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Beyond structure: (in)formed finding of new shell morphologies

Thesis project 2015 by Hulda Jonsdottir

THE ROYAL DANISH ACADEMY OF FINE ARTS SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE, CITA studio, Tutor: Paul Nicholas, structure: Daniel Lee, light: Emanuele Naboni


1. Problem statement : How to integrate light into architectural shell design? -The desire -The limits

2. Nordic light -Definition of Nordic light -3 desired qualities of light 3. (Computational) Shell design -What is a shell

-How to design shells - system - thinking

4. Integration and system thinking -A system

-My system -Calibrating the relationship between light and structure

5. Testing through design scenario -Testing a scenario of selected sports programs 6. Conclusion

Table of content:


Heinz Isler´s desire

"[As designers] a) we have a sense for aesthetics b) we have the right to use it c) we are allowed to mention our opinion d) and that we can find and express it in our projects." Inspiration for Heinz Isler during his studies that followed him throughout his life time work.

The Desire


Los Manantiales Restaurant in Mexico by FĂŠlix Candela

The Reality


Heinz Isler - Geneva, Sicli Factory (1969)

Attempt to integrate light and structure


Stuttgart 21 station by Ingenhoven Architects and Frei Otto

Light introduction in the structure but limited to one quality repeated.

My Ambition


2. The Nordic light


The Nordic pavilion by Sverre Fehn for the Venice Biennale 1962

Nordic architecture is shadow-less according to Sverre Fehn. The Nordic light is indirect and diffused, ever changing during the day.

The Nordic light


The diffused light is broken up by geometry into many light beams that are reflected in all directions.

The Nordic pavilion by Sverre Fehn for the Venice Biennale 1962

The Nordic light

Bright diffused light flow


Ronchamp by Le Corbusier

The spotlight

is a narrow, intense beams of light Controlled by changing the width of the aperture.

The Nordic light

The Spotlight


The Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library at Yale University by Gordon Bunshaft

The transmissive light

is light that travels through a material. Controlled by varying the materials thickness and density.

The Nordic light

Light transmission


3. Shell design


Continuous shell by Heinz Isler

Shell structures are CONSTRUCTED SYSTEMS described by three-dimensional curved surfaces, in which one dimension is significantly smaller compared to the other two. Shell structures are form-passive and resist external loads predominantly through membrane stresses.

big big

small

Shells are thin, light weight structures that can span large spaces with little material.

A SHELL


Shell thickness

Shell geometry Increased curvature allowes for thinner shell

Shell parameters


FREEFORM shells, generated without including its structural performance.

MATHEMATICAL shells - hyperbolic pa-

raboloid

FORM-FOUND shells

are hanging shapes associated with funicular structures of Frei Otto and Heinz Isler.

Their final shape is the result of obtaining a state of static equilibrium.

How to design shells

: 3 ways of designing shells


All form-finding techniques, both digital and physical, use only structural parameters, including: BOUNDARY CONDITION, GRAVITY, ELASTICITY and ANCHOR POINTS. Problem: The tools we have do not bring any more options to the design.

How to design shells

Form-found shells


4. Integrated thinking

-A system -The system of integration -Calibrating the relationship between light and structure


A system is an entity that maintains its existence through the mutual interaction of its parts' ... Research into systems therefore must combine: -the identification of the parts and -detailed characterization of the parts, with the -investigation of their interaction with each other and -with their wider environment (von Bertalanffy, 1968).

A system


Architectural potentials of the combination

Light parameters Structural parameters Shell thickness

Integrated tool

Shell thickness

+

Shell geometry Shell geometry

Increased curvature allowes for thinner shell Increased curvature allowes for thinner shell

Digital integration


ERWIN HAUER Inspiration for light modulation

Physical integration

Light modulation through geometry


Sun at 45 degrees Sun perpendicular Light quality changes with different angles

Identification of the parts

Light studies with minimal surfaces for element development


Base geometry - Scherk surface

Identification of the parts

Selected geometry for further development


Detailed characterization of the parts Testing the structural and light performance of this geometry


Changing the DENSITY of the geometry

One component module Changing the HEIGHT of the geometry > Increasing amount of light for longer time with decreasing height >

Changing WIDTH of the geometry > Decreasing amount of light with increasing width >

Detailed characterization of the parts

Light modulation studies - parameters


Detailed characterization of the parts


Detailed characterization of the parts


Simulation of photographic results

Photograph of a physical prototype.

