo

danr

triu

tree

(tree)

(oak)

goose

(knhOka) korax

liftrwra

Pika

Pica

Jhasha

(woodj

corvus

fish

Pisces

Dauru

dru

(pine)

(oak)

lai'ix

vetasa

vitin

Bhtirja

vanhra

rer

yasara

vjti

wida

withy

breza

bercha

birch

vtat


hav* been printed quite aoourately) the Dispersal of the Aryan language in the world may be various factors combined, such as, migration, coloaisatiofl, conquest, trade; cataclysms, schisms and overpopulation at kOHKt, search for land for coWtation aad aiso the spirit of enterprise oa 5.

result

of

the part of the Aryts, for which note, R. V, X, 65. 11.


112

Vide Maxmnller's- Lectures on the science

6, et,

sqq,

also,

Arioriitos

of Thrace; Arii, the

and such other names

Irish, meaning a prince;

Arion, Aristos, Arete,

in the

Arya

man

but also a

^ ran.

Lat.

equation.

Goth, Arjan; A.

traveller

Gr.

name

of a

German

in the

very

German tribe; " Aire" old

History;

name

Ares,

Ireland.

the strong, the

Artemis,

most honorable of the Greeks. noble

258. and

Arya element in the name Armenia;

Of. Sanfik. Arya; Zend. 'Airya;

Aria as tbe old name

PP.

langoage

Language* PP.

Race and

Lefevre,

of

virtue, the

best,

The Arya may mean not only a or a labourer. Note the universal Lith.

Aror,

8. Erjan, English Ear, Irish,

Slav.

Arti,

Orati,

Ar,

George Grierson objects to the use of the term Arya for the root-people on the ground that the name Arya was originally Sir

the

Satem-speaking people only; but this is wrong. Tokharian language in the East has shown that the distinction between the Satcm and the Centum-

restricted to

The

discovery

of the

epeakiog people as applied to the Eastern and the Western branches The gutturalisation of the Sibilant of the Aryas cannot be upheld.

one instance at least be traced to India

may

in

note,

Enkhrn (Khasali)

for

Sanskrit Ashru

variants of a, are noticeable in the

We

Prakrits, they

the European

place-value in

their

itself for

example,

and the e and the o

may have

languages in

have already noted above that the term Arya

is

later

acquired

times only.

universally used

as the designation of a people or a country both in the East and in the

West.

We

therefore

indulge in a quiet smile at

Sir George on the use of the term prefers to call Indo-Enropeans.

L

Vol. I. P. 7.

Arya

for

the chagrin of

the people

whom

he

Vide, Linguistic Survey of India.

1927.

We know

that Greek, Latin, Lithuanian,

Vedic, Sanskrit,

and the other Aryan languages, as we possess them, do not belong to the same date-they are not contemporary to each other. These languages therefore, as such, varieties of

philologists but they

theaaelve*,

may not

an unknown mother-tongue as

may

represent id

the

dialectical

supposed by the modern

ultimately be derived from the oldest

namely, the Vedic language which was spoken.

among It

dtf


batter

tt&t

hve

Tedie ta&gtug* as we

if the

tome archaic forms found

did not powers

it

got

in the

n snoh

archaisms cognate languages, been have drawn from the dialects of the Vedic spoken might language which though no longer possessed by u may all the same

with th? Vedic which

be contemporary tire

Or,

Vedic

was the standard language, from the standard

archaisms might have been drawn

itself

which

not possessed by us in its entirety MS from the scantiness of the Vedic material in

is

well be understood

may

f

hand and the

several recensions

loss of the

Veda

the

of

coarse

in

of ages.

Again

it is

wrong

to re-construct the

Aryan mother-tongue by

a

-mere comparative study of these cognate languagea-and thereby arriv-

ing at a hypothetical

common form

diverse forms in the cognate

phonetic laws only,

languages-on the

Aryan phonetic laws actually

change

languages in the Aryan

that the

forms

of

have operated at

phonetically true in the

in

modern the

in contact

based

the

all,

for

The

family.

it

is

Aryan languages must

be

also

for

true

whom

change

historic-

the

Aryas

in the

root

Again, the assumption that the writing represented

Aryan-language.

is

speech

Aryan languages need not not necessary that what is

might have been responsible

the correct form of

which

Aryan

alien

philologist proposes to account

various

ally-phonetic laws of alien races and languages with

came

61

origin

the

which might be responsible for

laws

origin of divergent forms ol

the

the of

basis

without taking into account the

habits and their phonetic

for

that conld explain

on

pronunciation in every one of these languages,

the

super-structure

of

the

reconstruction

of

the

Aryan mother-tongue has yet to be proved. Surely, the modern philologist must -seek for consistency, when he re-constructs the Aryau mother-tongue on the basis

Aryan languages, and denies the primitive

Vedic

of the

comparative study

the existing

which are by no means known as contemporary, comparative

basis

of

study as

applied

to

language being the mother-tongue of the

Aryan languages such

as Greek, Latin, Lithuanian,

the ground that the primttireness of

wAA

of

the Vedic

Avestan

the

various etc,

on

as the root language

not really be established in relation to Greek, Latin Ltth,

etc., for it is held, we did not possess these language* in their cutter stages which might be equally primitive ia character with -the

A*es*aa


114 This

Vedic.

is

a clear admission of the

fact that the various

Aryan

languages are not contemporary with the Vedic and with each other also. That being the case, we do not see how we can make a comstndj of the various

parative

non-contemporary Aryan languages

for purposes of reconstructing the original mother-tongue.

habits

factors of alien speech

the growth of the Aryan languages and interfered with the

of

uninterruptedly

purposes of

for

Thus, as

Aryan mother-tongue.

it is

with

the operations

we only assume as having

which

Aryan phonetic laws

operated

For various

might have come in composition

reconstruction

wrong

of

the

reconstruct the parent

to

Sanskrit form on the basis of the Kashmiri and the Bengali languages,

which reprinted different speech habits, so the parent

between

Aryan mother-tongue on the Or.

