ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES DEPARTMENT
HUMBOLDT STATE UNIVERSITY 1
From Our Department Chair 4
Nat u re , J , u le
Table of Contents tic
Humboldt State University Environmental Studies Department presents its third newsletter!
HSU ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES
ENST Student Perspective
New ENST Course
Tribute from Mark Baker
Mark Baker Retirement
Special Topics Courses
Awards 30 Congratulations
Thank You 33
Cover Art by Monique Enriquez
Table of Contents
FROM OUR DEPARTMENT CHAIR
New Happenings for ENST O
n behalf of the community of ENST, it’s a pleasure to publish this year’s newsletter. So much has happened since the last newsletter, it’s hard to even begin to write about it. We’re not OK.
e weren’t OK before COVID. In Fall 2019, students were slammed by the power shutoffs. Remember those? They seem like a lifetime ago. That was exhausting and threw many of us off track. When I started classes in Fall 2020, students were fleeing fires, trying to find internet connection in temporary refuges, scattered across the state and beyond seeking breathable air. I will never forget the sight of students in gallery view of our zoom classes, surrounded in an eerie hue of orange, many with their bags packed. It felt apocalyptic. I am pretty sure the only reason they showed up was because they were all desperate for normalcy, connection, and distraction from the grip of grief and fear.
hat are educators, institutions of higher education, and students supposed to do and who are we called to be in this moment? The election, January 6, the protests for Black lives, power shutoffs, fires, COVID, climate catastrophe, restructuring of HSU, classes canceled, the list goes on. It’s too much.
t’s an understatement to say that it’s been a rough year, but it was heading that way even before the coronavirus crossed the
species barrier, before George Floyd was murdered, even before the election of 2016. Students have been coming of age “at the end of the world” before the rest of American society started figuring it out. But this is only half the story. This wisdom is what gives ENST students their superpowers. Students’ angst, their “ontological insecurity” and “global dread” (as scholars are calling it), is their window into reality and the fuel for their passion. The difference now is that more people are waking up too. It’s a very hard time, but it’s also, as Arundhati Roy beautifully wrote, a “portal” to the next world we are building, which is waiting to be born.
stood back in amazement in March 2020 as senior capstone students didn’t just despair in the face of their dreams shattering when everything went online. Despite knowing the pandemic would make a dismal economy even worse, and despite an indefinitely uncertain job market (not to mention all the other reasons their lives were stressful), they got to work. It was the epitome of a “capstone experience”: they grabbed hold of this crisis, supported each other, flocked to mutual aid efforts, engaged in care-giving, and put their aspirations about a just transition to practice. It was as if they had been preparing for this crisis for some time, because, after all, if ENST teaches us anything, it’s that it’s never too late to build the future you desire. The time to get to work on manifesting it is now, not after you graduate. It starts with the imagination, reaching out to your peers, forging networks, honoring relations.
he spring semester brought us all to our knees, but it also broke us down to these basics-- care, air, breathing. Katherine May,
FROM OUR DEPARTMENT CHAIR author of Wintering: The Power of Rest and Retreat in Difficult Times, writes: We are taught to ignore sadness, to stuff it down into our satchels and pretend it isn’t there. As adults, we often have to learn to hear the clarity of its call. That is wintering. It is the active acceptance of sadness. It is the practice of allowing ourselves to feel it as a need. It is the courage to stare down the worst parts of our experience and to commit to healing them the best we can. Wintering is a moment of intuition, our true needs felt keenly as a knife.
o, we are not OK. These are difficult times. But as poet Clarissa Pinkola Estes powerfully reminds us, and ENST tries to help students feel, “we were made for these times.” Our hope in ENST is to continue to create curriculum, make connections on and off campus, collaborate with the coalition of the willing, and find resources to support students in their pursuit of thriving together in this climate-changed world. To those ends, I hope you’ll be inspired by some of those efforts:
ENST is Now a Department, with E&C The entity formerly known as the ENST Program is now a Department. What does this mean? It means that we have grown! This is good, but also challenging. Last year, you may recall, we were fortunate to hire Dr. Deepti Chatti as our first Environmental Justice tenure-line faculty member. This amounted to two faculty lines in ENST, and upwards of 140 majors. Ouch! So we brought some stupendous lecturers into the ENST fold-- if you’ve taken courses with Dara Adams or Laura Johnson, you know what I’m talking about. We couldn’t be better served by the teaching capacity of these passionate and skilled educators. And then, under pressure from the university and the budget crisis, ENST joined with the Environment and Community Master’s program to officially become a department with a BA (in ENST) and an MA (in E&C) in spring of 2021. But the creation of a new department offers rich opportunities to rethink what ENST needs to be in this historical moment, what undergraduate and graduate students need from their education, and how we can leverage our interdisciplinary, social-justice focus for student wellbeing and a just transition. Some of the changes we hope to implement as a result of this new designation are: Proposal of a Certificate of Leadership in Climate Justice, Sustainability, and Resilience Housing a new Sustainabilty Minor (more to follow!) Developing a dual major pathway with Native American Studies.
FROM OUR DEPARTMENT CHAIR Developing a 3/2 and a 2/1 dual degree pathway with E&C, so students can get a BA and an MA in less time, and more…
Collaborations to Create Cool Courses As always, we continue to collaborate with faculty across campus to develop amazing classes in a variety of departments. Profiles of some of these courses can be found in this newsletter. Some are: Radical Graphics (ART) Energy Justice (ENST) People/Parks/Power (ANTH) Climate Justice Law and Community-Based Organizing (ESM) Grant Writing for Empowerment (NAS) Emotions in the Anthropocene (ENST) Radical Futures: Race, Justice, and the Environment (CRGS) Climate Justice Leadership and Sustainability (ENST) Art, Climate, & Health Justice (ENGL) We are excited to vision new directions that meet student desire with faculty expertise around environmental justice content and praxis.
Student Focus Groups
metrics of feedback to propose curriculum changes to help us and our students rise to the occasion of this moment. (Please reach out to Peer Mentors Sara Daniels and Monica Vargas if you want to schedule an interview to have your voice heard!).
Mark Baker, Program Coordinator of the E&C Program, Is Retiring! Mark Baker, the program coordinator of the E&C Master’s degree, is retiring! (see the piece about his retirement on page 23 of this newsletter!).
Peer Mentor Program Update The Peer Mentor program is stronger than ever. The infrastructure and funding to support our Peer Mentors has moved from in-house to the RAMP program, under Tracy Smith’s team’s capable leadership. We are so grateful to Emily Read, Monica Vargas, and Sara Daniels for carrying the load of pre-advising and helping students make progress efficiently and create meaningful course plans. Applications for being a Peer Mentor will be sought every December/ January, so keep your eyes peeled! I cannot begin to describe how much ENST relies on Peer Mentors to keep things moving.
Student focus groups are being conducted this spring semester to solicit student input in program revision. Next year, ENST will undergo “program review,” and we will use student input and these other
FROM OUR DEPARTMENT CHAIR
Polytechnic Designation You may have heard the news that HSU is on its way to becoming the third Polytechnic institution in the CSU. There are positives and negatives to this designation: we will get more resources and more students, and we will be able to showcase the mission of HSU-- social justice and environmental sustainability--which is, basically, ENST! However, bringing social justice together with the polytechnic focus on engineering, sciences, and technology is fraught, as ENST has long known and taught students. Part of this is because the decolonial, critical race lens has been siloed in the humanities, arts, and social sciences, which have often been treated as less “useful” to the market economy (remember that pesky question, “what will you do with your degree in fill-in-the-blank-non-science-discipline?”). Making sure that the humanities (and arts, and social sciences) don’t just have a seat at the table during these conversations, but are able to demonstrate the value of these lenses to “just technological” or “just scientific” problems will be crucial. ENST, along with many brilliant and energetic colleagues across the campus, is seeking to help HSU with that effort. Fortunately, HSU is full of faculty across the board who understand this and agree. Let’s hope we can collectively get this right. We in ENST remain cautiously optimistic, on good days. In this issue of the ENST newsletter, you’ll find examples of this brilliance and energy. Although we sought student voices and art, given the conditions of this tough year, we received very little to publish. One day, we hope to create space
in these pages (or elsewhere) to inspire your creative catharsis about these trials we’re going through. Maybe then y’all will submit your essays, testimonios, poems, and art. Send them whenever you’re ready; we’ll publish them next time around. My head’s still spinning. The dust of all of these things has not settled. My two kids have been home schooling since March 2020. While much of what is written inside these pages is exciting, make no mistake that it is all happening in a whirlwind of chaos and overwhelm. It goes without saying that in between the lines of these pages is a lot of struggle. Rest assured that it’s not you; you aren’t failing. What’s failing is a system that sacrifices humanity (and all life) in service of GDP. We are experiencing a tectonic transition. A system that eats people destroys the very fuel it needs to survive. Your personal and collective resilience is the ultimate refusal of that system. Take care of yourselves, take care of each other. These are the practices most needed to prepare for what’s next for us all. And of course, our hope is that ENST can support you in this work.
