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Education in Europe and the global world. Good practice. HUMANITATE ETA HEZKUNTZA ZIENTZIEN FAKULTATEA

2ND UNIT OF WORK: LEARNING ABOUT EUROPEAN AND WORLD WIDE EDUCATION SYSTEMS Once that you have learned about the Basque Education system, let’s learn about other systems in Europe and the global world.

Objectives of this unit of work: • •

Learn how to write an expository text Learn about European and World Wide Education Systems.

Final tasks: By the end of this unit of work, and taking into account the above mentioned objectives, you should be able to fulfil the following task: Group final task: “After your trip to Poland in which you met experts on different education systems in Europe, you now have to inform the teachers in the Basque Country about what happened there. At the meeting you received different documents on each partner’s education system. You have read and analysed the documents on ONE of them in detail, and now you need to write an expository text to inform and explain your colleagues, so that they can understand about

that education system. Expository text about an Education System in Europe The text should be between 700-900 words long. Make sure you use the right terms and that the text is yours, not a copy from the different articles you have access to.

You should upload this text in Mudle by February 15th/16th.

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Education in Europe and the global world. Good practice. HUMANITATE ETA HEZKUNTZA ZIENTZIEN FAKULTATEA

READING: JIGSAW READING

Step1 Divide the class in 5 groups of 7 students each. Step2 Each group will read and understand one of the following articles: o o o o o

Group 1 will read text A: Breton (A;A;A;A;A;A;A) Group 2 will read text B: Sami (B;B;B;B;B;B;B) Group 3 will read text C: Irish (C;C;C;C;C;C;C) Group 4 will read text D: Welsh (D;D;D;D:D;D;D) Group 5 will read text E: Frisian (E;E;E;E;E;E;E)

Step3 Elicit main ideas taking into account what you are asked in the grid, sum the text up and work on it, as you will have to explain the article to other students who have not read it. Step4 The groups will get mixed up (A, B, C , D and E). All texts should be discussed in each group. Step5 Each of you will explain the main ideas of the text read in the corresponding group. The rest of the students in the new group will ask questions about it in order to clarify all the main points. Step6 As you listen to the different explanations, fill in the chart in the following page(s) for the corresponding countries.

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Education in Europe and the global world. Good practice. HUMANITATE ETA HEZKUNTZA ZIENTZIEN FAKULTATEA

COMPARISON OF 5 COUNTRIES’ EDUCATION SYSTEMS:

Geographical location and demographic profile

Wales: Welsh

Ireland: Irish

Britany (France): Breton

Frysland (The Netherlands): Frisian

Sweden: Sami

Wales: Welsh

Ireland: Irish

Britany (France): Breton

Frysland (The Netherlands): Frisian

Sweden: Sami

Population Language and its status

General aspects of the education system

Development of education system throughout history

Private vs. public education

Bilingual education forms

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Education in Europe and the global world. Good practice. HUMANITATE ETA HEZKUNTZA ZIENTZIEN FAKULTATEA

Different stages in the education system

Wales: Welsh

Ireland: Irish

Britany (France): Breton

Frysland (The Netherlands): Frisian

Sweden: Sami

Pre-school

Primary education

Secondary education

Vocational training

Higher education

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Education in Europe and the global world. Good practice. HUMANITATE ETA HEZKUNTZA ZIENTZIEN FAKULTATEA

Adult education

Any other aspects

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Education in Europe and the global world. Good practice. HUMANITATE ETA HEZKUNTZA ZIENTZIEN FAKULTATEA

Non-contact hours work: •

Read the texts corresponding to the other education systems worked on in class (available in MUdle): -

Wales

-

Ireland

-

Brittany (France)

-

Friesland (The Netherlands)

-

Sweden

Continue working on project.

Language work as needed.

ROUNDING UP DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES CHART Get back into your original groups (education systems). Make sure you have all the required information for all the counties and all the aspects stated in the chart. You should also have with you the information collected in Unit 1 about THE BASQUE COUNTRY. Each group will be assigned one of the following aspects in order to compare and contrast the information amongst the different countries. After comparing and contrasting, the information will be presented to the rest of the students. The aspects will be divided as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Geographical location and demographic profile. General aspects of the education system. Different stages in the education system: Pre-school, Primary ed. Different stages in the education system: Secondary ed., Vocational ed. Different stages in the education system: Higher ed., adult ed.; any other aspects.