Lat.

Sansk.

different speech habits

etc.

growing

therefore the

solitary

which

as

correspond with the same sibilant Sanskrit;

wrong to reconstruct basis of

might be

late in different ages.

held that since two sounds such

in

is it

comparison

the result

Again

it

of

can't be

Centum and Socer

in latin

atam and

fifvasura

such

as

original parent sound must be something

For we have

different

from the Skr.

sibilant

occupying the two different sounds dental and guttural but

in

sibilant.

in

Avestan the same Skr,

a reverse order from that of Latin, note, avest.

Satam

for Skr.

$atam, Lat Centum; Pehlvi Rhusara for Sk. ^vasura Lat. Socer. Comparison on the basis of non-contemporary languages can not tw our sure guide in re-constructing the Aryan mother tongue unless

we know the migratory arrived

at

history of each

by influences of

different phonetic

different ethnic stocks of people,

who came

Aryan-speaking nations in the world. tive estimate of

the

in

it is applied to the primitive

laws belonging to

composition with

the

Curiously enough the compara-

non-contemporory languages

basis for re-constructing the

We

and the compromises

word

is

affirmed as a

Aryan mother-tongue and denied when Vedic as the mother-tongue of them all.

suggest, that it is wrong to suppose the various in the Aryan languages belonging to different dates, forms cognate as the result, entirely of a primitive dialectical variety and of the therefore

operations of the

Aryan phonetic laws uninterrupted by the phonetic

laws of alien ethnic stocks cf people, in this accounts for differences that

all cases,

we meet

in

Generally speakipg

the re-constructed form


115 of tie hypothetical

Vedic language.

Aryan mother-tongue and that The modern philologists account

of

the primitive

for the

phonetic

differences in the

Aryan languages by assuming that they are the the original Aryan phonetic laws, but we cannot ignore the

result of

element in

racial

and therefore take

language,

it

that they are the

on the primitive Vedic language as it to The primitive Vedic language another. travelled from one country we hold may not be stereotyped and may have forms of 'indistinct'

result of foreign speech-habits

dialectical variety that

was not so wide as to break the homogeneity

of the language; which grew up to a distinct form only under influences of alien speech-habits.

We must take

into account the various disturb-

ing elements of a languge chiefly racial which might be responsible for the derivation of one form or sound from another. Thus from the equation such as this, Sansk.

Goth, ist, it is wrong Aryan mother- tongue must chronologically the most primitive form might easily isti,

Lat.

est,

to conclude that the original form in the

be

4

es-ti for

asti' 1

4

pass into 'est or

must have

ist

f

under influences

freely operated

on the Aryan languages which as we know

scattered themselves round the world It cannot

be held that the inverted as

Aryan mother-tongue origin*! is

may

be

gutturals in Sanskrit.

wrong

for

'e'

Exam ales

a variant of

the palatalization of the

mere guess and the guess

this is

numerous

modern languages however, in the ancient

the

palatalization

never possessed a palatal value;

V only

that

is

of speech-habits that bring about the

of a language are too

it

was an original sound in the

could never have brought about 9

to us as

different types of races.

among *e'

known from

For

of the original guttural, since 'e

known

speech-habits which

alien

of

guttural in

change

to be quoted here.

illustrating the

it

is

character.

in the character

Some

examples, from

growth of froms and sounds

noted as below. They will make

Aryan languages maybe and sounds could not be

clear that these forms

original in the

Aryan

mother tongue. In Engltsh'a'i* pronounced as an open vowel and not as a short of ft, Thus Sanskrit TTO in English is pronounced as Ragft. Again, note Sanskrit

Manu

Sanskrit Dhana, Bala,

Pandits pronounce

Kidar Nath

Nath

is in

a' '&'

is angfficiied

Bengali

Menu. Bengali rounds up a, B41. Even some Sanskrit

Dhn,

Again Sanskrit Kedar Nath, Hindi, as Kedar Nat. Sanskrit and Hindi Jagan

as

as Jugger Naut, Skt.

RadaKitihen,

as English

e, ft.

Radha Krishan Hindi Radha Kishen

Skt Mittra, Hindi Mittar has

its

as

Bengali form as


form Lichhmi.

Hiadi

All

are

these

Lachimi has

f

Skt Laksfemi,

Mitiir or Hitter.

cms

of

phonetic varieties or

decay under the influence of alien speech-habits on

Again from Hindi formulate

five

'ab'

and

its village

pronunciation

existed.

/Similarly

*ib'

form,

the parent

thousand years back, a parent form

phonetically explain the growth of *ab* and

its

we cannot

'ib',

*eb'

which could

for historically 'eb* never

we cannot postulate on phonetic basil only without

a reference to history, Hindi,

parent form of Gtaya or

as the

Gayo

Gayau, nor can we postulate an inverted e in the Aryan-language, from the comparison of Skt. ($) and its ash mi rain form of pronunciation

K

as

4 or Eng.