Photo Courtesy of Sarah Ray
ENST STUDENT PERSPECTIVE I’m Tired of Talking About Rocks... What About the People? Kory Lamberts
American Center for Academic Excellence with a focus on food autonomy to highlight how systemic health inequalities stemming from redlining and racism can be counterbal Being a Black student in a predomanced by shifting to a societal model based inantly white institution can be difficult, on communal farming and reciprocity. Ruth and even more difficult in spaces such as Wilson Gilmore, a leading prison ecologist, environmental studies. As my classmates highlights the prison industrial complex in a flow into the room with overpriced hydro way that makes sense on an environmental flasks and Patagonia sweaters, level. Trucking highways built to go it’s apparent that I don’t and to prisons cut through low income will not ever fit into the mold neighborhoods, rates of asthma rise, of what environmental studies rates of school absence rise due to looks like. I sit surrounded health issues and subsequently rates by die hard vegans, whale of incarceration rise. Over-policing advocates, and bleeding-heart of urban areas is focused due to Liberals who are quick to call rampant police brutality, but as we out Trump but slower to check think towards abolition, we must their internalized anti-blackalso think towards sustainability ness and the access provided and how to work with the land as the Photo Courtesy of to them by white privilege. Indigenous people of this land have Kory Lamberts for centuries and continue to do today. If it wasn’t for professors like Dr. Deepti Chatti, I admit It is startling to think about the comtedly would not have seen the necessity of plex interwoven web of eco-capitalism and social justice and activism within the field genocide that takes place in Black, Latinx, of environmental studies. There is need and Indigenous, immigrant, and poor white for diversity in faculty, curriculum that is communities across America. What is hapmore progressive and inclusive, and voicpening is nothing short of an environmental es of those least heard in environmental crisis. The unlearning and relearning process spaces-- Black women, Indigenous women, of an environmental studies major at HSU women of color, and people from the BIPOC has a roller coaster of emotions, ego deaths, LGBTQ+ community. The time is far gone and calls to be activists when you’re home for having classes about community and at the table with your parents on break. society taught by the currently dominant The access to nature provided in power structure--cisgender white men. Humboldt is healing. You might catch me After getting adjusted and narrowing foraging in the rain or surfing under camel my focus within environmental studies, rock, hiking the lost coast trail and burnI have been able to find my niche within ing my sock. I’m worried about the bees prison ecology and land liberation with being transported for pollination and the the aims to dismantle systemic racism pollution ruining the bird population. But by putting an end to food apartheid. I next time you think about birds and the am currently working on a Black land bees, think about the kids who don’t get liberation project through the African to see trees; the ones that can’t breathe.
Project Research Profile Dr. Dara Adams & Dr. Gordon Ulmer
Everyone has a story about a wildlife encounter. Ask, and you will hear about unexpected run-ins between surfers and sharks, bears rummaging through waste bins in residential areas, hikers and mountain lions crossing paths, and opportunistic foxes hunting chickens out of residents’ coops. Dr. Dara Adams, a lecturer in ENST and Anthropology, and Dr. Gordon Ulmer, Assistant Professor of Anthropology, examine narratives like these to understand how residents in Humboldt County perceive, describe, and take action on issues involving wildlife. Historically, conservation has been shaped by the biological and ecological sciences, but as Adams points out “conservation issues are inextricably social issues.” Their new transdisciplinary project, “Socioecologies of HumanWildlife Interactions in Northern California,” aims to contribute a more critical approach to human-animal studies, and ultimately to policy making, by elucidating the complex mosaic of community ecologies involving humans and other species in the region. “That’s what’s so exciting to us about this work,” Ulmer says. “There is opportunity for this research to do something unique, to foreground the values, attitudes, knowledges, and behaviors that
residents have towards wildlife, and to simultaneously contextualize them within broader ecological, cultural, historical, and political economic frameworks.” Humboldt County, with its sparse economic development and over 400,000 acres of parks, reserves, and other protected areas, is home to a variety of animal species that enjoy large tracts of relatively undisturbed habitat. Nevertheless, wildlife in the region are experiencing an increase in habitat displacement due to numerous ecological pressures, including recordbreaking wildfires, agriculture and ranching, and clear-cutting. Adams and Ulmer warn that in our ever-growing climate crisis, wildlife displacement is likely to further exacerbate existing humanwildlife situations that media outlets, conservationists, and scientists frame as ‘conflictual.’ The research team, which includes ENST and Anthropology student interns and volunteers, pushes back against automatically viewing humanwildlife interactions through the lens of conflict. Such framing is anthropocentric and does not account for the complex ways that humans and other animals exist in increasingly converging community ecologies. Additionally, the phrase ‘humanwildlife’ implies an undifferentiated grouping
FACULTY CORNER of humans with a shared culture/history/ relation with the environment. Ulmer maintains that “such a flattening of the social landscape in Humboldt County, which sits on the ancestral lands of the Wiyot, Yurok, Hupa, and Karuk, ignores sovereignties, cultures, and identities of Native Peoples.” These critiques compel questions central to the project about whose relationships with the environment are privileged and foregrounded in research and policymaking and whose are marginalized or excluded. Students in Adams and Ulmer’s virtual research lab are currently busy with several tasks: conducting a critical media analysis of wildliferelated news in Humboldt County, developing a bibliography of research on anthrozoology and related themes, examining county, state, and national wildlife policies, and finalizing the designs of ethnographic research instruments including semistructured interview guides. This Spring, the team will start an exciting new phase of the project that involves collaborating with the public on a camera trap survey. Local residents will directly participate in data collection by using remotely activated camera traps to document wildlife on their properties and share their perceptions,
attitudes, and concerns about wildlife in their immediate environments. Adams and Ulmer note that there are important economic, environmental, social, and public health implications for understanding how communities address human-animal interactions in Humboldt County. To mitigate commercial loss of livestock, agricultural producers have been influential in the culling of numerous wildlife species in recent years. However, the indiscriminate killing of wildlife, especially apex predators, has the potential to disrupt ecosystem balances by impacting species across trophic levels. Vector-borne zoonotic disease transmission, such as that which led to the SARS-CoV-2 global pandemic, represents another critical concern. Summarizing these complex concerns, Adams describes that “the holistic approach of this project is well suited to illuminate the interconnecting material, ecological, social, and health consequences of humanwildlife interactions in the area.” Photos Courtesy of Dara Adams & Gordon Ulmer
NEW ENST COURSE
ENST 195: Emotions in the Anthropocene A Conversation with Dr. Laura Johnson, Professor of the New ENST Core Course
What drew you to teaching this course? I find that the classes I teach are the ones I wish I’d found much sooner than I did, and this class is no exception. In college I studied Journalism, which taught me an important skill, but after graduation I found myself sitting with some glaring holes, particularly as I became more interested in travel and culture while also growing increasingly concerned about the social and environmental issues I saw all around me but failed to grasp in a deep way. Without an intersectional framework to understand the shared roots of the many seemingly fragmented issues swirling around me, I grew increasingly overwhelmed and confused, feeling called to work toward change but not really knowing what that meant. I went back to graduate school to fill those holes, and there I found Geography and Environmental Studies, which provided me with the framework I’d been looking
Photo Courtesy: Laura Johnson for. It was like a breath of fresh air, and I found my people and my place. But yet as I delved deeper and deeper into the socio-ecological crises we face, I found myself experiencing heavy emotions that I didn’t really know what to do with. I was heartbroken, angry, resentful, anxious, sometimes holierthan-thou, you name it I felt it. I remember experiencing a near-panic attack at a crowded commercial movie theater one night…once I walked into a Wal-Mart and fell to my knees in despair. And what I was experiencing, without anyone helping me to name or process it, was ecological grief. I finished my
master’s and went on to a PhD, and the weight of the topics I was studying, class after class, research project after research project, grew heavier and heavier. I recall sharing in a Gender and Environment course I was taking that I found myself growing so angry with the world around me, and my professor congratulated and encouraged me, explaining that I ‘should be angry.’ And that’s true, in a sense, but unprocessed anger can lead to rage, guilt to paralysis or apathy, grief to a stuck place of despair. Yet when you understand what you’re experiencing, when you have tools and practices and language to process these emotions and to express them in beneficial ways to others, when you find ways to connect with community, you find that they actually present a pathway to openheartedness, to full vitality, to resilience and the ability to make meaningful change. And that’s what I hope to offer folks in this class. I had to piece all of this together myself, and it took
NEW ENST COURSE a long time, and so I want to try to get out in front of that for others embarking on this challenging but crucial journey.
make her book a core text of the ENST program, as it absolutely should be.
What does this course offer to Why did you choose Sarah teach students Ray’s book A Field Guide to and why is it Climate Anxiety as one of important? the core texts of the class? Everything I just talked about is in Dr. Ray’s book, and so much more! She and I share a really beautiful and unique connection around our passion for these topics and issues, and so her book was the perfect and obvious foundation for this course. And…she’s Dr. Ray, ENST program leader! We are SO lucky to have her at the helm of this more-importantthan-ever program, and she literally wrote this book for her students – for you! I’m honored to be able to
Dr. Ray’s Book
This course is unique in its central focus on emotions, which have been marginalized and oppressed in Western culture (and within academia) – the oppression of emotions, in fact, is inseparable from white supremacy, settler colonialism, patriarchy, capitalism, and the devastation of the planet. An embrace of ‘the rational’ has in many ways justified and perpetuated socio-ecological devastation, and it continues to do so. So in this course we interrogate what we think we know and how we know it, what we feel and how to work with that. We focus on mindfulness and self-care, communication and community, resisting burnout and cultivating resilience, the relationship between grief and love, how to scale up our action and together re-imagine the world. Which is what we are called in this pivotal moment to do.
