Page 1

INTERSTATE BUS TERMINAL MEERUT CITY INDIA


CONTENTS TABLE OF FIGURES ........................................................................................................................................ 5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ................................................................................................................................... 6 FOREWORD ................................................................................................................................................... 7 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................. 8 TRANSIT CONGLOMERATE ........................................................................................................................ 8 RATIONALE .................................................................................................................................................... 9 INCORPORATION & INCLUSIVITY ............................................................................................................ 10 TRANSIT FACILITY IN MEERUT CITY............................................................................................................. 12 INFLUENCE ZONE – RELEVANCE OF RE-DEVELOPMENT ............................................................................. 13 CITY FABRIC AND PROFILE .......................................................................................................................... 14 SITE ANALYSIS ............................................................................................................................................. 17 ACTIVITY MAPPING OF THE SITE ................................................................................................................. 18 TRAFFIC ANALYSIS OF THE CITY .................................................................................................................. 20 LITERATURE STUDY ..................................................................................................................................... 22 Technical Standards ................................................................................................................................ 23 INFERENCES FROM THE CASE STUDIES ....................................................................................................... 26 SITE SYNTHESIS ........................................................................................................................................... 29 AREA ANALYSIS ........................................................................................................................................... 30 BUS TERMINAL TYPES ............................................................................................................................. 30 AREA CHART ............................................................................................................................................... 31 CONCEPT ..................................................................................................................................................... 33 SITE PLANNING PROCESS ............................................................................................................................ 34 SITE PLAN .................................................................................................................................................... 35 FLOOR PLANS .............................................................................................................................................. 36 FLOOR PLANS .............................................................................................................................................. 37 SECTIONS..................................................................................................................................................... 38 ELEVATIONS ................................................................................................................................................ 39 LANDSCAPE PLAN........................................................................................................................................ 40 SERVICE PLANS ............................................................................................................................................ 41 CONCLUSION............................................................................................................................................... 42 BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................................................ 43

TABLE OF FIGURES Figure 1Transit hub as a recreational zone ................................................................................................... 8 Figure 2 Traffic segregation in Urban streets ............................................................................................. 10 Figure 3Demographic status of towns and cities along the corridor.......................................................... 12 Figure 4Urban Social Sphere ....................................................................................................................... 13 Figure 5 News clipping about the Expressway............................................................................................ 14 Figure 6News clipping about the RRTS Network ........................................................................................ 14 Figure 7Meerut Master Plan 2021 .............................................................................................................. 14 Figure 8Built Unbuilt ................................................................................................................................... 17 Figure 9Green Mapping .............................................................................................................................. 17 Figure 10Inverse Square ............................................................................................................................. 17 Figure 11Bus Types ..................................................................................................................................... 21 Figure 12Number of Buses.......................................................................................................................... 21 Figure 13Bus Routes ................................................................................................................................... 21 Figure 14Turning Radius ............................................................................................................................. 23 Figure 15Standard Size of the bus .............................................................................................................. 23 Figure 16Graphic representation of Bus movements ................................................................................. 24 Figure 17Area Chart .................................................................................................................................... 29 Figure 18Flowchart depicting the movement of people ............................................................................ 34 Figure 19Bubble diagram with the possible linkages in the terminal......................................................... 34 Figure 20Site plan ....................................................................................................................................... 35 Figure 21Landscape Plan............................................................................................................................. 40


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am immensely pleased as I write the acknowledgement on completion of thesis project entitled as, Interstates Bus Terminal, Meerut City. I would like to profoundly thank my guide and mentor Prof. S.M Akhtar for his continuous support throughout the journey of this project. Not only being the guide, Prof. S.M. Akhtar has always stood in moral support and helped me steer through the rough course. I am grateful to Dr. Nisar Khan, without whose support this thesis wouldn’t have turned out as expectantly as it is now, his guidance in all the stages were crucial and immensely important for this project.

Prof. S.M. Akhtar Head of the Department, F/o Architecture & Ekistics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi.