Thus

it is

i; note, Kashmirian Ganlsh, English Genish, 3kt, Ganesh. wrong to attribute numerous vowels to the Aryan mother-

tongue which we know historically as different forms of speech-habits The original Aryan vowels were cast into the of different people.

mould

of alien speech habits in Avestan. Lith, Greek. Latin etc,

as in

the case of the Indian Prakrits or the varnaculars such as the Kashmiri

with

its

matric vowels

number grew

thus their

Aryan language* and with the growth of time acquired

the

in

various

for themselves a

European languages. There is no ground to suppose that the European vowels had already existed in the Aryan the from Hindi Kabutar mother-tongue. Similarly equation, place* value in the

Delhi popular Muslim form of pronunciation in we a cannot formulate the of faucal existence Qabutar, 'q'

and

its

1

'que as

or

soma second or

we unfortunately do

knowing that

V

thirJ

in the case of

in the

labiovelar

series

the (

qu*

of

in

gutturals

as or

Hindi,

Aryan mother-tongue, not

may under

alien

ethnic in-

fluences be a later development of the original^ uttural. Again from Skr, Bh&rata and its anglicized form 'Barat' and from Skr. aspirate

and

its

equivalent non-aspirate in Kashmiri language-as in

Kashmiri

Bhujaga we could not conclude the original word as pronounced with the organic sound distinct from the aspirate. But it is strange, that we are treating the non-con temporary Aryan 'Bujaga' for Skr,

languages for purposes as

if

they were

of reconstruction of the

Aryan mother-tongue

varieties

having such totally

full -fledged

divergent forms

dialectical

from the very beginning,

or

having some such

unknown parent forms as could explain the growth

of

divergent

fowaf under the same Aryan phonetic laws, and seem to igntfte the growth of these divergent forms in course of time under the


HZ ertranooufl influences of alien phonetic lairs. variety

may

Nodoubt a

Blight dialectics

have existed from the very beginning in the homogeneous

Aryan mother-tongue bat

mean

does not

it

that if was of such

divergent character as to break the homogeneity of a language

a

itself.

what that Unknown 9 parent form was withont speech-habits that formed a substratum in the

It is not easy to say alien

knowiLgthe various

Aryan

Again

mere

that

languages similarities

different

in

spread

the

in

laws

phonetic

countries.

or morphology

two distinct languages do not necessarily imply a borrowing of one language from another, for the similarity may be the of

result of a 'psychic unity 1

and the uniformity

The Turkish

of laws.

agglutinative language cannot be linked with the pre-Vedic agglutinative which must have existed at some earlier date. English cerebrals

cannot be traced to the Dravidian influences and the nasals with stops in

English to the Anstric origin.

language language

may

itself,

all this

Vedio

independent of any foreign influence sush as the

Dravidian or the Kolerian as

But

Similar changes in the

be the result of the phonetic laws operating within the

is

sometimes argued by the k philologists,

does not mean that no extraneous influences of any kind

on the Yedic language are traceable. comparative study of the

We know

they are, but in our

Aryan languages we wish

to take

our stand

on facts only and on the basis of these facts we cannot help conthe Vedic language forms the most primitive of the

cluding that

Aryan languages and Chronology

is

is

our

competent to explain the growth of them all. The Vedic language best guide here.

appears to be the model which

?By

languages.

menn the

the

Vedio

language that

the

is

Vedic, do not prove

various

of

course

we

Aryan do not

book known as the Veda, but Veda and that

best represented in the

may in its date be even sometime Veda itself. Certain archaic forms in the

the

shaped

language

language confined to

type of

has

their

prior to the in the priority

composition

of the

Aryan languages missing to the Vedic, for

even a

some primitive forms that may be and may not be lost in the mother-tongue (see infra note 14) we happen to traceable to the small relit of the Vedic literature that

daughter-language

possess.

may

retain

Of The Maha Bhashya.

"%%W&& SPf '

**&**


118

4trfipww3 *'

I

language

with

purposes,

occupies

various

its

Aryan

original

the

Germanic

How

etc.

the

of

mother-tongue

the

the Avest, Sanskrit, Greek, Latin,

Aryan languages, such as

Lithuanian,

accent,

of

position

Thns the primitive Vedic and for all intents

language would prove the home

the

Vedic

the

we should discuss

the Aryas,

of

of

primitivcness

later on?

names transplanted from one country Indian Ayodhya in Slam is Ayuthia, and other

Of. the geographical

8.

to another, Indian

names

of places in Indo-Chines colonies, such as

Kamboja

etc.

may

be

also

Indian

noted.

Haraqaiti, and Sarayu is Harayu, Mathnrfi Of. Gangft in Kashmir.

For example,

9.

it

is

ChampS, Gandhftra,

Saraswati

Madura

cannot be argued that

fire

in

Iranian

is

South India.

was unknown to

the particular section of the started Ary/is in their original home, which for Greece

on the ground that

Sanskrit Agrni or

Lat.

in

undivided Aryas for there

is

no

Greek we have no cognate word or

Is>nis,

that milk was

commom word

for

unknown

for

to the

milk in the various

Aryan langunges. 10. For example, the Vedic Aryas may be supposed as having good uosea, as they constantly speak of Susiprah, but this can also be said of

many

11.

of the

hill-tribes

Wonders

races.

Notfl For

of the

example the Punjabis, the Kashmiris and the

north

western

Himalayas.

Himalayas P. 7-8. has

Yonnghusband

in his

noted that footlands in the

northem part of the Himalayas are inhabited by "manly races...The most ancient

and

rolers

families... the nobility of India.. jhigh-born-looking

soldiers-dignified in their

raen-

bearing and the conscious pric[i

' :

of lineage." 12.

