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Table of Content


21 CENTURY

CHILD SLAVERY  IN ASIA By Adelia Apriana

child slavery is illegal in every country on the planet but the truth is slavery did not die in 21st century. It is alive, it is blooming, and still happening around the world. Slavery has always been a big problem since ancient times around the world. The issue of child slavery is usually much talked about and highlighted in the African region. But, we also should not f o r g e t t h e A s i a n a r e a , e s p ec i a l l y S o u t h e a s t Asia which turned out many international business company had hided the truth that the actual worker that work in their factories is child. The shoes and clothes we wear and the products that we use are made by children labors. 

The Asia-Pacific region has the largest number of child workers inthe 5-14 age group in the world– some 127 million, about 60% of working children worldwide. In Asia, children have been forced to work in those sweatshops, factories, streets, or those dangerous and poor working conditions. They treat those children labor badly. They have been whipped, kicked, suck as those verbal and physical abuse. They pay them only a little and force them work more than they need to. They are not only need to work in factories but also beg on the streets. If there has any chance that they can earn some money, the harsh group which own them will force them to do it no matter how hard it is.

Many children in Southeast Asia are kidnapped, sold, or trapping and become slaves. The agent would go to their village and trap people and sell their children. Some families which are running out of money even can't provide health care and education would choose to sell their children to work for other people. However, there have been little improvement in the reduction of the above reported numbers because eradicating child workers mandates addressing a host of other social issues including poverty, illiteracy, overpopulation and lack of awareness. Stop the Children Slaves There are many gourds that started to donate money and help those kids. Some families which have the ability and money to raise another kid adopt the kids in good. Also there are some families that couldn't have a baby, they started to help and give them a chance to study. Some governments help those kids get back to their school and finish their educations.


There are some cases that are happening and been reported in China. In China, there are many places that are been called as coastal areas or some economic zone such as Guangdong, Zhejiang, Sichuan and Hubei. At there, there are about four to five million child labors which are under 16 or 12 years old that been found working over 10 to 14 hours away with half the wages of an adult. In China Shenzhen, the children that are between the ages of 10 to 16 are working p to 14 hours a day in factories. In China, March 2001, there is a school that forced students work for the fireworks industry. 42 students that were third and fourth graders were killed in the explosion at that school. The reason that company chose the school was because that was cheap. They had to do at least 1000 fireworks a day while the fifth graders were required to make then times more. Those children were young so that they did not know the right way of doing it so the school blow up. Men and women get fake marriage in order to adopt children so that children were got the reason and "allow" to work.

A boy works in a tea stall in a small village in Nepal. Nepal is one of the worlds poorest countries, forcing huge numbers of children to do hard labor. For a majority of children in Nepal, education is a luxury.

A young Pakistani girl carries a load of wooldown a street in a poor section of Peshawar.Pakistan has laws that limit child labor, butthe laws are often ignored. An estimated 11million children work in Pakistans factorie

As the time passing, we thought that slavery are no longer stay between us. We think it is not really exist, but this is not true. It is happening every second and everywhere, but we are just not pay any attention on it. We should open our ears and hear what is really going on. We will realize how grateful our lives are. We can hear that sounds that they are screaming. We can see their suffering. The beaten, payment, environment are the things that we can not image. The donations are not enough for them. The experiences are not enough for us to realize their pains. The society are too strong to be change. We should look at them and look back to ourselves. We are living in the environment that they think this called heaven. We should respect ourselves and enjoy our education. Give them a chance and influence them, lead them back to schools finish their education. Give them a chance, adopt them as your child. Give them a home and take a rest. They deserve better lives them these. People are equal. No one is higher than another.


CHILD MARRIAGE IN INDIA What is child marriage and are the impacts of it? According to Indian laws, The Child Marriage Restraint Act (1929) set when men under 18 years old and women under 15 years old get married can be categorized as child marriage either in formal or informal way. UNICEF defines child marriage as a formal marriage or informal union before 18 years of age for girls and below 21 years old for boys. The impacts of child marriage are women having lower socioeconomic status, creating a vicious cycle for future generations of girls, pregnancy and early death, and so on.

