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Scottish Building i~



lter or lesser detail, I its history. The SNDA monitor the language and its developments. If you would like to help, or would like more information, please write to: The Scottish National Dictionary Association

For detailed etymologies reference should be made to the CSD, nr <rill , the DOST or O K ...... S N-n, ...hrtter .-....... - ..... - . A Few etvmological notes have been included where they are deemed to be of special interest.

CROSS-REFERENCES Second or later headword variants are given cross-references, unless their own alphabetical place is immediately after the entry.


Sometimes a word appears only in another entry; in this case, too, a cross-reference is given. When a word appears in bold type in a definition, this means that it has its own entry in the Dictionary, where an explanation or other information can be found, eg gruip open drain, mu in a byre.





Again the SND and DOST give ample additional information, mainly through their quotations, of the times and places where a word is or was used. This Dictionary does however indicate (in small capitals) area(s) where a word has or had a limited use,

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Once again John Gerrard, now Director of the Scottish Civic Trust, proved to be the catalyst for this work on Scottish building. In 1987, as the remaining copies of the last edition of the author's Glossary of Scottish Building were being sold, he suggested a collaboration between the author and the Scottish National Dictionary Association for a new improved dictionary. The author and the SNDA editors would like to thank all the many people who have contributed to this book, especially those who by their expert knowedge have added to its accuracy and comprehensiveness. In particular they would like to thank Dr Bruce Walker for many helpful suggestions, and Allan Simpson and Robin Connor for providing useful information on Scottish measures, in advance of the publication of their book on the subiect. The work was greatly-aided by careful keying and checking by Majella Hackett and Bettina Isensee.

Without the help and cooperation of its publishers the book would never have seen the light of day, and a particular debt is owed to Helen Leng of the Rutland Press and to In@ Maxwell and Carol Brown of Historic Scotland. Thanks are also due to the other contributors to the financing of this work, the Russell Trust, the Miller Group Ltd, the Mark Fitch Fund. The editors are as ever grateful to voluntary helpers and to the Executive Council of the SNDA, in particular to its Chairman, Sir Kenneth Alexander and its Secretary and Treasurer Henry Pirie. Finally the author wishes to put on record his grateful thanks to the editors, Iseabail Macleod and Pauline Cairns, who had the unenviable task of schooling him in the finer points of lexicography and who, courteously and patiently, ensured that in every respect the new dictionary is an improvement on its predecessor.




TCWs role within Historic Scotland involves commissioning research and developing skills relating to the built heritage; the

specifiers and practitioners is a major priority

The Division works towards ensuring that practical conservation work is guided and informed by the results of appropriate academic research; the production and promotion -'up-to-date and appropriate technical literature aimed at

LongmoreHouse Salisbury Place EDINBURGH EH9 1SF

adj . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..adjective adv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .adverb approx. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .approximately cf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CSD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .The Concise Scots Dictionary DOST . . . . . .A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue Du . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D u t c h eg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .forexample Eng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . English esp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .especially etc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .et cetera Fr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .French fr. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .from ie . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . thatis IrGael . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Irish Gaelic L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . htin lit. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .literall(y)

n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .noun . N . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . North NE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..North East OED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .The Oxford English Dictionary OFr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .OldFrench ON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OldNorse . orig . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .originally perh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..perhaps p1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lural .. prob. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .probably S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . South Sc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Scots ScGael . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Scottish Gaelic SND . . . . . . . . . . . . . .The Scottish National Dictionary SW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Southwest v . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . verb W . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .West


aber aber SHETLAND adj (of a n edge tool) sharp. 2 % to sharpen. [ON apr sharp] aboon see abune. tabraidit adj the description of a sharpening stone when it has become too smooth to sharpen tools on. abune, aboon adu above, in an upper storey, beyond. abune-the-fire (in a house with a slopingfloor) in the part above the fire (the lower part being occupied by the animals); cf ahint-the-fire. ace n the smallest possible amount. face-tree the main beam in a mill kiln supporting the mesh platform on which the grain was dried before being ground. acre see Scots acre. ad n the horizontal yoke or tie on a couple which supports the ridge'pole. addle-hole, aidle-dub, addle-pool n a cesspool, a receptacle for the liquid discharges from the byre. [cf oddle] tadience n : gie adience to make room. gie a wa adience not to confine a wall in its extent. advice stane n a stone door lintel with lettering carved on it, qq a marriage lintel. aeger n an auger. aff see off. affeirin preposition in proportion to, in comparison with (much used in old specifications or descriptions of building works). [OFrafmerir belong, pertain] agent n a solicitor, lawyer, representative. agee see ajee. ahint adu: ahint-the-fire in the part of a house behind the fireback; cf abune-the-fire. aidle-dub see addle-hole. aik, ake, takyn adj oak. aik-nail an oak pin. ail-sellar see ale. aip house n a ventilator or louvre in beehive form. air cock n a weathercock. airgh see argh. airie n a building where farm labourers lodged together. [ScGael] airn see irn. aisen see easins. aislar, taistlar, tastlayr, iastler, testlar, tezlar, tislare n, a 4 (of building stones) ashlar, hewn, polished and built with 'tight joints', strictly applied to facework of uniform size: aislar

talework, yill wark a brewery. alenth ad11lengthwise. alerin see allouring. +alienation 12 (1a2~)the transfer of ownership by a legal process. tallars n 1 a garden walk. 2 alleys like garden walks. [OFr aleure a place to walk in] alleringe see allouring. tallouring, alleringe, alerin, alaryne, allure, alrine, alring n 1 orig the highest part of a building (sometimes implying the entire building). 2 a wallhead; the part of a wall on which a roof is built. 3 a parapet wall; a battlement; cf aluryt. 4 a gutter or channel for rainwater behind a parapet or battlement, or generally a parapet walk. almery see aumrie. talmous hous 72 an almshouse. alrine, alring see allouring. taluryt ad7 ( o f a buildin,q) battlemented, with a parapet; cf allouring. amaille see amal. tamal, amaille n enamel. amalyeit enamelled. ambry see aumrie. ammer-tree, emmertree n a wood beam or iron bar built in a chimney over a fire, to which is attached a chain for pots ORKNEY [perh. fr. Du emmer a pail Eng tree] amrysee aumrie. ander, andor n 1 a porch or vestibule; the space between the inner and outer doors; a lobby SHETLAND. 2 a storage space between the top of a wall and the angle of a roof SHETLAND. angill see angle. angle, tangill adj diagonal, eg angle-droved. angle bartizan see bartice. angle roll a plain round moulding. angular n the timber tie which forms the third side of and hence strengthens the timber angle, ie the angle formed between the inclined roof rafter and the horizontal ceiling joist.


stane. aislar wark masonry constructed of such stone. aisle. tayle, leyll, tile, tyle n 1 an aisle in a church. 2 tan enclosed and covered burial place adjoining a church; a mausoleum. aistlar see aislar. aisywaas, aisywas see easwas. aitch see eetch. aither, aitherans see edderinr aix, taks 12 an axe. aizen see easins. ajeer agee ad1 (of a door) ajar, ake see aik. aks see aix. akyn see aik. Mabast n alabaster, waste or inferior deposits of which were burned to form plaster. alarYne see allouring. ale. yill n: ale house, yill house a house where ale is soltl, an inn. ale hurry a storeroom ORKNEY. tail sellar an ale cell;

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tanneill n indigo, either pigment or paint. annual n an annual payment of rent, feu duty etc. tappraising ticket n the written appraisal or valuat~ono r a dwelling or steading by a birlieman. tappuy n a support buttress or rest (usually refers to stone walls). [Fr] aprin, apron n : apron piece 1 a plumber's flashing, esp at a window sill or lower side of a chimney stack (where it penetrates a sloping roof), the flashing being dressed downwards over the roof or the wall, or at the edge of a gutter, where the strip of lead is folded over to conduct rainwater into

backtree it. 2 = dropped s ~ l l(see a r a p ) . Arbroath adj: Arbroath slab, Arbroath stone, Arbroath pavement, Arbroath slate the export name for Carmyllie tarchar TI an archer, bowman. archar holl a shot-hole. archar windo, archar vyndo a loophole. targh, airgh, ergh at4 hollow, applied to a concave surface, ie one which requires to be made up to a level. [OSc =

mill wheel (see breist); (sometimes it refers to the entire waterway from the end of a mill-lade to the tailrace). ark of a mill the place in which the centre wheel runs. sole of t h e ark a continuation of a waterway under a wheel. tarlis (money) n part-payment. arn see irn. tarras, arress, arridge, awridge n an arris, the sharp edge formed by the meeting of two plane or curved surfaces. tarseverse n a spell written on the side of a house to ward off taschin adj (of) ashwood. ;ass n a fireplace, hearth, a place where ashes or cinders fall. ass backet a square wooden box for holding ashes. ass hole an undergrate cavity, a place For receiving ashes. assedation n (Iatc,) a lease. astlayr, astler see aislar. astragal, iestickel rz a glazing bar, now used in English practice where originally it applied simply to a moulding m u at the top or bottom of a column. tasure ?z azure (pigment or paint). attached doocot see doocot. atween-lichts n the distance between neighbouring houses


watermill which receives the water after it leaves the trowse. 2 the sail or shaft of a windmill. [Fr aube a paddleboard] a w e see o. tawmous-hous n an alms house. awridge see arras. a w t e 11 1 the direction in which stone or timber splits, the grain, the natural plane of cleavage. 2 the texture in respect of the closeness of the grain; a hard quality 3 a flaw in a stone, the grain running in the wrong direction. awter n an altar. ayle see aisle.

+Badeas n : Ind of Badeas indigo (paint or pigment) from Bmciajo.Y, Spin. baeshin, baishin n a basin. tbaff 17 odds and ends of timber, outer cuttings of planks. bag-raip n a rope of straw or heather used in fastening the thatch of a roof; in particular the rope which passes over the ridge of a roof (usually double the thickness of the cross or horizontal ropes), is looped or kinched round the cross ropes, tied to the lowest cross rope, the panrape, and then fastened to wooden pins or projecting stones called loopstanes at the wallhead or to the benlin. [ON b a g i a bundle OE rap a

bachillesee baitschele. back, t b a k n 1 also backside the hack premises or yard. 2 a sawn hoard taken from the outermost part of a tree (the term backs was regularly used to denote all such timbers). 3 the turf placed at the hack of a fire, the fire being on a flat stone. 4 the low division wall between part of a building occupied by animals, outby, and the kitchen, inby, in old Orkney houses. back(it) dyke a stone wall retaining earth on one side, ie 'hacked up' with earth. back boxin(g) the part next to the stone or brickwork of the box in which the weights of a sash-and-case w i n d o w are located. back-fa the side sluice of a mill-lade where the water escapes when shut off from the water-wheel. backfilling describes the operation in which an excavation, a trench or a hole is refilled. backfold the leaf of a folding window shutter which is not exposed when the shutter is not in use. backgate 1 a backroad. 2 an entry to a house, court or area from behind; cf foregait. backhol(e) a hole about one foot (300mm) square through the back (n 4) to facilitate the passage of materials between the two apartments.

rope1 bagrubbed adj of wall-pointing where the excess mortar is spread over the adjacent wall surface by rubbing with a hessian bag. ' tbaikhouse, backhous(e) n a bakehouse; cf backhouse (under back). baikie' n a vertical post in a byre with a furing to the floor or soletree and the roof, with a sliding ring on it to which a cow is tethered. baikiei n a square wooden trough containing food for horses, COWS etc. tbail, baile, bailzery n 1 a farmhouse or farm. 2 a town or village (hence baillie a Scottish magistrate). bail see bayle. bailesee bail. bailyiesee bayle. bailzery see bail. baishin see baeshin. bait the grain or plane of cleavage of stone or wood. [origin obscure; perh. Icelandic beit lamina] baitchel see baitschele. tbaitschele, bachille, baitchel n a boat shed. bak see back. tbakneill ~z a flat-shanked nail. tbalax 7z a hatchet. ballcran n a ballcock. iballester n a baluster, a small pillar or column supporting a

banktree n prob. misprint for bauktree (see bauk). bannock stane n the round stone placed before a fire or laid in hot ashes on which bannocks etc were baked. bar n 1 one of the horizontal timber frames in a barred (or barras or batten) door, ie a door faced with vertical boards fixed onto two or more bars at the back, sometimes with diagonal framing. 2 one of the metal rods which form the front of a grate. 3 bars a grate.



back-jamb parlour a living-room located in the back wing of

aumrie, amry, talmery, tambry, taumbry n 1 a repository in a house for keeping utensils or food: (a) mete almery a footl-cupboard, a larder; (b) t w a i r almerie, w a r e almery a recess in a wall, a cupboard; (c) bink-aumrie a dresser or chesr; a plate rack. 2 t a niche or wall recess in a church in preKeformation times for keeping sacramental vessels, vestments aurea see aurrie. aurrie, aurea 7z 1 a passage, in a church, ie an aisle. 2 an area of no fixed seating, in a church. 3 the playground (of a school). [Eng area] aus-bore, auwis-bore see avis-bore. avail creuk see eulcruke. ave see a w e . faveryhous lz a place where food for horses is kept. avis-bore, taus-bore, tauwis-bore n a knot hole (said to be made by fairirs or a peephole for witches). [related to OE aelf a w see o . ----e, ave n 1 also e w e flat hoard attached to each stud of a


backland the land behind a house; could also be the back wing of a building; cf foreland.

ballisten, ballish stone n 1 a round seawom stone SHETLAND; cf bitlag. 2 a stone on a hearth in front of a fire on which ballis (= cakes) were placed while being baked .S [ON b ~ l l ra

backraw a back row or street. backbide) an area behind a house, back premises. backsides the parts of a town off the main street. backsnecked see sneck. backsprent a spring or catch used as a hold or check. backstair stairs at the back of a house. backstone, back(et) stane, backstane 1 the stone set on edge at the back of a fireplace, placed behind a peat fire which bums on hearths, not in grates; sometimes a projecting part of a wall serving the same purpose. 2 the stone at the side of a kitchen fire on which thesaut backet was set in order to keep the salt free from damp. backtruff 1 large sod(s) placed on a hearth at the back of a fire (USZL of peat). 2 sometimes describes turf laid on top of a fire at night to keep it alive until morning. backyett a back gate. tback and fore (esp designatinga wholeproperty) (in) back and front. backet n a container used for carrying lime and mortar to a mason. [Fr baguet a trough; cf ass backet, saut backet] backtreesee baul-

balljoint n a ball-and-socket joint. tbalne n a bath. [L balneum] Baltic (timber) n timber from the Baltic area used for construction purposes. band n 1 a bond, bondstone, ie the stone laid across the width of a wall extending from one side to the other and so binding (or bonding) and strengthening it; also in compounds; see also inband, outband, bandcourse. 2 a hinge, or strictly speaking the part of a hinge fixed to a door in the form of a flat iron strap with iooped projection to take an iron hook which is fured to the door post: hook and bands; c7euk and bands; bats and bands; also various patterns described as cross-taillit, long-taillit etc. 3 metal for framing a window:glas.~band.4 ithe outer (or curtain) wall of a castle. 5 = catband. give band to insert large stone in a wall to give it stability bandcourse = string course. bandstane, bandstone a bondstone. band see catband. Wl n a chain for fastening a load of heavy wood. m e r 17. the heavy strong stool on which a mason places a tone when hewing. [Fr banc bench]

tbar-loke a form of lock. barstane the upright stone at a fireplace with bars attached. bar and nail see brig and nail. tbarasis n a servery hatch in a wall. barcatt see barkatt2. barfray see berfrois. tbarge, berge n 1 a slat of wood to protect windows, doors etc from rain or water flooding; sometimes the slat (generally moulded) is fitted directly to the base of the door so that its projection deflects rainwater running down the face of the door. 2 a projecting stone drip at the base of a chimney 3 also bargeboard, gableboard a board fixed along the edge of the gable of a house to cover the ends of the roof timbers and prevent rain driving in; often pierced and carved. 4 a movable shutter constructed with parallel boards that open and shut like a venetian blind; used in drying sheds. w a t e r barge a stone or wooden ledge running along the edge of a roof or projecting over some other part of a building, eg a door, window or chimneyhead to run off or deflect rain. bark see barkattl. ibarkatt' n, also bark, barkhous a building where tanning is carried out. barkatt2, barcatt n a timber trestle or support for sawing on. barmekin see barmkin. tbarmkin, barmkyn, barmekin n 1 a barbican, an outer fortification of a castle, m u the outer gateway or gate tower connected to the main gateway by parallel walls; a turret or watchtower on an outer wall. 2 an aperture for musketry 3 the area between the central tower and the outer encircling of a defensive wall. barn n 1 also bern, tberne a barn. 2 t a store, a closet. barn-bole an aperture in a barn wall. barnfauld a stackyard. ;barnslit the bar or bolt of a gate. tbarony n land created by the Crown with civil and criminal jurisdiction within its bounds. baronial, also Scottish Baronial applied to an ornate style of architecture characterized by numerous turrets, crow-stepped gables etc, used esp for 19th-century countq=houses and Edinburgh Old Town tenements. barra, barrae, borra n a hand barrow barraman, barrowman 11 a mason's labourer (who carrie


barrace stones, mortar etc, on a nananarrow). barra-tram a pole or shaft of a hand barrow tbarrace, barras n 1 an enclosure (generally of wood, sometimes stone) usu for tournaments but also in front of castle gates to provide the initial obstacle to an attacker. 2 a wire fireguard. tbarras-dore n a barred door in which the bars are z m ecluitlisrant. tbarras-yett n an outer gate, ie the gate in an outer defence work or enclosure. tbarrack n a temporary hut or cabin. barraesee barra. barrassee barrace. barrowman see barraman (under barra). tbarrot n a kind of beam or bauk. barteshing.Tee bartice. .Fbartice, bartisse, bartizan, bartison(e), barteshing n, also barty, brattice, brattish, brettys, bertis(s)e 1 a (battlemented) parapet esl, round a spire projecting from an angle at the top of a tower. 2 a fence of stone or wood (=VC of felled trees). 3 a wood partition between rooms. 4 also angle bartizan the rounded part of a parapet which was corbelled out at the corner of a keep, sometimes taking the form of a small (open) turret. 5 brattishing decorative ironwork on roof ridges, cresting. v to barricade, fence in a rough manner. base n, also bases a built-up skirting board comprising plain board (baseboard) with a separate moulding fitted above. baseblock ? I a dressed (plain or moulded) block of wood at the junction between a door facing (or architrave) and skirting (or base); a plinth block. basecourse the lowest (exposed) course of a stone wall (usu slightly projecting), a plinth. tbase court the lower or outer court of a castle. baskethouse see creelhous. bass fz 1 a workman's basket for carrying tools. 2 a door mat. 3 also bass broom a large strong broom. [Eng the inner bark of the lime tree] bastailyie see bastel. tbastel, bastile, bastle, bastailyie n a wall, bulwark, pier. bastle house, bastel house a block house, a fortified house, a place of retreat. tbastide n a medieval walled town. bastile, bastle see bastel. bat sec. batt. batbolt 77 a ragbolt, ie a bolt with barbs directed toward its head so that it cannot easily be withdrawn after being driven in. tbathfat n a bathtub. :batis n a daily feed for horses (regularly referred to in builtlers' accounts, for horses used by carriers). baton i z 1 a long timber rod edged at the point, used by plasterers for mixing mortar. 2 also baton rod a timber bead fitted on the inner edge of the case of a sash-and-case window in order to retain the inner sash in position; a guard bead. batt, bat ?a 1 a metal cramp or clamp for holding stone blocks together ( 7 4 s ~U-shaped, the 'legs' being inserted into adjacent blocks) or for fixing pipes to walls. 2 a lead wedge. 3 a metal hock f l e d to masonry (eg a stone door jamb) or timber door frame, onto which the loop of a band n 2 is hooked. 1 to connect stone blocks together with metal bands. 2 also b0t to caulk, ZLYU with lead. 3 to fix pipes against walls etc with holdfasts. tbattis n split metal pins. bats and bands crude hinges which allow a door to be lifted off when necessary. LJ