I would also like to thank my family and friends, whose encouragement and appraisal have made me stand firm and dedicated. Last but not the least, I would like to thank the Almighty, the grateful and very generous who kept me working.

Humair Subhani 09/12/2017

Dr. Nisar Khan Professor, F/o Architecture & Ekistics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi.


FOREWORD The tides of development are rising as the rural areas turn into suburbs, suburbs into small towns, towns into cities and cities then develop further into large metropolises. The advent of technology and fast paced development in all the fields, the cities are growing faster than thought. Cities are now shimmering landmasses beaming with high grade infrastructure which directs the common man into the world of un-ending possibilities. Increment in infrastructure and opening avenues for employment attract millions of people for employment. Masses aiming for employment and a better lifestyle are dragged and pushed towards the cities if not attracted initially. This cycle of development and transition of people from one region to the growing regions brings in the importance of transit.

The world is moving constantly people are flocking from one place to another like it’s just another day. There used to be times when it took days to travel from one place to another, today it’s just a matter of a few hours. The advancement in this field is commendable and unparalleled by any other dimension. Transit is not just a parameter for people to commute, it has now become a representation of the place, a gateway to the culture, an image to the perception. Transit Oriented Development is yet another parallel dimension which creates spaces and urban atmospheres which are a mix of activities and functions. Transit hubs are people’s place with

Humair Subhani B.Arch V Year, F/o Architecture & Ekistics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi.

promising a better ambience and an experience all together. Airports being the most lavish and well thought of examples in this realm. They are exemplary ideas with the consideration of a city and the people, a gratified sign board for the people coming in and a warming wave for the people leaving the place.

“Transit it the focal point of development, concentrating life at the center.” -

Author


INTRODUCTION

RATIONALE

Transit utilities of the city are one of the most important and vital functions of the city. Transit

Transit hubs are optimum in heavy urban settings because of lack of ground coverage. A facility

segments constitute some of the most fundamental development goals of the city by inviting

is designed with co-existing modes of transit so that the effort of walking longer stretches and

masses to the city. Smooth and better transit opens up avenues for the future development of the

wasting time can be reduced. Two modes of transit can be integrated if they lie on a walking line

city, helping the city fabric to improve rationally.

of 500-600m of walking distance, the priority here is to provide a safe and hassle free addition to

Transit, whether Intra city or Inter City is the gateway of interaction between towns and

the lifestyle of a commuter.

settlements. This inculcates the merging of crowds from all walks of life and brings in better

Safety of the passengers and minimizing the travel time between two points in a city is the prime

opportunities for the local masses.

objective of transit hubs.

Interaction between cities and further progression in the development leads of conurbation of small urban areas into larger metropolis, which further builds in wider possibilities of urbanism. Transit not only improves the urban squares and urban focal points of the city but gives a push to the less developed zones, helping them upgrade to a higher version.

INCORPORATION & INCLUSIVITY A transit hub not only integrates different modes of transport but also bring together travelers of all possible types. Daily commuters and occasional travelers. An un-biased conglomerate of Gender & Age in which requirements and demands of everyone is taken into care. A transit hub

TRANSIT CONGLOMERATE

works radially outward to bring the function radially inward. The functions co-exist and merge at

An interlinked platform where two or more modes of transit work simultaneously. This setup acts

several nodes, still keeping the problems at bay.

as the bridge between the different modes and allows free changeover to the passengers. This setup cuts down the load on the transit systems as the network of transit services can be laid differently, changeovers being on the major nodes of the city.

Transit Conglomerates provide a smooth and hassle free change in the transit modes while not compromising the comfort and safety of the passengers.