How does turning toward our emotions help us deal with the various crises we are facing? Coming to terms with and moving through these crises ultimately is an emotional journey – it has to be. If we choose to turn away from the emotions that inevitably arise with increased consciousness, we turn away also from the crises itself. We choose to numb ourselves, which of course is quite understandable given the pain that comes with awareness. But we can’t act when we’re numb, or when we’re in the grips of anger or anxiety or despair. And when we try to numb the pain, we also numb things like joy, love, beauty, and we inhibit our innate compassion, which is one of the keys to this whole mess. Instead we have to turn toward the emotions, to open to them, to process them and allow them space, and to move through them to the other side, which, I think, is a place of being fully alive, of agency and courage and strength. But it’s also important to note that this isn’t linear – we will continue to ride the waves of emotions, we will never ‘arrive’ in some fully
NEW ENST COURSE enlightened place where there’s no more pain (at least not for long)… but once we have the awareness and the language, the practices and the tools and the community, we’re empowered rather than paralyzed.
What do you hope are the biggest take aways from this class? Hmm…maybe that you’re not alone in this, that there are so many others on this path with you, that you’re seen and supported, and that there’s still so much beauty, there’s reason for joy and active/wise hope. One of the reasons that it’s so scary to open your heart is that it makes you vulnerable. Vulnerability is crucial for socio-cultural change, but it’s also super uncomfortable, even terrifying. Only in intervulnerability – being vulnerable together – can we find the sense of safety and groundedness necessary to begin to open up, to emerge. Because we can’t just fling our hearts open, and we can’t keep them wide open all the time either – we need safe containers within which to open, and
we need to know that it’s OK to turn inward again, to rest and restore when you need it, as long as we don’t stay there. Like all the cycles of life – from the breath to the seasons to the heartbeat – we open and close, we expand and contract, again and again. I hope this class can help provide a container for folks, and to make and strengthen community within this program and beyond. Because we need each other to open our hearts, and only from a place of openheartedness will we find the beautiful change that is ours to make.
Check out ENST 195 for the spring!
What You Do Counts Jess Coming
Building Wiyot Plaza: 1. What does Indigenous represen HSU Native American Studies’ tation look like on a college campus, and what representations do we currently have Food Sovereignty Lab and here at HSU? Cultural Workspace 2. What relationships does the In the Fall of 2019, the students of NAS 331: Indigenous Natural Resource Management Practices, taught by Dr. Cutcha Risling Baldy, designed this project to have lasting and intergenerational impacts within our community today and for generations to come. This course centers Indigenous knowledges and provides opportunities to learn from Native communities and leaders while helping students (re)learn the history of this land. Our history is difficult for some to internalize, but facing the truth is unsettling and necessary. Yet this is what our education should lead us to: to be honest, forthright, compassionate, and to make positive social change.
community and HSU have with our Indigenous communities?
How can we uplift and support these representations and relationships?
As a result of our commu-
nity-based participatory action research and data collection and analysis, our class proposed the Food Sovereignty Lab. The FSL will serve to support the resurgence of Indigenous food systems informed by traditional, ecological, and cultural knowledges. As a community-facing project, this lab is being designed for the community as a whole to support an equitable approach to achieving food sovereignty in Humboldt county One of the focal and for our local tribes points of our class was and tribal peoples. Our to address the issues work is aimed at building affecting our student best practices for Food body and community. AfSovereignty in our region Monique Enriquez ter lengthy discussions, we agreed that respect tribal protocols, centers that Indigenous students experience a lack Indigenous knowledges, and empowers Naof representation at HSU. This is problematic tive community resilience and resurgence. because it leads to inaccessibility for Native The FSL Will: American students to continue their cultural practices. Therefore, we feel the obligation Develop curriculum, internships, to address the need for a unified Indigenous research opportunities, work campus, appropriate representation, and cul shops, and programs. tural spaces is critical. We selected the follow Provide space that supports Tribal ing research questions to guide this project: communities in ongoing re-
vitalization of basket weaving and regalia making. Strengthen the bonds between our local community, Indigenous Nations, and students at HSU Integrate the values of ecological sustainability, bio-cultural sovereignty of Indigenous peoples, interconnectedness of life, and community involve- ment in efforts to develop reverence for food sovereignty.
Where We Are Going:
Check out: Blue Lake Rancheria Food Sovereignty Garden UIHS Potawot Health Village Garden Wiyot Tribe Cultural & Natural Resources Trinidad Rancheria Cultural Department Native Women’s Collective Yurok Tribe Environmental Program Save California Salmon
Remodeling Fall 2021, opening Fall 2022, We are focusing on planning and development of the FSL which includes strategic planning, budgeting, fundraising, location remodel, equipment inWebsite: stallation; policy and resolution https://nasp.humboldt.edu/fsl writing and adoptions; internship Subscribe to our and research plans and the official YouTube: hsunas opening of the Food Sovereignty Facebook: @hsunasp Lab & Cultural Workshop Space. Instagram: @hsu_nas With support from HSU Sponsored Programs Foundation and University Advancement we will break ground on this project and begin the remodel in Fall 2021 with an anticipated opening date of Fall 2022. As we prepare for the implementation Stay up to date with the of this cutting-edge lab at HSU, we want to do Food Sovereignty Lab! this with the guidance and support of commuDonate and help us reach our nity members, scholars and organizations that goal: hsu.link/foodsovlab can help us to develop informed, decolonized, Register for our leading approaches to food sovereignty. Be FREE Spring Film Series sure to follow us to receive updates on the May 7th: Food Sovereignty Lab. We like to give a special hsu.link/foodsovlabmovie thank you to our partners, as without them Written by this project would not be possible, but Amanda McDonald together our dream is stronger.
An Update from the E&C Program In this first report from the Environment and Community graduate program, I’d like to highlight some of the accomplishments of our students and also welcome our newest E&C faculty member, Dr. Kaitlin Reed of the Native American Studies program. I’d also like to describe a couple of our new graduate seminars and provide a brief overview of how our program is working to become more antiracist.
Inspiring, Change-Oriented Student Research The accomplishments of our graduate students, whose work invariably addresses intersecting relationships among justice, sustainability and environment and community, never cease to inspire me. For example, last semester Daniel Adel successfully completed and defended his thesis “Living rivers, cosmopolitan activism, and environmental justice in the Bengal Delta.” Based on fieldwork in Bangladesh, Daniel’s research focused on the activism of civil society organizations like Riverine People as they challenge top down river management and instead advocate for more ecologically-oriented approaches. These in-country advocacy efforts, Daniel argues, are supported by an international network of Bangladeshi environmental and social activists as well as by progressive within-country policies, such as the recent Supreme Court ruling conferring legal personhood on rivers in Bangladesh.
Another recently completed E&C master’s thesis is that of Alexia Siebuhr. Lex’s thesis, titled “Collective Healing within Queer Paradoxes: Deconstructing Emotional Abuse in LGBTQ2SIA Communities to Cultivate More Accountable and Compassionate Worlds,” focused on how the settler colonial state’s response to harm within queer communities often perpetuates violence. Based on field research here in Humboldt County, Lex’s research highlights the potential and promise of alternative approaches based on transformative justice. These two E&C theses illustrate the diversity of research topics our students focus on. Other recently completed theses include an analysis of oral history narratives of eco-memory concerning the Jordan River and its colonization, and how settler colonial narratives of the inferiority of BIPOC people in the United States are both internalized and contested. This is a just a brief sampling of some of the most recently completed student research in our program. Please check out the “student research” page of the E&C website for a complete listing of the theses and projects our graduate students have completed.
Dr. Kaitlin Reed – New E&C Faculty Member One of the distinctive aspects of the E&C program is the diverse group of instructors from across the HSU campus who choose to participate in the program because of their commitment to interdisciplinary approaches to environmental and social justice. We’re very excited to be able to welcome Dr. Kaitlin Reed as the most recent addition to the E&C program faculty. Dr. Reed’s home department is Native American Studies, where she teach-
NEW HAPPENINGS es core courses such as Indigenous People in U.S. History; she also has played an instrumental role in realizing the department’s vision of a Food Sovereignty Lab. Dr. Reed’s research focuses on continuities between the gold rush and the green rush in northwestern California in terms of capitalistic modes of extraction and violence against Indigenous lands and people. Her work is an excellent fit with our program and several E&C graduate students have already approached her about joining their thesis or project committee.
New E&C Graduate Seminars To meet and respond to the interests of our graduate students, the E&C program develops and offers new graduate seminars. Two examples are Decolonizing Methodologies, taught by Dr. Cutcha Risling Baldy (Native American Studies Department), and Colonialism and Decolonization, taught by Dr. Leena Dallasheh (History, Political Science, and Geography Departments). Both of these courses are being taught this semester. In Decolonizing Methodologies graduate students learn ways of conducting field research that are grounded in liberatory, non-extractive, participatory and antiracist modes of knowledge production. Colonialism and Decolonization is a rigorous examination of the history of colonialism with a focus on the political, economic social and cultural dimensions of colonial rule. The seminar examines resistance and decolonization and challenges students to imagine what true decoloniality might look like.
Working Towards Becoming More Antiracist As Beverly Tatum says, if you’re not actively walking against the moving walkway of rac-
ism in our society, then you’re supporting racist institutions and systems, and patterns of unearned power and privilege. The E&C program has been working to disentangle itself from white supremacy culture and to become more antiracist in terms of course content (curriculum), the classroom (pedagogy and class culture) and overall program structure. Our students have and continue to play an important role in this process, including demanding change as well as accountability. Let me end by honoring the resilience and perseverance of our E&C graduate students. Despite the pandemic-induced shift to online learning and zoom-based interactions, our students continue to make excellent progress towards completing their degrees. The students who began the program this year have a diverse array of compelling research topics. These include fire exclusion as an example of settler colonialism and the resurgence of Indigenous burning in North America, the role of Karuk women as knowledge holders and their importance in healing and decolonization, community participation in buffers around biodiversity conservation in Ecuador, and Latinx farmworker organizing in the era of Covid in the Santa Maria area, to name just a few. We are working to support our students as they develop their research topics and approach and will continue to work with them to bring their theses and projects to a successful close. Written by Mark Baker
If you’re interested in finding out more about the E&C program, come check us out!