When will this child marriage end? This is a huge issue and became a cultural heredity. We cannot predict when this child marriage will end. However, even it seems too hard to be ended but if the government and the people of India can cooperate well, surely it may decrease or even end the child marriage.

How many child get married? As of 2016, India had nearly 12 million Indian children who had been married before the age of 10 years. This number is equivalent to the entire population of Jammu & Kashmir. Of this, 5.4 million (44%) were illiterate, and 80% of them female.


Why it happens? Limited education opportunities & low quality of education. Taking for granted as a heredity culture. Although there is widespread awareness of the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act 2006 (PCMA) and the illegality of child marriage, individually people feel that the traditions and norms are stronger than the law and the institutions and rarely report cases. Belief that girls are often seen as a liability with limited economic role. Women’s work is confined to the household and is not valued. Law enforcement to prohibit child marriage is not firm enough and relatively weak. The dowry amount increases with the age and the education level of the girl. Hence, the “incentive” of the system of dowry perpetuates child marriage

How the India's governments deal with this problem? A National Action Plan to prevent child marriages was drafted by the Ministry of Women and Child Development in 2013, however, it has not yet been finalized. The Government has used cash incentives (such as the Dhan Laxmi scheme and the Apni beti apna dhun program), adolescents’ empowerment programs (Kishori Shakti Yojana) and awareness-raising to engage behavior change. Moreover, India is one of 12 countries selected to be part of UNFPA and UNICEF’s Global Programme to Accelerate Action to End Child Marriage. India also joined social campaign about ending the child marriage in the South Asian Initiative to End Violence Against Children (SAIEVAC), which adopted a regional action plan to end child marriage (2015-2018). Reference: https://www.girlsnotbrides.org/child-marriage/india/


OPPRESSION, INEQUALITY & EDUCATION SYSTEM IN AFGHANISTAN April, 2018 Article 

Inside This Issue

THE DIFFERENCES AMONG MEN AND WOMEN WHAT DO THE TEXTBOOKS PORTRAY ABOUT MEN & WOMEN

HOW CAN THIS ISSUE BE SOLVED

Inequality and Education System By: Khalida Wardak 

In recent years, millions of dollars have been spent on improving the status of women by the global community, but violence against women continues to rise. Given that internal values in childhood and adolescence shape the intellectual infrastructure and human attitudes, educational institution after the family is considered to be the most important and effective educational institution of the society playing a key role in the intellectual and human development of a community, shaping the culture and norms of that society. The Ministry of Education, along with the training of specialist, scientist, and people familiar with the new sciences, is one of its most important tasks in educating the country's knowledgeable force, a force that plays a key role in economic, social and particularly in cultural development. But the research of the "Women's Social Equality Institution" brings us to the brutal results that the Afghan educational system (along with many shortcomings in terms of educational quality) is a powerful institution in reproduction of violence and oppression of women, and although many efforts and extensive expenditures have been made for the quantitative and qualitative improvement of the educational system. But Afghans will still face inefficient education and clichés of sexuality.

The study of textbooks (from grade one to twelve) has been carried out in a qualitative manner and suggests that the Afghan education system not only aims at the health and improvement of human resources but rather depicts half of these valuable human resources in a systematic way which has been portrayed as passive and home-grown people. The textbooks and educational materials are full of mental and gender formats as well as full of discrimination. Traditionally, family stories and pictures are displayed. Women as shown as mature, compassionate, self-sacrificing, sister and wives are complimented, and are ultimately suggested to become a teacher. Continue to Page 2


