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uav;tcGifhta&;oifcef;pm (3) touf&SifoefcGifhESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufcGifh &nf&G,fcsuf (1) uav;rsm;. touf&SifcGifhESifhzGH@+zdK;wkd;wufcGifhudk &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;em;vnfoabmayguf&ef (2) xdktcGifhta&;rsm; uav;rsm;twGuf bma=umifhvdktyfa=umif; od&Sdap&ef (3) rdrdywf0ef;usif&Sduav;rsm;. touf&SifcGifhESifh zHG@+zdK;wdk;wufcGifhqdkif&m tajctaeudkoHk;oyfEdkif&ef Activity: (v_yf&Sm;r_) (1) oifwef;om;rsm;tm; tkyfpk (3) pkcJI G tkyfpkwpkv#if toifhjyifxm;aom uav;ESifhywfoufaom yHk (20) pDa0yg/ xdkyHkrsm;onf bmudkqdkvdka=umif; tkyfpkvdkuf0dkif;=unfhaqG;aEG;apyg? (2) xdktkyfpkrsm;onf EdkifiHwEdkifIhwGif uav;rsm;ESifh ywfoufonfhtpDtpOfrsm;udk a&G;cs,fqHk;jzwfay;&rnfh0ef}uD;tzJG@rsm;jzpfa=umif;/ ,cktcsdefwGif uav;rsm;ESifhywfoufI rnfonfht&mrsm;udk vkyfaqmifay;oifha=umif;udk yHkrsm;a&G;cs,fI qHk;jzwf&rnfjzpfa=umif; &Sif;jyyg? (3) xdkyHkrsm;onf uav;rsm;twGufvdktyfcsufrsm;jzpfaomfvnf; wdkif;jynf.b他maiGt& tm;vHk;udk rjznfhqnf;EdkifonfhtwGuf xdkyHk(20) xJrS ta&;}uD;onfh yHk (14) yHkudkoma&G;cs,fI ta&;r}uD;[k tzJG@vdkufowfrSwfaomyHk (6) yHkudk z,fxkwfcdkif;yg? (4) usefaomyHk (14) yHkudk v$wfawmfodk@wifoGif;aomfvnf; v$wfawmfu aemufxyf (6) yHkxyfavsmhcdkif;onfhtwGuf xdk(14) yHkxJrS OD;pm;ay;jznfhqnf;ay;oifhonf[ktzJG@u,lqaom (8) yHkudkcsefI (6) yHkudk xyfz,fcdkif;yg? (5) xdkaemufqHk;usefcJhaomyHkrsm;udk tkyfpkvdkufoD;oef@pDuyfxm;cdkif;yg? Discussion: (tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;jcif;) - tzJG@vdkuf aemufqHk;usefaeonfh yHk(6) yHkudk bma=umifh a&G;cs,fcsefxm;&a=umif; &Sif;jycdkif;yg? - xdkyHkrsm;udka&G;cs,f&eftzJG@vdkufpOf;pm;qHk;jzwf&mwGif b,fvdktcuftcJ}uHKawG@cJh&ygovJ/ b,fvdkajz&Sif;cJhygovJ? - usefcJhaomyHkESifh z,fxkwfvdkufaomyHkrsm;onf b,fvdkjcm;em;r_&SdygovJ? bma=umifhjcm;em;w,fvdk@,lqygovJ? - z,fxkwfvdkufaomyHkrsm;r&Sdygu uav;rsm;b,fvdkjzpfEdkifygovJ/ - aemufqHk;usefcJhaomyHkrsm;omr&Sdygu uav;rsm;twGuf b,fvdkxdcdkufEdkifygovJ/ - aemufqHk;usefcJhaomyHkrsm;udk=unfhI xdkyHkrsm;udk b,fvdkt"dy`m,fowfrSwfEdkifrvJ? (touf&Sif&efvdkaomt&mrsm;ESifh zGH@+zdK;wdk;wuf&efvdkaomt&mrsm;[lI xGufay:vmatmif ar;cGef;rsm;ar;Edkifonf) - ,ckyHkrsm;omrubJ uav;rsm;touf&Sif&eftwGuf bmawGvdktyfrvJ? bma=umifhvJ? uav;rsm;zHG@+zdK;wdk;wuf&eftwGuf aemufxyfbmawGvdktyfovJ/ - ,ckyHkrsm;omrubJ bma=umifhvJ?