bee tbattelline, battalling, bittlan, bittlin n 1 a kind of open gallery of stone. 2 battlements; stone for making battlements. batten n a timber plank usu used for temporary constructions, eg those used in conjunction with trestles for supporting men, material etc; sometimes it refers to a thin board but the full breadth of the tree from which it is sawn. batten door see barred door (under bar). batter U ?paste, fasten (to a wall, together) stiffen as with paste. n a paste or glue. tbattit adj fxed with lead. bauk, baulk, bawk n, al.70 bauktree, backtree 1 a beam of wood, a plank (a 'squared' oi- wrought timber is implied). 2 a tie beam or cross beam stretching from wall to wall and joined to rafters forming the roof (or at a higher level; see sile). 3 the space between the tie beam and the roof: (a) a loft or attic apartment; @) a church gallery (esp in plural either bauks or baux). 4 a bench or seat in a house. 5 a shallow open drain between rigs. bauk hicht as high as a ceiling. tbauk nalis nails for furing a tie beam to a rafter. tbay o (of a beam) to bend in the middle. tbayle, bail, bailyie n the wall of the outer court of a feudal castle and then extended to indicate the court itself. baynefilling see beamfill. bead n: beading a small timber moulding, w u curved in section. bead-and-hollow moulding a roll moulding combined with a hollow moulding usu round door and fireplace openings. beamfill, tbernefil, tbeemfill(ing), tbaynefilling n in Scotland any packing which completely fills up any empty space, including the English meaning of chips of stone, brick etc which fill in the space between joists and rafters at wallhead level, ie from the top of a wall to the underside of the roof slope. beater n a heavy piece of wood (shaped like a boomerang), usu metal-faced, used in thatching. bed n the mortar on which a stone or brick is laid. L, to lay stone in this fashion, implying squarely and evenly weel-bedded, on natural bed of a stone laid in the same inclination as it was found in the quarry. bed door the door of a box-bed. bedplate a moulded timber bead wu fitted immediately belom a projecting timber window sill, covering the joint between the sill and the plastered wall.

?bed stoup the long board in front of a box-bed. tbedehouse n an alms house; a hospital. bee ? I : bee-bole a small recess or niche in a garden wall for holding a straw beehive. beehive doocot see doocot. beestane the stone on which a beehive is set, w u sectorshaped on a plan.

beernfill, beemfilling see beamfill. beerdid adj boarded NE. beetle 17 a heavy mallet used to beat or shape, eg in leadwork. 1 , heat with such a mallet. tbegstone n 1a cope stone. 2 the crown or top of a stone wall or per. beikledder n a ladder with hooks fitted at the top, for use on roofs, i e the hooks catch over the ridge. beild see bield, build. bein see bien. :beiting, beting, beyting, beitment n mending, repairing; (referred to in old accounts) sometimes it implies making and supplying or even building. Belgian straw local 'Iiree name for baled straw imported for thatching ;belay v to set up or place something eg a ladder. bell n: bellcast 1 slight flattening of a roof pitch near the eaves. 2 the increase in thickness at the base of a harled surface to form a projecting lip. bellcast piece the small timber rafter fitted near the lower end of a main roof rafter to form the bellcast; a cocking piece. bellhead, bellheid an open stone frame wu cubical in shape, within which a bell is hung; a belfry [Eng bellcote].

tbellheidit (of nails) having heads shaped like a bell. tbellus, bellhous a bellhouse. belly I ) (of a ual/) to bulge outwards or inwards; (of a beam) to sag downwards. belt n: belting a dressed timber plate or strip fxed to a wall, mzc applied to a plate to which hat-and-coat hooks are fitted. beltrail the lock rail or horizontal middle rail or frame in a panelled door. bernefil see beamfill. tbernmel v to pound with a heavy piece of wood (a bishop), eg in consolidating earth etc. ben adv inside, within, indoors, towards the inner room of a house. a 4 inner, of the inner part of a house; of the best room. benlins towards the inner part of a house. ben-the-hoose, benhoose, ben by the inner, principal room (sometimes this refers to the master's apartments); orig the outer door led directly into the but (kitchen) and then leading off the but was the ben or ben-the-hoose (the parlour, best or inner part of a house). As the type of house with a centrally placed entrance door between the two apartments became more common the terms ben and but became understandably confused; see also but. bentroo towards the interior of a house SHETLANI bench see bink.

benksee bink. benhoose see ben-the-hoose (under ben). benleen, benleen stane see benlin. benlin, benleen (stane) n an oblong shaped stone used as a weight to hold down the thatch and to which the bag-raip was CNTHNESS. [ON tied just below the wallhead level ORKNEY, bendiM a cord] benlins see ben. bennel, bennle n a mat of woven reeds, 0% used in poorer houses for screening ceiling rafters or for forming partitions v to bind down (of thatch); to weave. tbensell n a bleak cold place. tberfrois, barfray n a belfry, tower. [Fr befroi] berge see barge. bern, berne see barn. berrick n the sleeping place of the men on a farm. [Eng barrack] bertise, bertisse see bartice. besom, bisum n a broom. best-end rz the parlour or ben-end of a house. beul seesee beting beuld. beiting. beuld, beul, buil n the division in a stall in a byre or stable URKNFI. [ O N bol a pen for cattle or sheep]. beurd see buird. bevel n: bevel stop a mason's tool for setting off angles.

bevel checked (ofajoint) bevel rebated [Eng = halved]. +bey n 1 a room of a cottage or house. 2 a space between two party walls. twa-bey the addition of two apartments to the gable end of a house [Eng ba.y]. beyting see beiting. bibcock n a tap with a turned-down nozzle (usu terminal) of a standpipe and to which a hose can be attached. biel see bield.n a library. tbibliotheck bield, biel, beild n protection, shelter. tbien, bein v (.ofa buildingor structuralfabric) to dry out. biened, also snod and bein'd (of a buildingetc) thoroughly clried out, watertight. big1,bigg z i to build. nbigger 1 a mansion. a builder. 2 a collection of houses. biggin 1 a building, wu applied to buildings larger thazz a cottage although it sometimes refers to a cottage. 2 sometimes applied to a number of houses (or just buildings) built close together. biggit land land which is built on. biggit wa's buildings, houses, ie man-made buildings. bigg up to repair, rebuild. big' adj: big hoose the principal dwelling house of the laird etc on an estate. bike see bykel, byke'. bilbie n a residence, shelter ANGUS. bilehouse n the farm building containing a boiler where animal food is cooked


bilget bilget, tbilzett 1 a wooden brick inserted into a wall to prt,vicle a fixing for the joiner's nails, usu used with door frames. (Note: this is built-in and not driven in as is a d00k). 2 a projection to support a shelf. bind (ofa dooror uq'ndotu) when it fails to open or shut freely due to the distortion of the frame or hinges. bine see boyne. bing n a heap or pile of waste material. tbing-house a store house. bink fi 1 a bench, specifof stone, wood or earth placed by the benk, bench a wooden frame fmed to a l,ouse door, 2 a plate rack; a dresser. 3 a small wall for holding plates; a heap of clay, mortar. bink-aumry a dresser. a freestane (esp from quarries at Binnie, near binnie Linlithgow). tbirce rz a tool for cleaning out mortices. birding see burden. birk n 1 a birch tree. 2 a piece of round timber, mu made of 13irch,laid horizontally across roof couples; a kind of purlin. birlie n a revolving chimney cowl. one of the group of persons elected or +birlieman appointed to act as judges or arbibtrators in local disputes and tlecisions, eg concerning the assessment of the value of property tbirnist adj burnished, polished. bishop rz a weighty piece of wood used: 1 by paviours to level their slabs; cf cassiedunter; 2 by labourers to ram and pack soil after backfilling; cfbemmel. bisum see besom. tbispik n a large spiked nail. biss, bissing, bissy see boose. tbiswrs 72 bismuth as used in paintwork. bitlag, booklag a hard round stone (as distinct from a stone of a laminated, slate-like structure) CAITHNESS. tbitt n a box or grate. bittlan, bittlin see battelline. tbizzel n a hoop or ring round the end of a tube or a pipe, a bezel SOUTH. bizzie see hoose. bizzie-happit ad7 hair-felted. black n: +black-airn = maid irne (see mak); cf white-airn sheet iron covered with tin. tblack fast and tablet omamented with hard black enamel. tblack house n house of turf, without windows, smoke-hole the meaning gradually changed to any form of or byre dwelling and lanerly any form of thatched house in the Hebrides. [ScGael ta@-dubh; cf white house; note some claim that esp in Tiree there has been confusion between tat@-dubh and tai,h tugha a thatched house; furthermore in Wester Ross the term taigh-dubh was applied to a secret hill bothan for the distillation of illicit whisky.] blackmill a watermill with one wheel. blackwark an iron work, (black) smithwork. blaes', blaise, blaize n shale, laminated clay, indurated mud, refuse from burnt ironstone, layers of coarse limestone - all materials used for upfilling in building operations. [Sc blae blue, bluish grey] blaes2,blaise, blays, blaze n either rough parts of wood left after boring and sawing or rough particles of wood and shavings scraped out by a drill. [prob. Eng blaze a white mark] blaise see blaesl, blaes2. blaize see blaes'. blanchefermesee blench. blaster r~ the person who uses gunpowder for blasting rock in quarry.

flue blaw-doon n a hack or down draught in a resulting in smoke filling the room. blays. blaze see blaes'. bleezed past participle (of a hammer or mallet) where the striking surface develops a ragged edge due use. blench adj (of a holding of land) free or involving payment of only a nominal rent. ?blench holding, blench ferm, blancheferme nominal feu duty which was paid only on demand. tblew n blue, a pigment. blin, blind v to cover bottoming with ashes etc in provide an even compact surface on which lay a screed. blinded covered with ashes.. blinding materials such as ashes used to blind. blind nail a nail without a head. +blind storey the space between the aisle ceiling or the vault and the outer roof, a roof void. +blind window an imitation window. blister n a patch of solder applied on a pipe to seal off a leak. blob n of% a large round drop of water or other liquid, subsequently applied to drops of materials which harden into solids, %lime, mortar, plaster, roughcast. block, tblok v 1 to ~ l a n eg , to work out roughly before carrying out the finished job just as a mason roughly shapes (mu with a boaster) stonework before hewing the final moulding. 2 (of a building) block (out) to install the rough woodwork, carpentry work, eg grounds. tblok(e) n a ~ulley,a block and tackle. tblokhouse a bulwark, fortification, small fort. blondin n a cableway between two towers with a skip which can carry eg stone in a quarry backwards and forwards or up and down. blooter see bluiter. bluiter, blooter 0 to do work in a bungling way, blunkart n a small block of wood or stone. boa1see bole. tboan n a small outhouse or lean-to, such as a piggery A R G ~ L . [ScGael bothan a hut] board see buird. boarstone see borestone. boast n: boasted (of stone) roughly dressed. boaster 2.5-3 inches (60-75 mm) wide chisel used (with a mell) to dress stone roughly. tbod, bud, buid n a storage building near where a boat lands SHETLAND. [prob Sc buith a booth] body n strength or substance in a material, usu a timber beam. bogie-hole n a small dark lumber-room. bog-thack n a thatch,made from reeds taken from low-lying marshy ground. bois, boist see boss. bole, boal, bolie, boll, bowal n 1a small recess or cupboard in a wall of a building; sometimes refers to a pigeonhole for lawyers' papers. 2 a small opening in a wall of a building W with a wooden shutter instead of glass; sometimes applied to a pay-box window. 3 t a boy's wardrobe. 4 an airhole. U to form a recess. bole-window a small window with one pane of glass. bolection moulding n a carved moulding which projects , on a door. from a surface, usu surrounding wood ~ a n e l seg bolsee boll'. bolie see bole. boll', tbol n a dry capacity measure of grain or meal etc, defined as 4 firlots; much referred to in old builders' accounts as sustenance for carriers' horses; also used as a measure of lime, coal etc, later as a measure by weight; seealso Measures on p.104.




tbollznan arch, an arched gateway. boll see bole. bolster see bowster. .ibom, bome n, also bomspar a boom, a spar, a beam, a spar for a gate. bond n: bondkipple 1 the principal (horizontal) rafter which rests on a gable wall, presumably built into a wall unless the wall stops at wallhead level. 2 the horizontal tie connecting the extreme lower ends of the rafters, a simple truss. bond timber the continuous horizontal timber battens built into stone walls into which vertical straps were fmed on the inner surface; this system saved dooking. bone 11 to strike a level, check a level, using boning rods. boning rod one of a number of T-shaped timber pieces, the vertical Parts of which are inserted into the ground and the horizontal parts are used to 'line through' for checking the level. bonker see bunker. bonnet v to cover completely Oike a bonnet) the end of a joist, a sill etc with a damp-proof membrane before the end is built into a wall.

bontoy see buntha. boo see bull1. bower see bougar. n a mode of tenure of lands and buildings resembling burgage and seems to be confined to the burgh of Paisley: tenure of booking. booklag see bitlag. bOOl ' 2 a round sea- or river-washed stone used in a clay and bool wall; cf auchenhalrig (work). [SCboo1 something of rounded form] boontith see buntha. bOOrach,bourach n a shepherd's hut or shieling; a humble dwelling. booral see bour. board see bort, buird. booser buis. biss n a stall in a byre; a gutter in a byre or stall. hissing, bissy SHETLAND, CAITHNESS, bizzie o m a stone, "Ood or concrete stall division in a byre; a stall or stance in a byre. busing stone = hissing. boot see bowt. boragCAITHNESS, b o w o m m n 1a bradawl. 2 any pointed iron for boring when heated. boral, barrel n a breast-bore, a tool for boring, one end of is placed on the chest, a gimlet, auger. bOral tree the handle of such a tool. borbenk see burbenk. bard see buird. b o r d a l - h o see ~ ~ bordel. bordel, tborthel. tbordal-, tbordel-hous n a brothel. borestone, boarstone n 1 a stone bored to take a flagstaff 2 a 'loundar3' stone, either a single one or one of a series.


tborra n a heap of stones covering cells about Gft (1.8 m) long X 4ft (1.2 m) wide X 4 - 5ft (1.2 - 1.5 m) high; a cairn. borra see barra. borrel see boral. bort, boord n agrain ofstone; the natural plain of cleavage; the laminate of stone. borthel see bordel. b o w see borag. bos see boss. bosom n 1 (of a beam) the recess at the web between the flanges where soldiers are fitted in, 2 = breist 3. adj (mu applied to afireplace) projecting. boss, bos, tbois. tboys adj 1 (of concrete and plaster) hollow, concave, empty, having lost adhesion to its backing, 2 also tboist projecting, mu applied to iron grilles for windows, or to a window in general, n 1 a recess in a wall; a press, a cupboard. 2 also bossing and hollow bossing a recess in a wall below a window; compared to solid bossing, je without a recess, 3 a projecting ornamental nail or stud on a door, 4 tboist an interlaced grille (mu at a window) set to project forward from the face of a wall. boss and flange cran a bib tap with an integral flange. bossheid 1 the metal piece (on a door frame) forming a slot into which the bolt of a lock projects in the locked position, a striking plate, i e the metal plate against which the end of a spring-lock bolt strikes when the door is being closed. 2 a staple for a rim- or deadlock.


bosslok a kind of lock. ~ O window S a bow or bay window. tbot 1 an iron bolt or staple, usu applied to kneed bolts on which doors and window shutters are hung. 2 a f d n g for iron in stone, the stone being known as bot-stane. v to fix using lead; cf batt n 2. bot see bowt. bothan n 1 an unlicensed drinking house or hut, a kind of ~hebeen.2 t a circular dwelling with a dome-shaped roof of corbelled stone. bothe see buith. both^ 1 the living quarters, temporary or permanent, for unmarried male workers on farms etc. 2 a rough hut used as temporary accommodation eg by shepherds, salmon-fishers, mountaineers. bothy-laft the attic in a bothy. tboting n conveying by boat (a term regularly used in old accounts). bottle f l a moulding, nosing of semi-circular cross-section. bottom n, 1): bottoming n broken rock etc, which strictly speaking forms the upper levelling layer of upfilling; this layer is then blinded and the finishing material (concrete, tarmacadam etc) is laid. bottom runnersee rin. tboucherv n 1 an abattoir. 2 a butcher's shop or stall.

bush brock n 1 an unskilled workman. 2 poor workmanship or work. 3 also broke waste material resulting from constnlction work. brod, bred n 1 a plank, board. 2 a shutter. [cfbuird] brog, brogue n a bradawl, a boring instrument used to make a prelimina~yhole in wood to prevent splitting when a nail is driven in; see also enter. brogh see broch. brogue secJ brog. broke see brock. broken adj (ofruhitepaint) toned down to an off-whitecreamy brookie, breukie n 1 a blacksmith. 2 a smith's bellows. [Sc brook make black or dirty] broonie's stane, brownie's stane n a stone kept in a house which containetl a small hole into which was poured some of the wort produced by brewing as a gesture of goodwill to the broonies, ie evil spirits which haunt farmhouses. brouch, tbroucht see broch. broweland see brew. brownie's stane see broonie's stane. tbruchack n a cottage NE. brugh see broch. bruise-wood n a nickname for a joiner's apprentice. brunt, bruntie see burnz. bubblewud n the wood of the elder tree. [said to form bubbles in the mouth when chewed] Buchan trap n the disconnecting trap in a private drain before it joins a public sewer, z m r positioned just inside the boundary of a private property [patented by W P Buchan 18751 bucht see boucht. buck n : buckie(-house) 1 a house where the external walls are ornamented with sea shells. 2 a small hut or shed used as a watchman's or workmen's shelter. buck and doe, buck and hen (of a dyke) having alternate upright and horizontal coping stones. bud see bod. tbuddel 72 a house in the Highlands where whisky was sold. Iperh. ScGael buideal a bottle] buggar see bougar. buid see bod. buik see buke. buil see beuld, bull1. build, tbeild, tbuld, tbould 11 to build. tbeildar a builder. builder-mason the mason who builds prepared stones into walls, as distinct from a hewer of stone. built beam a beam consisting of two or more pieces of timber laid side by side and bolted together. built-up (of moulding etc) consisting of a number of individual units placed together to form a new and more complex unit. built vent a flue built of brick or masonry. buird, boord, beurd, byoord N,board, tburde, tbord n 1 a hoard of any kind. 2 the thin sections either of wood (eg boarding) or stone (eg laminates) it can also imply the grain of a material). 3 tthe ground foundation. Tburdin made of boards. burdit split into lamina. tburde pleaning a carpenter's planing bench. [cf brod] buis see boose. tbuith, buth, bothe n 1 also luckenbuith a covered stall for the sale of merchandise, a shop. 2 a hut or cottage. buik buird n a bookshelf in a pew, pulpit etc. tbuke, buik 17 a packet of gold leaf. buld see build. :buldrie n a building or style of building.