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Consumer fors Kumar Sharma, retired N January 16, I received the would sit prepared during the 1874 sad patwari, residing in Chim- news sad news that that Krishan Krishan The two first met during the ■ In your last column, you bal Har near Palampur, had sad news that Krishan thecannot shade Kumar Sharma, retired writing of this book in the 1990s. settlement of Kangra dis-the banks Kumar Sharma, retired charge m passed away. He was 88 years old, a than the rate ofto interest s dear friend and mentor. Kumar Sharma, retired next a sm trict. In the hope of seeing patwari, residing in Chimresiding in Chimin a loan agreement. Wha We first met in the autumn patwari, of 1990, patwari, residing in Chimbank when I was beginning field research this important historical document, Ifixed deposits? pile. ItCanwas balonHar near Palampur, had than the promised rate of the kuhl irrigation systems of Kangra bal Har near Palampur, had presented myself to the PalampurFive years ago,and I had depo valley forpassed my PhD degree. The gravity met go away. He was 88 years old, a passed away. proceeds from the sale of flow, community-based irrigation syspassed away. He was 88 years old, a tehsildar. wife, his m My request was generously for a fixed period of five y tem of Kangra valley in Himachal comdear dear friend friend and mentor. bank. The choice of the b prises one of the largest locally mandear friend and mentor. approved. The tehsildar deputed Shar-madeand Sanjee on the basis of the aged irrigation networks world.in the autumn of 1990, We first met We firstin the rate and, of course, the s Known as kuhls, they have endured for We first met in the autumn of 1990, frie ma, Our frien who was posted in the tehsil office, the deposit. However no centurieswhen despite I recurring floods, beginning field research on when Iwas wasThough the maturity period, the droughts and earthquakes. when I was beginning field research on to provide assistance with translating Sharing th the irrigation systems of Kangra offering a reduced rate o rapid socio-economic chalthe kuhl kuhlchanges est oning the ground lenge their ability tothe persistkuhl today, most irrigation systems of Kangra it from Urdu into Hindi and English. thethatnith valley for myhere PhD degree. The gravity inadvertently mentione kuhl irrigation valley forsystems wrong rate of interest. continuevalley to brim withfor watermy PhD degree. The gravity LaH This chance meeting grew into ais thatShyam Lal flow, irrigation sysflow, community-based argument? during community-based the hot, dry pre(From left) Patwari Krishan Kumar Sharma and the writer (second) with their family members in Palampur in the 1990s. irrigation syshavewe ma monsoonflow, season,community-based when friendship and a joining of two familiesThe bank — might these tem of valley intogether, Himachal com- tices, tem ofKangra Kangra take or the officials mi dependence on kuhl water working Sharma requested political authority, etc. It was spouse, and later, our children. tem ofof Kangra valleypermission in Himachal onconversations opposite ofwasthe globe, which offered of in for irrigation peaks. ofa higher thatratetim and received to take the comthrough extensive with sides Sharma an extraordinary perprises one the largest locally manprises oneabout to garner your deposit I had heard an volume to his home in the nearby vil- him that I first realised how kuhls are son. He embodied and reflected the prises one of the largest locally mancontinues to this day. stories Pit intending to give you tha extraordinary archival lage of Bindraban. periods he lived through. His aged irrigation networks in the world. embedded within the culture and historical aged irrigation was a mistake, it is sheer n record that describes many Continuing our work at his ancestral identity in Kangra. impressive command of multiple lanaged irrigation networks In the first few days our work evening c If it was a deliberate ploy details of these irrigation house represents some ofin my the earliestworld. Sharma also gave me permission to guages reflected his of education in the Known as kuhls, they have endured for Known as an unfair trade practice. E systems — the Riwaj-i- and fondest memories together. cultivate one of his family’s small ter- mission school in Palampur before Known as kuhls, they have endured for together at the tehsil office, Sharma one about the bank has to take resp Abpashi — that was first Absorbed in the Riwaj-i-Abpashi, we raced paddy fields. This “participant 1947. He would often reference poems centuries despite recurring floods, centuries for its action and pay you preparedcenturies during the 1874 despite would sit side by side on a charpoy infloods, observation” enabled me to experien- and stories from the cannon of British recurring carefully The two first met during the read aloud in Urdu and transchallengin ised rate of interest. Besid settlement of Kangra dis- earthquakes. the shade of a toweringThough mango tree, tially familiarise myself with local agri- literature, recite verses of beautiful writing of this book in the 1990s.droughts and droughts committed to a certain rat trict. In the hope of seeing and next to earthquakes. a small cowshed and the woodcultural and water management prac- I Urdu poetry,in and recount stories from lated, droughts Though while wrote my notebook. (kuhl water est, the bank has a contra this important historical document, I pile. It was during these days that I first tices. Ploughing with a pair of bullocks Hindu texts. In his later years, sitting rapid socio-economic changes chalrapid socio-economic gation to pay that rate and presented myself rapid to the Palampur met and got to know his family — his and planting, cultivating and harvestcross-legged and bolt upright on a cot The unique combination of his schol- my book ab a socio-economic changes chalate from it. So, demand tehsildar.lenge My request was generously his mother, his sons Vijay, Uday ing paddy on this plot of land, in addi- on the verandah of the roadside home their abilitywife, to persist today, most lenge their bank pay what isof dueKa to yo approved. The tehsildar deputed Shar- ability and Sanjeev, daughter Meena. tion to participating in theUrdu, annual kuhl along he built in with Chimbal Har, he would elabarly lenge their toandpersist today, most his detailed tems ma, who was posted in the tehsil office,irrigation Our friendship quickly deepened. kuhl systems here irrigation system maintenance and orate at length on poetry, stories, histo- ■ Can you quote a recen knowledge irrigation systems agricultural prac-sion ofthe oral his the consumer cou to provide assistance with translating kuhl Sharing the evening meal, often stay- here repair activities, provided me with aof rylocal and philosophy. tonight, brim with water this issue? it from Urdu into Hindi and continue English. ing the getting to learn from nuanced understanding of these irriSharma’s passing is certainly most CAPTION CONTEST tices continue to brim with water and Kangri language, enabled his increas In Union Bank of India Vs This chance meeting grew into a Shyam Lal Sharma, his father (Pitaji) gation systems. Without Sharma’s acutely felt by his close family, but for thewerehot, dryelements pre- support, this embodied understanding me, it represents an immeasurable ra and Another (RP No 19 friendship and a joining of twoduring families — these all memorable him the hot, dry would preto accurately and razor shar Sharma anda the thedecided writer (second) (From left) Krishan Kumar Sharma and writer (second) on June 29, 2w on opposite sides of the globe, which during of that time. In fact, two of the many have been hard,Patwari if not impossiloss oftranslate a dear friend, an elderexplain and (From left) Patwari Krishan Kumar Sharma andNational the writer (seco monsoon season, when Consumer continues to this day. stories Pitaji recounted during our ble, to obtain. He provided a solid foun- teacher. His loss also represents a frayeach sentence. After a few days of including c FOOD monsoon season, when Redressal Commission lo In the first few days of our work evening conversations — including dation from which to launch the more ing of the threads that connect the past on water requested together, Sharma tices, political tices, political similar issue. The comp together at the tehsil office, dependence Sharma one about the direkuhl consequences of than working two years of extensive fieldwork TALK to the present. Itrequested is now through our dependence on kuhl water working together, polit Sharma requested tainedtices, to two fixed depos carefully read aloud in Urdu and trans- challenging the authority of a kohli and archival research on which ‘The pushpesh shared memories of Sharma, and pant and received permission to the through extens for irrigation peaks. to take take the through ~1 croreextens and the lated, while I wrote in my notebook. (kuhlirrigation watermaster) — were included in Kuhls of Kangra’ is based. ongoing relations with to his family, that the worththrough and received permission take for peaks. ex lakh — with a promised in The unique combination of his schol- my book about the kuhl irrigation sysMy return to the United States in these threads of continuity and convolume to his home in the nearby vilI had heard about an him that I first nearby vilhim that I first of 10.9 per cent. arly Urdu, along with his detailed tems of Kangra. Pitaji was steeped in 1993 marked the end of long-duration nection may be sustained. I had heard about an volume to his home in the nearby vil- him that I However, when thewit FDs knowledge of local agricultural prac- the oral history of Kangra and, despite stayslage with theof Sharma family in Kan— The writer is Professor at Bindraban. embedded extraordinary archival embedded wi the bank said the custome tices and Kangri language, enabled extraordinary his increasing blindness, he retained a gra. However, our friendship remained Humboldt State University, lage of Bindraban. archival embedded entitled to 10.5 cen him to accurately translate andrecord explain razor sharp memory of themany region, strong, nourished by return visits California, USA, and author Continuing ourto work at his identity in Kan that describes hisatancestral ancestral identity inper Kan 1291 Continuing hisofancestral thatindescribes identity ino deposit and 10.25 on the each sentence. After a few days of record including changes agricultural prac- many Kangra every two-three years with my our work of ‘The Kuhls Kangra’ METHOD house represents somesome of my also details of these irrigation my earliest Sharma also Heat oi house represents ofearliest my earliest Sharma details of these irrigation Sharma onions.a ginger‘INDIAN’ VEG SCHEZWAN and fondest memories together. cultivate one of systems — the Riwaj-itogether. cultivate one together. cultivateminute systems — the Riwaj-i- and fondest memories INGREDIENTS oo fry on h Cauliflower/broccoli 1/2 small head medium Absorbed in the Riwaj-i-Abpashi, we raced paddy fi CAPTION CONTEST 1291 Abpashi — that was first Riwaj-i-Abpashi, we raced paddy fi , ( sauces we Abpashi — that was first Absorbed in the Riwaj-i-Abpashi, raced padd ) flour, m the veg Frenchin beans 6-8 would sit side by side on a on charpoy observation” en during the 1874 charpoy in in observation” e reduce ) ( would sit side by side a charpoy prepared during the 1874 observatio Thetwo twoThe firsttwo met during the the prepared The first met during cook co first met the during Peas ( ) 1/4 pounde the shade of a towering mango tree, settlement of Kangra distially familiaris