PREPARING PRESENTATIONS ON DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES Preparation for presentation: each group will have to consider the aspect given and contrast it within the five given countries, plus the Basque Country (Unit 1). You will give a 5-minute presentation. Remember that: -

All members will have to take part in the presentation. 6


Education in Europe and the global world. Good practice. HUMANITATE ETA HEZKUNTZA ZIENTZIEN FAKULTATEA

-

Different materials you can refer to in order to help you with your presentations: o Language and skills to prepare presentations (Appendix 1 at the end of this booklet) o Preparing presentations checklist (from 1.4 module, adapted in English, Appendix 2 at the end of this booklet). o Marking presentations checklist (from 1.4 module, adapted in English, Appendix 3 at the end of this booklet).

-

Different hints given in 1.1 module (Hizkuntza tailerrak) for giving presentations.

PRESENTATIONS ON DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES It’s time to give your presentation now. The rest of the groups and/or your teacher will be asking you questions in order to clarify doubts. They will also give you feedback at the end of your presentation. You will also be asked to assess your own presentation. Non-contact hours work: •

Working on project.

Language work as needed.

EXPOSITORY TEXT WRITING

You have been working on different types of text in 1.4. •

Do you remember which ones they are and what their characteristics are?

In this module, apart from building up on those text types we are going to work on another type: EXPOSITORY TEXTS STEP 1: Look at the following questions and using your previous experience and knowledge, try to answer them. Then compare them with the people in your group. 1. What do you think is an expository text?

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Education in Europe and the global world. Good practice. HUMANITATE ETA HEZKUNTZA ZIENTZIEN FAKULTATEA

______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 2. How do you think we can organize an expository text? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 3. What type of language do you think we use in expository texts? (tenses, vocabulary…). ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ 4. Do you think there are any similarities between expository texts and the types you have been working on until now? And any differences? ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________

STEP 2: Contrast the information you wrote with Appendix 4 (You will find it at the end of this booklet) STEP 3: Analysis of models. Read and analyse the text you will find at the end of the booklet (Appendix 5). Pay special attention to the language features, layout, and vocabulary. In other words look for: • • • • •

Specific vocabulary Phrases clarifying the meaning of terms or concepts Discourse organising phrases Who do you think the target audience for this text is? Make a note of the topic of each paragraph to have an idea about what the text covers.

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Education in Europe and the global world. Good practice. HUMANITATE ETA HEZKUNTZA ZIENTZIEN FAKULTATEA

Before the analysis remember... The expository text is the kind of text which explains something. The aim of an expository text is to present an issue or a concept in a clear and orderly manner so that the reader understands it. The need for clarity determines the choice of syntax and vocabulary. The writer must at all costs avoid creating confusion and ambiguity. Note that this is the most common type students (you) face on, on the one hand, because it is the one found in manuals and specialist books on a given discipline and, on the other hand, because it is the type which is most commonly expected in exams. Depending on the target audience, how cultivated or knowledgeable about a topic it is, expository texts can be “for the interested general public” or “for the specialist”. This determines the notions included, vocabulary used, what is taken for granted as common knowledge and what is explained, etc. Think of the difference between a text on the discovery of a new black hole in a magazine for general public, and the same information in a journal for specialist astronomers.

STEP 4: Whole class discussion: any problems with the given text (appendix 5)? STEP 5: • •

Write an introductory paragraph of no more than 4 sentences. Write a conclusive paragraph of no more than 5 sentences.

STEP 6: Now you will have to write an expository text, but before writing a text, you will always have to plan your piece of writing. In order to help you with that task, have a look at the following “Expository writing plan”. Afterwards, look at the different stages involved in the writing process described in Appendix 6 at the end of this document.

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INTRODUCTION

Education in English and the Global World. Good Practices.

  

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Get reader’s attention Transition of the topic Clearly state your topic

Do not expand here using examples, factors or statistics You may briefly state your main points

State your first main point in one clear sentence Explain and define as necessary Provide facts, examples, quotations…

BODY

Vary the type of support and how you present it, using creative, interesting, clear and specific support. State your second main point in one clear sentence Explain and define as necessary Provide facts, examples, quotations… Vary the type of support and how you present it, using creative, interesting, clear and specific support.

CONCLUSION

Third main point….

     

Transition to closing Summarize your main support Restate your topic in different words Make a personal statement and release the reader Do not expand here using examples… Do not introduce new ideas

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Education in English and the Global World. Good Practices.