Figure 2 Traffic segregation in Urban streets http://lifeprograms.org/node/52 Figure 1Transit hub as a recreational zone

http://bulgaria24.tv/


TRANSIT FACILITY IN MEERUT CITY Meerut does not have a strong employment quotient and people drain out to NCR in search of jobs. Linking the city & the NCR comes with upgradation of existing infrastructure and provision of better amenities to the residents. The city has a distinct figure of development and it is growing high in ranking and infrastructure is the key to a growing urbanization. Creating holistic designs amidst the urban span of the city while keeping the fabric intact is the need of the hour. Not only in terms of public utility, Meerut is also progressing in terms of health care, lifestyle, mobility, environment and services. The city has a multi-faceted growth profile and it is intelligently pacing with all of it. Meerut city is a part of the NCR region and is listed in one of the most progressive cities in the northern side of the NCR. There are huge development plans in the next master plan of the city. Two major transit proposals for Meerut city which will link the city to the NCR are – 1. DELHI MEERUT EXPRESSWAY 2. RRTS METRO TRANSIT (DELHI-MEERUT), 2024

ABOUT THE CITY

The influence of the metro and the express way will underline many areas and smaller towns for exponential growth in terms of urbanism. Towns like Muradnagar and Modinagar which are examples of ribbon developments will face major changes in the fabric as the metro lines up along its way to Meerut. Demographic profile along the RRTS corridor proposed for Delhi Meerut Metro service. The expected population is in terms of the 2021 plan of development. Source – NCR Planning Board, f

Figure 3Demographic status of towns and cities along the corridor

feasibility report


INFLUENCE ZONE – RELEVANCE OF RE-DEVELOPMENT

CITY FABRIC AND PROFILE

The running line of the metro has an influence zone of 200m on both sides of the line. This

Meerut city has expanded radially in almost all the directions. The administrative province of Meerut ranges to a larger area of nearly 18km N, 20km due east and also 20km due western end.

influence zone is accounted for development due to oncoming facilities and services with the metro. The large influx of people on the course of run of metro provides large possibilities of business and growth to all formats of business backgrounds. Small as well large enterprises are benefitted from the oncoming flux. The demand and supply curve rises gradually in the beginning but exponentially once the function of the service is running in complete mode. The influence zone of the station or the terminal of the metro has a larger influence radius as it sets ground for the people to step out. The influence radius of the stations is 500m radially. Within the influence zone, the local building bye-laws are mended a little and the compound is then treated as a Special Economic Zone (SEZ). Floor Area Ratio, Ground Coverage and the building height are then altered to house maximum number of people and functions in the premise. There are zones which are specifically developed on terms of commercial utilities. The urban sphere of the place is re-shaped, building more of urbanized Leisure/Recreational areas. These areas are also meant to increase the social status of the communities by bringing as much as people as possible without social barriers. A public space with activities different from the boredom of the city lights which also acts as a getaway space.

The city has 6 highways passing through it, out of which 3 are national highways and others are state highways. Source – Dainik Jagran, Meerut Figure 5 News clipping about the Expressway

Meerut city provides road transit services via interstate buses and also via train. The city has two railway stations and three bus terminals. None of the bus terminals have a proper infrastructure and facilities for the passengers. The people boarding from Meerut city have large numbers from the rural areas and suburbs.

Source – Dainik Jagran

Figure 6News clipping about the RRTS Network

Transit Spaces are often clubbed with recreational spaces to make the experience of the passengers as well as the pubic more interactive.

http://thecityfix.com/blog/our-cities-ourselves-ten-architects-re-imagine-urban-transport-in-2030/ Figure 4Urban Social Sphere

Source – Meerut Development Authority (MDA)

Figure 7Meerut Master Plan 2021


SITE ANALYSIS Project is located on Delhi Road, opposite Sadar Sabzi Mandi. Original site has three segments, A terminal, Workshop cum depot and also UPSRTC housing units. The site is oriented N-S and has a tentative area of 15 Acres. Bus terminal – 3.2 Acres Workshop cum Depot – 9 Acres UPSRTC Housing – 3 Acres.