tbull', boo, buil n the chief house on an estate, ~rincipal farmhouse, a manor house SHETLAND, ORKNEY bull2n 1 the part of a building stone which is left rough and thus projects beyond the hewn part which is generally on the margin or the edge of the stone face, ie it is pinched to the surface line at the joints and it is left rough with an irregular projection on the face. 2 a round sandstone, tapering a little to both ends and used as a whetstone. bullax n an axe. bullax wright a clumsy, unskilful carpenter. bun see bund. bund, bound, bun a@ (of a doe? roof etc) joined, fitted together; it also applies to ironwork; cf barred. bounding (law) a house property with garden grounds enclosed within its own walls. bun breest a box-bed complete with wardrobe. bound couples framed roof trusses. bun door a door with beading and panels as opposed to a plain door, sometimes referred to as a door of morticed and tenoned construction (not necessarily panelled) as distinct from a barred door. bunker, tbonker n 1 a window seat or bench with an opening lid. 2 a coal box or store with an opening lid. 3 a cupboard space under a staircase. v bonker link with wood: skeIfingand bonkeeng, ie shelving and lining. bunteth see buntha. tbuntha, bunteth, bontov. boontith n a payment in addition to stipulated wages; a bonus. tburbenk, burbank, borbenk n a low, supporting wall of earth or stone built outside and against a house wall to give it protection and strength; also applied to the fillet of cement around the base of a chimney can SHETLAND. [ON bar3 a brim, edge bink] burch see burgh. burde, burdin see buird. burden n 1 talso birding a burden, a load (regularly referred to in builders' accounts). 2 (law) a restriction or encumbrance affecting property. tbure end n the end of an old farmhouse used as a byre, u u adjoining the kitchen CAITHNESS. [ON bzir a storehouse on a farm] burel see burell. tburelie adj (of a building) well built, stately tburell, burel n a ferrule. tburgage n a tenure by which property in royal burghs was held under the crown, the proprietors being liable to (nominal) service of watching and warding: service of burgage. burgh, tburch. tbourgh. ?burrow- a borough. tburgh land land belonging to or situated within a burgh. [cf broch] tburian n a mound, tumulus, sometimes a kind of fortification. burly-hoose n sailors' taboo substitute for a church o.burn1n water used by builders and in brewing. burnzn, U : bruntie a blacksmith. burnstand a small portable vessel for making lime; a miniature lime kiln. tbrunt money the money provided to assist the rebuilding of burned property, a kind of medieval fire-insurance money. burn-the-wind, burnewin a blacksmith. tburran n a fold for cattle. [perh from hiwen a camp, as in droving days many old campsites were used for this purpose] burrow see burgh. busch see bush'. :bush1, busch n an iron ring; a metal lining for a cylindrical bodx usu piping but can apply to an axle-hole.


1 I


tbush' n, also timber bush. timmer bush a warehouse in Leith used for the storage of timber and other imported goods. tbushel n a small dam. bushet: weill bushet adj well pointed. busing stonesee boose. buspikar see boyspikar. but n an outer or anteroom, a kitchen, as applied to a two-room cottage, m u referred to as a but and ben, which literally means outer and inner rooms; cf ben. adj 1 outer, outside, of the but. 2 of the best room NE. ?but door an outside door. but the hoose 1 the kitchen or outer end of a but and ben. 2 the best room NE. but see butt2. butch hoose n an abattoir. buth see buith. butt' n a mound of turf used to form a target in archery. butt', but 11 1 to abut. 2 to fix with a holdfast. 3 = batt v 3. n a square or fitted end, to meet without overlapping. butt and hudd see hud. tbuttereis, butyterage n a buttress. tbuttlins npl 1 battlements; the parapet of a tower or steeple. 2 branches or coppice wood laid crosswise on roof rafters before thatch is put on. tbuttrie n a place or passage for a bucket in a draw well. tbutt stone n a skewputt.

caik see cake. tcaillich n a revolvine, wooden roof ventilator placed on the top of the roof ARGYLL. [ScGaelcailleach an old woman] tcaip, cape, cope n 1 a cope, the highest part of 2 a

copestone. 3 cope v o i n q i ) the top cover of a timber enclosure, eg a pipe-box, cran box; a draining board. " cope: caip a alyke. caiphous see capehouse. cairn, tcarne n a boundary stone; a heap of stones. cairt, cart n 1 a cart. 2 also cairt draught a load (a measure or quantity often referred to in old accounts). v to carry. cais see case. caitchepoole see cachepell. Caithness stone n 1 a hard flagstone which was widely used in Scotland for pavements. 2 as a flagstone it is used to make water storage cisterns, the slabs being half-checked at the joints and pointed with white lead. 3 in Caithness, slabs are embedded vertically in the ground to form the dykes between fields. [cf Arbroath stone, Yorkshire stone] tcake, caik, kaik, kake n a flat piece or mass, esp of lead. kaik leid lead cast in sheets or slabs. calchen see kilchan. caleyard see kailyaird. tcalfat U to caulk. calfin see colfing. calmesee kame. calsy see cassie. cam, caum, tcalm n pipeclay. tcamrd, camstoned whitened with pipeclay cam see kame. camceil n a sloping ceiling or roof. camsiled having a sloping ceiling or roof. cam'd see cam. tcammel n a crooked piece of wood used as a hook for hanging things on. camshachle, camshauchle adj distorted, not straight, not plumb. [ScGael cam crooked Scshauchle totter] camsiled see camceil. camstoned see cam. can a chimneypot, candle, cannle n the male end of two prepared ends of lead

byke', bike n a building for habitation or storage, particularly,


W e 2 , bike n the bend of a hook; the hook at the end of a chain for holding a pot over a fire. by-law n : the Bylaws a term loosely used in Scottish building to refer to building regulations, which have been superseded by the Standard (Scottish) Building Regulations. byoord see buird. byre n a cowshed. byre dwelling a modern expression for a building housing both family and cattle in one space, formerly known as a cattle-house.

1 !


ca, caw U 1 to hammer, drive in a nail. 2 to demolish: ca doon. 3 to turn (a handle or wheel). cabber see caber. caber, tcabber, tkebar, tkeaber, tkebbar n 1 a beam, a rafter, ie the equivalent of a common rafter: pan and kabar roof 2 a

pipe when jointing, formed by a risp. tcandyllar n a chandelier. candyllar see chandler. tcanestane n a type of good building stone from Caen, Normandy cannel, tcawnle n the bevel, chamfer, the sloping edge of ar axe or chisel after sharpening; can also be applied to an edge

spar laid on rafter immediately under the thatch or divots. caberit, tkaberit fitted with rafters, ie roof framework


tcabinet n a small chamber; a private apartment. tcachepell, catchspiel, caitchepoole, chachepool n a court for real or royal tennis, esp refers to the one built in 1539 at Falkland Palace. cacier see cassie. cadden nail see caddle. tcaddle NE, cadden nail, cathel nail n a large nail or iron pin. tcaddis n cotton waste. tcahute n a separate room or space. [Fr = a hut, shack] caibe ~ 7 a. cabinet-maker: That'sajob for a caibe, no a jiner: ibin n a cabin.

tool which has been given the wrong bevel. tzl give the wrong bevel to (the edge of the tool being sharpened). tcannowse, canvosn a canvas, a hap, temporarycovering f o ~ a roof etc. cant n a tilt, a slope. cantit, kantit ( o f timber) bevelled, squared off. tcant-bedded (ofstone) laid with the natural bed vertical and showing its face, ie a stone set on its edge.




catrail tcantlok a type of lock, possibly a rim lock. tcant window a projecting window with bevelled sides, ie a bay window and not a bow window, which is a curved projecting window. cantle LI to build on an elevated site: the cantled kirk. cantle o t h e causey see cassie. tcantore n an office, banking house. [Du kantoor a counting canvos see cannowse. cap v to bulge, warp. cappie (ofpeenwood) twisted. +cap almery, cop almery n a cupboard. cape see caip. tcapehouse, caiphous n 1 the small chamber at the top of a spiral stair surmounted by a caproof or a roof of conical shape. 2 a watch turret on the top of a keep. tcapraven n a roof spar or rafter. carf tv 1 to cut timber in a series of shallow notches across the grain to allow it to bend, 2 to cut timber in order to insert another piece of timber, to mortice. n 1 a ditch ULSTER. 2 a cut in timber SW Carmyllie flag n a kind of hard flagstone, from Carmyllie in Angus, exported from Arbroath under the name of Arbroath carne see cairn. tcarpoll n a pole or spar, zfiu used in scaffolding. tcarrgate n a road across steep rocks. tcarriage n a tenant's obligation to carry goods etc. tcarrit adj carved, ornamented. tcarrucat n a measure of arable land, equivalent to a pleuchgate; see also Measures on p.105. carsackie, cir(r)sackie, kersackie a coarse

cattle creep

croon o t h e causey, cantle o t h e causey the crown of the road. cassie duntersee dunter. cassin dyke n a turf wall. cast n 1 t a trench, ditch, a cutting for a water course. 2 a twist, warp, distortion. o 1to apply a coat of lime or plaster, q:roughcast [lit to throw]. 2 to excavate to form a ditch or trench. casting a product ( m u concrete) which has been formed or 'cast' in moulds and has subsequently set hard; sometimes referred to as precast which generally implies that this process has been carried out in a place other than the building site. cat n a handful of straw mixed with soft tempered earth and used in building earth walls; m u used in conjunction with timber framework. v 1 to build using what is called the cat and clay system. 2 cat a chimney to enclose a flue or form a chimney using cat and clay. cat and clay, cla(u)t and clay 1 a system of constructing walls with a base framework of wicker or straw and finished by plastering both sides with tempered earth. 2 a system of constructing walls by using rolls or crude building blocks formed of straw and clay moulded together. 3 sometimes the system was combined so that the straw or clay blocks were fitted between timber framing. There are a large number of phrases applied to similar constructions, ie comprising a timber frame to which clay, straw etc are applied. See Earth Structures and Construction i n Scotland by Bruce Walker and Christopher McCregor, 1996. catband 1 also band (on a door orgate) the iron bar or band in the form of a hook which engages on a loop on the adjacent wall and thereby keeps the door or gate shut. 2 (on a street) a

heavy iron chain which is stretched across the thoroughfare for defence purposes. tcatbar a bar that fastens that half of a door which does not contain the lock; a hinged iron bar that closes one leaf ofa twoleaved door.

cart see cairt. tcarvel nail a large nail or spike used in building omm, [carc~ela light sailing vessel, built with planks flush] case, tcais n 1 t a cottage. 2 a built-up Frame for the sashes of a sash-and-case window; the hollow vertical side section of the frame contains the counterweights etc, which assist the upand-down movement of the sashes. tcasit framed. casement 1 a hollow moulding with the quadrant of a circle as profile. 2 a window frame to which sashes are hinged, as opposed to a case within which the sashes are hung. casements, casement planes the name given by carpenters in Scotland to the kind of planes, called hollows and rounds in England, which form convex and concave profiles. tcashach, cashcrome n a pick, a lever used to make holes, m u by drainers. [ScGael cas a foot, cm-chrdm a kind of crooked spade] tcashel n the circular wall enclosing a Celtic monastery. [IrGael

catstep = crawstep. tcatchie, catchie-hammer n a small hammer used by a mason for pinning walls, ie it drives small stones into the wider spaces left between the larger stones. catchspiel see cachepell. cathel nail see caddle. cat-hud, catstane n 1 a large stone which serves as the back of a fire or hearth; cf backstone. 2 one of the upright stones which supports a grate, there being one on each side. catstane heid the flat top of a fire grate supported by the catstanes. tcatrail n a linear earthwork consisting of a ditch and a bank of modest dimensions.

cassay see cassie. cassie, causey, tcalsy, tcassay n 1 a cobbled street or pavement (as distinct from flagged). 2 sometimes applied to individual cobbles or setts. 3 the paved area about the door of a cottage or small farmhouse. L) to pave, to fit cobblestones together. tcacier rz a maker or layer of cassies.



i l


l I

l l

heirs or the recording of services etc. tchandler, chanler, candyllar n a lantern, a candlestick. [Fr chandelier] tchangehouse, chyngehous n an ale house, an inn (where travellers' horses were 'changed' or replaced by Fresh horses). chanlersee chandler. channel n 1 a pavement or paved sidewalk. 2 a gutter at the side of a road. 3 t a kind of balcony with an arcade below. 4 also channer gravel; cf shannel. channelled joint a recessed joint; ie the exposed face of the mortar is kept back from the exposed surface of stone or brickwork. channelling a rectangular recessed section along one or more edges of ashlar-faced building stone; a drafted margin; common in rusticated masonry, wu when the main exposed face is left rough. ?channel-stane a paving stone. tchannery, chanonry n a residence of canons. tchanrock n a channel or waterway formed with rounded stones. chap', tcheip 21 1 to strike with a hammer. 2 to knock at a door. chapper a door-knocker. tchap', cheip n a shop. tchar n a certain quantity of lead (of 30 fadmels). charnail1 band. charnaille band see charnel. ?charnel, charnaill(e) band n a strong hinge used for heavy doors or gates, tau consisting of a plate on each side of a door with a riveted f ~ n through g the door. charnle-pins the pins on which the hinges turn. tcharterbole n a recess in a boundarywall the depth of which denotes the extent of ownership of the property on the side

catslide n 1 a fa-doon (see fa), a type of dormer roof. 2 a change in roof-slope over an outhouse or projection. catstane see cat-hud. cattle creep see creep. cattle-house see byre dwelling. tcatwa, catwall 1 the stone wall dividing a cottage into two apartments SHETLAND. 2 a partition built up to the main wallhead level only (ie not up to the ridge) ORKNN. cauf ward n an enclosure for calves. caul, caull n a weir or dam to divert water for a mill. caum see cam. causey see cassie. tcave n 1 a cellar (esp for wine). 2 a dungeon. tcavel n a long staff, a rod, a pole. cavel mell see kevel hammer. cavien 1 a hen coop. 2 tan open shelf; the lower part of a meat store. caw see ca. cawnle see cannel. tcearn n a servant's hall. tcel, cell n 1 a monastic cell, a small or dependent monastery or religious house. 2 a small chamber. cellar see sellar'. centering see centreis. tcentreis, centres n, also cent(e)ring temporary frames erected to assist builders to construct vaults or arches. tceres n ceruse, a pigment. tchabyll n a painted board. chachepool see cachepell. chack, check, tchak, tchek n 1 a rebate, a long step-shaped or rectangular recess cut into the edge of timber. 2 on<? check a door-key. double checked rebated on two sides; rebated twice. tchaklok a type of lock; appears to refer to the rebated type, ie one used on a rebated stile. chackiemill n the dzathwatch beetle; cf deidchack. [fr. Sc chack to make a clicking noise] tchacks, chau(1)ks n a sluice regulating a mill-stream or for turning water off an irrigated meadow. [prob. fr. chack above] chaffer n a tradesman's portable grate comprising a perforated drum on legs with a removeable tray on top. tchaik hous n an exchequer house. chairk see chirk. chaksee chack. chaker house see chekker house. tchalder n a dry capacity measure defmed as 16 bolls; also used as a measure for lime (chalderlyme) and coal, later as a measure by weight, with local variation (much referred to in old builders' accounts). See Measures on p.105. tchalking (of door) n the marking of a principal door.of a tenement by a town officer (civic official) as a warning to the tenants to remove. chalmer see chaumer. chamber of deas see chaumer. tchamdrocht n refers to a chalderlyme, ie a certain weight of lime. tchancelar wall a kind of chancel rail, low partition or screen in a church. chancery n (law) an office directing an inferior judge to try a pecified issue with a jury; latterly dealing with the service of

from which the hole extends and, in complementary fashion, the extent of the adjacent property CHARTERBOLE

tcharterhous n a room for the keeping of charters. chass, chassie see chess. chaulks, chauks see chacks. chaumer, chalmer n a chamber, a term applied to variou rooms (even to a one-roomed cottage), eg a chamber, a bedroom, a parlour, the best room, the upper room, the servant's room (esp above or partitioned off from a stable). ?chamber of deas, chaumer 0 deis, chauradesse a parlour, the best bedroom, arising from the time that the most important area in a dwelling was the elevated section at the end of the great hall [OFrchambre a chamber deis a dais] chaveling see shavelin. cheaft a 4 (of tirnber) brittle, friable, crumbling.



clay check see chack.

chunkiesee shankie. chymmyssee chemis. chyngehous see changehouse. ciching see kitchie. tciel n a ceiling. tcilehous, cilhous n 1 an outhouse, or& a shed with a lean-to roof on wooden supports. 2 a cellar vault. tcirculer n 1 a circular window. 2 a circular room. cirrsackie, cirsackiesee carsackie. cissell see chessell. clachan n 1 a hamlet, village (mu one with a church and particularly one bordering the Highlands). 2 an inn, a village ale-house. [ScGael] clack n the clapper of a mill. clack mill see klick-mill. cladding, clathing, cledding, cleeding n, orig referred to rough boarding, now applied to any enclosing or infill boarding, finished or otherwise. claik v to smear or dirty with an adhesive substance. claith, tclath n a covering, a finishing, eg a lead sheet: tclath of leid. clamp', cramp n, also clamper a metal brace to used to strengthen masonry. clamp2 n a straw-and-earth covering on a pile of bricks for burning. clams see glaums. tclamsh CAITHNESS n a piece of wood with which a makeshift mend is made. v to splice two pieces of wood together. tclamstaff and daub n = cat and clay. tclapdoor n the lower half of a door divided in the middle; a trapdoor. [cfDan klap a trapdoor] clapdyke n an earth dyke formed by clapping or patting the earth with a spade. clash up ZJ 1 to cause one object to adhere to another, eg mortar or applied to a wall. 2 to point roughly clat', claut n a kind of spade with the blade at right angles to the shaft; a scraper. v to scrape, clean by scraping, rake. clat?) to bedaub, smear, dirty clat and clay = cat and clay. clatch n 1 (of earth) anything thrown for the purpose of daubing; (later: of lime) a quantity which refers to the amount of lime which a trowel can throw onto a wall. 2 a badly-built dwelling. clatch up 1 to fill or stop up with an adhesive substance. 2 to patch up: a clutched up wa. clath see claith. clathing see cladding. claut see clat'. claut and claysee cat. clay, cley n: tclay bigger'a builder of clay biggins. ;clay biggin a house with clay or mud walls using straw or similar material as a binding, sometimes formed on a rough plinth of stone or brick. ?clay-cat a bunch of straw mixed with clay and used in the building of a mud wall. clay davie a drainer or nawy. tclaythack thatch held in position by clay; thatch with a top dressing of clay.