HUMANITATE ETA HEZKUNTZA ZIENTZIEN FAKULTATEA

Non-contact hours work: •

Working on expository texts.

Working on project.

Language work as needed.

STEP 7. The objective of this step is to write an expository text in groups taking into account the following instructions as you have been given at the beginning of this unit: “After your trip to Poland in which you met experts on different education systems in Europe, you now have to inform the teachers in the Basque Country about what happened there. At the meeting you received different documents on each partner’s education system. You have read and analysed the documents on ONE of them in detail, and now you need to write an expository text to inform and explain your colleagues, so that they can understand about that education system”.

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Education in English and the Global World. Good Practices.

HUMANITATE ETA HEZKUNTZA ZIENTZIEN FAKULTATEA

APPENDIX 1: LANGUAGE AND SKILLS TO PREPARE A PRESENTATION PARTS TO TAKE INTO ACCOUNT:

1. Introduction a. Introduce partners involved in the presentation b. Explain organization of presentation c. Talk about the resources to be used throughout presentation 2. Presentation of topic: a. Structure of topic b. Making reference to sources used 3. Explanation of topic, structure of presentation: a. Explanation and communication coherent, cohesive and clear b. Main points c. Audience taken into account and / or involved in presentation (addressed, doubts clarified..) d. Time limits well managed e. Coordination between partners can be seen f. … 4. Consequences a. In relation with the topic b. In relation with the work done in the group 5. Conclusion a. Question and answer turn b. Closing presentation LANGUAGE CHECKLIST:

To introduce the presentation Greeting: • Good morning/ afternoon ladies and gentlemen • Ladies and gentlemen… • Hello, everyone Subject: • I plan to say a few words about… • I am going to talk about… • The subject of my talk is… • The theme of my presentation is.. • I’d like to give an overview of… Structure: • I’ve divided my talk into (3) parts • My talk will be in (3) parts • I’m going to divide.. • First… 12


Education in English and the Global World. Good Practices.

• • • • •

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Second… Third… In the first part… Then in the second part… Finally…

Timing: • My talk will take about ten minutes • The presentation will take about… but there will be a twenty minutes break in the middle • We’ll stop for lunch at.. Policy on questions / discussion: • Please interrupt if you have any questions • After my talk there’ll be time for a discussion and any questions Ending the introduction: • So that concludes the introduction • That’s all for the introduction Structure (the main body) Signaling different parts in a presentation (beginning, main body, conclusion…) • Now let’s move to the first part of may talk, which is about… • So, first… To begin with.. Listing: • There are 3 things to consider. First… Second… Third… • There are 2 kinds of.. The first is… The second is… • We can see 4 advantages and 2 disadvantages. First, advantages…One is…. Another is… A third advantage is… Finally…On the other hand, the two disadvantages. First… Second… Linking: ending parts with the main body • That completes/ concludes… • That’s all (I want to say for now) on.. Linking: beginning a new part • Let’s move to (the next part which is) • So now we come to • Now I want to describe… Sequencing: • There are (7) different stages to the process • First / then / next/ after that / then (x) / after x there’s y, last…. • There are 2 steps involved • There are two steps involved • The first step is… the second step is… • There are 4 stages to the project • At the beginning, later, then, finally.. 13


Education in English and the Global World. Good Practices.

• •

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I’ll describe the development of the idea First the background, then present situation, and then the prospects for the future.

The end of the presentation Ending the main body of the presentation: • Right, that ends (the third part of) my talk • That’s all I want to say for now Beginning the summary and/or conclusion: • I’d like to end by emphasizing the main point • I’d like to finish with.. o A summary of the main points o Some observations based on what I’ve said o Some conclusion / recommendations o A brief conclusion Concluding: • There are two conclusions/ recommendations • What we need is… • I think we have… • I think we have seen that we should… Inviting questions and/or introducing discussion: • That concludes (the formal part of) my talk. (thanks for listening)… Now I’d like to invite your comments • Now we have (half an hour) for questions and discussions • Right. Now, any questions or comments? • So, now I’d be very interested to hear your comments.

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Education in English and the Global World. Good Practices.

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Before giving the presentation

APPENDIX 2: POINTS TO CONSIDER WHEN DESIGNING A PRESENTATION

VOICE

While giving the presentation

Nonlinguistic factors

Linguistic factors

BODY

-

How are we going to do the introduction?

-

Development: how are we going to transmit new ideas? How are we going to organize and connect the different ideas? ...