In modern times, note, Indian emigration to South etc. In medieval and ancient times, note, Indian

Africa, Australia

^9niei

Auwl

f

to

Indonesia

Siam, Anara, Java,

Stein's .exploration in Turkistan

Snmatra,

Bftli

etc. 355r

and the German explorations


119 of

La Coque aod

prove emigration of Indian

others,

Buddhists

Note, evidence of Bavera Jataka for emigration to

in that country.

Babylonia and the various Buddhistic missionary aotivites in outer* Asia,

Note, the historical evidence of the

Palestine, etc.

Chin*,

migration of Indian gypsies to Europe.

Smith

work 'Elephants

in his

and ethnologies' proves the earlier discovery of America hy Indians. The Puranas speak of Druhyas and the sons of Visvamitra who In most ancient established themselves as kings in foreign lands. times, note allusion to Bhujyu's ship fonndered in the sea, indicating

the sea-faring activities of the later Vedic Aryas,

speak of spreading their

Max mullar,

18.

Aryan

The Vedic Indians

over the earth

rites

cf.

R.V,

x 65*11.

concluded on the

followed by other writers,

''does primitiveness of the Vedic languages We not prove the original home of the Aryas in the Vedic country. shall see that Maxmuller is wrong there, even Homer nod at times! basis of analogy, that the

We

cannot draw universal conclusions on the basis of analogy, for the

conditions of analogy of a

may

language in a foreign country

primitive

not apply to the Vedic language in India. 13.

For an exhaustive

(a)

home

theories of the

No

14.

of the Aryas, see Taylor's, Origin of the Aryas.'

doubt

it is

forms of words in Zend,

interesting

in the

Avesta

is

a

metathesis Sfchas,

Medhas of

is

find archaic

to

and delightful

Greek or English

Skr. Medhas, 'but I hold that

Edhi. Gr. Esthns Sk.

account of some of the older

such as

Zend, Mazda

the original of

Mazda which

Skr, the Vedic Medhas) Av. Ezdhi

English Nest Skr. Nldas;

which forms

if

But they are archaic, do not survive as such in the ancient Sanskrit. not the survival of full forms of isolated words that goes to prove

it is

the archaic

character of the language but the purity of

system and the fulness of

its

that go to prove its primitive

consonantal

structure grammatical and synthetical character. For archaic forms of isolated

words may be found even in comparatively be noted below.

its

Note Vedic archaisms

later

languages as

may

in the later Pali, Prakrit, the

not survive in the Aparbhramsa, and the modern vernaculars, which do earlier Sanskrit:

1

Vedic Skr.

infinitive in

**

retained in

Pali in

the form


120 2

Vedic Gfenmd survives in Pii

HOT*

Skr.

the Vedic imperative ft assumed the form f% Skr.

n*t

in Pali

,

4

The Vedic

6

Ihe Vedic change

*

third plural

of

passes

on tp the Girnar inscriptton-

consonant d,dh between two

to

of Sanskrit retained in the Pr&krits'(Similarly, reversal Vedic as be noted in vernaculars

Vedic

lh

Tinto

^fi:-

may

<r'

1,

Sanskrit

^.-Vernacular

the case

of similar

*V* habits

speech

may

but this

probably

different

among

be

people)

Sola so Prak. Gala Sk. Jjixt; Skr. **** Prak. Solas, Marb, has its village pronunciation also the Jat Hindikarnal.

*WW

as Karnai, Vedic Gfllha Pr. Gloha Sk,

6

WH,

Vedic

W*. 7

Prak

i&*

VWT Wl-

vernacular Hindi

fin

but Skr.

^TT^Prak. ^nit

IpfT^i

Vedic WIT, Prak,

ftnf,

but Skr.

Vedic inflexions in Prakrits: Vedic nom. Vedic Inst

pi.

pi. irfir:

Prak. irf%

Imp. 2nd Sing, Vedic

8

W.

Vftfs

i&ftr

but Skr.

'J'f^ Sk.

Prak.

Prak, f^rfic but Skr,

Vedic vocabulary skips over Sanskrit. Prak. TO Vedic TTRI

in lit

msa forms

f^ f&TO

Hindi Skr.

The

in

f

in the

fh from ftr, tfa* JUC, Hindi

Apabbrafrom ^v. Note

VW Ved. W but

**

alleged Indo-European

people.

guttural

form

of

sibilant

mfr

Vernacular Bhadrawahi word Enkhru, Skr.

this too appears to us a

different

^N^ may be noted as

*H Vedic WH but Skr.

be noted in the modern

Asm,

and

Vedic forms

case of similar speech habit Amidst

The above mentioned

languages that retainytbe CM not be

awiutic forms, namely the Prakrit* and the Vernaculars,


121 said to be older than the

These forms can

Sanskrit.

from the literary Sanskrit,

must be derived from

they

I

Sanskrit which we do not possess, but which must have V| words current in it, which were discarded by the literar^ The Prakrits as a whole must be derived from the spoken^ for as such they arc

nothing but the Chhaya of Sanskrit; siniilary^^^ Zeni, Lithuanian. Latin and Greek etc. on the whole, must be derived

from the spoken Vedic language, for us in the Ved.i.

the standard of which

Just as the earlier stages

back to Sanskrit, even

is

preserved

of the Prakrits lead us

Greek

the earlier stages of Zend, Lith.

so,

We

would lead us back to the Vedic language.

know

in the

case of languages chronology guides us to the right conclusion,

that in the latter case of the

European

the

or

former,

we

not

be

to be

said

of

Aryan

the mother

languages outside India such as the Lith.

tongue of these Aryan

A vest.

can

at its Prevedio stage

infer

Asiatic languages

similar formations, chronology will guide us again. Besides, the

language

etc.