Input: (ta=umif;t&mESifhqufpyfonfh A[kokway;jcif;) uav;rsm;onf vlom;rsm;yifjzpfaoma=umifh vlom;rsm;onf touf&SifydkifcGifh&Sdaomqdkaomtcsuftwdkif;touf&Sif&efvdktyfonfh t&mrsm;udk cHpm;Edkif&ayrnf? touf&Sif&eftwGufvdktyfaom usef;rma&;apmifha&Smufay;r_rsm;/ a&m*grsm;rjzpfatmif umuG,fay;r_rsm;/ umuG,faq;xdk;ay;r_rsm;/ vHkavmufaomvlr_tqifhtwef;&Sdr_/ t[m&jynfh0r_/ oef@&Sif;aoma&/av/ ywf0ef;usifrsm;vdktyfygonf? odk@rSom uav;rsm;touf&SifEdkifrnfjzpfonf? xdka=umifh xdkt&mrsm;udk touf&SifcGifh (Survival Rights) [kowfrSwfxm;ygonf? uav;rsm;onf touf&Sif&eftwGufvdktyfaomt&mrsm;jynfhpHk,Hkoufoufjzifh rvHkavmufao;yg? uav;rsm;onf touft&G,f/ tawG@t}uKHt& Eke,fvSonfhtwGuf wOD;csif;toufESifh &kyfykdif;qdkif&mtvdkuf zHG@+zdK;wdk;wuf&efvnf; vdktyfvSygonf/ touf&Sifaomfvnf; touft&G,ftvdkuf zHG@+zdK;wdk;wufr_r&Sdygu jynfhpHkr_&Sdrnfr[kwfyg? uav;wOD;csif;tvdkuf &kyfydkif;/ pdwfydkif;/ tusifhpm&dwWydkif;/ oDvydkif;ESifh vlr_aygif;oif;qufqHr_tydkif;tvdkuf [efcsufnDnDwdk;wufzHG@+zdK;&ef tjcm;tcsufrsm;vnf; vdktyfygonf? xdkAvig;wefwdk;wufap&eftwGuf rdom;pkESifh ywf0ef;usifwdk@. apmifha&Smufr_/ ynma&;ESifh owif;A[kokwrsm; avhvmEdkifr_/ tyef;ajztem;,lupm;Edkifr_/ ,Ofaus;r_vkyfief;rsm;wGif yg0ifEdkifr_/ rdrdt,ltqrsm;udk xkwfajymajymqdkEdkifaomywf0ef;usiftaetxm;&Sdr_wdk@vdktyf+yD; xdkt&mrsm;udk zHG@+zdK;wdk;wufa&;tcGifhta&; (Development Rights) [kac:ygonf? jrefrmEkdifiH&Sduav;rsm;. tajctae (UNICEF-2003) ƒ 2001 ckESpfwGif touf(5)ESpfatmuf uav;wpfaxmifwGif 110OD;aoqkH;aeonf? ƒ ta&S@tm&SwGif uarBm'D;,m;/ ta&S@wDarmESifh jreffrmEdkifiHonf uav;aoqkH;E_H; tjrifhqkH; jzpfonf? ƒ umuG,faq;xfkd;&mwGif Edk@pdk@uav;. 75 &mcdkifE_H;udkom xdk;ay;Edkifonf? ƒ uav;rsm;. t[m&csKd@wJhr_E_H;rSm urBmwGif tqifh 15 jzpf+yD; csdk@wJhr_tjrifhrm;qHk;EkdifiHpm&if;wGif yg0ifaeonf? ƒ pdwfcs&aom a&&&Sdr_wGif 2001ckESpfY 71 &mcdkifE_H;jzpf+yD; tm&Sypdzdwfa'owGif;&Sd 14 EdkifiHwGif tqifh 9 wGif&Sdonf? ƒ 0rf;a&m*gjzpfaeaomuav;rsm;tm; vdktyfaomt[m&ay;r_rSm tm&SwGif ta&S@wDarm+yD;v#if 'kwd, tedrf@qHk;jzpfygonf? (11 &mcdkifE_ef;) om&Sdonf? ƒ uav;rdcifaoqHk;E_ef;onf wodef;v#if (250)OD;&Sdonf? ƒ trsdK;orD;rsm;oH"mwfcsdK@wJhr_onf 1990 ckESpfwGif (60 &mcdkifE_ef;) &Sdonf? ƒ udk,f0efaqmiftrsdK;orD;rsm;oH"mwfcsdK@wJhr_onf (59 &mcdkifE_ef;)&Sdonf? ƒ u|rf;usifaomusef;rma&;vkyfom;rsm;apmifha&Smufr_jzifharG;zGm;aom uav;arG;zGm;r_rSm ( 52 &mcdkifE_ef;) &Sdonf? ƒ rdom;pkrsm;t=um; tdkiftdk'if;qm;pm;oHk;r_rSm (40-69 &mcdkifE_ef;)&Sdonf? ƒ tdwfpfa&m*gjzifh aoqkH;E_H;rSm 1997 ESpfwGif av;odef;jzpf+yD; 1999 rSm ig;odef;ausmf/ a&m*ga=umifh taza&m tara&m aooGm;I usefcJhaom uav;rSm 1990wGif av;aomif;okH; axmif/ 2002 ckESpfwGif av;aomif;cef@&Sdonf?


