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records in which the overall average age was around 40. The literature has suggested that it generally seems to be the trend that male onset is generally 3 to 5 years before female onset (Leung and Chue, 2000). Although in this study, onset of schizophrenia was not tested due to the nature of the data collected, the mean age can be seen as a way to measure the differences but assuming that the onset of the patients would have taken place before admission. Generally, onset has been confirmed to be from 31 years for males and 41 years for females. There was a higher representation of males to females in the dataset, but there was not a statistically significant difference between a diagnosis of schizophrenia and other mental illnesses. Leung and Chue (2000) have suggested that one reason why males are more likely to have a diagnosis than females is because diagnosis as a term itself is “strict�, hence leading to more rigidity. Men’s symptoms are usually viewed to be more severe because they express less negative symptoms. Also, other explained factors were that families of male mental health patients usually less expressed emotion (EE), in turn, leading to more severity in mental illnesses (Butzlaff and Hooley 1998; Kavanagh, 1992). Moreover, there was a higher proportion of males to females in both schizophrenia and other types of mental illnesses. It has been claimed that if schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychoses were tested together, then there will not be any differences in the gender proportions (Leung and Chue, 2000). In this study, schizophrenia and schizophrenia like symptoms were coded into one category and yet differences between genders were still pronounced, therefore concluding that there could be other factors at interplay. Symptoms of males and females are reported to be 185

Profile for Huda Shalhoub

DECODING SCHIZOPHRENIA ACROSS CULTURES  

Thesis from Brunnel University, United Kingdom, London

DECODING SCHIZOPHRENIA ACROSS CULTURES  

Thesis from Brunnel University, United Kingdom, London

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