cheek n the side of something, esp a fireplace, a dormer wintlow, the jamb of a door, a door-post. cheekstane one of the upright stones which supports a grate. cheeknailing 1nailing timber by driving in nails at an angle to the wood surface, to obtain a fixing without interfering with the principal surface, eg floor joists are cheeknailed to a wall plate, as too long a nail would be required to nail them vertically through the top surface. 2 (of slater work) double nailing, which consists of one nail through the hole in slate and one nail in a notch at the side of the slate. cheen, chine NE, tchene E, p1 tchenzies a chain. cheip see chap', chap2. chek see chack. tchekker house, chaker house n the house occupied by the tchemin de ronde n a wall-head or parapet walk in a castle, a tchemis, chemys, chymmys n the chief dwelling on an estate, a manor house. chene, chenzies see cheen. tcheptour n a chapter, ie the capital of column. chess, chess, sash n: chass window, chassie, shess a saqh window, implying that the glass is in a frame and that the unit (or sash) is so formed so that it can be operated as an individual section, eg it can be hinged to an outer frame so as to become a casement window (see casement n 2) or it can be hung and slid within an outer frame and become part of a sash-and-case window. half chess applied to a sash-and-case w i n d o w when in a wide-open position. [OFr chasse a frame, sash] sashed containing sash-and-case windows. chessell, tcissell n a chisel. tchester n an ancient fortification, usu circular. [L castra a tcheveron n one pair of rafters. [fr. the shape] chimbley see chimley. chimley, chimbley, chumley, shimley n 1 a grate, a hearth, a fireplace, the fire, the mantlepiece. 2 a chimney chimley brace a mantlepiece; a beam or framework supporting a cat and clay chimney chimley can a chimneypot. chimley end the fireplace wall. chimley heid a chimney top. chimley lug o r nook the fireside. chimley-rib a bar of a grate. chimley-rink the fireside. ;chin n a door knocker, 0% said to be a metal plate which the visitors struck with their sword hilts. chine see cheen. chip n a small stone, usu applied to one which has been splintered from a larger piece, eg a whinchip. tchipen n an uneven-sided chisel used in stone dressing. chirk, chairk v (ofa door) to make a harsh grating sound. tchopin n a liquid measure = half a Scots pint. chuckie n, also chuckie-stane a pebble used for garden paths tchuffel n a shovel; cf shuil. chumley see chimley.


cleaner 1




clay and boo1 a wall composed of b o o k with tempered earth as the mortar. tclay and dubber a builder of clay biggins. clay and m o t t = cat and clay. cleaner n a mason's chisel 1.1% ins (25-35 mm) wide, used with a mell. tcleckin-stane n stone which breaks up into fragments on being exposed to the air. [Flem klacken split] cledding see cladding. cleeding n 1 boarding or planks used in scaffolding; ~f batten. 2 the outer casing or lagging of piping or cylinders. 3 an angle junction plate in steelwork. 4 = cladding. cleek n a hook: 1 the hook in a hook-and-eye door or gate fastening; 2 the latch of a door or gate; 3 the hook in a ceiling from which hams, game etc are hung. tcleit n a small dry-stone structure used for drying peats and as a storehouse on St Kilda.; a wattle framework forming a support for turf. [ScGael] tcleket n 1 a knocker on a door. 2 a catch or bolt. clem v to stop a hole by means of lime or clay or by using any viscid substance. clenket, clenkett see clink. cleps, clips npl 1an adjustable curved iron handle by which a pot is hung. 2 tongs for gripping stones when they are being lifted by a winch. tclet n a wedge. cley see clay. click-mill see klick-mill. clift n a plank of wood or board cleft or sawn from a log or wood. cling v (of timber) to shrink or contract in drying. clink n a welt, the union of two pieces of metal by hammering and folding them together; a connection by means of a hook-

cloorsee clour. cloose, clouse a sluice. clooter see cluther. close1, tcloss n 1 an enclosure, a courtyard not11 inain!)~ Edinhurgb. 2 a farmyard. 3 an entry, passageway, alley, orig in Edinburgh; cf pend, vennel. 4 specif the entry to a tenement, the passageway giving access to the common stair. 5 a joiner's yard. close fit, tclose f u t e the lower or back end of a close. close heid the head or upper end of a close. close mou(th) the entrance to a close. close' z ~ :closed skew see skew. closer 1a back flap, a shutter. 2 a brick or stone which bridges or 'closes' a cavity close bed, closed-in b e d = box-bed. closet n 1 a small room (traditionally formed in a but and ben by the back of box-beds). 2 t a sewer. closs see close1. clour, cloor v 1 to hack or hammerdress stonework down to almost a plane surface; to broach. 2 to remove stone projections by a hammer and chisel. 3 to hammer over the point of a projecting nail to make a kind of rivet. cloorer the pointed chisel with a short taper used with a mash for clouring. clouse see cloose. tcloves n an instrument of wood which closes like a vice, used for holding saws while they are being sharpened. t c l o w n a nail stud, rivet. c l o w i t nailed, fastened with a nail. clowe see clof. t c l o w g n the bar of wood on a screw pivot f ~ e to d a door to prevent it being opened. [Eng clog = a hindrance] club hammer n = masher. clubskew n the lowest stone (at eaves level) of a stone skew course, generally more ornate than the rest of the skew. cludgie n a water closet. tclumber v to plaster over (as with clay). cluther, clooter n, also clooter o stanes a badly-built stone coal n: coal-neuk a coal cellar. tcolibrand a contemptuous name for a blacksmith. tcoal-town, colton a group of miners' house, the 18thcentury equivalent of a miners' row. cobble see coble, cobill. icobill, cobyll, cob(b)le n 1 a trough; a cistern for the reception of drainage, a kind of cesspool. 2 a square or table seat in a church. coble, cobble n a stone of whin, generally rounded c irregular, forming the finish to a roadway; cf sett which rectangular. v (eg of a stepping stone) to move when stood on. coble. cobyll see cobill. cock, cok n: ?cock-and-key a stopcock, ie the valve on water pipe. tcock-and-pail a spigot and faucet. cockbead a delicate moulding inset around and in a panel but still projecting out from the plane of the panel; a moulding made by a cockbead plane.

v 1 to carry out this operation. 2 to clinch, ie to bend a projecting nail point. 3 to rivet by beating out the point of a tclenkett describing a joint which has been clinked. clinknail a nail that is clinched, ie the projecting point of a nail which is bent. clinkers npl broken pieces of rock used in upfilling and clinty aa'j flint-like. clips see cleps. tclof, cloif, clowe n a certain weight of iron. clonk n one of a row of big stones placed in a single drystone wall immediately below the coping s'-'


coksaill cocklaft a gallery of a church, uru the highest gallery and therefore the tiartliest back and occupied by the poorest people [or&referred to a top attic where cock5 for cockfighting were kept]. tcoksaill n the vane of a weathercock. cockle 11 to be unstable. cockleshells n lime prepared by burning. codding n 1 a stone inserted in a wall especially to support the end of :I L~eam.2 the stone base for the jamb n 3 of a fireplace. 3 the last course (shorter than the rest) of the slates immediately below the ridge of a roof tcoft adjbought, acquired by purchase (as in old building accounts). cog 11 to wedge; to steady by means of a wedge. coglin tree see covin tree. coin see cunyie. cok see cock. .:colfing, calfin, cuffin n tow used in the caulking process. colibrand see coal. tcollour z 8 to paint. colton see coal. come in v collapse EIFE. common stair n (in a tenement) the communal staircase giving access to the flats etc. tcommonte, commonty n land held in common, egforgrazing, on which every tenant had the right to graze his animals. tcomprisement book n the landlord's record book in which damages and repairs to property were noted. condame, condamp see condampne. tcondampne, condamp, condame 2) block, fill up (a door etc). condie see cundie. conduck, conduct t n a conduit, a channel for water. conductor a rainwater downpipe. connach n botched work; an unskilful worker NE. consumption dyke n a wall built to use up the stones cleared from a field. tconter-tree n a crossbar preventing a door being opened from the inside.

cood, cude, cweed NE, tcuddie n a tub. coogatesee cowgate. coom, coomb n 1 fake coume, cowme the wooden frame on which an arch (espof a bridge) is built; an arch or vault. 2 the sloping part of an attic ceiling. coomed vaulted, arched; (ofa ceiling) sloping. coomceil, cumseil, cumsyle 1 :to provide with an arched ceiling. 2 to lath and plaster (a ceiling). 3 on!)! in adj coomceiled having a sloping ceiling. cooncil hoose, council house n 1 a town hall. 2 a rented house owned by the local authority coonyiesee cunyie.

couple coorie see curie. cop almerysee cap almery. cope see caip. tcophous 12 a room for keeping cups or plates. coppertackingn copper nailing. tcorback tz the roof of a house. corbal see corbel. corbel, corbell, tcorbal n a projecting stone or piece of timber which supports a superincumbent weight. corbal table a tabling supported on corbels. tcorbal saibe parapets or other projections corbelled out beyond the face of a fortified wall; a skries of corbels. tcorbaltre a thick wooden beam suitable for a corbel. corbiestane, corbiestep n = crawstep. tcorff hous n a building where salmon were cured and nets stored during the close season. coring see plaster and form (under plaister). cork n an overseer; a master tradesman; a small employer. corner bead n a wooden or metal bead which forms an arris on platered walls. cornice rod n one of two lengths of timber temporarily fixed at the top and bottom of a cornice to act as guides along which the template slides. cornizer n thin offcut from whin setts inserted vertically in the ground to form a non-slip pathway cornlaft n a barn, a granary cors, corse, corshous see cross. tcoruie n a crooked iron tool used in demolition work. tcorunnell, crownell n the tympanum of a Renaissance window, i e the triangular or segmented space between enclosing mouldings of a pediment; occasionally in medieval work it refers to the space between the lintel of a doorway and the arch above ir; cf crownell (under crown). cosh ndj (of buildings) in a neat, snug, comfortable situation. cot, tcote n, also cot house a cottage, a farmworker's dwelling. cottar house a dwelling occupied by a farm labourer, a tied cottage, a dwelling without land. cottoun, cotton n 1 a hamlet of cottages. 2 a collection of cots attached to a farm or to several surrounding farms. cotteril see cottril. tcottril, cotteril n 1 a screw nail. 2 a springy type of split pin used to fasten bolts on window shutters.3 a small iron bolt for a window coulichin see kilchan. coume see coom. tcoumit bed a bed which is enclosed on all sides, usu with deal or another timber, except at the front which is curtained. [prob. fr. coom] tcoummie adj the edge of a tool is said to be so when it does not seem to be good steel nor well polished. council house see cooncil hoose. countercheck n 1 the groove which unites the two sashes of a window. 2 aLso countercheck plane a tool for cutting such. coup see cowp. couple, cupple, kipple n 1 a pair of rafters, forming an inverted Vshaped roof support; one of these; a principal rafter. 2 used as a standard of length equal to 12 ft (3.65 metres): a kitchen of one couple. coupling a metal connecting piece used by plumbers in pipework there are many varieties. couple-baulk, kipple bauk n a collar, a beam; an upper tie. kipple butt the part of a roof-trusswhich rests on a wall. kipple fit the foot of a principal rafter, ie the lower extremity: couple leg one of a pair of principal rafters, as inn 1. kipple-pin a pin driven into rafters, probably to help secure the roof truss at the intersection of units.

coursed rubble tcouple yill the drink given to carpenters after the couples are put on a new house. coursed rubblesee rubble. court n an enclosure for cattle formed by the ranges of the steading, some later covered: covered court. tcourtin a farm outbuilding. cove n a recess (in a wall). cove ceiling a ceiling with sloping sides similar to a coom but strictly should apply to ceilings where the perimeter is curved downwards to develop, without a break, into the wall. cover n : cover band the cope of a double-dyke. cover bead a moulded cover plate. cover plate see plat. covetta n a plane for moulding framed work, with a quadrant of a circle as profile. tcovin tree, coglin tree n a large tree in front of an old Scottish mansion house where the laird always met his visitors and to which he escorted them on departure. cowan, cowen n 1 a builder of drystone walls. 2 (disparaging) a builder not properly apprenticed and trained as a mason. 3 eeemasonry) one outside the brotherhood, esp one seeking to know its secrets. 4 an unskilled or uninitiated person; an amateur. tcowgate, coogate n a back street or lane in a town along which the inhabitants' cows were driven, eg to the common oasture. [survives in street names] cowme see coom. cowp, coup n a rubbish or spoil heap, a dump. v to tilt, upset. coupcart a (horse-drawn) cart designed to tip and unload its contents without the the necessity of unharnessing the horse. tcrackling house n a building in which tallow for candles was boiled down. craddle see cradle. cradle, craiddle, craddle, tcredill v to build the stonework of a well or shaft. n the stonework of a well or shaft. cradling 1 a protective framework, eg for carrying glass. 2 = cradle n. cradle chimley a large oblong-shaped grate, open on all sides, used in a round-about fireside. craft see croft. crag-and-tail n a hill form, steep on one side and with agentle incline on the other. craiddle see cradle. tcrais of irn n an iron crowbar. crame, tcreme n a merchant's booth, stall or tent. cramp see clamp. cramp and ratchett n = shangie. crampet n an iron spike driven into a wall to support the roof gutter. cranl n 1 a crane, the machine. 2 an iron rod for supporting a pot over afue, m u laid across the fire from the front ribs to the back of the fire. cranZn a tap. cran box the timber enclosure round pipes serving taps; zcsu the taps are fixed on the front face. tcrance n a crack or chink in the wall through which the wind blows. crank adj, also cranked crooked. distorted; offset (as applied

crop to beams, pipes etc), ie bent through two right angles and finishing in the same direction as the original. 21 to form in this way crannie n a recess in a wall. crannog n a (fortified) ancient lake dwelling, uszr part natural and part artificial (mu built on posts). crap see crop. tcrasit adj crazed, covered with fine cracks. craw n 1 a crowbar. 2 a lead clasp used to bind down the covering of a flat roof where it overlaps the slates. 3 an enclosure for animals, esp a pigsty crawheid a chimney top. 1-crawirona crowbar, esp one with a claw for drawing nails. tcrawsteel a crowbar. crawstane, crawsteen NE the top stone on a gable. crawstep a crowstep, a series of which forms the stepped profile of a gable. crawlhole see creep. crawprod see crop. cray see cruel. tcreaga ?z a blokhouse inhabited by several joint tenants. tcreat n a crate (urn of glass). credill see cradle. jcreelhouse, crelehous, creel-barn, creel-hut n a cottage of wattle or wickerwork on a basic framework of stakes fxed into the ground, sometimes called a baskethouse. creep n, also cattle creep a low archway or gangway for the passage of cattle through an embankment, or under or over a railway or road. creephole, crawlhole a rough hole in a wall large enough to allow a person to crawl (or creep) through (mu linking roof voids). sheep creep a low opening between the sections of a fank. tcreepie, creiper n an iron grapple. creesh n grease. creiper see creepie. crelehous see creelhouse. creme see crame. tcrenished a d j notched, serrated on the top edge; it can be applied to dilapidated walls. creuk, creukal band, creuk-an-da-links, creukkey see cruik. crib, kirb n a kerb, a large stone, usu rectangular shaped whin, which is laid to form the edge of a pavement or walkway adjacent to a road. criggie n a bend or an angle on a dyke or a fence SHETLAND. criv see cruive. cro see cruel. croce see cross. croft, craft n a small-holding; a field next to a house, m u level and of good quality tcroisie n a window found in Shetland (actual design not specified) crook see cruik. croon see crown. croon o the causey see cassie. crop, crap n the top of something, particularly of a wall. craprod, crawprod the pin at the top of a gable to which ropes for securing thatch are tied. crap o the w a the space between the top of a wall and the roof of a buildin

cunyie cros .>cc v==. cross, cors(e), tcros, tcroce n 1 a cross. 2 the market place, the centre of town. 3 a cross-beam in a timher roof. tcross dyke the dyke which divided the arable land in half and was placed at right angles to the head dyke, which separated the arable land from the pasture. tcorshous n a crosshouse, ie one standing at right angles to its neighbours. L___________,,: -,r* . - > I i~crucalrlyyallli aq cross-mullloneu, paneueu. tcross kirk, corse kirk the transept of a church; a church occupying a transept. tcross-taillit (of a hinge) the cross-shaped strap on a door which hinged to the hook on a door post, a cross garnet hinge: I




tcrookstudie, creukstudie 1 a cross-beam in a chimney from which a crook is suspended. 2 an anvil on which horses' shoes are shaped. tcrukis and bottis used in old accounts to describe the complete ironmongery of a gate or door; the hinges and bolts. tcrukit tymmer a structural timber with a natural bend or knee. cruisie n 1 an open, boat-shaped lamp with a rush wick. 2 t a small iron lamp with a handle. 3 t a kind of triangular candlestick made of iron with one or more sockets for candles. with edges turned up on all three sides.




recently foam slag, supported between . . floor joists on mher boarcls resting o n deafening boards, which are thin ti timber fillets nailed to the side of joists.

cupple see couple. tcurie, coorie n the royal stable. curly-heidit adj (of a chisel) having the edges of the head bent and curled by repeated hammering. curly-wurlie n an elaboration, ornamentation. cut n, also offcut a piece of timber cut off a larger piece. cweed see cood. cylering see sylour.



crostaillit hand. tcross tree a cross-heam. tie etc.


dabbed, dabbled adj (of the surfacefinish on stonework) giving the appearance of being 'sparrow pecked' with a sharppointed chisel. dad, daud n a lump of mortar, putty etc.


!grrom me door opening, pillar tcroon piece the I crownpost (of a roof truss) the king post; the vertical timber post which hangs from the apex of a truss with the lower end foted to the tie beam. crownstone the apex stone of a gable, the saddle stone. crownell see corunnell. croy see cruel. crub SHETLAND, m n 1 = bougar-stakes. 2 also plantiecrub a small circular drystone enclosure for growing vegetables

cruive, tcruve, tcriv n 1 a hut or cottage; a mean dwelling; a temporary sf led put to various uses during the fishing season. 2 an enclosure for livestock, esp a pigsy, hencoop. 3 a cottage garden. 4 a weir, a wooden enclosure to trap fish. cruke, crukis and bottis see cruik.


cruel, croy, kro SHETLAND, ORKNEY^ 1 also cray an animal pen or fold, now mainIy a pigsty 2 %ahovel. Tcrue', cro n a corner or nook, a small space or receptable in

a nook, corner] cruik, cruke, crook, creuk n a hook: 1 also tcreukal banu, '-L - " - - l -creuk-an-da-links s m n a pot-ho.-'which a door or gate is hung.




i d made by deathwatch t hearing such a noise

cuddy, cuddie n a trestle or sawing horse. cuddv 2 rlnnkev'~ , .hnnse .- - - - --...--i ,' ~ r l h l ~ lane a lane narrow enough for only an ass to pass through as opposecl to cam. cude see cood.