Gr. Lat German, etc. for the simple reason, that that Prevedic

should

of language

stage

stage seems to have

been

in

left

our

opinion

which

be agglutinative

behind long ago by

these non- Indie

all

Aryan languages that are like the Vedic, synthetic in character. The characteristics of the Vedic are the characteristics of the non Tndic Aryan languages. They are all synthetic in character and denote that type of languages which chronologically

known in

of using the its

if

that

the

oldest type

the non-Vedic Aryan languages were Prevedic is

they

agglutinative

instead

should

word Centum or Satem should have nsed the word in such as Dasata Dasatam (ten x ten) form

agglutinative

which at

Now

to us,

character,

is

by

the

weur and

tear

Vedic stage, the

of

language, appears

form

brief

construct the possible, Prwvedic form iPf

Satam.

V{

to

have assumed

we may

Similarly

which should explain the

The Prevedic stage of the Aryan known Aryan languages. the language is not represented by any of Indeed the Vedic and not the Prevedic Aryan language U the

formation

of

mil*

Indo-European of

the

various

in the Vedic.

mother-tongue,

which can

Aryan languages

construction of the Prevedic agglutinative fascinating type of

but

rhich deserve*

study which

our

is

account for the

growth

There-

within or without India.

Aryan language

not yet

careful attention

taken as

it

up by

in

the most

philologists

may throw

consi-


122 Thug the greater parity

system of the Vedic Avestau creates a presumption in favour of the Vedic Aryas as quite nearer the original home where were less disturbed by the alien ethnic influences that destroy they of

consonantal

the

laa<uage as compared with that of the

the purity of the consonants,

NOTE

the deteriorated system of consonants in the A vesta and compare it with the full and pure consonantal system of the Veda:

The Avestan

1.

and 2.

8.

than their brethren out in Iran.

is

possesses only c

it

incomplete

j.

The Yedic

No

palatal series

cerebrals are wanting in the

the Avestan

aspirates in

language

A vesta, their

being

place

taken by the corresponding spirants.

The

4.

nasals are only in part identical.

5.

'L' is wanting.

6.

Just as

the

under influence of

Prakrits

habits have developed

*e'

(as in 'men')

so has the Avestan developed

such

as

epen thesis,

alien f

and o (as

spfich

in 'prop')

special vowel-characteristics

prothesis,

etc.,

enaptyxis

these vowels having acquired place- values

iu the

some o European

languages. 7.

The Vedic pitch-accent

is

strong stress-accent which in

hunflta

for

mutilated, note in

A vesta

later date

8.

ftsis

for

Avesta by the

shifted to the penultimate

Vedic YTOTei.

Vedic

Thus quantity ^irrft

:

as

of vowels

Variation in accent

like the variation in consonants is a

mark

of its

and origin as compared with the Vedic language.

Phonetic decay in formation

is

in the

replaced

is

the

noticeable

Avestan resembling the Prakritnot only

in a

words, such as Sanskrit TOR, Prak %,

large

A vest, he;

number

of

but also in

grammatical structure, as among all cases which have if endings. Later grammatical formations as Sanskrit ablative in ^rni^for the

Thus the Avestan.

Aryas

We

primitive Veiic

shall

in India.

Vedic ^KT, take place

in the

Avesta.

language serves as a model show elsewhere how it also proves the ho^pe

to the

of the


129 Vide, Indian Antiquary, July 1928, pp 135 et sqq,

15.

10th

16.

Vide, Bhandarkar Commemoration Volume pp. 81 et sqq.

17.

Vide, the Bulletin, the School of oriental studies in London,

and

17th

original

home

Temple

in the

1925, two lectures by Jarl Carpenter on the

June

of the

Indo-Europeans, and

The mountainous Himalayas have

18.

review by Sir Richard

its

Indian Antiquary July 1928.

quick horse, cow, birch, willow and as the essential requisites of the

fir,

their temperate climate,

which Prof. Carpenter considers

Aryan Home.

significant that

It is

the Himalayas have no suit production which Prof. Carpenter believed

the

in

the Himalayas too

of no fruit-trees, but Prof. Carpenter

must not depend on

There are regions

Aryas did not know.

which know

argumentum ec languages

silentio.

for ffuft trees in various

countries disappeared

different

in

The names'

when those

The Veda does not mention the

themselves disapp?ared.

but might have grown in the Himalayas

it

v.x.

12*4)

which this

Reference to

1$

Jndra-hyrans and

and some of the

and the Marutsa are a

fruits

cannot be argued from';

that the Vedic people did not live in the Himalayas. .

Aryan

fruit trees

clear indication

to

hymns

of the habitation

of

the

ancient Aryas in the Himalayas.

The old view

19.

been revived

by

that the undivided

Giles

Carpenter.

that the 'undivided' Aryas were a

We

too

cannot agree with

nomads has Aryas were view agreed to the

has already

'settled

Prof.

people'

Carpenter

and not nomads.

there,

for

words of

do exist, Aryan languages, names various and there is no proof that agriculture was not known, by corn for names in the Aryan mother-tongue. Again, the common such as Yava. Vrlhi, Phana, are found in the Aryan languages, did not exist when does not matter if common names for agriculture for cow common names for various corns exisUd. The coramoii.wme not identical in all the agriculture, though

exists in the

Aryan languages but not

that milk was un-knowtn to

for

milk.