-

How are we going to finish the talk?

-

What kind of strategies are we going to use to reach our audience? How are we going to take it into account?

-

What kind of register are we going to use? What characteristics will it have?

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Education in English and the Global World. Good Practices.

HUMANITATE ETA HEZKUNTZA ZIENTZIEN FAKULTATEA

APPENDIX 3: PRESENTATIONS ASSESSMENT CHECKLIST (PEER AND SELF) Group giving presentation Assessor(s): VARIABLES

(1) CONTEXT/ SITUATION:

COMMUNICATIVE

ASPECTS TO CONSIDER Strong points:

Weak points:

Strong points:

Weak points:

- Are the form and content suitable for -

the target audience? Does he/she bear in mind previous knowledge? Does he/she provide enough information/ specific data? What about the content? Has it fulfilled the requirements set for the task? Has the speaker made an effort to interest the listener? (Use of anecdotes, examples, humor, intonation, addressing the listener‌)

(2) ORGANIZATION: INTRODUCTION

- How did the speaker present the topic? What strategy did the speaker use? Was it effective?

BODY

- Are the main points clear? - Has the speaker presented interesting ideas and developed them?

- Did the speaker use a logical order? - Would you do it in a different way? CONCLUSION

- Did the speaker synthesize ideas? - How did he close/finish the presentation? Was it effective?

TRANSITIONS:

- Was the discourse well-structured? Did the speaker use a variety of connectors? Were they used effectively? - Did the discourse flow?

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Education in English and the Global World. Good Practices.

(3) REGISTER AND LANGUAGE USE

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Strong points:

Weak points:

Strong points:

Weak points:

Strong points:

Weak points:

Appropriate/correct use of language

- Has the speaker expressed herself/himself properly?

- Did he use clear language? Was it

easy to follow? Did the speaker provide plenty of examples, comparisons...? - Did the speaker concentrate on relevant ideas? - Could you tell it was an oral presentation? Did the speaker consider the audience? (4) DEVELOPMENT OF PRESENTATION

- Could you tell there was a preparation behind?

- Was the speaker very dependent on papers and notes?

(5) NON-LINGUISTIC FACTORS Non verbal communication:

- Did the speaker look at the audience? - Did the speaker use appropriate body language?

- Did the speaker try to talk in a natural

way? - Did the speaker move or remain still at appropriate moments?

Visual Support:

- Was the visual support helpful? Suitable for the purpose?

OTHER ASPECTS TO CONSIDER: 1) Discourse development - Brief comment:

2) What about timing? Was it appropriate for the purpose set?

3) How did you feel before, during and after the presentation?

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Education in English and the Global World. Good Practices.

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APPENDIX 4: CHARACTERISTICS OF AN EXPOSITORY TEXT Expository writing is a type of writing, the purpose of which is to inform, explain, describe, or define the author's subject to the reader in a clear and logically-ordered manner so that the reader understands it. LANGUAGE FEATURES OF AN EXPOSITORY TEXT:

• • • •

Use present simple, which expresses timeless realities. Use of impersonal constructions (It is well known; scientists believe that…) and passives to reinforce the lack of subjectivity of what is being said. Ideas have to be ordered in a logical manner so that the readers can follow it well Use of linking words is important:  To sequence ideas : first of all…, secondly…, finally…  To add new information : also…; in addition to..  To express cause and result: because…, for this reason…, as a consequence…, as a result…, consequently, therefore…. Use of comparisons and contrasts

STRUCTURE/ LAYOUT OF AN EXPOSITORY TEXT:

 



Introductory paragraph We continue with the main idea or topic, and follow with other ideas that explain, expand and develop the main idea, each in a separate paragraph. We usually go from the general to the details. Closing paragraph or conclusion: we use it to remind the topic and summarise the main ideas.

VOCABULARY:

The vocabulary has to be precise (sometimes technical). Terms have to be explained for the reader. Use of definitions and explanations is needed. It is important to introduce examples and comparisons to illustrate concepts: for example…, compared to…

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Education in English and the Global World. Good Practices.