^ .

tcuddie n a 5

I ciddv


- ---..--


Gtrerr o ~ ~ r7t I~<enie~ r l n n I~n n e e l ~ fillerl r niirh \.I..-

Q mn-c L,.VI.C"


rall& L*IICU

tcunyie, coin, coonyie, quoin, quinzie n 1 a quoin, corner(st0ne). 2 a keystone. 3 a corner piece of ground; a corner of stonework. cunyie hous a mint

baptism. daub n : dauber a plasterer or worker in clay. tdaubing a gathering of neighbours to build the walls of a - ---- 8

tdeigh, dech v to build with turfs.


tdaub and stower = cat and clay. dauch see davach.

tcum'n a ci~.-~.. . cum2n the angle which certain tools, when held in working position, make with the user NE. cumseil, cumsyle see coom. cundie, condie T Z 1 a covered drain; the entrance to a drain; a

a rumbling cundie). 3 a hole in a stone wall, usu for the . . passage of sheep. 4 an arched p icrookbauk, creukbauk, crooktree the batten to which crooks are fotecl, uszl the spars between the wallheads. tcrookkey, creukkey the rod with a hook on one end which passes through a hole in a door and removes a wooden bar crrving as a lock

dam or sluice. danders npl clinkers, the refuse from a smith's fire, slag used as blinding and deafening. tDanskene irn n iron from Danzig; cf Danzig red. tDanzig red n an exceptionally hard redwood orig used for 'packing' in boats coming from Danzig to Scotland loaded with bales of flax for spinning; cf Danskene irn. darg n 1 a day's work.-2 work, main(y the day's darg. darger, tdargsman, tdarksman a casual unskilled labourer. tdarg days a certain number of days during which cottars had to work for their landlord, in lieu of rent.

13111 C C L I L Uy, I

supervised the Burgh's 16th century the head of Id Court which supervised dykes, rights of '--ween neighbours etc; authority over building Ice with the Building or) llnlng (under line). ~ c ~ u L ~ u o ulh-0 ~ (aecree ~ ~ , deas, deese, deis, tdese n 1 a dais; cf chamber of deas (zmder chaumer). 2 a wooden seat, also applied to a stone or turf bench outslde a cottage. 3 a church pew. decore v to decorate, adorn. decorement, tdecoirement decoration, embellishment. dech see deigh. .,_._:__-__*&ccdecore. . aecolrerllallr decree of lining see line. dedecheck see deidchack. &., .-I--.-Ie "-n.rel UccU" rcpr' 6rarcl or coarse so11ex, wKen out of the bottom of ditches. . * .



ploughgates of arable land, The a c t extent probably varied in different districts; it included rough ground as well as arable and was a territorial unit of productive capacity rather than a measure of area. See Measures on p.105. [ScGaeldabhach a vat; a measure of land] daweling see deval. dawk seidauk. daylight size n the size of an opening, eg a door or window, when finished and complete with all the stops, cover plates day's darg see darg. deacon n the chief official of a craft or trade. dead a& (of a windcw sash) fured, not opening. deafening, deefenin n an acoustic insulation in the form of an admixture of clay or lime, sand and smithy ash, more


~ A--..


delf, delve v to make ditches bv digging. U ~ I I I ~ Ihet! II ~ e l ~ ~ a y n e . tdemayne, demain n landed property held and occupied by

n hinges at the upper part to prevent


UL a wnlcn can oe escaping; a smoke board. dent n a tough clay which when well worked or pounded can be used to 'cement' walls. dereliction n (law) the abandonment of something owned. A . . -



ya5a >cc u-aa.


aesen: see alsert. desk see dask. ,

-, , -,----m-

ha-ha. z the graa~ngor a


develling, devaling, tdaweling, +dowelling narrow planks or boards covering the framework used in the construction of arches. dewoit see divot. dial n: dial cock the gnomen or style of a sundial.

dicht dial stane the stone of a sundial on which the figures are ralvetl. dicht 1 1 1 to wipe clean, occasionally implying a superficial trcatment. 2 to tidy, using a shovel. 3 to dress, ie to clean and smooth rough timber: dichting a deal. 4 to dress (lead), ie to mould a sheet of lead to a shape. dick see dyke. die (into) 11 ((clf applied mouldings on planes) to disappear gradually as the moulding meets the plane surface at an angle to the direction or run of the moulding.

die wall n. 1 a low wall, generally used for supporting purposes, eg a dwarf wall at the edges of steps or a sleeper wall to support and keep floor joists above ground level. 2 the cubical part of a pedestal, often with a half-baluster worked on the baluster seating in stone. dikesee dyke. dimolische see dernoleis. ding 1 to drive (applied to the action of a hammer on a nail 2 also ding doon to demolish. tdippin n steps at a riverside, where clothes, pails etc were taken to be dipped. direct labour (system)n the system by which officials (eg the master mason or master of works) of the employer organized and administered the works, arranged for the supply of materials, engaged the necessary craftsmen and labourers (in contrast with the 'contract system' in which the building operation was let out by task or bargain to one or more tradesmen). In more recent times the term is applied to tradesmen on the staff of Local Authorities who employed them 'direct' on building works. tdirt house n a privy tdisert, desert n a place used by the clergy of the Celtic Church to retreat to for fastings, meditation or penance. dish 11 to slope, grade to an outlet. disjone, disjoyne see disjune. idisjune, disjone, disjoyne n the workers' morning break, breakfast. displenish t j (nou! m u of afarm) strip of furnishings or stock, sell off the contents of. displenishing sale a sale of the stock, implements etc on a farm (exclusive of buildings). dispone v (Iafu) to convey or transfer ownership of land. dit 1: o f e n dit UP to close or stop a hole. [ME d i m ( % ) , OE dvnan shut (the ears), stop (the mouth)] d h e t t see divot. divot, divett, iduffat, i d e w o i t n 1 a piece of turf. 2 the thin, flat, rectangular turf used for roof covering or walling. 3 turf in thin pieces. 7) to thatch with turf. doach, dough n a weir, a salmon trap SW! tdock ?z the end of a rafter supportecl on the w a heid. dockie n 1 a rounded stone from the seashore used in roadmaking ancl for bordering pavements. 2 t a water channel. dog n a grapple for hoisting heavy weights. dog ear = pig's ear. dogstane a hearthstone on which fire dogs or irons rest. ZJ

double dominant tenement n (lau~)a piece of land with the ownership of which goes a servitude right over the adjoining land. tdominium directum n (law) the interest which a superior retains to himself in all feudal grants. tdominium utile n (law) the interest which a vassal acquires in all feudal gnnts; it carried with it the exclusive possession and enjoyment of the lands as long as the conditions were hlfilled. [L = simple (advantageous) right of ownership] dongeon see doungeon. doocot. ducat, tdukat(eJ n a dovecot, of which there are five basic types in Scotlanti: 1 the beehive circular with a domed mof; 2 the lectern rectangular or square on plan with a leanto roof sloping downwards, m u towards the south, sometimes with a pigeon port in the middle of the roof in the form of a small dormer with its own fa doon (see f a ) roof: 3 the drum circular with a flat roof and usu decorative parapet; 4 the attached ie the dovecot is incor~oratedin a tower or other part or adjunct of the main building; 5 the rectangular or square with a standard type of pitched roof. dook, douk n 1 a wooden plug driven into a wall to hold a nail, eg for strapping. 2 a tool used by a plumber to enlarge the mouth of a lead pipe. v to insert wooden pegs etc in a wall (as in n 1). dool' n a dowell, a short, round, hardwood rod used for holding two wooden sections together by inserting it into a hole drilled in each; sometimes applied to an iron spike for holding together floorboards. tdool', dull n a boundary stone. doon, doun, down adtj: doon fa 1 a sloping piece of land. 2 sometimes used to describe a sloping roof. doon hoose a back kitchen. doun casting a demolition, destruction of a building. down takings rubbish produced by demolition. doon t h e hoose in the best room; towards the byre. doonesee dun. door n : tdoor band ahinge. :door board a panel of a door. door cheek a door post, ie the vertical section of a door frame. door crook a hinge. door heid the horizontal part of a door frame, the lintel. door-piecesee piece. door sole, door sill the threshold. idoor sporre a wooden bar which fastens a door. door stane (a flagstone in front of) the threshold. door staple an iron hook on the door-post to secure the bar or bolt on the inside'of a door. door stoop = door cheek. door thrashel a threshold. dorbie n a stonemason. idornal n the stone forming part of a doorway; a threshold. tdorp n a village. [Du = a hamlet] tdorter, dortoir, dortour n a bedroom, a dormitory (esp in a monastery). dosinnit see dozened. double, tdowbill adj of twice the usual thickness or size. doubling the tilting fillet, over which the leadwork of the gutter is doubled back. double checked see chack. double decker a roof containing two storeys, each served by dormcr windows; sometimes applied to buildings containing such a roof. tdouble dyke the section of a drystone wall where double rows of stones are laid, each stone so laid with its length extending into the hearting or rubble, ie the smaller stones which form the core of a double dyke; the top or coping of


dough such a dyke is called a cover band; cf single dyke. double hoose a house with rooms on either side of an entrance hall. tdowbill nail(l)a very large nail. tdouble-pile plan the house plan where an oblong block of double-room width was bisected on its long axis, usu in classical architectural style. dough see doach. douk see dook. doun see doon. tdoungeoun, dungeoun n 1 orig an earthen hillock. 2 a k o dongeon the (strongest) tower belonging to a fortress designed as a place of last resort during a siege, a keep. 3 also dungering a dungeon. do-nrbill see double. dowelling see deval. down see doon. tdowtal n 1 (injoinery) the dovetail. 2 a crook with a dovetail. dozened, tdosinnit adj (of wood) shrivelled, rotten. draft see draucht. drap, drop n 1 a vertical pipe, conduit etc, implying that what it conveys is running downwards. 2 the dripping of water or the line down which it drops from the eaves of a house. drop nozzle a vertical outlet nozzle from an eaves gutter. drop shaft the intermediate vertical portion of a drain which is inserted in a main drain to avoid the introduction of a gradient too steep to be practical. drop(ped) sill the decorative continuation of a window sill below the sill level. draucht, draught, draft n 1 a load of material. 2 two or more cartloads brought at one time. 3 a ditch drawn to mark the boundary of a farm holding CAITHNESS. draw v 1 to make ditches. 2 (of aflue) to provide a draught. drawbar the sliding bar of a gate or door. dreep, drip n 1 the eaves, a point or area of ground where drops from the eaves fall. 2 the projection of stone, wood etc, so formed that rainwater falling on its upper surface will run down to the lowest projecting edge and will then drop off, clear of the main wall surface below, usu combined with a groove or throating on the underside of a projection. drip box the rainwater collecting box (or cesspool) formed in a lead flat or gutter. dress v 1 cut and smooth (stone), prepare for building. 2 (of lead or zinc) to work round or over a shape, eg flashing (see flash): dressed-overslates. 3 (ofstone) to hew 4 (oftimber) to plane, make smooth. 5 to put in order in accordance with size (usu applied to slates). dresser a mallet used for dressing lead. tdressory a room in which food was dressed. tdresser-window a service hatch. dressings blocks of smooth hewn stone generally used as quoins and rybats sometimes also applied to lintels and sills. tdrevil n an iron drill or punch. drink siller n money given to building workers to be spent on drink. drip see dreep. drop see drap. drove n a stonemason's broad-faced chisel over 2 inches (50 mms) wide. droved where the smooth stone face in finished with a series of parallel lines (droves) giving a fine corrugated texture to the surface, usu at an angle to the horizontal. tdrove road the way along which cattle were driven to market. tdrugsaw n a saw for cmss-c~lttingtimber. lrum doocot see doocot.

dry adj: tdryhouse an open-meshed walled building formed between traditional gables in which sheaves are dried. drystane dyke, tdrystone wark a drystone wall. drystane dyker a builder of drystone walls. dubeye 17 an opening for the passage of water from a puddle; a channel to allow surface water to escape. dubill-oger see ogeour. ducat see doocot. duffat see divot. duffie n a water closet, a privy adj ((clfatoo0 blunt. dukat, dukate see doocot. dull see dool'. dumb, dummie adj ((clfa do07 windotu) sham, imitation, usu with real reveals but the rest of the opening built up solid and the window detail painted on or slimly represented in wood. dumbbell a drainpipe with a faucet at both ends. end of a pipe.the plain metal removable plate fitted on the open dumbplate dump n : dumper a tool used in paving roads, a rammer. dumpy (level) an optical instrument used when plotting levels for contoured drawings, measuring gradients etc. dump and hole (of a dyke) uncoursed. dun, tdoone n a small stone-walled defensive homestead of the Iron Age, often situated on an isolated site, found mainly in western and central Scotland; in general use as an archaeological term. dungeoun, dungering see doungeoun. dunny n abasement area, usu in old tenements; usu refers to underground cellars or passages. dunt v to strike with a heavy blow. dunter, cassie dunter a heavy piece of wood or sometimes metal, reinforced and used for levelling paving stones. tdustyhall n a reception chamber. dwang n 1 a transverse piece of wood inserted between joists or posts to stiffen them. 2 a large iron lever used by blacksmiths; a tap wrench. v exert pressure, particularly to insert dwangs.

DWANGS dyke, dike, dick CAITHNESS, daek s H m n n 1 a low wall of stone or turf, ZLSU built without mortar (the term wa(l1) generally implying that mortar has been used). 2 a ditcchannel for draining water. dyker a builder of dykes. dyke end the dyke built on the ebbshore running seaward to cut off access to arable land through the ebb and thus prevent animals from trespassing; seealso double dyke, single dyke. each see eetch. erd. n (in oldaccounts) part payment. earth seemoney earnest ease 21 to form an indentation at the junction of two materials, eg where plaster finis!l would abut timber frames. and therebv

flaw of military service, made a return in grain or in money; latter!^ a holding in which a vassal has the exclusive possession and use of heritable property in return for payment of a feu duty to a superior. 2 a piece of land held by this tenure. 3 = feu duty. feuar a person who holds land in feu. feu charter the document granting a new feu. feu duty the fixed annual payment for a feu; since 1974 no new contracts may impose a feu duty and existing ones may be bought out (and must be on a change of ownership of the feu). feu ferme 1 often in feu ferme now only in the formula of a feu charter as i n n 1. 2 t = feu duty. fey ZJ to clean out, scour (a ditch or drain). fidder see futher. field ZJ to sink a margin round (a wooden panel), leaving the central section with both projecting and recessed portions usu highly polished. fielded panel a panel created as above. fielding plane a plane which fields. figure n natural markings, both grain and colour, of a timber. tfillar n a labourer, esp one who infills the excavations. fillet n 1 a small flat or moulded dressed-timber strip linking larger mouldings or different materials in an infill fashion; sometimes of cement. 2 a tiling batten, ie a strip of sawn timber to which tiles are nailed or on which tiles are hung. fillister see feelister. fineer v to veneer. ifinger wiping n a derogatory term for poor workmanship; orig applied to a plumber's joint where the solder was shaped by the fingers covered with a piece of moleskin. finish see feenish. fir, ifyr fir (wood). tfirren, firrin, firron a d j made of fir wood. fyrburd, firdale a plank of fir. fire n : fire edge the sharp edge of a new tool. fire end the fireside, the end of a house or room where the fireplace is. fire house 1 a house with a fireplace, a dwelling-house as opposed to out-buildings. 2 the kitchen of a two-room house. tfire and flet see flet. ifire room a room with a fire, hence generally a room in which the whole family lived, a kitchen, living room. firren, firrin, firron see fir. first', tfrist acij first. first floor in Scotland this zsu referred to the ground floor, now only in non-technical usage: thefirst floor); now applied to the floor above the ground floor. first', frist n a ridge pole of a roof. first and pan the description of a roof formed complete with ridge and purlins. fish 11 to run or lead a wire, cable or pipe through part of a structure, working in a blind fashion behind wall straps etc; see also mouse. fit, foot n 1 the foot, the lower part of a rafter etc. 2 = hack n 2

tfitgang, fedgan, futgang, futegang n 1 a passageway made from planks as between church pews. 2 a gangway used particularly during building operations. 3 a long low narrow chest extending the length of a wooden or box-bed and used as a step. 4 flooring. fit pad a footpath. +footstick a narrow wooden bridge, on'g planks laid from stepping stone to stepping stone. fite see white', white. &:-Fee feeze

fla see flae. flackie 11 a draught screen hung in a doorway ORKNFI, CAITHNESS. [ONJlaki = a hurdle of wickerwork] flae, flay, tfla(w) n a thin turf used in roof construction; m u cut, on section, in a slightly wedge shape and laid in courses rather like slates on faille timber; subsequently thatch in the form of straw stapples was pushed into the turf using a stob. flaer see fluir. flaesock, tflasick, tfleasock n 1 a shaving of wood. 2 a spark from a wood fire. flag n 1 a flagstone. 2 a piece of turf cut or pared from the surface, a sod. flag flair a paved floor. flag and pal see pall. flair see fluir. flake, tfleak n 1 a framework of crossed slats, tcsu portable and used as a fence, gate etc. 2 flakes a temporary sheep- or cattlepen. 3 t a kind of rack on which goods are exposed for sale; hence sometimes refers to a booth or shop. 4 tparticularly a rack or frame for holding a gun, m u located above a chimneypiece. 5 a sieve. ZJ to sieve using a flake. tflakit powder sand or lime shaken through a sloping frame or sieve. flan n a gust of wind, esp one blowing smoke down a chimney, a back-draught:flan o r reek. flanker n 1 the side projection of a wall, roof etc. 2 the lead gutter fitted where slated roofs meet at an angle O m . flash n a depository for timber. r3to fit a flashing. flashed (ofglass) coloured on the surface only flashing a strip of impenious, flexible material (mu lead, but later copper, zinc, bituminous felt, mortar, timber were used) which covers the joint between two planes, one generally being a sloping or horizontal surface and the other being vertical; flashings are fixed to stonework by raggling, turning flashing into the raggle and probably fixed with batts and pointed with mortar.

flasicksee flaesock. flat, flet n 1 a floor or storey of a building. 2 a set of selfcontained apartments, occupied by one family, on one floor of a building of two or more storeys. 3 t a level part ofa structure. 4 the inner part of a house. tflate n a flight (of steps). tflaucht, flaught n a croft, a piece of land. flauchter to pare (turf) from the ground. tflauchter-fail a piece of turf cut with a flauchter spade. flauchter spade a two-handed spade with a broad heartshaped blade used for cutting turi. flaughtsee flaucht. flaw TZ a kind of nail (on'g the point of a nail cut off by a blacksmith after a horse is shod). LJ


flaw flaw, flay see flae. fleaksee flake. fleasock see flaesock. fleech ZI to shave off spills in the planing of wood. [Engflitch] fleein yett n an unsecured gate that swings with every gust of wind. fleet dyke n a wall built to prevent flooding. flesh n : tflesch-hous a building for the handling of meat by butchers. fleshmarket, tfleschmercait a meat market. tflet, flett n the inner part of a house. fire and flet residence, habitation. [= fire and living space] flet see flat. flinder, flinner n a splinter. fling n the knack of using a tool or working properly: get the fling o = to get the hang of. flingin tree the timber partition between the stalls in a stable (0% a piece of timber hung from a roof). flinner see flinder. flit o 1 to remove one's household etc to another house. 2 to move house. flitting the removal of household goods from one residence to another; hence munelicht flittin, a furtive removal (by moonlight) to avoid paying debts etc. flitter, fluther n a loose flake of stone; a splinter. float v to bring a (mortar or cement) screed up to the correct level and finish; it usu involves the surface section which contains only sand and cement and no aggregate. n the rectangular tool used for the above, or to finish plaster. floor see fluir. flooting see flooty. tflooty, flooting n the upper part of a partition wall forming the two rooms of a cottage (mu made of plaited straw) SHETLAND. tflorey n a blue pigment. floss n a rush used for thatch or woven into ropes ,-S ORKNEY,CAICAITHNESS.

