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from childhood to adulthood, that significantly enhance the risk of developing schizophrenia. A recently published article using the National Psychiatric Case Registry in Israel dissected the correlation between socio-economic status and schizophrenia’s onset (Werner et al., 2007). According to the study, there was a significant correlation between the chance of developing schizophrenia and low social deprivation (which was measured by the socio-economic status of parents at birth). Using both bivariate and multivariate statistical regression models, they found that ethnicity had no effect on the likelihood of developing schizophrenia thus encouraging them to omit it from their analysis (Werner et al., 2007). The Israeli sample’s ethnic composition in this study was Ashkenazi or European group (39 %) and Jews from West Asia or North Africa (61 %). Although the ethnicity of the Israeli sample cannot be assumed to match the UK population, it would be safe to say that further research is needed to be able to generalize on other populations on the accuracy of the social causation model. One can establish from the causation hypothesis that the onset of the illness is correlated with social class (which is usually measured by socio-economic status). Also, related to the causation model is the “goal striving stress” theory, set forth by Parker et al. al (1960). It fundamentally suggests that populations who encounter the highest levels of stress are those who also have the lowest level of probability of achievement. When the expectations and achievements do not match, it results in a person’s “alienation” or “deculturation” (Bhugra 2004, p.134). Therefore, those populations who are forced to live under conditions of poverty or overcrowding upon their migration to the UK could have high stress levels, leading to a lower likelihood of 61

Profile for Huda Shalhoub

DECODING SCHIZOPHRENIA ACROSS CULTURES  

Thesis from Brunnel University, United Kingdom, London

DECODING SCHIZOPHRENIA ACROSS CULTURES  

Thesis from Brunnel University, United Kingdom, London

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