HUMANITATE ETA HEZKUNTZA ZIENTZIEN FAKULTATEA

APPENDIX 5: THE BRITISH EDUCATION SYSTEM In Britain most schools are financed by the state and, for the children attending these schools, they are free. However, about 5 per cent of the school population attend private schools, and these are financed from pupils’ fees. There are many local variations in the details of the school system – Scotland, in particular, has a system of its own which differs to quite an extent – but the general pattern of schooling in Britain is as follows. All children must start school at the age of five. Many have previously attended play schools or nursery schools, but these are not compulsory. Primary education, whether state or private, seeks to develop all aspects of the child: physical and emotional, as well as intellectual and cultural. Different schools put different emphasis on academic success; most schools concentrate on the child’s development of his or her potential, rather than on training for a particular exam. There is a tendency not to separate out traditional subjects, such as Geography, Religion, Music, etc, and instead to take an area of interest, for example a country or a century, and look at it from all possible points of view over a long period of time, perhaps as long as a week or two. A lot of the work is done in teams, thus fostering collaboration, and the pupils are encouraged to find out things for themselves. Roughly at the age of 11 (but often somewhat later, especially in the case of private education), children move to different schools. These are called secondary schools, and nowadays most of them are comprehensive, that is to say, children of all abilities go to the same school. Within some comprehensive schools children are put into different classes according to their intellectual ability; in others, children of different abilities are all kept together in the same class. In the first four or five years at secondary school, the pupils have a set timetable of subjects, including arts subjects, such as History, English and a foreign language, as well as science subjects and sports. At the end of this period most pupils take one of two public examinations, though these do not normally include all the subjects that the students have studied. In fact, a pupil may take an exam in as many, or as few, subjects as is thought suitable. After these exams, i.e. at the age of 16 or so, most pupils at state schools leave. Only about 30 per cent continue at school, compared with about 90 per cent in the small private sector. For those that stay on, in either type of school, the next two or three years are spent concentrating on a small number of subjects, e.g. Latin, French and English, or Maths, Physics and Chemistry, and so on. These specialist subjects take up more than half of the pupils’ timetable, and at the end of these years of concentrated preparation, the pupils take a public school-leaving examination in their three specialist subjects. Their results in these exams will largely determine whether they now start to work, or whether they can continue with higher education at a university college.

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Education in English and the Global World. Good Practices.

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APPENDIX 6: STAGES INVOLVED IN WRITING AN EXPOSITORY TEXT

• • •

• •

• •

Before you write: brainstorming (in groups) Brainstorm information about the topic: what do you know about this? Try to list as many ideas as you can (remember that you have to inform professionally about this topic). Once you have finished the brainstorming, select ideas and think about possible blocks of information. The final step is to give details and examples to illustrate the main ideas that you have selected. You are still on the prewriting stage. Now it is time to look for information. You might need to go to the computer room (not all of you) to get more information to complete your text. While you write (individual work)… How many paragraphs are going to write? What about the introduction? Think about a good introduction. Once you know how many paragraphs you have, think of a possible TOPIC SENTENCE for each paragraph. This strategy will help you to organize the information and will also help the reader. What about your conclusion? What information are you going to include? How are you going to finish your text? You can start writing your text once you have considered all the previous points! Revising and reconsidering your text

Consider the characteristics of an expository text. Do you think you have sequenced the ideas in a logical manner? Do you think the reader will understand your explanations in a clear way?

    

Pay attention to: Organization of ideas Vocabulary (precise and technical) Definitions and explanations Use of connectives Appropriate use of tenses, prepositions….

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Education in English and the Global World. Good Practices.

APPENDIX 7:

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MARKING CODE AND USAGE

All your pieces of writing will be corrected based on the following marking code: VT = Verb tense GR = Grammar (Agreement, Gender, Number, Person; between Art., Adj. and Noun; between Subject and Verb, etc.) PR = Preposition SP = Spelling P= Punctuation R = Register or style W.W. = Wrong Word ? = I don't understand S = Sentence Construction ^ = Omission, something missing (xxxx) = Not necessary, better without it W.O. = Wrong order (arrows can indicate the correct position) Note that the margins will be used for comments

USING THE MARKING CODE A marking code is a good devise to encourage self-correction skills and progress into independent learning. Your teacher will be using the above code when marking your set pieces of writing. Errors or inappropriate choices will be underlined and circled and the code used to indicate the type of error you have made. Depending on your wishes and the difficulty of the error your teacher may give you the correct or more appropriate word or phrase or will leave it to you to correct. Most people are very capable of realizing of an error that falls within his/her level, once it has been indicated to them. You are encouraged to develop your self-correction skills in parallel to your progress as an English language learner.

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2nd Unit of work - Learning about European and World Wide Education Systems