mango tree,tree,tially familiaris Carrots 1 writingof ofthis thisbook book the1990s. 1990s. the shade of a towering mango tially famil writing the ( , , ) writing of thisininbook in the 1990s. settlement of Kangra disMushrooms 1/4 cup FOOD next to a small cowshed and the woodcultural and wa trict. trict. In the hope of seeing the woodcultural andFrom wog ( ) most woodIn the hope of seeing next to a small cowshed and the cultural an Tomato 1 Chines pile. wasItduring thesethese daysdays that first this important important historical document, I TALK tices. ) Ploughing this thatIthat I(Corn first tices. Ploughin Indian pile. was during I,first this important historical document, I It tices. Ploug kernels 1/4 cup of a cu pushpesh pant Paneer ( ) 50 g met and got togot know his family — his presented cc presented myself to the Palampur family — his and and1 planting, planting, Onion — his met and to know his family presented myself to the Palampur and plantin existen You have a camera or a phone camera? Click and send us a picture for the , ) ( VER since India and China have engaged in caption contest. The selected picture will be used for Caption Contest. Mail the tehsildar. wife,wife, his mother, his sons Vijay, Uday on Ginger-garlic paste ing 1paddy tsp tehsildar. My request was generously Vijay, Uday onth t high resolution picture generously (.jpg format) at firstname.lastname@example.org mother, his sons Vijay, Udaying paddy tehsildar. My request was paddy a clash on the icy heights of thehis cold desert in Soya sauce 1 ing tsp Ladakh, the risingSanjeev, tide of patriotism hasdaughter Meena. Vinegar 1 to tsp participa approved. The tehsildar deputed Sharand and tion Selected entries for Caption Contest 1290 approved. Meena. tion1 tion to particip and Sanjeev, approved. The tehsildar deputed Sharto part Chilli sauce tsp decreed that all things Chinese should be boy- and daughter Meena. Tomato sauce 1 tsp cotted. Surely though, this ban doesn’t apply to quickly deepened. ma,who who was Our friendship irrigation syst ma, was posted in the tehsil office, ) 1 tbsp Corn flour ( deepened. irrigation syst Our friendship quickly deepened. ma, who was posted in the tehsil office, irrigation 20 delicacies that are Chinese only in name. Black peppercorns 1 tsp ) ( To be honest, most of what we relish in this to provide assistance with translating Sharing the evening meal, often stayrepair activitie to provide oftenoften stay-stayrepair activitie Sharing the evening meal, to provide assistance with translating acti Sugar ( ) 1 repair tsp land under the garb of Chinese is, in reality, IndiSesame oil 2 tbsp it from from Urdu the night, getting to learn from nuanced under an interpretationing of a cuisine that is non-existent it Urdu into Hindi and English. Salt to taste learn from nuanced unde it from Urdu into Hindi and English. ing the night, getting to learn from nuanced u METHOD in China — be it gobhi manchurian or chilli This This chance meeting grewgrew into a areShyam Lal Sharma, his father (Pitaji) gation system Heat oil in asys sha paneer.into There regional variations This chance father (Pitaji) gation system Shyam Lal Sharma, his father (Pitaji) chance meeting adifferent gation
Kangra patwari’s defining role No deny No de Krishan Kumar Sharma had profound knowledge, unde in a scholarly work on kuhls Krishan Kumar Sharma had profound knowledge, un promised prom
N January 16, I received the sad news that Krishan Kumar Sharma, retired patwari, residing in Chimbal Har near Palampur, had passed away. He was 88 years old, a dear friend and mentor. We first met in the autumn of 1990, when I was beginning field research on the kuhl irrigation systems of Kangra valley for my PhD degree. The gravity flow, community-based irrigation system of Kangra valley in Himachal comprises one of the largest locally managed irrigation networks in the world. Known as kuhls, they have endured for centuries despite recurring floods, droughts and earthquakes. Though rapid socio-economic changes challenge their ability to persist today, most kuhl irrigation systems here continue to brim with water during the hot, dry premonsoon season, when dependence on kuhl water for irrigation peaks. I had heard about an extraordinary archival record that describes many details of these irrigation systems — the Riwaj-iAbpashi — that was first prepared during the 1874 The two first met during the writing of this book in the 1990s. settlement of Kangra district. In the hope of seeing this important historical document, I presented myself to the Palampur tehsildar. My request was generously approved. The tehsildar deputed Sharma, who was posted in the tehsil office, to provide assistance with translating it from Urdu into Hindi and English. This chance meeting grew into a friendship and a joining of two families on opposite sides of the globe, which continues to this day. In the first few days of our work together at the tehsil office, Sharma carefully read aloud in Urdu and translated, while I wrote in my notebook. The unique combination of his scholarly Urdu, along with his detailed knowledge of local agricultural practices and Kangri language, enabled him to accurately translate and explain each sentence. After a few days of
(From left) Patwari Krishan Kumar Sharma and the writer (second) with their family members in Palampur in the 1990s. working together, Sharma requested and received permission to take the volume to his home in the nearby village of Bindraban. Continuing our work at his ancestral house represents some of my earliest and fondest memories together. Absorbed in the Riwaj-i-Abpashi, we would sit side by side on a charpoy in the shade of a towering mango tree, next to a small cowshed and the woodpile. It was during these days that I first met and got to know his family — his wife, his mother, his sons Vijay, Uday and Sanjeev, and daughter Meena. Our friendship quickly deepened. Sharing the evening meal, often staying the night, getting to learn from Shyam Lal Sharma, his father (Pitaji) — these were all memorable elements of that time. In fact, two of the many stories Pitaji recounted during our evening conversations — including one about the dire consequences of challenging the authority of a kohli (kuhl watermaster) — were included in my book about the kuhl irrigation systems of Kangra. Pitaji was steeped in the oral history of Kangra and, despite his increasing blindness, he retained a razor sharp memory of the region, including changes in agricultural prac-
tices, political authority, etc. It was through extensive conversations with him that I first realised how kuhls are embedded within the culture and identity in Kangra. Sharma also gave me permission to cultivate one of his family’s small terraced paddy fields. This “participant observation” enabled me to experientially familiarise myself with local agricultural and water management practices. Ploughing with a pair of bullocks and planting, cultivating and harvesting paddy on this plot of land, in addition to participating in the annual kuhl irrigation system maintenance and repair activities, provided me with a nuanced understanding of these irrigation systems. Without Sharma’s support, this embodied understanding would have been hard, if not impossible, to obtain. He provided a solid foundation from which to launch the more than two years of extensive fieldwork and archival research on which ‘The Kuhls of Kangra’ is based. My return to the United States in 1993 marked the end of long-duration stays with the Sharma family in Kangra. However, our friendship remained strong, nourished by return visits to Kangra every two-three years with my
spouse, and later, our children. Sharma was an extraordinary person. He embodied and reflected the historical periods he lived through. His impressive command of multiple languages reflected his education in the mission school in Palampur before 1947. He would often reference poems and stories from the cannon of British literature, recite verses of beautiful Urdu poetry, and recount stories from Hindu texts. In his later years, sitting cross-legged and bolt upright on a cot on the verandah of the roadside home he built in Chimbal Har, he would elaborate at length on poetry, stories, history and philosophy. Sharma’s passing is certainly most acutely felt by his close family, but for me, it represents an immeasurable loss of a dear friend, an elder and a teacher. His loss also represents a fraying of the threads that connect the past to the present. It is now through our shared memories of Sharma, and ongoing relations with his family, that these threads of continuity and connection may be sustained. — The writer is Professor at Humboldt State University, California, USA, and author of ‘The Kuhls of Kangra’
■ In your last co the banks canno than the rate of in a loan agreem fixed deposits? C than the promis Five years ago, I proceeds from t for a fixed perio bank. The choic made on the ba rate and, of cou the deposit. Ho the maturity pe offering a reduc est on the grou inadvertently m wrong rate of in is that argumen The bank migh take or the of offered a higher to garner your intending to giv was a mistake, it If it was a delibe an unfair trade p the bank has to for its action and ised rate of inter committed to a c est, the bank ha gation to pay tha ate from it. So bank pay what i ■ Can you quot sion of the cons this issue? In Union Bank o ra and Another ( decided on Ju National Con Redressal Comm similar issue. T tained to two fix worth ~1 crore lakh — with a pr of 10.9 per cent. However, whe the bank said th entitled to 10.5 deposit and 10.2
Chinese fare that is Indian at h
E CAPTION CONTEST
VER since India and China have engaged in a clash on the icy heights of the cold desert in Ladakh, the rising tide of patriotism has decreed that all things Chinese should be boycotted. Surely though, this ban doesn’t apply to delicacies that are Chinese only in name. To be honest, most of what we relish in this land under the garb of Chinese is, in reality, Indian interpretation of a cuisine that is non-existent in China — be it gobhi manchurian or chilli paneer. There are different regional variations also — Gujju, Punju and Madrasi. The Bengalis claim that Kolkata China Town has more ‘authentic’ fare. However, we think that while this might have been true once upon a time, it can’t be true today. The Chinese can’t stay without their pork, beef and other exotic meats, but most Indians eschew these. Also, the favourite cooking medium of those who dwell behind the Great Wall is lard and no vegetarian preparation could be called shakaahari! Why then, you might ask, are we drooling over this vegetarian recipe from Schezwan? For one, it is a spicy Indian mixed vegetable and we cook it, not with Chinese vegetables and spices, but with what our palate is used to. The only connection it has with East Asia is the soya and chilli sauces. Interestingly, in most renderings, it is tomato sauce and vinegar that overpower the soya sauce or divert us from its absence. Another alluring feature is that this recipe helps us brilliantly utilise whatever is left over in the fridge or on the kitchen shelves. That odd carrot, the lone tomato, half a head of cabbage, a bit of cauliflower/broccoli, a quarter of sweet bell pepper or capsicum. Lastly, it offers wonderful scope for improvisation. You can enrich it with beans, sweet baby corn or even a bit of paneer. It can be served as a dry stir fry or converted into a dish with gravy to be enjoyed with steamed rice. So, why wait? Bid goodbye to winter with this ‘some like it hot’ preparation, that’s more Indian than Chinese.