Calibrating simulation based on photographic results - light source straight on surface

Detailed characterization of the parts


Simulation of photographic results

Photograph of a physical prototype.

Calibrating simulation based on photographic results - light source from side

Detailed characterization of the parts


Detailed characterization of the parts

Generated components based on various parameters


Tension

Compression

The Poisson's effect - Poisson´s Ration (nu)

With Poisson's effect the section of the shell changes = Light intensity changes

Detailed characterization of the parts


Understanding the Poisson's ratio of the components

Detailed characterization of the parts

Elasticity behavior


100%

100%

100%

100%

70% 45%

Detailed characterization of the parts

45%

22%


3D printing with glassfiber composite 20 x stiffer than ABS 5 x stronger than ABS Higher strength-to-weight ratio than 6061T6 aluminum.

MarkForged Glassfiber 6061-T6 Alumnium Renzo Piano’s 1966 Sulfur Extraction Facility.

ABS

Detailed characterization of the parts

glassfiber composites can have up to 90% translusency

Fiberglass composite material


INVESTIGATION OF THE PARTS INTERACTION WITH EACH OTHER


Mesh Dual

Component panelisation

Investigation of the parts interaction with each other

Interior Geometry


The system Eo: 100%

Eo: 100%

Eo: 100%

Eo: 100%

Ei :70% Ei :45%

Ei : 45% Ei : 22%

500 - 1000 mm 20 mm 200 mm

Sandwich panel assembly

20 mm

COMPONENT1:10

20 mm

Example of a single component 1:10

Investigation of the parts interaction with each other Detail 1:1

Example of a single component


Detail 1:1

Silicon / POM 3mm

25 mm

Detail 1:1

Investigation of the parts interaction with each other

sandwich panel assembly


02 05

01

04

03

Investigation of the parts interaction with each other

Simple test assembly on a single curved shell


Light and local connectivity Triangulation for assembly process Light intensity

1 triangle connection allowes for steeper curvature. Less stable for assembly.

Two trinangle connection - diamond connectionideal for all components

More than two triangle connection where the geometry within is small and therefor less material support for assembly. Eqally neded in edge conditions.

High

High

Low

Very low

Investigation of the parts interaction with each other

Strength

Weaker - low connectivity within system

Strong - low connectivity within system

Structural capacity Component displacement

Max displacement : 5.25 mm

Max displacement : 5.25 mm

Stronger high connectivity within system Max displacement : 5.25 mm

Stronger high connectivity within system Max displacement : 5.25 mm


Light and local connectivity Triangulation for assembly process Light intensity

1 triangle connection allowes for steeper curvature. Less stable for assembly.

Two trinangle connection - diamond connectionideal for all components

More than two triangle connection where the geometry within is small and therefor less material support for assembly. Eqally neded in edge conditions.

High

High

Low

Very low

Investigation of the parts interaction with each other

Strength

Weaker - low connectivity within system

Strong - low connectivity within system

Structural capacity Component displacement

Max displacement : 5.25 mm

Max displacement : 5.25 mm

Stronger high connectivity within system Max displacement : 5.25 mm

Stronger high connectivity within system Max displacement : 5.25 mm


Light and local connectivity Triangulation for assembly process Light intensity

1 triangle connection allowes for steeper curvature. Less stable for assembly.

Two trinangle connection - diamond connectionideal for all components

More than two triangle connection where the geometry within is small and therefor less material support for assembly. Eqally neded in edge conditions.

High

High

Low

Very low

Investigation of the parts interaction with each other

Strength

Weaker - low connectivity within system

Strong - low connectivity within system

Structural capacity Component displacement

Max displacement : 5.25 mm

Max displacement : 5.25 mm

Stronger high connectivity within system Max displacement : 5.25 mm

Stronger high connectivity within system Max displacement : 5.25 mm


5. Testing through design proposal Interaction of the system with the wider environment


Step Map desired lighting condition STEP 01 01: -Map desired lighting condition High diffused light flow Royal tennis court

Gradient light

Shooting range

The relationship between geometry and light. Generating bright diffused light with controlled intensity depending on the geometry

The light draws the focus and seduces ones attension towards the light. High light level in the target area.