We

the Aryas; so when corn

is

cannot argue

known,

agri-

culture was probably there.

The term Arya (see not 6)

and

too

is

traceable in most of the

Aryan languages

an agricultural in its origin, is said to be iit.

Again

it is

not necessary

name, as that

Max

all


124 Arjan languages mast to

prove

of the

its

among

practice

Aryas who migrated

non-agricultural* people

Tne conaran

common names

retain

na.ne for

to foreign lands

the

among

some sections

might belong

a

to

set

of

themselves.

Aryas

agricultural

Pura*, Ldtin

town, Skr-

order

for agriculture, in

the nndivided Aryas, for

shows that

Polis,

the undivided Aryas also lived in towns, whose occup tion need not be

agricultural civilized

Again among the agricultural Aryas there may be

sections of people

where there was no land living

on

people

among

tural

or

of the

But

both

it is

sets of

main agriculturists.

wrong

be of the

reasons .which

such

as

tribes

still

can find

people,

all

Himalayas

do; and

their

such

Agricul-

home

in the

Asia

nomadic, for the Aryas were in

be pointed out that

It will

their settled

not always

parts

less

might be nomadic people,

to locate the Aryas in Central

assumption that they were

not leave

Himalayan

of the

others might have migrated to foreign lands.

nomadic,

Himalayas the

for agriculture, they

some

raids, as

living

in those

agriculturists

on the

would

homes; but the expansion of the Aryas need of migration There may be various

nature

mi^ht have

Aryas from the original home

soms eaUstroph.% and above

over-population,

conquest and warfare, as

stirred the

is

all

borne out by the community of

warfare between the Greeks and the IndoAryas.

The

love of

words

of

later

Vaishyas having the united function of cattle breeding and agriculture seem ' to have evolved from the ancient Aryan Visas' who might have gone to

distant

landa

or as traders. Cf.

in

They

Manu IX 827

t.

sections

as

cattle-breeders

are enjoined by

Mann

sqq. JTarmfirfif

or

agriculturists

to learn various languages.

^wnr V*WT ifvA *nprj ......

....... ..

^

Tndra not only fought the baUles of Arya* in carried their trade to distant countries.

Indra not only as a warrior

but also

different lands

The Atharva Veda as a merchant.

but also praises

(Jr.

\

19a.

19. 19c.

Vide the Indian

Historical, Quarterly,

March 1929

Vide our argument Number IX.

Vide Sir John Marshal In*

Mahenjo Daro

in the

Larkhana

articles

district in

pp. 156.

?

on

Siudh.

the excavations

at


126 Vide, Bhandarkar

20.

Note words such as Taim&t,

of

Commemo.ration Vol. pp. 29

Tabuvam

Urugfllfi

et.

sqq.

etc-

21.

Note Boghus Kuei and Tel-el-amarna

22.

Sir Willian Jones guessed that

insoriptioDs etc.

Noah was an apabhransa

Manu.

Doctor SchraderV theory that the steppes of South Russia of the 'Aryas cannot meet our approval. The steppes did not afford land for agriculture which the Aryas certainly pursued. 22a.

home

were the

South-Russia does not suit the total conditions of

home

of the

Aryas as

vacables in the various

the cradle

the

of

is

it

life

in the original

borne out by the study of the

Aryan languages.

It

Aryas on linguistic grounds

be a halting-place of the migrating Aryas.

It

common

cannot be accepted also.

It

may

a

only

was never a cradle

of

any settled people. 23&. Vide Indian Antiquary July 1914

For reference

Grierson.

Tnkharas

to

in

the Pahari languages by

the Mahabharata

along with

Khasas and the other north-Himalayan tribes in ancient times, see MBH. Shantiparva, adliyaya 64. Note that the recent explorations the

in Tokharistan prove the presence of Indians Buddhists in that country in later times too.

The

23.

here

We

sins of

re-construction

of the

are

philology

have already shown

in

for our

responsible

our

note 7

that the

sufferings

principle

of

Aryan mother-tongue, on the basi* of the nonwhioh does

contemporaneous languages,

not take into account any ex-

be operate change in the language can not Vowels 3 and 6 and the formidable series of gutturals

traneous influences that

our sure guide.

appear to be a myth

Aryan mother-tongue-they may be the

in the

speech-habits that operated on the root -language.

of foreign

28a.

NiUmat, the legendary

the migration of a section ot the

history of ancient

Pisachas headed

the northern Himalayas to a Dvipa, six

nava which,

in

our opinion,

deserts (Gobi) in Mongolia.

may

Pisachas

it

appears from

Mongolia.

Kashmir, records

by

'yojan' long

Nikumbha from in the

Balukar-

be identified with the great sandy

The Pisachas and

identified by Grierson with the

layas to

result

the Pisachi language are

Cards and their Bardie language.

the Nilumat

were extended from

the

The

Hima-

The Himalayan Pisachas gradually came under

;


126 the Aryan influence in India, which they carried to their brethren the

left

As

'Daitya Paksha/ in Central Asia.

wing

of

these migrating

Pisaohas came back to India again, according to the Nilamat tradition,

and

settled with the

them further

Aryas round Kashmir, they naturally brought with

influences from

The Aryas may have

Central Asia.

followed the Pischas to Mongolia.

ing freely intermingled in the northern Himalayas and outside languages underwent a rapid

of the plant of the

The Aryan

change.