OPPRESSION, INEQUALITY & EDUCATION SYSTEM IN AFGHANISTAN April, 2018 Article 

The texts of these books, in the form of hidden discrimination, do not include women who are never mothers, spouses or sisters, and do not consider them to be human beings. Which means it does not recognize women as independent identities. These texts even neglected the status of women and seeks to target women and girls as housewives and men and boys as key people outside the house. There are no books about widowed women who are breadwinners of the family. There is nothing mentioned about female doctor, police, pilot, professor, director, boss, minister, athlete, driver and etc but  men are everywhere at the library, in governmental meetings held for unity and peace, on the sports field, on the street, at the factory, in the desert in the garden and actively plays a constructive role in the family, political, social and cultural life. In female textbooks, the woman waits at home and cant wash her clothes until the man of the family brings soap she can not cook until the man of the family brings onion and potatoes. The author of these books has done their best to tell the female students that at then end they are the mother, cook and tailor of the family and that if they even try their best they will at least become a teacher nothing more than that. In addition to that, they are being told that they are emotional, cautious, thoughtful and affable creatures, but it teaches boys and men that you are decision maker, indulgent, bread-makers, dangerous, brave, intelligent, enterprising, resourceful, aggressive and discreet.  Finally now, the author of the new books  which belongs to grade first and second, have not yet been scribed. They have tried to put women at a better position. In textbooks, housework is divided between men and women (although it is not readily recognizable in such images) and attempts to strengthen students' creativity and thinking skills with more modern methods which is worth to be thanked for. But, despite all those improvements theres still the role of women outside has been largely unrecognized and women and girls are often portrayed inside the house. Girls are emotional human beings who bleed and cry under small excuses, they are magnanimous and upright whose feet can easily be hurt by the hit of a stone, and the bunch of flowers that she’s supposed to be presenting to her teacher on teachers day will be destroyed after she falls and ends up crying on her way to school. On the other hand, in these textbooks boys are reluctant in paying attention to cleanliness. However, this is the reality of our society and knowing that the presentation of negative patterns can have negative impacts which can give male students the mentality that men are inherently inveterate and aggressive. Recalling these points does not mean that the positive points of these books were be overlooked.

At last the author believes that introducing women as disadvantaged people undermines society and slows down the growth and development of humanity. The fact is that the foundation of society is women, and when the woman is empowered, society becomes empowered. In today's world, the roles of men and women are changing, and the educational system must not only recognize these changes, but also strengthen girls' ambitions with hypothetical stories and images. Considering the worthy status of women in family life, social, political, and especially sports, in textbooks extends the mutual respect between men and women. Modern attitude suggests that gender differences are not fixed, and although they may have roots in human nature, but they are clearly characterized by social factors. It is the social institutions that create two sexes, in other words, gender differences, social beliefs and norms. The educational system of a country is one of the most important institutions for building a modern and human cultured society. Therefore, while preparing textbooks, social scientists and experts in women's affairs should be helped so that we no longer see the reproduction of gender inequalities at least through the education system. The author hopes for a better future and a better Afghanistan.


EDWINA A. SETIAWAN

INDIA'S GOVERNMENT TAKE ACTION AGAINST RAPE Has it really changed how rape is viewed in India?

WHAT HAS BEEN HAPPENING At least 34,651 cases of rape were reported across India in 2015 which is slightly less than last year’s 36,735 reported rape cases. These statistics were released by India’s National Crime Records Bureau (NCRB). With numbers so high, India was considered as one of the most dangerous countries to live in for a woman. 

These rape cases happen to women and girls of all ages ranging from 6 to 60 years old. However, those most commonly reported are aged between 18 and 30. From all of these cases most of the rape victims, around 90%, have stated that most of them knew their rapist which makes it all the more terrifying. They never know who they can trust and this makes it difficult for the victims to report it. The conservative nature of Indian culture when it comes to rape has been a setback to solving this issue. Discussing rape was considered “taboo” and it brings shame to the family. This was a reason why rape is highly under-reported in India, often blaming the victim for ‘behaving wrongly’. This has led Indian women to keep silent and remain strong. Thankfully that silence is now being broken with more and more rape cases being reported. However, sometimes consensual elopement has been reported as rape which causes difficulty during the investigation and the number of cases to be inaccurate.