flossmat a rush mat used to provide the lining to an internal refuse dump (presumably because of its disposable value). flouse see fluise. tflow n a chimney cowl open at one end and turning with the wind, used to prevent blaw doons. flow dyke n a dyke along the banks of a river to prevent overflowing. tflower n an edge tool used in the cleaning of laths etc. fluir, flair, floor, tflaer n 1 a floor. 2 a house. U to finish with the floor. tfluring, fluiring 1 materials for a floor. 2 a horizontal section of scaffolding. floorhead the surface of a floor. floorstane a hearth. fluise, flouse, fluze v to turn back the edge of a tool or point of a nail SW. floused blunted byflousing SW. fluring see fluir. flush 1, 1 to line through, be in the same plane as. 2 to run fast and full of water. flushpointed applied to wall pointing (flushpointing) where the mortar is neatly trowelled to a finished surface flush with the general surface of the wall. fluther see flitter. fluze see fluise. ?foal's foot chisel n a chisel drawn to a rouna point and ground with a flat face. ?fogn moss used as a thatching material or for packing walls as insulatic

wee1 foggit thatched or packed with moss and therefore warm anti snug, draughtfree and windproof. foghouse a summerhouse lined with moss. fog-theekit thatched with moss. foirscheit see fore-schete. fold see outfield. fontan see funtain. foon, foond see found. foot see fit. forebreist o the laft n the front seat of the gallery in a church. fore building n the front structure of afortified castle, around the main entry; a fortified gateway tforebuthe n a front booth or shop. tforechalmer n a front room. tforedask n a desk or pew in a front position in a church. foredoor n 1 a front door. 2 the space between a house and a public thoroughfare, a forecourt. tfore-e-fire n a kitchen-living-room, the part of a kitchen where the family sat CAITHNESS. fore end n a small shelf built into the side of a fireplace. ifore entress, fore-entre n a front entrance, a vestibule, a porch. tfore face n an iron framework forming the front of an oldfashioned fireplace, set between two stones (barstanes), with the ass hole below tforegait n the street in front of a building. jforehall n the apartment of a house next to the street, a hall or meeting room. tforehaimmer, forehammer n a sledge hammer. tforehouse n 1 a porch. 2 the but of a but and ben. 3 a house facing the street. ifore jam, fore jamm n the wing of a building projecting to the front. ?foreland n = foretenement. tfore-lodging n a flat or suite of rooms on the street side of a house. tfore lok n the pin passed through a bolt to secure it. tforeplace = foretenement. fore-roof n the part of a roof on the street side. tfore-schete, foirscheit n some part of a mill. foreschot see foreshot. fore seat n the front seat in a church. tforeshop n a shop fronting a street. tforeshot, foreschot n a projecting part of a building overhanging the street. foresta n a manger, a feeding trough in a byre. forestair n an outside staircase at the street side of a house, m u giving access from street level to the principal apartments, which were on the first floor; the ground or semi-basement floor usu accommodated staff, kitchens, stable, byre etc, or a shop (with the shopkeeper's house above). These outside stairs were a distinctive feature of Scottish architecture; it should be noted that at a later date the houses generally had, in addition, internal staircases between ground and first floors. tforetenement n a tenement fronting a street. forewa, forewall n the front wall of a building. forewerk n the front portion of a building. fore-sett n a front gate. tfork n a pair of timbers (as couples with extended up1 ends) supporting the end of a ridge. tform n a plank. ?former, furmer n a kind of chisel, usu flat. forselletsee forslet. tforskin n a dyke or a wall built between brig(gie) stanes or a platt and the midden ORKNEY. tforslet, forsellet n a (small) fortress, a castle.


gibbon cleik


tgibbon cleik n a wall-plate fixing, perhaps a metal tie, for securing a wooden plate to a stone wall.

giblet, giblet check n a check in a stone surround to a door to allow the door, when in the closed position, to flush the wall, ie the outer face of the door will be in the same plane as the outer face of the wall. v to form such a check. tgeblet doir a door fitted with a giblet check. giblet see gibblet. gilehousesee geilhous. tgillha n 1 a small thatched cottage situated in aglen. 2 a house which is not weathertight. [ ~ c g i lal narrow valley ha] tgimmel n a tool, implement. gimp see jimp. ;gin, gene n a bolt or lock of a window or door. gin-casesee gingang. tgingang, gin-case, gin-house, gin-rink n a farm building containing the horse-engine to drive the threshing mill, usu octagonal or circular on plan; cf mill course. tginnel see kennel. gin-rinksee gingang. ginshot see gainshot. girnel, garnel, tgranale n 1 a granary, a storehouse, esp one belonging to an estate. 2 tgranale a storehouse for salt. girse-house see grass-house. givo, gavock n 1 a small wall built as a windscreen in front of the outside door; a windbreak at the end of a close' etc 2 talso gylve a small passage, roofed over but with no ORKNEY. sides, a covered way, eg between a byre and a barn ORKNEY. gizzen to shrink, warp, leak. adj (of timber) warped, shrunken, become leaky due to dryness. [Icelandicgima leaky] glaan n a whetstone SHETLAND. glack n a fork or branch of a chimney flue. [Sc = a fork of a tree etc; a ravine; ScGaelglac a hollow, a valley] glaid, tglid a d j (of a door o r window) moving smoothly, glaiks n p 1 1 t a draw-bar of a gate. 2 an instrument for twisting straw. glams see glaums. glas see glass. glasinwricht, glasynwrycht see glass. glass, gless, tglas n : glesser a glazier. tglesserie a glassworks or factory. tglassin a d j made of glass, fitted with glass. n glazing, planes of glass. tglassinwerk glass, glazing. tglasinwricht, glasynwrycht a glazier: glazing was not common in the great houses of Scotland until the end of the 15th century, all glass being imported; the earliest recorded Scottish glassworks. near Wemyss in Fife, dated from 1610.



tglassband a strip of lead to secure a glass pane in a 'leaded' window. tglasschack (of a window) to make a check in a sash, to fit it for receiving the glass. glaums, glams, clams npl (the iron jaws) of a vice. glebe, tgleib n the portion of land assigned to a parish minister in addition to his stipend. gleg a d j 1 (of a n edge tool) sharp, keen. 2 (of locks) operating easily gleib see glebe. Glesca screwdriver n a hammer. gless see glass. glid see glaid. glig see gligg. gligg, glig rr a hole in a byre wall or, sometimes, a roof for admitting light and air SHETLAND. [ON g l u an ~ opening, a window] tglipek, glipik n a small opening or broken part at the top of a dyke SHETLAND. glittie a d j 1 having a very smooth surface; often applied to that has become so smooth that it will not sharpen edge tools. 2 covered with slimy or greasy matter: glittieflaRstanes. glory-hole n a store, boxroom where items are heaped together in a disordered untidy fashion. gloystane n a projecting stone shelf on a barn wall against which oats were threshed; the straw that was left, known as gloy, was used for thatching, basket-making etc SHETLAND, ORKNEY. tgnarr n a hard knot of wood. tgoif, goif stok n a pillory goit' ?a a threshold, a space just inside the outside door SHETLAND. [ON gdtt the rabbet of a doorpost] goiV n a narrow fenced road SHETLAND. [ONgata a path, road] golgravsee gulgrave. igoniel n an apprentice mason S. gorbacksee gerbick. tgorge n the underside of a projection. tgorsimmen n a coarse, thick straw rope used for thatching SHETLAND. gorsta see gersty. got see gote. gote, got n 1 a drain, a trench. 2 a ditch with walled sides. gouf 7) to underpin or underbuild (a wall or building) to secure its foundations or put in a damp course. tgourd adj (of a dooc window etc) stiff, difficult to move. goustie see gowstie. tgowl n a large, empty house. gowstie, goustie adj (of buildings) large, bleak, dreary, and ZISU not weatherproof. tgraf n a ditch, a trench. grainsh see grange. graith, greth, tgrath n tools, equipment for a particular job or trade; tools, implements, machinery v to prepare (material), dress down (wood) etc; to mend, repair. tgrathing mending, decorating, referred to in old accounts. tgangin graith moving machinery tiron graith iron equipment or accessories. tlyin graith that which is upheld by a landlord. tstandin graith the ktures, eg frames, posts etc. granale see girnel. tgrange, grainge, grainsh n 1 a storehouse for grain; a granaly barn. 2 a farming establishment, a farm; esp one belonging to a religious house or a feudal lord, with granaries for storage of crops and tithes in kind. grannie n a chimney<owl


grass-house grannie's tuith = auldwife's tooth. tgrass-house, girse-house n a house let to a grassman (a sub-tenant with grazing rights) NE. grassum n a sum paid by a tenant or feuar at the grant or renewal of a lease. grath see graith. grating n 1 an iron frame with bars of lattice work over windows. 2 a metal grid over vent or drain openings: wireball grating (at the top of a down pipe to prevent choking). 3 the perforated or grilled waste outlet on a sink etc. tgrave to engrave, cut into a surface, incise. tgray, grey n, adjgrey gray slate a kind of thinly split flagstone used for roofing. gray stane a march stone. tgreywacke a compact grey gritty stone like sandstone but harder. gre see gree. grece see gree. igree, gre n a step. greese, grece a flight of steps, a stairway. green brees n a hole near the front door of a house used as a receptacle of the sewage of both kitchen and byre. greep see gruip. tgreesh, greeshie n a stone abutment against the gable wall inside a cottage forming the back of a fireplace, thereby projecting the fire a short distance into the room. [ScGaelgvis fire] greet, tgrete n grit: 1 the grain or texture of a stone. 2 ?gravel. tgrete n a stair. grete see greet. greth see graith. grey see gray. grib see gruip. :grief hous n a place of penance. tgriff n a (plaster) angle ornament. grind n 1 a gate or passage, usu through a wall or enclosed space in the open SHETLAND. 2 a gate (mu of the open latticed type) comprising horizontal bars which enter at each end into hollows either in two upright stages or directly into the [ON = a gate of spars or bars; a fence, adjoining wall SHETLAND. Norwegianfl'nd a gate, wicket] grinsteen see grundstane. grip rz: the grip a system of sub-contracting work to casual labour, ie labour-only subcontracting, 'the lump'. grip, groop see gruip. tgrose v to rub off the wiry edge on a tool. ground see gmnd. grub screw n a small screw used to keep a tap-head or doorhandle in position. tgruggle n the place where the walls of a house come together at an angle, the narrow corner so formed; a reentrant angle. gruip, groop, grip, greep, -i.gribv to cut agroove in (a board) for fitting into a corresponding tongue. n 1 an open drain, mu in a byre. 2 a bunch of straw for thatching. 3 a groove cut to receive a tongue. tgrupet an sekket, sex and greeped grooved and checked or grooved and tongued. grummel, grummell n rubbish of lath and stones. grund, ground n rough timber framing (generally with dooked furing) applied to walls etc, and which forms a fucing for timber finishings: a ground forms a continuous type of fucing, ie the finishing can be attached to any point along its length as compared with the localized fucing when a d00k or plug is used. ground annual a perpetual annual rent chargeable on land, the liability for it forming a real burden on the land and the 7j

relationship between the creditor and debtor not being a feudal one; cffeu duty. tgrunhouse, ground house a cellar, a basement. grundstane a foundation stone tground-stead a building site. grundstane, grunstane, grinsteen NE 12 a grindstone. [Eng gri?7dstone] grupet an sekket see gruip. guddle n a cn~wbar. gudge n 1 a gouge. 2 a wedge. -bgulgrave, golgrav n an open drain leading from the byre SHE'I'LAND.

tgull n o n e of the stones between the bands and the coping in a drystone wall; these are dressed so as to lie solid on the bands without being supported by pinnings and to provide a solid bed for copestones. gullet n a narrow alley or passsageway gulley n a street drain. gulley hole the mouth of a drain or sewer, orifice of a sink. ?gum n a small parcel of awls. gushet, gusset n 1 a triangular-shaped fill-in piece in wood, plaster etc. 2 a triangular-shaped area of land or piece of land remote from the main area of land. tgushet house a house on the corner. gut vz, U : gutsie (of accommodation) roomy. guttery the place where the offal of slaughtered animals is disposed of. guter see gutter. gutter, tguter n: tguter claith lead sheeting for a gutter. tgutter hole, guter how the hollow of a gutter, a drain into which kitchen refuse was thrown. gutter stane a kerbstone. gylehouse see geilhous. tgylomys, gylowys npl guiding ropes, lifting tackle. gylve see givo. gyron see garron.

?ha, haa, hall, haw n 1 a manorhouse; comprising a cellar with a spacious upper living apartment or hall above; a farmhouse as opposed to labourers' cottages. 2 specif a principal apartment of a house. 3 a public market hall. ha(ll)-chalmer a small room opening off a hall or dining room; usu used as a bedroom. ha door the principal door of a gentleman's or farmer's house. ha en the end or gable of a house. hall house 1 a manorhouse. 2 a farmhouse as opposed to a cottage. thachit n a hatchet. hack, hawk, thak n 1 an adze. 2 a mortar board, a shallow tray with a handle protruding downwards from the centre; ZISU held in the left hand and the mortar lifted by a trowel held in the right hand. hackie a hatchet. thak hammer a sharp-edged cutting hammer. thak heid a head of a cutting or chipping tool. hack see heck. ha clay see haw clay. hadder see heather. hadding, hading see haud. thaddock t z a measure of land. [reduced form of half-davoch] haemit see hameart. haffet, haffit n 1 applied to a large variety of objects, all generally related to vertical pieces of wood which form the sides, ends or intermediate divisions of constructions, e,q the wooden sides of a box-bed, dormer window, chair etc. the

hart wooden sides of a church pew. 2 any type of spandrel or any infilling (generally triangular); also applied to a frame for a cover or lid. haffit-close very close together, as near as possible. [Sc = the temple, the cheek] hafflin see half. haft see heft. hag 1 a cut of timber. 2 a steadying pin on a joiner's bench. f haghous a woodshed where wood is cut and stored. thagmark, hagmet n a boundary stone, usu indicating a dividing line between two hill pastures SHETLAND. [ON ha@ pasture mark and mett a boundary mark] thagbut, hakbut n a heavy matchlock musket which was held on a hak which was like a rowlock or crutch fured into wood sills which were fitted into deeply slotted window jambs. [Eng


ihaifreis-dyk t7 a common dyke, the upkeep of which is a common responsibility haik see heck. hailis see halis. haimmer, hemmer, hawmer NE, thalmer n, ZI hammer. hainch, hench n 1 tthe side of an arch between the crown or the keystone and piers, a haunch. 2 the narrow side of a chimney-stack. haunch v to wedge in an upright position with a mass of mortar (haunching), eg a precast kerb on its concrete foundation, a chimneypot on the chimney cope. haining, thaning n an area enclosed by a hedge or fence, usu to protect a hay crop from cattle. thair n supplied by a tanner to act as a binding agent in plaistering (for special jobs white hair was used). hairp see harp. hairstane n a boundary stone. [Sc hair hoar stane] hairse see herse. haithens, heathens npl stone rubble from fields NE. haksee hack, hake. hakbut see hagbut. thake, hak, heck ?z a hook. hake-nail a small movable block of wood through which a pin or nail has been driven and which can be fured where required on a bench to hold a board steady for planing. halch see haugh. hald see haud. . half, hauf n half. halflin, hafflin, often halflin plane, thalflang-plane a largesize plane used by carpenters, now the largest used, ovig second in size to the jointer plane. halfchecked (of ajoint) double rebated, halved. halfchess see chess. thalfdoor a halfheight door with an open space above; a


thalfdyke a wall with a single masonry face. +half gavill, half gable a gable common to two houses; more precisely, one side of a gable common to two houses; the right of building onto the gable of another's house so as to make it a common gable. half house a semi-detached house. half-lang see halflin. +half-tree a timber rafter formed by spllttlng a tree trunk down the middle! the bark ucz~being retained. thalis. hailis, hallis n a covered market-place, esp for the sale of provisions. [OFr Oes) hale.s]


hall see ha. hallan, halland n 1 also thallan-wa an inner wall, a partition or a door-screen erected between the door and the fireplace, m u of mud or clay mixed with stones or moulded over a wood and straw framework. 2 a similar partition in a byre or stable or between the living-room and the byre. 3 tthe inside porch, passage etc, formed by such a partition. 4 a cottage, a house. 5 a buttress built against a weak wall; cf putt. 6 a gutter formed in Caithness flagstone. hallan door a door into or through the hallan. hallan-end the area be&een the wall of the house and the hallan n 1. thallan stane 1 the threshold, doorstep. 2 a stone forming a dividing wall between cattle-stalls in a byre CAITHNESS. halmersee haimmer. t h a m and egg w o r k n = auchenhalrig w o r k . thameart, hamit, haemit adj (of workmanship) amateurish, homeniade. hammel see hemmel. hand n : handcanny handywith tools. handhole an inspection plate on a pipe which can be removed and access gained to clear obstruction etc. hand ladder a light portable ladder. thand ledder a piece of leather for protecting a workman's hand. hand plane a short bench plane (8 ins (200mm)); a smoothing plane. hang, hanger, hangrell see hing. haning see haining. thaning stane n a whetstone. hank n a loop for securing a gate or door. hap n a wrap or covering of any kind, eg a temporary waterproof covering to protect unfinished or open roofs. harsee harr. harberysee harboury. tharboury, harbery, herbry, herbriage n a shelter, a dwelling place, a lodging, a military station. hard adj 1 (of joints in carpent?, rnasonly etc) pressing closely together at one place and not at another, where it should be continuously close fitting. 2 (of a door) barred and locked. hardcore broken rocks etc used for upfilling. hard pan see pan2. hard-staved see stave. hardtree, hardwood a close-grained timber, usu timber from a deciduous tree, eg oak as opposed to pine. harl, tharrill v roughcast with lime and gravel. n a mixture of sand and lime used for roughcasting. harlin, harling, t h a w n 1 the action of roughcasting. 2 the mixture used for roughcasting [first recorded 1572 Aberdeen St Nicholas Cartularum Vol ii p 3831. harl pointing pointing of a rough texture which was partly spread over the surface of adjoining masonry. harp, hairp, herp n 1 a mason's rectangular sieve for sand. 2 the part of a meal mill which separates dust from husks. tharr, har, herre n 1 the pivot on which a door or gate turns Omw. 2 the post of a door or gate to which the SHETLAND, ORKNEY. hinges are fastened SHETLAND, harrill see harl. thars-stane n a hearth stone. hart n : hartstop n a fireclay terminal (at ground level) to a drain, incorporating a removable galvanized iron-top ventilation grating which is shaped so that the open (lower) end of a rainwater conductor car1 be fitted alongside to discharge straight into the drain, but still facilitates easy clearing of blockages in the conductol

hasp heat n : heater a triangular-shaped area of ground, esp one at a road fork or bounded by three roads or paths (from the shape of a heater for a box iron). heat t h e house light the fire in a house for the first time and hold a housewarming party. house heating a housewarming. heathens see haithens. heather, hedder SHETLAND,ORKNEY N, thadder heather (used heddering thatching with heather SHETLAND, O R K NN. ~, theather strain a fault in building stone, said to he caused by the roots of a tree etc; it weathers white and allows penetration

hartstrap a fireclay trap on a drain which incorporates for ventilation and rainwater a pipe access; in modern building practice these are not made and instead a hartstop is fitted above the standard trap, also known as an LBS ( l o w back


hasp see hesp. thattyr gestis npl ?maple beams. [?Fr hitre beech (tree), wrongly applied by Gavin Douglas in his translation of Virgil's Aeneid. ] hauch see haugh. haud, thald n property held, a holding; a habitation, dwelling place, latter(y ofen house and haud house and home. hauddin(g), had(d)in(g) 1 a holding, the tenure or occupation of land. 2 a small farm or house held on a lease: driven oot o hoose a n haddin. haudfast, holdfast 1 a staple. 2 a hooked spike designed so that the hooked part held a pipe when the spike was driven



hauf see half. level haugh, hauch, hawch* thalch, thaw a piece ground, m u alluvial, on the banks ofa river, river-meadow land. haunch see hainch. havil creuksee eulcruke. haw see ha. hawch see haugh. haw clay, ha clay n 1 a kind of clay used for whitening pale 'lue 'lay doorsteps etc, mu refers to the rough, [Sc haw = tinged with pale blue or green]. 2 sometimes applied to a fine yellow clay used for forclling clay floors. hawk see hack. thawkathrraw, hawkathraw n a countrywright, a carpenter. hawmer see haimmer. hawn see harl. head see heid. headin see huidden. hearting, herting n irregular stonework which forms the centre of a wall between the more regular exposed stonework on the faces.