Chinese fare that is Indian at hea
Entries are invited to suggest a caption for the above photograph. The caption should only be in English, witty and not exceeding 10 words, and reach Spectrum, The Tribune, Chandigarh, 160030, by Thursday. The best five captions will be published and
awarded ~300, ~250, ~200, ~150 and ~100, respectively. Each caption must be accompanied by a clipping of the caption contest and its number. Photocopies of the caption photo will not be accepted. Please mention the pin code in your address.
January 31 issue (see photo) ❚ Jumping majority — Jaskaran Preet Kaur, Chandigarh ❚ Leg pooling — Jaswinder Singh, Chandigarh ❚ Feat within our feet — Neeraj Kumar Gupta, Chandigarh ❚ Fast and curious — Harveen Singh Brar, Chandigarh ❚ Jump-start — Alisha Chandra , Chandigarh
BROKEN INTO SMALL FLORETS BLANCHED IN BOILING WATER FOR A MINUTE STRINGED AND CUT INTO 2-3 INCH PIECES SHELLED
MEDIUM SIZED SCRAPED WASHED AND CUT INTO THIN DISCS WIPED CLEAN AND SLICED FINE
MEDIUM SIZED CHOPPED AND PUREED CUT INTO CUBES
MEDIUM SIZED PEELED AND SLICED
COARSELY AND FRESHLY GROUND OPTIONAL
perio loss for of aa fixed dear friend globe, which time. In fact, twothe of woodthe manycultural wouldand have beenmanagement hard, if not impossiwater prac- Urdu seeing poetry, and rec next toofathat small cowshed and bank. The choic teacher. His loss also stories Pitaji recounted during our ble, to obtain. He provided a solid founment, I pile. It was during these days that I first tices. Ploughing with a pair of bullocks Hindu texts. In his l made on thetha ba the threads of our work evening conversations — including dation from which to launch the more ing of ampur met and got to know his family — his and planting, cultivating and harvest- cross-legged and bol rate and,column ofItcou Reprinted permission The Tribune Editor present. is fice, Sharma one about with the dire consequences from of than two years of extensive fieldwork ■to the your last rously wife, his mother, his sons Vijay, Uday ing paddy on this plot of land, in addi- onIn the verandah ofHo th the deposit. shared memories o du and trans- challenging the authority of a kohli and archival research on which ‘The the banks cannot ch to participating in the annual kuhl he d Sharbuilt inmaturity Chimbalwit H and Sanjeev, and daughter Meena. the pe ongoing relations my notebook. (kuhl watermaster) — were included intionKuhls of Kangra’ is based. than the rate of inte system maintenance andin orate atthreads lengthaon poe Our my friendship quickly offering redu My return to the United States these of con noffice, of his scholbook about the kuhldeepened. irrigation sys-irrigation in a loan agreement Sharing the evening meal, often stayrepair activities, provided me with a slating ry and philosophy. nection may be grou susta his detailed tems of Kangra. Pitaji was steeped in 1993 marked the end of long-duration fixed est on the deposits? Can ing the getting to learn from understanding these nglish. pracSharma’s passing stays with the Sharma of family in irriKan- than — The write cultural thenight, oral history of Kangra and, despitenuanced inadvertently the promised rm Sharma,blindness, his fatherhe(Pitaji) systems.our Without Sharma’s nto enabled a Shyam felt by hisofclo gra. However, friendship remained acutely Humboldt age, hisLal increasing retained agation rate iS Five wrong years ago, I had — these were all memorable elements support, this embodied understanding milies me, it represents a California, e and explain razor sharp memory of the region, strong, nourished by return visits to proceeds is that argume from the saU mar Sharma andthat the writer with their family members inwould Palampur in the 1990s. time.(second) Inchanges fact, two the many have been hard, if not impossiwhich of a dear friend every two-three years with my loss of ‘The few days of of including in of agricultural prac- Kangra migh for aThe fixedbank period ofK stories Pitaji recounted during to obtain. He provided a solid foun- teacher. 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(kuhlidentity watermaster) — were included in Kuhls of Kangra’ is based. ebook. wiit the maturity period REUTERS guages reflected his education in the If it was a delib my earliest Sharma also gave me permission to My return to the United States in these schol- my book about the kuhl irrigation systhreads of con offering a reduced r mission school in Palampur before an unfair trade p setailed together. cultivate one of his family’s small tertems of Kangra. Pitaji was steeped in 1993 marked the end of long-duration nection mayground be susta est on the th 1947. Hethe would oftenfamily reference poems inadvertently the— bank to Abpashi, raced paddy fields. This the oral history of Kangra and,“participant despite stays with Sharma in Kanl prac- we Thehas write ment storiesour from the cannon of British wrong forrate its action and anabled charpoy in observation” enabledhe me to experienhis increasing blindness, retained a gra.and However, friendship remained Humboldt S of inter literature, recitebyverses beautiful ised rate of inter mango familiarise myself withregion, local agri-strong, razortially sharp memory of the nourished returnofvisits to xplain tree, California, is that argument? arma and the writer (second)and withwater their family members inpracPalampurUrdu in thepoetry, 1990s. and recount stories from committed tohav aK d the woodcultural management ays of including changes in agricultural prac- Kangra every two-three years with my of ‘The The bank might Hindu In his later years, sitting take est, ha ys that I first Ploughing with aetc. pairItofwas bullocks tices,tices. political authority, or the thebank officia spouse, and texts. later, our children. uested cross-legged bolt uprightperon a cot offered gation to payrate th amily andextensive planting, conversations cultivating andwith harvest-Sharma through a higher was anand extraordinary ke the— his pushpesh pant verandah of the roadside ate from it. So Vijay, ing paddy on this plot land,are in addihim that I first realised howofkuhls your de son. on Hethe embodied and reflected thehome to garner by vil-Uday he built in Chimbal Har, he would elabbank pay what Meena. embedded tion to participating in the annual kuhl within the culture and VER historical periods heChina lived through. His in intending to give yoi since India and have engaged ■ Can you quot orate atcommand length on poetry, stories, deepened. irrigation system maintenance and identity in Kangra. impressive lan-histocestral a clash on the icy heightsofofmultiple the cold desert in was a mistake, it is sh sionaofdeliberate the cons ,arliest often stay-Sharma repairalso activities, me to with guages a ry and philosophy. gave meprovided permission education in the has If it was REUTERS Ladakh, reflected the risinghis tide of patriotism this issue? Sharma’s in passing is certainly most learn from nuanced of these irricultivate one ofunderstanding his family’s small termission Palampur before gether. decreed that allschool things Chinese should be boy- an unfair trade pract In Union Bank o acutely felt by his close family, but for ther (Pitaji) gation systems. Without Sharma’s Hethough, would often poems shi, we raced paddy fields. This “participant cotted.1947. Surely this reference ban doesn’t apply to the bank has to take raaction and Another me, itfrom represents an immeasurable le elements support,enabled this embodied me to understanding experienfor its and pay andthat stories the only cannon of British poy in observation” delicacies are Chinese in name. decided on JuB loss of a dear friend, an elder and a of havemyself been hard, if notagriimpossitially would familiarise with local ised rate of interest. literature, recite verses of beautiful o the tree,many To be honest, most of what we relish in this National Con loss alsois, represents aIndifray- committed during ble,and to obtain. provided a solid founcultural waterHe management practo a certa Urduteacher. poetry, and recount stories from land under the garbHis of Chinese in reality, wood- our Redressal Com ingtexts. of the that connect the past est, the —t Iincluding fromwith which to launch the an more interpretation ofIn athreads cuisine that is non-existent Ploughing a pair of bullocks bank has ac Hindu his later years, sitting first tices.dation similar issue. T to the present. It is now through our equences of than two years of extensive fieldwork in China — be it and gobhi manchurian cross-legged bolt upright on aorcotchilli gation to pay that rat — his and planting, cultivating and harvesttainedit.toSo, twode fi shared memories of Sharma, y, Uday of a kohli and archival research oninwhich ‘The paneer. are different variations ing paddy on this plot of land, addionThere the verandah of the regional roadside home and ate from pushpesh pant ~1 crore ongoing relations with his family, that bankworth included in Kuhls of Kangra’ is based. also —he Gujju, Punju and Madrasi. The Bengalis tion to participating in the annual kuhl pay what is due built in Chimbal Har, he would elabna. lakh — with a pr these threads of continuity and conrigation sysMy return to the United States in claim orate that atKolkata length onChina poetry,Town stories,has histo-more ■ Can you quote a r pened. irrigation system maintenance and VER since India and China have engaged in of 10.9 per cent. nection may be sustained. s steeped in 1993 marked the end of long-duration ‘authentic’ However, we think that while sion of the consum a ry andfare. philosophy. n stay- repair activities, provided me with INGREDIENTS a clash on the icy heights of the upon cold desert inat However, whe — The writer is Professor and, despite stays with the Sharma familythis in Kanmight have been true once a time, it this issue? Sharma’s passing