The site has a mixed context, ranging from mixed developments to strictly residential areas. Eastern side of the terminal is strictly residential and has a planned settlement. The northern side of the site has mixed development in which there is a whole sale mart for vegetables, one of the largest market spaces for automotive parts and other commercial prospects. The land-use around the site also varies. Land-use along Delhi road is demarcated as commercial belt and houses only commercial activities. Areas interior to the main road stretch are marked as residential areas with small commercial provisions. The southern side of the site is highly dense

ANALYSIS

residential area which also has Northern India’s largest Brass band manufacturing market (Jali Kothi).

Figure 8Built Unbuilt

BUILT UN-BUILT MAPPING

Figure 10Inverse Square

INVERSE SQUARE MAPPING

Figure 9Green Mapping

GREENERY MAPPING Source – Author


ACTIVITY MAPPING OF THE SITE

TRAFFIC ANALYSIS OF THE CITY Meerut city is not a huge city and the prospects of transit within the city are majorly restricted

An urban context is majorly governed by the people, primary, secondary and tertiary users of

to the unorganized 3-wheeler transit sector. There are shared autos and electric rickshaws

site. Mapping the usage pattern of the people is very important to understand the functionality

which constitute the city’s major transit options. Other than that, there are hand-pulled

and motion of people.

rickshaws and local transit Buses.

Mapping the activities of every element being on the site and expected to be on the site makes

Meerut has JNNURM low floor CNG buses and also some of the standard local Diesel buses

the project more realistic and based on the ground lines.

which runs the length of the city. There are a lot of segments in which there are not covered by the local buses and hence the other local means are prevalent.

Some of the major aspects while mapping the people on site are – 1. Streets & Roads – Behavioral patterns of people on streets and roads. Places where there is maximum convulsion and places where there is a scant outfall of people. Places where the vendors are mainly seen, parking spaces for public transit like autos & rickshaws.

Local Buses in Meerut are – 1. JNNURM low floor buses 2. Midi Buses 3. Standard diesel buses

Figure 11Bus Types Source – http://mctsl.org/Service.aspx

2. Nodes – Nodes are the crucial point of any study due to the convergence and divergence of the traffic and people. Nodes also has the maximum possibility of commercial prospects making them even more lively. 3. Squares – Open spaces are some of the most interactive and interesting parts of any urban setting. Acting as the cross overs for different adjoining areas, they serve as multiutilitarian segments of the urban atmosphere. 4. Circulation – This comes into play when where is a mix of movements (pedestrian + transport), eradicating the conflict points for the smooth and safe passage is an important aspect. 5. Segregation – A physical or visual barrier serves best for segregating different means of transit, so that the conflict points are minimized. If there is any segregation already exists, then mapping the patterns of movement is essential. 6. Service Mapping – The services along the site and also into the site is a crucial and vital part of any study. The services, compliment the planning and helps in the execution of desired results.

Figure 13Bus Routes Source – http://mctsl.org/Service.aspx

Figure 12Number of Buses Source – http://mctsl.org/Service.aspx


LITERATURE STUDY

PARALLEL OFFSET - There has to be a minimum separation of 5’-6’ between the buses for smooth docking and departing buses.

Technical Standards

PASSAGE FOR BUSES - Recommended entrance shall be at least 6-8m i.e. nearly 2lane passage.

A technical standard is an established norm or requirement in regard to technical systems. It is

BOARDING/ALIGHTING PASSENGERS - A clearance zone for passengers shall be provided on the platform. 1.5Sqm for every boarding/alighting passenger shall be given. Queuing funnel of 2m with a straight passage.

usually a formal document that establishes uniform engineering or technical criteria, methods, processes and practices.

National Standards National Standards are a tool to help teachers and schools understand the expected levels of achievement at stage/year-appropriate levels, know how to measure the achievement of each student in relation to the expectations, and to improve teaching and learning for better student learning and progress in all fields and areas.