Protests have been rising since the incident in 2012 where a 23 year old female, Jyoti Singh Pandey, was gang raped and beaten in a private bus. Two years later another major case appeared in 2014 where two cousins, aged 14 and 15, were gang-raped and then hanged in Uttar Pradesh. This only fuelled the anger already in the society causing women and men to protest against the government who often does not take rape cases seriously. The problem here is obvious, women’s autonomy in India is limited and is often justified because of the culture. Acceptance of domestic violence is one of the leading factors of the high number of rape cases. In 2012, UNICEF conducted a survey and found that 53% of Indian girls, ages between 15 and 19, think wife beating is justified. This in its self is a problem. With the women unable to protest and blaming themselves, how will the country change? This behaviour has encouraged men to feel that women are inferior thus believing statements such as “Generally, 99% of women behave wrongly. They are having mobiles and all these things. They don’t know how to talk to elders.” This was the answer of Subhash Chander who is an old rickshaw driver in Delhi.  

A lack of public safety has been admitted by the Indian government saying that the country’s public places are still unsafe for women. Actions have been taken in order to accommodate the growing number of women who venture out into the city. Courses on the new laws have become mandatory for commercial drivers. These “gender sensitisation” classes aim to change the regressive mind-sets. However, the effectiveness has been questioned as 90% of women know their rapists which renders this course of action nearly useless. Rape in India was hardly taken seriously and authorities often encourage the rape victims to compromise. In a separate case, an Indian girl, aged 17, who was gangraped killed herself after police pressured her to drop the case and marry one of her attackers. Now authorities are paying more attention by creating a help line for women’s complaints and giving gender appropriate training the police officers in Delhi.  New laws have been passed by the Indian Parliament which are designed to help protect women in the country. Panic buttons are required to be installed on public transportations such as busses and starting 2018 all mobile phones are set to have a panic button as well as a GPS system. This allows police to be alerted on the case of potential sexual violence. Offences such as stalking, voyeurism and sexual harassment are now included in the Indian penal code. However, will there be enough authorities to handle the cases? India has an unbalanced ratio of lawyers per million people, which has made them overwhelmed and the work ineffective. The actions taken by the Indian government is effective when it comes to handling the rape ‘cases’ which means the act of sexual violence has already been committed however, it is not intended to prevent the rape happening in the first place. The main focus should be prevention through educating that rape is morally wrong. Despite the long and hard process for India to reform the public’s understanding and concern, it is worthwhile because promoting moral education from now on can ensure the safety and security of the future generation.


BLACK

PANTHER

STATEMENTS OF EMPOWERING FOR WOMEN AND BLACK-POWER MOVEMENTS ƵƚŚŽƌ͗^ŽŶŝĂz͘

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ĚŝƚŽƌ ͗&ĞůůLJ&͘

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Despite of the super cool story line and characters in Black Panther, there are a lot of messages presented by this movie. Most of the actress and actors playing in this movie are black skin people, the accent of their english was adopted from the African accent, tradi onal suites and lifestyle also adopted from the African people. Well, it presents poli cs values, moral values, and how Black Panther is actually showing a statement of empowerment for women and Black-Power movements. It contains a powerful messages about gender roles based on Wakandan women Okoye and Nakia who are allowed to have a full expression of themselves. Nakia is describing a woman with intelligence, the ability to do mar al arts in defending herself and has a full responsible also to protect Wakanda. In the other hand, Okoye as the respected leader of Wakanda’s female warrior class, describing woman with full of responsibility and discipline, and very loyal serving the king to protect Wakanda with all of her strengths. This part of message presented in Black Panther is really powerful for all the woman out there.

Discrimina on based on skin color nowadays maybe not as worse as in 90’s back then. In 2011 there was a movie tled The Help, the movie is showing about how bad the discrimina on done by white skin people towards black skin people. The very uncomfortable racist a tudes before is very bad, black skin people’s job is mostly as a maid, they live in fear, have no freedom, discriminate by people’s act, and the worse thing is black skin people are o en suspected as the one who do the criminal ac on. This stereotypes were a ached to the black skin people even un l now. In certain condi ons or in certain departments it might be very rare for us to see this kind of discrimina on. Current condi ons might not as bad as before since we can see the decreasing number of discrimina on based on skin color. But then recently, there was a video uploaded by a guy recording a woman repeatedly calls a him an N-word in a very rude way, just because he started his car and her kids got startled because of the car’s engine. The stereotypes years ago regarding black skin people suspected as the one who do crime and a ached as a bad guy doing bad thing s ll happen un l now. This is one of the many reasons why Black Panther is significant in presenting moral values and solving African-American issue about skin color. This movie is presen ng about what it means to be black in both America and Africa in a broader way. In this movie presents