heather and d ( a ) u ba mixture of heather (or straw) and mud (or clay). daub used to form walls. heck, haik, :hack n 1 a rack of wood in a byre or stable for holding fodder. 2 an open cupboard suspended from the wall or roof. 3 an open plate rack. 4 an iron-grating in a street gutter; sometimes specif refers to one of the bars of such frameworks or the space between the bars. heckdoor the door between kitchen and byre (the term particularlyimplies that the panels are not closed but latticed). hecksee hake. heckle, haickle n the network of straw ropes which cover a thatched roof NE. heddersee heather. heeding see huidden. heel tz 1 a block of wood inserted under a lever or pinch to improve leverage or purchase. 2 the part of an adze into which the handle is fuced. heel bar a large crowbar pointed at one end and with a chisel face at the other. heft', thaft n a dwelling, a place of residence, one's situation or environment. heft' n haft, a handle of an implement. v haft, fit with a handle; fur firmly in something. heftit handled, fitted with a handle. heich, high, t h i e adj, adv: t h i e gate, high gate 1 a main road or highway. 2 the highway through a town, the mgh Street. heid, head n 1 (of water) pressure: tenfeet of head. 2 (of roof plzimhing) a box to collect rainwater at the top of a rainwater conductor. 3 the top of a building, wall, window etc. heading plane a plane which cuts one groove. thead-bu(i)l, hede-bule the best or chief house on an estate, a manorhouse SHETLAND, oRKNF(. head dyke a broad earthen ridge which marked the outer perimeter of the cultivated area around a settlement; a series of such dykes round burgess tenements sometimes formed the only defensive wall of a medieval town. heid-house the principal house of an estate, the manorhouse; the main building or great house of a manorhouse group. heid room 1 the higher or outer part of a croft; that side of a croft lying on the boundary of the burgh lands of the estate; the marginal or boundary land, rzow i nfarm names. 2 the end of a t o f t (see t a f t l ) , the tail of t h e toft. thellar n (in old O r k n q ~houses) an apartment between the fire room and the barn. hem n 1 the edge; stones on their hems implies that they are on their edges as opposed to their sides or natural beds. 2 the outer part of a millstone. hemmel, hammel YZ 1 a shed and an open court communicating with it, used for housing cattle. 2 a square rack on posts in a cattle court to hold fodder. [prob. fr helm in general sense of 'a covering']


hemmer hemmer see haimmer. hen n : hen-bauk a tie-beam on the roof of a country cottage ( S O calletl because hens roosted there). hen-laft a hen-roost; the roof-joists of a house and the space above them. hench see hainch. herbriage see harboury. herbry see harboury. heritableacij ( l a u ~1) applied to that form of property (houses, lands, and rights pertaining to these) which went by inheritance to the heir-at-law, as opposed to moveable property 2 pertaining to or connected with houses, lands etc. herp see harp. herre see harr. herse, hairse n a triangular frame for holding lights in a church, a sconce with lights; a lustre. herting see hearting. hesp, hasp n a hasp, a hinged clasp of metal (on a door) which passes over a staple and is secured by a pin or padlock. tinfeftment by hasp and staiple symbolic ownership or possession. heuk, thuke n 1 a hook. 2 a sickle used to cut reeds for thatching. hidden see huidden. hie, hie gate, high see heich. hind, hynd n : hinds' r a w a row of cottages occupied by farmworkers. hind rooms rooms in a farmhouse used as accommodation for married farm servants. hing, hang n, U; seealso hung: hanger avertical strut in a roof framework. hanging (offloors etc) sloping, in such a direction. hanging chimney see hanging lum. hanging lock, thingand lok a padlock. hanging lum, hanging chimney 1 a chimney brace used for hanging meat or fisl~to smoke, found in the kitchen flues of many tower houses; it can also be a free-standing structure. 2 a wide wooden chimney, with one end directly over an open fire, the other end carried up through the roof; it can be free standing rather than against a wall. hanging post a 1 wooden post supporting a roof placed parallel to the kingpost and meeting the queenpost where it touches the angle of the roof. 2 the doorpost to which the hinges are attached.

hanging side (of a door) the side that the hinges are f ~ e to. d hinging step a step of which one end is built into a wall and the other is unsupported, ie cantilevered. hangrell 1 a tree branch used for holding bridles etc in a stable. 2 a curved wooden bar with hooks on which a sack can be hung and held open for filling. let a wall hang leave a wall temporarily unsupporte-'

hirehouse n a farm bothy; cf hyrdhoose. hirsel see hirstle. hirst n 1 a sloping wall or ramp; the top of a barren rocky slope. 2 ta threshold. 3 the hinge of a door. 4 a floor where the millstones operate. 5 the frame of a pair of millstones. thirstle, hirsel n an iron pin or auger used for boring holes when red hot. [Sc hirsel to graze, grate] hoarding n t o n g the overhanging timber gallery which projected from a castle parapet level and commanded the face of the wall (supported on putlogs); for protection from fire the boarding which formed the gallery was draped with hides or covered with a thick coating of clay or loam. [hence modern Eng = any temporary cldse-boarded screen; a board for advertisements] thodle n a small roadside inn. hogie n a fireplace where peat is burnt; the fireplace of a kiln SHETLAND, ORKNEY

hoill see hole. hoisting n pieces of pantile laid at an angle, filling the space between the pantiled area of the roof and extended over the thackgate (when pantiling replaced thatch) and the projecting thackstane on the chimneyhead. thoit n a small temporary dwelling used to house fishermen when working away from home; any small, mean hut, a hovel SHETLAND.

holdfast see haud. hole n, also thoill a dungeon, prison cell. hole-in-the w a ( l l ) , hole-of-the-wall a small house or apartment, oferz in a recess between two larger buildings and entered directly from the street, m u used as a shop or public house. holk see howk. hollow n a plane. hollow bossing see boss. hollow moulding a moulding with a concave cross-section. hone n a whetstone. t h o o n, also hoostaik a rafter, a piece of wood which ties the tops of the two rafters (which form a roof couple) and on which rests the ruif-tree of a thatched roof; usu applied to the timber crosspiece which supports the ridge. hood, huid n 1 the back of a fireplace, built like a seat. 2 tan enclosure or shelf outside a fireplace. hood moulding a projecting moulding on the face of a wall above an arched opening (zrsu follows the shape of the arch), provided to divert rainwater from the opening etc. [cf hud] hooff, hooft see howf. hoose see house. . hoostaiksee hoo. hoozle see hozle. horal, horl see whurl. horn n a projection, esp 1 the projection of a lintel framing beyond the side framing of a door frame to assist its fxing; 2 the pipe-shaped projection on a water-closet for the connection to a drainpipe. horn-en(d), thorn-eyn the best room NE. horse n 1 t a tray used by masons to carry lime or mortar. 2 a wooden stool or trestle used by builders to support scaffolding or to lay timber onto be sawn etc. thorsecoorse, horsecourse = horsegang l . thorsegang 1 the circular track trodden by the horses in driving :I threshing mill; the driving apparatus itself. 2 the fourth part of a pleuchgate. thorsemylne = horsegang l . thoserwa(i)rd an enclosure for horses. thost n a guesthouse for travellers. hostilary, hostlary, ostillary. ostlary I a lodging house

hot wall belonging to a monastic community. 2 a hostelry, an inn. ?hot wall n a wall heated by self-contained flues against which fruit trees were trained in order to assist ripening. thou U to hew (stone). houksee howk. hous see house. house, hoose, thous, t h o w s n 1 a set of rooms in a building occupied by one tenant or one family having a separate door opening; open applied to one storey only, ie a flat or apartment. 2 t a stronghold, a castle. U to fm in a socket, mortice, of timber framing etc: housed joints. thousing, houssing a recessed panel framed with moulded stones for the reception of an emblem, coat of arms etc. housing scheme see scheme. hoose end a gable. house-heating see heat. hooseheid the ridge of a house roof, or the roof itself. house-hicht the height of a house, one or more storeys. jhoosimal the space between houses SHETLAND. house-pin one of the wooden pins put into a roof for keeping simmens tight and for fixing pones. hous of office see office. house-stead the land on which a house is to be built, the site of a house. house within itself, house t o itself 1 a self-contained house. 2 semi-detached house. how, h o w e n 1 a prehistoric burial mound, a barrow. 2 a hollow: a gutter-how. thowhouse a basement dwelling; one below street level. ?how stappill a sliding bolt. howf, howff, thooff, thooft n 1 an enclosed yard or space. 2 a workman's shelter or hut. 3 a tavern, a haunt, a pub. 4 t a burial ground, esp the one in the centre of Dundee. howk, tholk, t h o u k U to dig out, excavate. hows see house. hozle, hoozle n the socket into which the handle or shaft of a hammer, pick, fork, golf club etc is fitted. hud, hudd n 1 the back of an open fireplace, if made of stone or sometimes of clay 2 a type of carrier, rather like an open box (consisting of two adjacent sides and one end) on the end of a pole; the labourer who held the end of the pole in one hand and steadied it on his shoulder was known as a hudman; stones, bricks and mortar were transported in this manner. 3 a shelf or recess at each side of a fireplace. 4 that part of a wall construction consisting of transverse stones, for strengthening purposes.

butt and hudd describes the wall construction where there are alternate courses of headers and stretchers, the width of two stretchers being equal to the length of one header; sometimes implies a wall in which both single- and doubledyke construction is used. [cf hood] huid see hood. thuidden, hidden, heeding, headin n a hinge. huke see heuk. humour U to adjust and fit two adjacent surfaces together so that there is no irregular joint; to provide a smooth joint. thunder n a measure of garden ground (said to be approx 15 ft X 18 ft (4.57 X 5.49 m), an area adequate to grow 100 plants of kail) ORKNEY. t h u n e n the extreme upper end of a rafter where it joins with another to form the ridge of a roof. hung adj (of a ruindouj) opening on hinges; NB when referring to a window sash, it implies that it is hung on cords and counterbalanced with weights, ie as a sash and case w i n d o w ; see also hing. recessed pointing where hunger n:thunger-pointing mortar is well back from a stone face. hungry of joints in a wall that require repointing. hup see hupe. thupe, hup n the circular wooden frame enclosing a millstone to prevent the meal from being scattered. hurl U : hurler a person who carries stones on a hand-harrow hurlie, hurl(ie) barra a wheelbarrow, a handcart. hurrie see hurry. thurry, hurrie n a recess or corner inside a house used as a privy and in which urine was kept as a source of ammonia for [perk fr. Sc hurrack a clothes-washing purposes ORKNEY. corner] thusband n : husbandland a measure of land (= 2 oxgangs). See also Measures on plOS. husband t o w n a homestead occupied by a husbandman, a manorial tenant who had, in return for rent and services, a holding in land (husbandland) in addition to his homestead. +hut n applied to a secondary smaller residence, usu built in the grounds of a larger mansion and occupied as a town- or surburban house by wealthy families. hutch n an embankment built to check an erosive stream. hynd see hind. thyrdhous n a house, accommodation for a hired man; cf hirehouse.

ile see aisle, uilie. timpost n a junction of an arch and a pier (or corbel), zrsu marked by a horizontal line or joint. inamble see inamel. tinamel, inamble v to enamel. inband, inban n a type of stone header, ZLSU dressed and checked; it is short on the main wall face and long (generally the thickness of the wall) on the return; it is checked to take a window or door or frame for the same. Strictly speaking the part of the return on the outside of the check is known as the reveal or ingo and the part of the return on the inside of the check is known as the jamb or scuncheon; cf outband which is long on the main wall face and short on the return, ie the distance from the main wall face to the check. The vertical sides of an opening in a stone wall for a door or a window are formed with alternate out- and in-bands, which bond into the stonework courses formingthe wall; a lintel completes the top l base. of such an opening and a s ~ l the inby n ta kitchen in an old Orkney house, separated by a partition from the outby where the animals were kept.



ad71 in that portion of farmland in the immediate neighbourhood of the farm buildings. income n 1an entrance. 2 a jamh. 3 = oncome n 1. incorporation n an association of tradesmen, or@belonging to the same craft, with burgess rights and duties and until 1846 holding a monopoly of their craft in their burgh. tind n indigo, a blue dye; see also Badeas. tindent 11 to repair defective stonework by carefully cutting out ancl inserting new stones. infeftment by hasp and staiplesee hesp. infeild see infield. tinfield, infeild n the field or land lying nearest to the farm or homestead; s/)t.c(fone ofthe two main divisions of an arable farm before the practice of crop rotation, consisting of the best land nearest the farm buildings, kept continuously under crop and well manured; cf outfield. ingang, ingaun rz 1 also ingate an entrance. 2 also ingo, ingoing the face of a door, window or opening; i e where stonework turns at right angles to the main external face of awall towards a door or window. ingo plate n 1 a timber facing applied at the joints of an opening; eg a window 2 the timber which finishes at the ingo; reveal-lining. ingerssee ingres. ingle n 1an open hearth, the fireside, a chimney corner. 2 a kilnor furnace-fire. tingle bow a curved iron rod suspended in a chimney for the 11;:nging of pots and kettles on, a form of swey. ingle-cheek the fireside, chimney corner. tingle-en(d) that side of a house or room where the fire is ingle-neuk = ingle-cheek. ingle-side the fireside. ingle-Sane a hearthstone. ingo, ingoing see ingang. tingres, ingers n grass fields within the boundary of a town or

cross-sectional area) to a wall or chimney-stack ledge. 2 a dam across a stream to divert water for a mill. intersole n an intermediate or mezzanine floor. inticksee intak. invert n the lowest point or level on the inside surface of a pipe, the accepted datum or reference point on a drain. ?iris n hires, regularly mentioned in builders' accounts. irn, aim, ern, tirne, tarn n iron. tirons a mason's tools. iron eer N, tiron eor ferric oxide, rust. tironhouse a room in a prison where prisoners were kept in irons. ish, tisch n (law) a right &means of exit: ish andentry islaresee aislar.

jamnut n a locknut on the screwed stem of a tap- or pipe-fitting for securing it to a fmure through which the stem passes, esp in connecting pipes to cisterns. jamper see jumper. tjaupbox = jawbox. jaw n, 1): jawbox a sink in a kitchen or on a common stair. jawhole, tjawerhole 1a primitive drain; 0% a hole in the wall of a house for pouring away slops etc. 2 the mouth of a cesspool, a sewer. tjawer stane 1a stone sink. 2 a water conductor. tjedge, jadge, jage n 1 a gauge, a measurement of size. 2 a measuring rod used by masons for marking out a foundation or ground place. 3 the limit or extent which a proposed new building or alterations to an existing building must not exceed. v to verify the capacity of (a standard measure). jedge and warrant authority given by the Dean of Guild to repair or rebuild ruinous houses and to constitute the expense as a real burden on the property thus must be entered in the Register of Sasines. jeeg, 'tjeig, tgeig, jig 21 to creak, eg as a door needing oiled hinges; cfjirg. jeest, tjeeste, tjeist, tjest, tgest, tgeist n 1a floor joist, a floor beam. 2 t a tie of a truss at wallhead level, a ceiling joist. t v to s+upport with joists. jelhoussee geilhous. jest see jeest. 'tjetee n the nozzle or outlet on a gas burner. jib n a protective leather covering for a stonemason's left thumb,

tinhaulding, inholding n the holding in and damming of water. tinhoose, inhous n the inner part or room of a house. inlair see inlay. tinland n 1 the inner part of a block of buildings lying between the front and back wing and generally forming one side of a courtyard. 2 the homestead or infield land on a farm or estate. tinlay 11 to build the inlair. inlair the part of the mill clam which formed the channel of the millrace, the lade. tinlok n an ordinary lock on the inside of a door. f inner house n an inner apartment of a building. inneriesee inneryfinnery, innerie n a flatted building to which access is gained by a common stairs. innis see ennis. inseat see inset. inset, tinsett i n 1also inseat the infield or part of it. 2 a living rcwm in a farmhouse. 3 the small room between the kitchen and parlour in a three apartment house, the mid-room. 4 a kitchen. 5 an inner room. t f to instal. tinsicht n the furnishings of a dwelling house: im'cht and

i7l.strumetzts taeJi~this. intak, intake, intick n 1a plinth or offset (such as to diminish a






. jadge, jagesee jedge. jam see jamb. jamb, jam, jum n 1 a projecting wing or addition to a building W.. 2 a buttress or other projection. 3 the side part of a door, window, fireplace; occasionally instead of simply meaning a general part of the door etc; it can be applied to the actual structural member or standard. 4 an over-large,rambling house. tjammie a hovel. jambstane the upright of a fireplace. jambwall a short wall built out from the fireside to form a draught screen between the fireplace and the adjacent outside door. back jamb parlour see parlour. jammay bandsseegekma bands. jammer see jimmer. jammiesee jamb.