The spotlight

Table tennis

Interaction with the wider environment

The sharp edge and the precise geometry that is reproduced on the receiving surface, defining a specific area.

Overall system design process


STEP 02 : - Apply spring length according to desired lighting condition - Extract mesh dual for component geometry

Even mesh to apropriate size of divisions - Using the mesh triangles and its dual to generate my components boundary

Mesh Dual

Higer spring generates stronger geometric shape - that alows for weaker component in those areas --> Higher light transmittance

Interaction with the wider environment

Overall system design process


STEP 0303 : - Apply apropriate component -Apply appropriate component STEP

Spring stiffness in relation to daylight

10

<>

30

<>

40

<>

60 > Apply apropriate component according to desired lighting condition and its structural dependency

Interaction with the wider environment


Step 01: - Map desired lighting condition High diffused light flow Royal tennis court

Gradient light

Shooting range

The relationship between geometry and light. Generating bright diffused light with controlled intensity depending on the geometry

The light draws the focus and seduces ones attension towards the light. High light level in the target area.

The spotlight

Table tennis

The sharp edge and the precise geometry that is reproduced on the receiving surface, defining a specific area.

Map desired lighting condition Graphically Locating desired lighting qualities and conditions

according to program specification and its lighting requirements.


DF : 22%

DF : 61%

DF : 22%

GUN STORE

DF : 61%

DF : 45%

DF : 61%

DF : 61%

ROYAL TENNIS

DF : 70%

DF : 22% DF : 61%

DF : 45%

DF : 41%

DF : 61%

DF : 70%

DF : 22% DF : 61%

DF : 61% DF : 41%

DAYLIGHT FACTOR

DF : 22%

The ratio between the external light level and the internal light level

DF : 70%

SHOOTING RANGE DF : 61%

DF : 61%

DF : 22%

DF : 22%

DF=(Ei/Eo)x100% Ei = illuminance due to daylight at a point on an indoor plane. Eo = simultaneous outdoor illuminance on a horizontal plane from an unobstructed hemisphere of an overcast sky

DF : 41%

DF : 41%

DF : 41% DF : 70% DF : 70%

TABLE TENNIS

DF : 70%

DF : 41%

CHANGING ROOM

DF : 70% DF : 70% CHANGING ROOM

Map desired lighting Assigning daylight factorcondition

DF : 70%


STEP 02 : - Apply spring length according to desired lighting condition - Extract mesh dual for component geometry

Even mesh to apropriate size of divisions - Using the mesh triangles and its dual to generate my components boundary

Mesh Dual

Higer spring generates stronger geometric shape - that alows for weaker component in those areas --> Higher light transmittance

Apply spring length according to desired lighting condition


EP 03 : - Apply apropriate component Spring stiffness in relation to daylight 10

<>

DF:70%

30

<>

DF:61%

Apply appropriate component

40

<>

DF:41%

60 >

DF:22%

Apply apropriate component according to desired lighting condition and its structural dependency


400 mm

Bottom Component Skrew fixing

Follows curvature of shell and supports

200 mm

Supporting column 860 mm

Cladding planks

300 mm

1:20

CONSTRUCTION DETAILS


Sticks guiding the curvature of the shell and giving additional support during the assembly.

When a sertain curvature has been reached, components are preassembled in blocks before placed in shell for more tolerance in the assembly process.

MOBILE ROBOT CELLS ON CONSTRUCTION SITE

First layers, component assembled on site one by one by programmed robots. Where components are stacked in a preconfigured order for robots to recognice. Robots scan components to veryfy that a correct component has been picked up. Keep building layer by layer

complex construction


MOCAPE Museum of Contemporary Art will be built only by robots. From the production of the elements in the factory, up to the construction of the building, -Extensive automation of the construction process -The

future for complex construction

Project: MOCAPE Museum of Contemporary Art & Planning Exhibition, Shenzhen. Š MSC Modern Steel Construction / Coop Himmelb(l)au

MOBILE ROBOT CELLS ON CONSTRUCTION SITE


Profile for Huldajons

Beyond structure: (in)formed finding of new shell morphologies  

Thesis Spring 2015 Cita studio KADK VELUX award winner Hulda Jonsdottir

Beyond structure: (in)formed finding of new shell morphologies  

Thesis Spring 2015 Cita studio KADK VELUX award winner Hulda Jonsdottir

Profile for huldajons
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