Figure 14Turning Radius

ORDINARY UPSRTC BUS - Non-AC - 48 Seater - Tandem Length of 5.4m - Axle overhang (front) is 1.3m - Ground Clearance of 600mm STANDARD LOW FLOOR BUS - Non-AC & AC - 36 Seater - Tandem Length of 6.8m - Axle overhang (front) is 0.6m - Ground clearance of 380mm

Figure 15Standard Size of the bus

TURNING RADIUS OF BUS - For a bus of 36’ (10.9 8m) length, a turning radius of at least 47’ (14.3m) shall be given. BAY WIDTH - A bay width of 10’ (3m) shall be provided for safe docking of buses. PLATFORM WIDTH - The width of the platform depends on the type of parking of buses. For 45° & 90° bays, a platform width of 100’ & 70’ shall be provided. (Platform width is inclusive of functions, clearances and public circulation).

Figure 16Graphic representation of Bus movements


INFERENCES FROM THE CASE STUDIES Both the case studies are transit hubs of comparatively larger areas and functions but the movement of the buses and the passengers gave the study a new light. The case studies helped in understanding the basic ground lines of the project, the function of the terminal building when the project will actually be used. The usage pattern of the people can be understood, the psychological thought of the primary and secondary users, the circulation style of people, the flaws in the design and in some places, design failures can also be seen.

Basic inferences from the case studies are – 1. Segregation of vehicular and pedestrian movement is a must to reduce/eradicate the conflict points. 2. Movement of pedestrians shall be on various levels to enhance the mobility of the transit vehicles. 3. Ease of movement shall be designed for the passengers.

CASE STUDIES

4. Less of chaos while boarding and alighting passengers. 5. Safety of the passengers as well as the drivers is yet another important aspect. 6. Separate utilities for the drivers and staff members is an advisable option. 7. Public addressing is a very crucial part of the design, regulating the movement and activities of the public by installing a public addressing system is an intelligent move. 8. The terminal shall stay in surveillance at almost all times of the day due to the misshappenings at the site and in adjoining areas. 9. Medical room and women help center is also must. 10. Diaper changing rooms/Breast feeding rooms are also advisable. 11. The complete terminal shall be made accessible for differently abled people so that the design is un-biased of discrepancies. 12. Public movement in places which are private/semi-public shall be monitored for the smooth functioning of the terminal premise. 13. Due regard shall be given to the fire tender movement and adequate measures shall be taken to minimize the fire threat.


SITE SYNTHESIS Synthesizing the site requires all the possibilities and constraints of the site, a SWOT analysis is an important parameter to undertake and understand all the options. The different portions and desired areas of the site are marked to further reference. The requirements and desired interventions are interacted with the constraints to finally summarize the pros and cons of the project. Taking the activity mapping under consideration and providing permissible solutions for the conflicting areas and places. Interventions from the site analysis shall be jotted down for the master planning of the site and zoning. A zonal plan is always based on the specifications of the site based on services, based on context and also based on the patterns of the people using the site. A survey was conducted to earmark the possibilities of the design as per the thought of the people using the premise –

Figure 17Area Chart Source – Author

BUILDING DESIGN


** Equipment and technical machinery must consume less power so that the carbon footprint can be further reduced.

AREA ANALYSIS BUS TERMINAL TYPES Bus terminals are basically differentiated on two different parameters - On the basis of function 1. Interstate Bus Terminal 2. Local Bus Terminal - On the basis of size of the terminal - Size of any terminal is determined by the number of buses coming in & going out of the terminal. 1. Large bus terminal | more than 300 buses in an hour. 2. Medium Bus terminal | 60 to 300 buses in an hour. 3. Small bus terminal | less than 60 buses in an hour. ** Bhaisali Bus terminal is a medium sized Interstate Bus terminal and operating at nearly 67 buses/hr. Requirements for Passengers 1. Ticketing Counters 2. Ticketing queue space 3. Boarding/Alighting Space 4. Circulation Corridors for smooth/hassle free circulation 5. Footpaths 6. Waiting Lounge 7. Basic Amenities like drinking water, toilets, shaded sitting areas etc. 8. Cafeteria/Canteen or allocated eateries as per the space availability. 8. Private Parking Facility Requirements for Staff members 1. Cafeteria/Canteen or allocated eateries as per the space availability. 2. Basic Amenities like drinking water, toilets, shaded sitting areas etc. 3. Resting rooms (for drivers and workshop workers) 4. Private Parking Space ** Spaces like Cafeteria and Private Parking can be common for passengers and staff members. ** The terminal building must be planned using sustainable design techniques and methods. ** Carbon footprint of the premise must be within the permissible limits given by the climate alleviation authorities.