ƒ rlvwef;ynm ausmif;wufoif=um;r_E_ef;onf 1990 ckESpfwGif (60 &mcdkfifE_ef;) &Sd+yD; 2000 ckESpfwGif ( 78 &mcdkfifE_ef;)&Sdonf? ta&S@tm&Sa'owGif ta&S@wDarm+yD;v#if tedrfhqHk;jzpfonf? ƒ 1000 rSm wuUodkvf 10 a,muf - 19.2% 2005 ƒ ynma&;toHk;p&dwf ƒ uav; (2) odef;ausmf arG; ƒ ynma&;qdkif&mtpdk;&bwf*suftoHk;ðyr_&mcdkifE_ef;rSm 1990 ckEpS fwGif (16 &mcdkifE_ef;) ESifh 2000 ckESpfwGif (8 &mcdkifE_ef;) jzpfonf?

(2003 ckESpf Unicef tpD&ifcHpmrS xkwfE_wfwifjyxm;onf) Deepening: (oifwef;om;rsm;.vufawG@tjzpfESifhEd_if;,SOfqufpyfay;jcif;) tkyfpkav;pkcGJI zGH@+zdK;wdk;wufcGifhESifh touf&SifcGifhwGifyg0ifaom cav;ckpDay;yg? xdk tydk'frsm;. qdkvdk&if;teuft"dy`m,fudktajccH+yD; vuf&SdjrefrmjynfwGifjzpfysufaeonfh uav;tajctaersm;udk atmufygZ,m;twdkif;aqG;aEG;apI tzJG@vdkufwifjycdkif;yg? vdktyfcsufrsm;udk tkyfpk}uD;wGif aqG;aEG;cdkif;yg? tydk'f. qdkvdkcsuf

vuf&Sdjzpfaeaomuav;tajctaersm; tpdk;&/wm0ef&Sdol.vkyfaqmifay;oifhaom tcsufrsm;

Synthesis: (rnfuJhodk@vkyfaqmif/ umuG,fwm;qD;Edkifonfudk tajz&Smvkyfaqmifapjcif;) xdkaqG;aEG;csufrsm;udk rlwnfI vuf&Sduav;rsm;tajctaewdk;wufvmap&ef rdrdudk,fwdkifcsufcsif;vkyfEdkifaomtcsufESifh tcsdef,lI vkyfaqmifoGm;Edkifrnhftcsufrsm;udk wOD;csif;pOf;pm;I oifykef;ay:wGif uyfcdkif;yg? vdktyfaom ypPnf;rsm; v_yf&Sm;r_wGifa0iS&eftwGuf toifhjyifxm;aom &kyfyHkum;csyfrsm;? rSwfcsuf A[kokway;&mwGif touf&SifcGihf&Sdaomfvnf; zHG@+zdK;wdk;wufcGifhudkcHpm;cGifhr&&Sdonfhuav;rsm;ta=umif;ESifh xdkuav;rsm;tay:oufa&mufaomqdk;usdK;rsm;ta=umif;udk oifwef;ydk@csolu OD;aqmifaqG;aEG;I oifwef;om;rsm;. udk,fawG@tjzpftysufrsm;r#a0wifjyvmatmif vrf;a=umif;oGm;Edkifonf?

child_module3_sur_dev  

&nf&G,fcsuf (1) uav;rsm;. touf&SifcGifhESifhzGH@+zdK;wkd;wufcGifhudk &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;em;vnfoabmayguf&ef (2) xdktcG...

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