Pisachi or the Dardic language

Kashmiri language

it,

influence

their

on the

north. Himalayas laid the seed

in the

fluences on the

also

*The Aryas and the Pisachas hav-

in India; the

outer-Pisachi in-

Aryan language trans-Himalayan region in Atia gave as the types of the Aryan language which Grieson calls the Eranian or the Proto-Eranian. The speakers of the Aryan language in the

who took

it away from the northern Himalayas to outer Asia soon became the speakers of the Eranian or the Proto Enmian languages. The speakers of the Eranian languages freely mixed with the Pisachas

of north- India

namely

Indian tribes

this

the.

accounts

Dards and the other the Eranian or

for

north

Himalayan

Proto- Eranian

the.

influences on the Dardic It has

nothing to

has 'supposed. has

it.

In

The Aryas were already the

'MSnavas' or

language and the Pamir-languages in India. do with the Aryan invasion into India which Grierson

Nilamat,

his

*

as

the

themselves

as the

of the waters in

tradition

Manushas

'

or

from the non- Aryas noted

Aryan colony from various

After the deluge

Aryas mnst have scattered call

India 'as

The Kashmir-lake having been cleared

Kashyapa now sends

still

may

'Mantisliyas,' as distinguished

as the Pisachas-

Kashmir.

they

.in

noted

of the

varions places.

of its waters,

places to inhabit

Kashmir-lake, the

But the Kashmiris

Saraswatas, a majority of them therefore

must have come from the banks

of

the

Thus the

Saraswati.

facts

of the if

Aryan language in the north would very well be explained we assumed the growth of the 'Eranian' or the 'Proto Eranian'

characteristics as the result of the contact of the

Aryan language with The Eranian or

the non-Aryan languages in the northern Himalayas.

the Proto-Eranian characteristics in their seed form in

Himalayas-

as

they were carried to outer- Asia

full-fledged Iranian languages.

Their disruptive

the

northern

developed into

character at a very

early stage leads us to think that they can not supply us

with the fuH


127 forms of the Vedic words.

on grounds

of

tions from the

Nilmat

Grierson's

theory of invasion therefore can not be upheld. The relevant quota-

itself

language

support of the tradition of the

in

the non-Aryas from and into India and their in India

may

24. in the

Note the hardy, Also

Himalayas.

"The Kashmiris

pass for Europeans. features,

quite

fair

Rajput

hill-tribes

Kashmir 1925, pp 60: stock and are as a rule quite

Biscoe's

vide,

are of the

contact with the Aryas

book.

and

tali

.strong,

Aryan

Their complexion

good-looking.

refined

A of this

be noted in Appendix

migration of

is

some

fair,

of

them might

easily

The Hindu women and b^ys have generally of Greek typo; many have rosy cheeks and

pink complexion and a few have

Also

blue eyes and auburn hair.

nbte the general Punjabi type. 24a, Objections based on the theory of the Dravidian and Austric population in the north-India, are dealt with later in the

the

sequel of this paper. 24/fr.

with the

The Turkish agglutinative language has nothing Pre-Vedic agglutinative stage

existed before

its

present synthetic

^ q^

preceded by forms such as

stage.

must be

in history

mr.

Bender and Childe have repeated the old argument

25.

the

or

which must have

of Sanskrit

TOTK

do

to

character

primitive

aside by Prof.

of the Lithuanian

Maxmuller thus

of Lithuanian as

:

"

which has already been set

We may

having preserved to

speak in very high terms

the present

a re-duplicated present and a dual, yet

by

day

the side

faint traces of

of

Sanskrit

its

vaunted primitiveness assumes a very different character from what

commonly supposed. to find in

I

do not mean to say that

while

Sanskrit

dual in

match

offers

declension

for

25 a

a

But

places

it

above

Gothic

these

but

is

not quite delightful in

Gothic, or

few gems,

are

That Lithuanian

complete diadem,

here again

has a it is

no

Sanskrit."

Habit of emphatic pronunciation

non-aspirate sounds. The Punjabi 'Tvanu

a*

it i*

Lithuanian a locative plural such as 'Vilkusn 1

an accusative plural such as 'Vulfans*.

of

'Thvanu',

Sansk.

tennis

is

gives

aspiration

emphatically

corresponds

to

to

pronounced Avestan dental asp.


128 Skr. tvam

Again note under Grimnrt Law Sansk,

Av. thwam.

Trina-Eng. thorn. Eng. bottom

Bhak

the form

corresponding to Skr.

my

In reply to

26.

so

Bhudhna

of

lead us to think

may

Budhna

corresponding to Vedic

the

word Beech may

Bak

(ula).

the

enquirjr,

Mimusops Elengilim in the north-western

Note

27.

maize

reported

Dun

Himalayas.

for axaraple the

word

*corn',

which

is

mean

to

said

in Scotland, burley in

America, wheat in England, oats

in

the

that

occur in Dehra

to

the

of

superintendent

Royal Botanic Garden, Sibpur, Calcutta, informs me has been

suggest

Sweden, and Rye in Germany. 23,

various

for

Nighantu

Vide,

homonyms and synonyms

in the ancient Sanskrit.

The view

28a, I.

E.

palatal

was

Centum languages and 6

origin of 6

of the

based on false suppositions (Vide

in differnt

Aryan languages may

of 6

and 6

non-Aryan

India who came

Aryan language

in contact with

Dara. Sansk.

Note Sanskrit Devara Prak,

The

be explained

from the appearence

evident

is

the

in

which grew from Sansk,-as spoken

in the prakrits,

by the non-Aryas of

as

tribes,

original

note 7).

also

as the result of influence of alien speech habits on the

imposed on

the

philologists that

Satem and guttaralized

in the

sibilised is

modern

the

first

Aryas.