is certainly most n from nuanced understanding of these irriCauliflower/broccoli Ladakh, the rising tide of State patriotism has the bank said th Humboldt University, e retained a gra. However, our friendship remained can’t be true today. can’t stay UnionINTO Bank of Ind acutely felt byThe hisChinese close family, but forwith- In Pitaji) gation systems. Without Sharma’s BROKEN FLO ( entitledSMALL to 10.5 decreed that all things Chinese should beauthor boyUSA, and the region, strong, nourished by return visits to pork, out their beefCalifornia, and other exotic meats, but ra and Another (RP me, it represents an immeasurable ments support, this embodied understanding WATER FOR A MINUTE) N deposit and 10.2 ofban ‘Thedoesn’t Kuhls ofapply Kangra’ ultural prac- Kangra every two-three years withSurely my cotted. though, this to most Indians eschew these. decided on June many would have been hard, if not impossi- loss of a dear friend, an elder and a French beans delicacies that are Chinese only in name. A short piece written by HSU Professor Mark Baker Also, the favourite cooking medium of those who National ng our ble, to obtain. He provided a solid foun- teacher. His loss also represents a frayCUT INTO (STRINGED ANDConsum that was featured in The Tribune in North India to honTo be honest, most of what we relish in this dwell behind the Great Wall is lard and no vegetarRedressal Commiss luding dation from which to launch the more ing of the threads that connect the past Peas SHELLED ) orthe thegarb legacy ofbe Shri Krisnan KumarIndiSharma - his (dear ian preparation could called shakaahari! Why land under of Chinese is, in reality, similar issue. The nces of than two years of extensive fieldwork to the present. It is now through our Carrots mentor andwe elder - is who passed February. then,friend, you might ask, are drooling over this away veg- intained an ‘The interpretation of a cuisine that non-existent to two fixed, d shared memories of Sharma, and a kohli and archival research on which (MEDIUM-SIZED , SCRAPED etarian— recipe from Schezwan? in China be it gobhi manchurian or chilli worth ~1 crore and ongoing relations with his family, that uded in Kuhls of Kangra’ is based. ForThere one, itare is adifferent spicy Indian mixed vegetable Mushrooms paneer. regional variations 21 AND lakh with a promis My return to the United in these threads of continuity and conon awarded sys(WIPED—CLEAN SLICE ~300, ~250, ~200, ~150 and Statesand we cook it, not with Chinese vegetables and also — Gujju, Punju and Madrasi. The Bengalis of 10.9 per cent. 1993 marked the endmust of long-duration nection may be sustained. ped in respectively. ~100, Each caption be spices, but with what our palate is used The Tomato claim China has to. more accompanied a clipping of the caption However, the staysbywith the Sharma family in Kan- that Kolkata — The writerTown is Professor at despite -SIZEDwhen , CHOPPED (MEDIUM
Chinese fare that is FOOD TALK
E Chinese fare that is FOOD TALK
Chinese fare that is Indian at h only connection it has with East Asia is the soya
Plant Hope Caroline Holmes
RETIREM K E R
Professor Mark Baker has been the coordinator of the M.A. Program in Environment and Community, and a faculty member in the Department of Politics, since 2006. He will be retiring at the end of this academic year. Mark Baker’s immense and positive impact on the Environment and Community (E&C) graduate program can be traced back well before he joined the Humboldt State faculty, to his time as a staff member of the Sierra Institute for Environment and Community. While in that role, Mark helped HSU faculty envision a distinctive, interdisciplinary environmental program that placed community needs and interests at its core. The program’s faculty were understandably thrilled when he was hired to join them some years later. For the past fifteen years, Mark has led the E&C program with grace and integrity and has worked tirelessly to promote values of inclusion, respect, and deliberation. His research ranges from struggles over local control of water use in India to communities’ role in forest management in the United States; he has published highly regarded books and articles in both areas. He has taught an array of courses that focus on developing students’ understanding of political-ecological relations of power and privilege. At the graduate level, he has also concentrated on cultivating a deep understanding of the production of knowledge, encouraging students to ask critical ques-
tions about who this knowledge is produced for, and their own vital role in this process. Mark has supervised countless M.A. theses, which launched graduates into diverse and successful careers. Students at both the undergraduate and graduate levels have consistently praised him for fostering profound learning. He has reached out to and welcomed junior faculty from across the university into the E&C program and has been a valued mentor to many with scholarship and interests in an intersecting array of South Asian, environmental, social, and political issues. He has also encouraged the development of many new and innovative courses and has fostered collaboration among the faculty of the E&C program. As a leader, colleague, mentor, teacher, and friend, Mark’s contributions to the Humboldt State community and the E&C program will be profoundly missed. Although we are saddened by his departure from HSU, we are delighted that Mark will be able to spend more time with his loved ones during his retirement, and look forward to hearing about his adventures sailing around the world! Written by Mark’s Colleagues in the E&C Program!
SPECIAL TOPICS COURSES
Radical Graphics: Activism & Climate Rose Maxwell
Monique Enriquez “I created these posters to explore themes like food insecurity, land theft, Indigenous displacement, erased knowledges, and the violent response by the Philippine state to any kind of community organizing”.
A special topics class in the art department that has been attracting ENST majors more increasingly, having now been on the schedule for three spring semesters. Projects and assignments in this class focus on multidisciplinary creative expression, beginning with discussions surrounding how activism and art coalesce to promote change in our communities. ENST students come equipped with knowledge, skills and questions surrounding issues of climate, social justice and more. The collaboration, knowledge sharing and skill sharing between ENST majors, ART majors, and other disciplines has resulted in diverse approaches to expressing complicated and consequential topics both in discussion and through our art making itself. This mixture of disciplines excites a creative community that is rewarding to be a part of. Stephen Nachtigall Stephen.Nachtigall@humboldt.edu
SPECIAL TOPICS COURSES
Arts, Climate, & Health Justice A course for anyone interested in climate change, health, and any of the arts. Climate justice is an issue of health justice. This course explores the role of the arts in intervening in systems of oppression in a climate-changed world. Make art that is meaningful. Learn from healing justice activists and artists. Learn about organizations and movements that are creating change. Develop frameworks for thinking about climate change and health in ways that align with the aims of social justice.
Janelle Adsit email@example.com
Photos Courtesy of Janelle Adsit
SPECIAL TOPICS COURSES
ANTH 339 ANTH 329 People, Living Parks, in the & Power Anthropocene
and are shaped by human social systems. They are not isolated, spontaneous, or unpredictable meteorological events.
When the course was last taught in-person, students visited HSU’s Wildland Fire Lab, which is one of 3 fire labs in the United States. Students learned about fire ecology (fire as a selective pressure, fire adapted plants, etc.) and the failed policy of fire suppression including the history of genocide of Native Peoples who previously managed landscapes “Living in the Anthropocene” and “People, through prescriptive burns, and the Parks, & Power” teach students critical absence of which contributes to the perspectives on the social dimensions of unpredictable and highly destructive environmental change and sustainability. wildfires we see today in the region. Ulmer shifts between science and art to “Living in the Anthropocene,” conceived and teach about the anthropocene. For one taught by assistant professor of anthropology, of the final course assignments, students Dr. Gordon Ulmer, is a special topics class that used recycled objects to create works investigates the social dimensions of pressing of art that related to their research on environmental issues such as climate change, a local environmental issue and, more water pollution and waste, energy, and disasters. broadly, expressed what it meant to Ulmer explains that “the anthropocene is not them to live in the Anthropocene. Their just about anthropogenic changes to Earth’s artwork explored relationships between planetary system—it is about how these changes environment, health, and social life and are situated within build upon human social course concepts systems. Take, for and themes. example, the speEach art piece cious idea of ‘natural was accompadisasters.’ There’s nied by a written no such thing as artist statement a natural disaster. and brief deFrom the wildfires scription of the in California to the work. At the end Polar Vortex in of the semesTexas, to Hurricane ter, the class Maria in Puerto Rico. hosted a public Disasters are strucart show to Photos Courtesy of tural; they influence Gordon Ulmer
SPECIAL TOPICS COURSES feature students’ creative works.
thinkers not typically well-represented in higher education curriculum and/ or who are from the regions where the case studies in the assigned readings take place.