** Equipment and technical machinery must consume less power so that the carbon footprint can be further reduced.

AREA CHART

AREA CHART


CONCEPT

SITE PLANNING PROCESS `

The driving idea of the project outlines the basic function of the building which is a terminal building, a built from which has a dynamic function linked to it. The movement of the transit vehicles and the movement of the public, the dynamism strikingly seems realistic as the mental imagery of the function is ever moving and unstable. The driving idea of the concept comes out of renowned architect, Frank Lloyd Wright as he, in one of his literary works expresses –

Collaborating with the Nature. “A building should appear to grow easily from its site and be shaped to harmonize with its surroundings it Nature is manifest there.”

Figure 18Flowchart depicting the movement of people

The interpretation of the above given lines is that the form of the building shall resemble or mimic the shape of the site. This expression makes the building get along with the form of the site and the two seem harmonious with each other. The harmony between the site and the building is also explained in terms of contour of the site or the landform. He deliberately says –

Running along natural Contour “The good building is not one which hurts the landscape, but one which makes landscape more beautiful than it was before the building was built.”

Both the statements are implemented in the master planning of the site, orientation of the building and also in the circulation. Architect Frank Lloyd Wright emphasizes on the relationship between the building and the context. This relationship shall be such that none of the two are bothered with the other’s presence.

Figure 19Bubble diagram with the possible linkages in the terminal


Figure 20Site plan

SITE PLAN


Figure 21Landscape Plan

LANDSCAPE PLAN


CONCLUSION Bus Terminals are one of the most complex structures as the circulation of all the moving entities is well thought of and arranged in a manner that there is minimum conflict. Designing a terminal is not just creating a monolithic structure which corresponds to the demand of the time but also

BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. https://www.archdaily.com/category/bus-station 2. http://www.thehindu.com/news/cities/mumbai/five-best-bus-terminals-to-getmakeovers/article18733287.ece

represents the city fabric and the culture of the place in one way or the other.

3. http://www.phbus.com/bus-terminals/

Terminal Buildings are the gateways which are visualized first, when it comes to entering a city

4. http://www.architecture-student.com/tag/how-to-design-a-bus-terminal/

and hence the image of the city on the architecture of the building is an important part.

5. https://in.pinterest.com/explore/bus-station/

Designing a terminal is complex in not just one aspect but many, reflecting the image of the city and also considering the technicalities of the norms and specifications. The understanding of the built form and mass is not yet complete as there are many untouched fields. The experience during the designing and planning of the project was an enthusiastic one with a lot of ups and downs. The projects seem like a memory down the exciting lane and have made me realize some important facts and figures. This experience will sure be used in the years to come. There are many untouched fields which still needs to be explored and understood.

6. http://www.designcurial.com/news/the-worlds-10-best-designed-bus-stations-4290631/ 7. http://shaktifoundation.in/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Bus-Terminal-DesignGuidelines.pdf 8. http://www.upsrtc.com/default.aspx?depots---bus-stations 9. https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/meerut/bhainsali-bus-terminal-to-get-5-crore-formakeover/articleshow/58061157.cms 10. http://www.upsrtc.com/default.aspx?act---rules 11. http://www.upsrtc.com/tenders/tender_12022014_b.pdf

B.Arch Thesis Project - ISBT Meerut City  

Redevelopment of an existing dilapidated bus terminal in the Meerut City, Up, India.

B.Arch Thesis Project - ISBT Meerut City  

Redevelopment of an existing dilapidated bus terminal in the Meerut City, Up, India.

Advertisement