Pushkara,

Prak,

Also trayastrinsat Prak t6nthis also Prnk. fittha. pdkkhara Thus the Centum characAsru. note 'Khasali finkhru-for Skr Skr.

1

teristics

on the

disturbances less

and

India

in

marked

in

outside

Aryan

India

India are

language,

and could

not

the

result

ethnic

of

which characteristics

grow

as

having

were

separate

values owing to the constant influence of the original

Aryan language that Has its home in India, but which were more marked and to the scanty and developed in Central Asia and Europe owing the of distant Aryan mother-tongue. Thus diminishing influence when we say that the Centum characteristics are derived from the Satem we should not be understood as saying tiiat they are derived for if we of the same Aryan phonetic laws under the operation

restrict

the

change

in the

language

phonetic laws only, in that case, no

to

the

philologist

opetations of

Aryan

would disagree that


129 Gentnm had

the Satera and the

better both be derived from an

1

known 'Indo-European palatal But the Centum could only be from thn Satem under the influence of strange phonetic laws

among whom

alien ethnic stocks of people

was carried even

in its course of

that

aspiration of the sibilant

hand

Germanic

for

Aryan

migration from country

Europe the guttural in

in

the

Gothic

is

un-

derived of

the

language

to country.

For

centum seems to have retained the satem, au

in the orignal

The

kent.

original

we note

Aryan sound

centum therefore cannot be an Indo European palatal but a sound with an aspirate much nearer Satem than Centum. The original

in

home

it

of

the

be

Aryas therefore may

the Punjab than the

of

Centum land

much

nearer the

Satem land

of Asiatic Turkistau.

We

put

midway between the two, round the Himalayas, Vide Satyabrata's Aitareyalochana, Introduction, published

29.

by the Asiatic society of Bengal.

See Nilamat, the legendary

30.

of

history

Kashmir which

efforts origin of Kashmir which through the went who men on was later up (Aryas) populated by Kashyapa from various quarters to * Kashmir and drove out the superfluous

relates

the

lacustrine

of

Pisachas (non-Aryas) in

the

north

or lived with them on settled terms; see

See supra note

31.

the

various

Aryan

tribes

23a.

trans-Himalayan countries

to

Appendix A.

Pargiter has

having gone

out

distinctly

through

shown

north

and

north-west of India to outer-lands.

Some

32. of

the ancient

assumption

of

have at temped to prove the contiguity with the Dravidians.in the Punjab on the

writers

Aryas

the Dravidian

But the Dravidian influence

influence in

on the Sanskrit phonetics.

the case

of,

linguals or the second

our opinion only imaginary, for the of dentals cerebrals or into change linguals can be explained without dental series in Sanskrit

the

is

aid of foreign influence,

combination,

language

or as

itself.

oases

of

They may

in

by the phonetic

rules

of euphonic

analogy, within the limits of Sanskrit

have grown in

Sanskrit after

it

had

separated from other Aryan languages or they may have existed already but dropped in other Aryan languages than Sanskrit to re-appear

again in English-we do not require the Dravidian influence


130 to explain the English cerebral sound as in

appearance and

like the

within

Sansk

:

may be governed

and the guttnralisation

of

palatals

Aryan languages or as the mutual interchange of 'IT and and *V Note the Panini-rules of cerebralization within

the

f

.

T*T*rt^: W*1* V\ TOJi**T^ I

felW4l9|MV|i|VKTBf

and

language

The

bnt', etc.

without any foreign influences

itself

palatalisation of gutturals

or *B f

*L*

the cerebrals

of

dis- appearance

by the laws of the

4

'cut,'

The

palatals.

palatal '& to govern the

R

I

^ I

Vedic Sansk

\tT:

$TT*ra(irfar:i

not

the

in

change its

place

Note Vedic anguri or

*f$ Ved, fq*

of gutturals

the

require

supposed

Aryan mother-tongue with

L

TOfhfo:,

Sansk. anguli

or fin

"am

*i|TO:

I'ttTCT^sfq,

Note the interchange

may

palatal

changes

I

note

:

with

*B'

Prak.

anguria,

Skr.fi^!

The Mohenjodaro and the Harappa towns may be the meeting-place of the Aryan and the Dravidian cultures; the Aryas 82a.

descending from the Himalayas -and advancing through the northern Punjab to the south Punjab, might have for the first time come in

contact with the Sumero-Dravidian (?) civilisation,

in the

Sipdh.

But the Mohenjodaro and the Harappa finds do not in any way contradict the theory of the home of the Aryas in the north-western Himalayas and finds

their valleys

in

were proved as belonging

the

northern

Punjab even

if

these

to the

non-Aryan substratum of The Indo-Sumerian population. seals and scripts have yet to be deciphered and it is premature to puss our judgement on them. 88.

The Non-Aryas appear

R.V.

as the aggressive party. Of,

**w

vr. 25, 2, s. i?r *m*irt *tf *S Trrft *frt TOf R. V. VIII. 24. 27. suggests Saptasindhu, the land of the Aryas, attacked by the foreigners. * W^T^t i

^^if^nrhrv

r:

vii. 88. 84.

|

Aryas

fight

against

the

TOfti^

wt

Aryas, see, R,

V.

i.

See supra, note

1

9.

The Dasyus, the enemies of the Aryas, appear in the who attacked the Aryas in their settled homes. The Dasyus too had their settled homes but they could easily be 85.

Veda

as raiders

supposed to have existed outside the range of the Aryan home in the fixed regions of the Himalayas.


131 36.

AryoR

The Koleriuns cannot be north India, as

in the

its