Another course that Ulmer teaches is a special topics elective entitled, “People, Parks, & Power.” This course examines Indigenous Peoples’ experiences One of the reasons with environmental Ulmer enjoys teachconservation worlding People, Parks, & wide. It critically Power” is because he examines conservadraws on his expeThe course header image, which features tion’s entanglements riences conducting Indigenous environmental protectors with broader processes ethnographic fieldfrom different parts of the globe (featured including settler colowork in the Peruvian in the course material); center image is nialism and Indigenous Amazon. Since 2008, Indigenous Climate Activist Artemisa sovereignty, green capiUlmer has been worktalism and fetishization, Zakriabá who gained notoriety after her ing with park rangers, appearance at the 2019 Climate Strike. ecotourism staff, and carcerality and land management regimes, other individuals and militarization. Drawing on works in aninvolved in environmental management and thropology and allied fields, students engage conservation to understand how contingent with critical environmental issues to underlaborers and their households adapt to global stand how international conservation projprocesses of natural resource extraction ects are experienced and perceived locally, as and biodiversity conservation as they make well as how environmental protection meaa living in a rapidly developing region. Ulmer sures often exacerbate preexisting inequities enjoys sharing fieldwork stories, noting and embolden colonial geographies of power. how they “bring a bit of ‘the field’ into the classroom while simultaneously illustrating “People, Parks, & Power” incorporates a complex ideas. Ultimately, the course draws diverse array of material into the curriculum. down to peoples’ lived experiences with In addition to reading more conventional conservation projects and environmental material like peer-reviewed academic management strategies at the local level.” articles, students also engage with tribal resolutions, transcribed interviews, podcasts, Gordon Ulmer music videos, visual arts, and other multi Gordon.Ulmer@humboldt.edu modal materials to underscore key ideas. Moreover, the majority of course materials are authored by BIPOC, LatinX, and other
The Environmental Studies Club The ENST club is focused on addressing environmental issues through an interdisciplinary lens and creating a community of environmental justice focused students from all backgrounds. This semester we hope to collaborate with other campus organizations and plan a variety of activities. Some of our ideas include individual clean-up days, recycled craft workshops, and a virtual climate strike! In the past we have worked together in gardens and had potlucks to get to know each other. This year we aim to continue to create this community while keeping safe.
We will be meeting the first Tuesday of each month at 5:00pm on zoom. Please connect with us on our club instagram @hsu.enst or email us at firstname.lastname@example.org to learn more.
This year ENST peer mentors Sara and Monica have been part of Major Based Peer Mentoring through RAMP. It has been a little bit different, and a bit of an adjustment logistically but we are happy to be part of a larger mentoring community. RAMP and MBPM are now working together and being sure to be on the same page on how we approach helping students. This is really important with a major like ENST because advising can be a little more complicated with its interdisciplinary nature. Since our involvement with RAMP we have been able to collaborate with mentors from all other programs and departments and exchange ideas on how to best serve students.
Sparrow Michelle Andrews
Think Monique Enriquez
The 2020 ENST Student Leadership Award cknowledges the work of an ENST major who goes above and beyond their coursework to engage in community. Evie made an impression on many ENST affiliated faculty-- as well as the NAS faculty who teach in her second major. Evie’s work in Appropriate Technology, on the budding Food Sovereignty Lab, at Potowat Community Garden, and elsewhere, have made huge impacts on those projects and places. It has been an absolute honor to watch Evie channel her passions and commitments in these ways in her time at HSU.
PC Evie Ferreira Humboldt State University Sponsored Programs Foundation has announced Dr. Deepti Chatti as a recipient of the 2021 President Alistair McCrone Promising Faculty Scholars Award. Dr. Chatti is an Assistant Professor of Environmental Studies, an affiliate faculty member in HSU’s Environment & Community and Energy, Technology, & Policy graduate programs, as well as a faculty research associate at the Schatz Energy Research Center. Her scholarship on clean energy access and air pollution exposures in historically marginalized communities contributes to debates in sustainable development, climate justice, feminist and postcolonial science and technology studies, and political ecology. Dr. Chatti conducts interdisciplinary environmental research using ethnographic methods in India and the United States. This award is in recognition of her exemplary scholarship.
PC Deepti Chatti
Humboldt State University has awarded Dr. Sarah Jaquette Ray the honor of Outstanding Scholar of the Year. Since 2013, when she assumed the position of program leader for the new Environmental Studies BA at HSU, Dr. Ray has authored two highly circulated and influential monographs and co-edited three landmark collections, published nine refereed book chapters and journal articles. Dr. Ray’s monograph The Ecological Other investigates nationalism, racism, ableism, and multiple forms of exclusion in environmentalism, PC Renee Byrd examining environmentalist histories as they are rooted in eugenics, colonialism, and social control. Dr. Ray’s co-edited collections are Latinx Environmentalisms: Justice, Place, and the Decolonial; Critical Norths: Space, Theory, Nature; Disability Studies and the Environmental Humanities: Toward an Eco-Crip Theory. Most recently, Dr. Ray published a groundbreaking, cross-over, and internationally-prominent monograph from University of California Press titled A Field Guide to Climate Anxiety.
AWARDS Toyon Multilingual Literary Magazine and the Environmental Studies Program at HSU
curated a permanent feature section in the journal showcasing environmental justice art, and we now actively seek to publish literary and visual art that works at the intersections of identity, power, and place. We at Toyon are so grateful for the ESNT program for their continued support and collaboration on this always necessary and ever timely project.
would like to congratulate Linda Kuckuk, the recipient of the 2021 Environmental Studies Program Award in Environmental Justice Writing and Art for her painting, “Coast After Fire.” In the acrylic on canvas piece, we are taken to a scorched coastline Submissions in every genre after a wildfire, where only the category are considered for the remnants of trees, and possiannual Environmental Justice bly buildings, are left standing. award. Toyon accepts poetry, From this vantage point, we fiction, creative nonfiction, see the destruction reflected critical analysis, translation, upon the bay. Of the painting, screen/plays, spoken word, Kukuck comments, “It’s about and visual and audio art. reflecting. Not about natural Submit your environmental disasters because I don’t see justice creative work to Toyon them that way. I think we have by the September 30 annual created disasters, and we deadline and be considered Coast After Fire need to reflect on that. We are for the 2021 Environmental Linda Kuckuk reflecting on that.” In a year that Studies Program Award in Envisaw thousands of people and ronmental Justice Writing & Art! animals killed or displaced by wildfires, some caused by reckless and outmoded gender reveals, others by generations of colonial Come to Volume 67 virtual release party on mismanagement of lands, the painting urges Thursday April 29th from 3-5pm on Zoom us to reflect upon our relationship with the and join us in celebrating this year’s Environland, the dangers of ignoring Indigenous mental Justice Award winner! Register here. land practices, and our shared responsibility in the fight for environmental justice. Interested in working on Toyon staff and promoting environmental justice in literary Sponsored by the Environmental Studies publishing? English 460: Literary Editing program at Humboldt State, the is an option for fulfilling the Environmental Justice Award was Media Production emphasis established in 2016 to recognize in ENST and is offered every exceptional achievement in environfall. Next fall, ENGL 460 will be mental justice writing and art. In held virtually on Mondays and the four years following the award’s Wednesdays from 5-6:50pm. inception, each issue of Toyon has
CONGRATULATIONS GRADUATING CLASS OF 2021! WE ARE SO PROUD OF YOU! Acosta, Valentina Aleman, Destinee Amber Cody, Emma Rae Feller, Payton Elizabeth Foxe, Zoe Jj Hajduk, Joseph Adam IV Lopez, Reanne Charlotte Panela, Brittany Martina Salusky, Max Guillaume Alvarez, Angelica Jr. Asbill, Camille Anne-Marie Asbury, Rebecca Diane Atlan, Etienne Frederique Samuel Beissert, Anna Christina Briones, Sean M. Cherland, Logan Michael Conrad, Trudy Taylor Cudby, Callum Simon Daniel, Sara Ruby Enriquez, Monique Familara, Regine Grace Real
Ferreira, Evie Gallego Flores Martinez, Cuahutemoc Benjamin George, Kennedy Linda-Gayle Graves, Rae Hinojos, Patrick Hong, Angela Jimenez, Ramona Junker-Gregson, Lily Emily Keilty, Sara June McGowan, Simone Rani Morales, Ines Morrow, Rudy Raymond Mullennix, Cassidy Paige Saunders, Nicole Elizabeth Sell, Timothy Sims, Lita F. Sturm, Gabrielle Kathleen Trippsmith, Scarlett Rose Verga, Sydney Mahana Von Tersch, James Thomas
Spring 2020 Capstone Class
Thank you so much to everyone involved in the publication of this newsletter!
CONTRIBUTORS Sarah Ray Kory Lamberts Dara Adams Gordon Ulmer Laura Johnson Amanda McDonald Mark Baker Stephen Nachtigall Janelle Adsit Rose Brazil Few Sarah Daniel Marcos Hernandez
Monique Enriquez Rose Maxwell Jess Coming Caroline Holmes Michelle Andrews Linda Kuckuk
DESIGNER/ EDITOR Elena Bilheimer
A Special Thanks to ENST’s Administrative Support Coordinator Alma Zechman
Alma is the wind beneath the wings of the Environmental Studies Department. We’ve missed seeing her around Founders Hall 109, and college reorganizing has been distressing for all ASCs across campus. It’s been quite a year. ENST and Alma have managed to hang in there together, and are so glad for it. We see you, Alma, and want to recognize all you’ve done this past year to keep us afloat.