black skin people is not always bad, all people is the same, there is no guarantee when you belong to certain groups or race it means that you are all good or all bad. In A fic onal king who has an advance technology which poten ally to destroy the world, and controlling the wealth of the world would prefer to choose to secure it and maintain its own people with a deep political considera on. Black-power movement is an armed self-defense, black business ownership, and community control. Some of ac vists defending black skin people rights to have the same rights and not being discriminate by white skin people, and this kind of movement already exist since 1966. As Black Panther was born it reminds and event declaring again about the Black-Power Movement back then. Black Panther is not just a movie, it contains a lot of values, as the empowerment for woman and to declare about the stereotypes which a ached with the black skin people. Racism happens everywhere not only between black skin people and white skin people. Since we live in a cosmopoli sm globaliza on era, we are supposed to live in a harmony, as what men oned before there is no single race which all the people are good. It is just beau ful if we can live in a diversity with high tolerance in this one big world.


M AN = W O M AN

G ender equality issue in S weden by V ina S anchia

S W EDEN S TA N DS IN

4 TH P O S ITIO N as the most gender - equal countr y

B ack then to the his tory, having breakthrough es pecially in gender equality was made by the “rebel” of the tradition, where man s hould be put firs t, man des erves for becoming the head in every s ingle s ector and many others . Y et, the one, who is called as the “rebel”, is the his tory maker or the hero for their group; they fight for s omething that they think is worth it to be rais ed. S ince 19th century, feminis t group that fight for women’s right for gender equality in S weden rais ed. At the firs t time, they did not cons idered as an influencing movement that has a little number of followers but as time goes by, as the media growing, this movement can s pread their belief eas ily and gain more followers and it was noticed. In 1970s , S wedis h feminis m rooted in S ocial Democratic party s o women s tarted to have s eat in the parliament. T his feminis t movement als o did

on 15th F ebruary 2017 and the las t 5 years to protes t about the payment gap between man and woman. S wedis h feminis t groups are active and they have s trong voice. As the res ult, S weden nowadays has s everal policies about gender and equality and s urpris ingly, s ome media cons ider S weden has feminis t government. Here are the policies that are publis hed by the government through its official webs ite: 1. G ender equality at s chool where children, boys and girls , can have the s ame s tandard and chances of education. 2. P arents get 480 days parental leave with fair payment. 3. T here is a law where there mus t be no dis crimination to any gender, ethnic and many others . 4. Woman has big opportunity to become C E O and have s eat in government. In 2014 almos t half of the parliament s eat is for women. 5. G ender mains treaming becomes

s ource: bigthink.com


another policy to unite gender equality with all elements in work agency. 6. T here are s ome organizations to tackle violence agains t woman. 7. In S weden woman can become archbis hop while traditionally, the archbis hop s hould be a man. G ender equality is a very beautiful term but s adly, thos e who fight for gender equality become more extreme. In s ome media, feminis m in S weden gets s ome critics becaus e its movement that tends to be extreme. E verything that become too much is not good. A S wedis h man s aid via Y outube video that he is afraid if there is a policy where man s hould pee in s it pos ition like woman and others , that is why the extreme of this feminis m s hould be warn becaus e the thing that probably happen is men feel they los e their right s o the new term for fighting for menâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s right, "mas culinis m" or whatever it is called appear. T herefore, fighting for womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s right is great but as a human being, we s hould cons ider about other humans â&#x20AC;&#x2122; right es pecially man.

Q UI C K F A C T

Feministisk Initiativ T his organization fights for feminis m. One of its s logans is F eminis m for E veryone. It s upport E uropean Union program do decreas e gender inequality and other kind of dis crimination. It was es tablis hed on 4th April 2005 in S tockholm, S weden. E ven though this organization counts as a new organization but it becomes a feminis t party that has joined the election and won 3.2 percent of the 2014 vote.

s ource: breitbart.com

s

c om e ma g. r a h s : o urc e s ource: thelocal.com

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