jim p






jimp, gimp a d j (of a measure or quantity) scanty barely sufficient: 'betterproud thanjimp'. jiner see join. jirg z~ creak; cf jeeg. f j i w l e n a bare, uncomfortable place; a cell-like room. [OSc jaz~eljail] John Gunn n a privy, a latrine NE. join, tjone, tjune z, to join materials. joiner, jiner n a woodworker in general not restricted, as in England, to one who does light or more ornamental work than a carpenter; by the early 19th century this word had to some extent supplanted wricht. joinery a joiner's workshop. tjoint harl v to point. jointer plane see half. jone see join. tjornal, jornall n a day's work. tjougs npl a system of public detention consisting of a hinged iron collar which was locked round the offender's neck and connected by a short chain to a pole or to the wall of a building. tjowell hous n a treasure house, a strong room. jum see jamb. tjumper, jamper n a mason's chisel used with a mash (ie an iron-headed hammer) and therefore used for heavy work such as cutting holes etc and not fine work (dressing and hewing), when a mell (a wooden-headed hammer) would be used. june see join.

kaberit see caber. kaik, kake see cake. kailyaird, kaleyard, caleyard n .a garden for kale, often formed from within the walls of a ruined house from which the roof and timbers have been removed; a kitchen garden. tkaim-cleaners npl tufts of horsehair inserted into beams of old houses and used for cleaning combs. [Sc kame a comb] tkaipe-quheill n some part of a lock. kaleyard see kailyaird. kame, cam, calme n lead framing for glass, common in stained-glass windows. [apparently from Sc kame = a low ridge like a cock's comb] kantit see cant. keaber, kebar, kebbar see caber. tkebber and daub n = cat and clay. keeled-shaft kechin see kitchie. n describes the shaft of a column which instead of being perfectly round is brought to a straight edge like the bottom of a boat. keep v: keeper, tkepar, tkipper 1 a metal plate with a hole into which the bolt of a lock projects when shot. 2 a staple for a bolt. ?keeping a space, slot or repository in which things can be tkeerie n a dirty or delapidated house. keiching see kitchie. tkeir, kier n an ancient fortification. keisylstane see kyslestone. tkeling sound, kelling sound n a cod's bladder used in gluemaking. tkelis hous, kellis hous n a larder or store for dried fish. tkellach n anything built high and narrow ikelyeit a d j coloured. kemple, tkimpal n a truss of straw prepared for thatch. tkenmarrie n the seaward end of a wall or fence. [ScGael = sea

kep z; a doorstop, door check, a catch for a latch. kepar see keep. tkeptrie n a piece of roof timber. [Eng cope tree] kersackie see carsackie. tkessel i z meaning uncertain, could be scaffolding or a mould. kevel hammer, cavel mell n a sledgehammer, a heavy hammer used for breaking stone; the mell in this case has an iron head whereas the mason's me11 has a timber head. key1n the scratches which give good adhesion to a surface, eg for mortar etc or the plaster rivets formed in plaster laths - see rivet. key2, t k y n a key tkey silver the first payment for a completed building job. key up to wedge up, to pin. kiching see kitchie. kier see keir. kilbarn see kill. kilchan, calchen, coulichin n an open iron rack hung in a chimney to dry 'fir candles' NE. kill, kiln n a kiln. kill(barn), kilnbarn a barn attached to or containing a kiln. tkil(l)croft a croft attached to a kiln. kill door the steps up to the entrance to a kiln. kiln-head the roof of a kiln forming the floor of the drying chamber on which the grain is spread. t k i l hous a building or part of one which contains a kiln. kill pot the heating chamber under a corn-kiln. kill stead = kill croft. kill stick(le), kill tree one of the beams which support the drying floor. tkillick n the mouth of a pickaxe. killogie, kiln-logie n applied to various parts of a corn- or malt-kiln: 1 the lower part, under the drying chamber; the kiln itself; 2 the fire or fireplace; 3 the covered space or shelter in front of the fireplace which assists the draught for the fire and provides shelter for the kilnman. Kilmarnock well n a cast-iron fountain made in a factory in Kilmarnock. kiln see kill. kiln-logiesee killogie. kilpinsten n a flat stone placed at the top of the mouth of a kiln, above the fire, and projecting into the kiln space so as to shield the drying floor of wood and straw from the flames, and to catch any corn that trickles through SHETLAND. kilt n a weathering or grading of stone steps in order that the surface water runs off and does not lie on the surface. kilt fillet a tilting fillet. kimpal see kemple. kinch, kinsh 2 1 1 to twist or double or loop (a rope) when securing roof thatch. 2 to twist (straw) to Form a rope by inserting a stick or a pin. n a lever used in quarrying stones. kind adj: kindly, tkyndly 1 (of a tenant or tack.sman) having a right to the tenancy or tack in consequence of its long continued occupation by oneself or one's ancestors, rather than by feudal charter etc, ofen kindly tenant etc, nolu onb King's Kindly Tenants of Lochmaben. 2 thaving the right of a kindly occupier to (the land etc specified). 3 ofla lands, tacks etc) belonging to a person as the kindly occupier, ofen kindly rowme, steding etc. tkindness, kyndnes the prescriptive right of a kindly tenant to his holding or tack. king n: tking's house an inn, or& a camp set up during the construction of Wade's roads (the king's highways). tking's keys the crowbars and other implements used to force entrv in the execution of the king's warrant.



kinsl kinsh sec kinch. tkintye n the timber ridge of a couple roof. tkippage n builders' equipment. kipper see keep. kipple see couple. kirb see crib. kirk n a church. -1-kirk clachan a village which has grown round a parish church. tkirk-hole a graveyard. tkirk house a house belonging to or adjoining a church. tkirk sett, kirsit (law) the time (usu of one year) during which a newcomer to a burgh might be exempt from church tithes. tkirk stile the narrow entrance into a churchyard closed by a bar, a wicket; an arrangement of steps where public meetings were held; the place where the funeral bier was received. kirkton, kirktoun a collection of buildings, or a village, containing a kirk. tkirk werk building work on a church. kirk yaird a churchyard. kirn to drill, bore with a circular chisel. kirner a hand boring-chisel. tkirnel, kirnell, kyrnal n 1 an opening in a battlement, as opposed the raised portions of it; battlements. 2 a hattlemented salient or turret of a castle. ZJ

kirnell turnpik a spiral staircase. [OF crenel; the licence to crenellate was the equivalent of a permit to fortify a residence, a permit which was only issued to loyal subjects] kirsit see kirk. kist n 1 a chest, large box, often one used for clothes or meal. 2 a shelf formed by the top of a lower sash in a sash-and-case window. 3 a wooden box in a stable for holding a horse's corn. kist window a casement windom: kitchie, fkiching, tkeiching, tkechin, tciching n a kitchen, the place where food is cooked. tkits n a latrine. fkittie n 1 the village lock-up; the town prison. 2 a public washhouse. klick-mill, click-mill, clack mill n an early type of watermill tinven by a tlanged wheel placed underneath and turning horizontally under the impetus of a chute ORKXEY; cf English mill. fkluvie n the claw of a hammer; a claw-hammer SHETLAND. knafe see knave. knag, nag(g) n a peg, a nail. fknaggy adj fill1 of knot.

lace knapl, knapper, knappin hammer, nap(per) n a hammer for stone breaking. tknap of the causey the middle stones of a street, the crown of the road. knap2n a peg, a nail. tknapburd, knapholt, knappald, knappet, knapwood, knappel n clapboard, small size of split oak used for a wainscot, although strictly this was cut and squared planking, which was not so good quality as a wainscot. knar, knaur, knirr, knurlr) n a knot in wood; cf nirr. tknarrat a large timber beam. tknave, knafe n a basinwand or other artifact made by a blacksmith. knee n a bend, a crank, a bent coupling. zJ to make an angle on what was formerly straight: knee iron. kneeler = s k e w ~ u t t . knibblich, kniblich see knibloch. tknibloch, knibblich, kniblich n a small stone. knibblockie (ofa road) rough, where small stones rise to the surface. knirr see knar. tknit v to join timbers: knittin the siles. adj (ofjoiner's orsmith:r work) secured by a joint. knyttil, knyttill a string or cord for tylng or fastening. knock' ,knok v knock. n 1 knock. 2 t a knocker on a door or gate. tknokkins the open junction of a couple. tknockin stane a stone in the house on which grain was beaten every morning. knock up rework putty lime mortar into a plastic state. knock2, nock, tknok, tnok tknock house, knok hous the part of a steeple in which a public clock and works are installed. knock laft a clock loft or gallery in a church. knoksee knock1, knock2. knop, tknoop, tknoup n a small boss or knob of carved, turned work. tknulling n a very flat moulding. knur, knurl n an infinitesimal adjustment:just a knurl. knur, knurr see knar. knurl see knur. knyttil, knyttill see knit. tkramestock n an iron support for a crane. [appar. error for kranestock] tkrieheid n a piece of bent timber. kro see cruel. tkuddie door n a door on the gable of a byre through which manure is carried; once all the byre is cleared the doorway is mu blocked up SHETLAND. ky see key'. tkyle-alley n a skittle alley kyndly, kyndnessee kind. kyrnal see kirnel. jkyslestone, keisylstane n a flintstone. laanstehl see land. label, label moulding n 1 usu a projecting moulding over an opening to throw off rainwater, in particular the projecting outer moulding of a Gothic arch (for the same purpose); it usu terminates in a notchheid. 2 a moulded pattern in stone corbels (at towers etc) rather like battlements in form, originating some time during the 16th century and later common, esp in Aberdeenshire. flaborious adj (of tools) used for work. tlace v to bed in mortar selected rows of pantiles in ord

lach lait see late. prevent them being lifted off by the wind. laiteran see lettern. lach see laich. lan see land. lacht see laft. land, lan tz a tenement (zrsu of many storeys, divided into tlachter 1also lachterstead the site of a house. 2 a sheet of flats); orig a holding of land, a building site. lead. landgutter a horizontal gutter between roof slopes. laddle mill see ladle. -i-landmeith a landmark, a marchstone. lade, tleid, lead ?z a millstream, a channel cut for a millstream, tland meither a person appointed by a corporate body to ZLSU a diversion from the main river. settle and inspect the boundaries of their property. ladinar see laidner. ?land meithing the fucing and inspection of boundaries. $ladle n a floatboard or paddle of a water wheel. tlandmercat a meat market, srtrviz~ingin the street-nan~e lad(d)le mill a corn mill driven by such a wheel. (the) Lawnmarket in the Old Town ofEdinhziqqb tlaem, layum, lem n a kind of half-loft formed by planks of tland-mettar, land-metster a land-measurer, a surveyor. wood or boarding, laid over the cross-beams (ties or joists) of tlandport a town gate. the living room of a cottage; used as a large shelf or store tlandstail, landstyle 1 a parapet of a bridge. 2 the part of a SHETLAND. [ON hlemmr a trapdoor] dam which abuts the adjoining land; an abutment. 3 also laftin see laft. laft. tlacht, loft n 1 a loft. 2 the storey other than agroundlaanstehl, lanstell, lanstool the foundation of a pier or bndge. floor storey, i e the upper storey of a two-storey house. 3 tland and tenement, tenement and land a tenement in tblocks of seats or pews in the gallery of a church, or@ a burgh. occupied by a Guild, important personages and family etc; cf landell see landier. laird's loft (under laird). tlandier, landell n an andiron, an iron bar to support the end lafting, lofting 1the upper storey in a building, one of several of a log in a fire; a firedog. floors or storeys in a building. 2 also tlaffin a joisted, boarded landimer see lanimer. ceiling. 3 boardlng in general. 4 ?a shelf or ledge, esp for lang, long adj long. holding rolls or records. lang band a crossbeam, the purlin of a roof SHETLAND. loftit 1 having a loft. 2 of two or more storeys. langshank (of taps) designed to give adequate clearance for lagger v to apply mortar and stones etc, thickly and unevenly high containers to be filled with water. laich, laigh, tlach adj low, low-lying. longstone saving a stone lintel. laigh door a ground-floor or basement door (not a main long-taillit see band n 2. door). lanimer, ilandimer, tlannimor n 1 a boundary of landed laich house, laich shop, tlaich biggin 1 a single-storey property, esp of burgh lands. 2 tan adjuster of marches building (on the ground floor). 2 occasionally applied to a ha~ement or semi-basement. 3 the lowest building in a group , between cotermi~lous landowners, a land-measurer, a .-----surveyor. of buildings. lanstell, lanstool see land. laich kirk 1 the area of a church as opposed to the galleries. 2 tlant n a cupola (lantern). sometimes applied to the low church in a town in contrast to tlantern n a lighthouse. the high church, i e the Episcopal Church, or a church which is lanterne escalier a turret containing a spiral staircase. not the main church in a town, usu of a later foundation and tlapnel n a small variety of nail. on a lower site. larach, tlairach, tlerroch n 1a site of a house. 2 a foundation laid n a load, esp a horse load, referred to in old accounts. or the remains of an abandoned or ruinous building. 3 tthe laid drain, laid trees see lay. ground floor of a house. 4 t a gate latch. [ScGael larach, IrGael laithreach] lardener see laidner. lat rz a lath, esp one stretched across roof beams for storage. tlatchet n 1 a lead, copper or zinc clip or strap for securing a welt or joint; a tingle. 2 one of the pieces of wire or metal straps LAID DRAIN used to make up a window lattice. ?late, lait v 1 to plate with tin. 2 to heat metal so that it can bend without breaking. laten see lattoun. lateral n a small field drain which serves a larger or main drain; tlaidner, ladinar, lardener, lairdner n a larder. a branch drain. laigh see laich. lateron see lettern. laight n a lath, strip of wood fixed at right angles to the rafters lath n: lather, lether a thin strip ofwood used for hanging t (about 3 ft ((900 mm) above the eaves) round which the rope on (battens) or for applying plaster to. holding down the thatch was looped O R K N ~ tlathbrod nail a short, broad-headed nail used for futing laths. lairach see larach. tlathomus a mason. laird n a landowner, landlord. latoun, latten see lattoun. ilaird's loft the private gallery in a church reserved for the tlattoun, latoun, laten, latten n a tin plate or thin sheet of laird and his family, usu formed in the chancel arch. brass. tlaird's lug a concealed listening tube built into a structure; shaven latten a very thin sheet of lattoun. sometimes it was only a form of vent along which sounds could tlaver, lawer n 1 a washplace (esp monastic). 2 a spout or unwittingly pass; cf lug n 2. conduit supplying water to a washplace. lairdner see laidner. Lawnmarket see land. ?lair-stane n 1 a foundation stone. 2 a gravestone. lay' 1 1 1 to enclose or retain by means of an embankment. 7




liggat apply: zijeil lavit over = well-covered. 3 t t o build. tlayar a person who lays stones, a mason's workman. laid drain a field drain formed by a row of stones laid on each side ancl a course of flat stones laid on top. laid trees a framework attached to a cart to increase its capacity laylight a glazed panel set in a ceiling which allows daylight from ;l roofligbt to shine directly into a room.

leid, tlede, lead n the metal lead. tledin, leddin, leiddin, lidne made of lead or covered in lead. leads, tledis the sheets of lead used to cover a roof. tledehous a plumber's workshop, a store for lead. tledeman a plumber. tlede mylne an appliance for working the leads (kames) of a lattice window tlede-nail, leyd-nail1 a kind of nail used to fasten lead sheeting to a roof. leif see lefe. leitch see leech. lem see laem. lerroch see larach. lether see lath, ledder. lettern, lateron, tlaiteran, tlettroun n 1 the precentor's desk beside a pulpit. 2 a raised pew round the foot of a pulpit where the elders sat or the parents brought children for baptism. 3 t a lectern. [OFr lettrun a reading desk] tlettrin, lettern n a latrine. leu, lev see lefe. lever see lewder. levis see lefe. lewder, lewer, louder, lowder, lever n 1 a wooden lever or l a y n a turning lathe. crowbar, esp one for lifting millstones. 2 ?a vent; a window or tlayke n paint. similar opening in a roof. 3 t a roof beam or couple of tlaykyn n a latch for a door or drawer. naturally curved timber as used in thatched roofs. layum see laem. lewis see lose2. LBS see low back siphon trap. leyd naill see leid. lead see leid. see librar. librall, librell leader n 1 a drainpipe usu for surface water and generally tlibrar, librall, librell n a library. applied to a large pipe which is served by subsidiary smaller licht, light, tlycht n 1 an opening in a wall made to admit pipes (laterals). 2 a water pipe. light. 2 a division of a window or the window itself. 3 a pane lean adj (of mortar) having a weak mixture, ie one containing of glass: a four-light u~indow.4 t a servitude binding one a smaller than usual proportion of lime, clay or cement. owner of a property not to build or plant on it so as to leawes see lefe. obstruct the light of his neighbour. leck, leckstane n 1 a flagstone. 2 tany stone which withstands tlichtsum (of windou~s) specification requiring ample fire and is therefore used for oven slabs. daylight. leckerstane, likerstane n a prominent stone, traditionally tlichtenin-tree n the beam in a watermill which raises or one on which a coffin was rested on its way to the church. [of levers the upper millstone. doubtful origin; prob. not connected with leek stane (see lick n: in good lick (ofpaintwork) in good condition. l~ke)l lid n one of the leaves or halves of a double door, often one lectern doocot see doocot. enclosing a box-bed. tledar n a driver, referred to in old accounts. lidne see leid. ledder, lether, tlodar n a ladder. lie, tly L: n: ;lying 1 as applied to a panel, pane of glass etc, I, to fii a ladder against a building, usu in a repair operation. where the length (or width) is greater than the height; cf leddin, lede see leid. standing. 2 (of wood) having the grain horizontal. ledge n 1 also ledgin, tledgit the top of the lower sash of a lyin graith see graith. window which fonns a ledge or shelf. 2 tako ledging a tlyand licht, lying licht 1 a ceiling light. 2 a horizontal light parapet, zrsu of a bridge but occasionally applied to a building. let into a roof. 3 one of two or three horizontal timbers on the back of a batten door. 4 also ledger the horizontal batten in a scaffold tlyar (stane) a nether millstone. lie-bed the mortared bed or surface of a stone on which, in (called the gaberts). t 1 1 to form a parapet; provide with a parapet. building, another is laid. ledis see leid lift n 1 the level at which a drystone wall begins to rise above leech, leitch v to pin or splice two pieces of wood together S. the grass. 2 the heightof shuttering used in in situ concrete leeksee lyke. work (after the concrete has hardened, the shuttering is leem see lume. struck, ie removed and refitted at the next higher level ready tleepie n an indoor refuse dump, lined with a flossmat, and to receive the next batch of mortar or concrete; each level is tcc~rdug out in the corner of the living-room floor SAETLAND. called a lift). 3 the curved metal (brass) hook fitted to the tleet 11 (ofa roof)to cover with lead. [prob. an error for feed = bottom rail of a sash and used for raising or lifting the sash. 4 leid] the distance by which one roofing-slate projects below the tlefe, leif n, plalso levis, leawes 1 also leu, lev a hinged leaf slate in the row immediately above. 5 tal.70 lifter a flat or flap of a door, gate, window 2 a leaf of gold or silver foil. rectangular-shaped perforated door key which lifted a latch. leg n an upright post (built into the wall of a house) which liggat, liggate n a small, wooden gate, self-closing clue to the supports a rafter inclined manner in which it is hung.


liggater room tliggater room n a small room joining one room to another; an anteroom. likerstane see leckerstane. lime i? generally means not lime itself but lime mortar, that is, a mixture of lime, sand and water, often stane and lime. liming whitewashing (generally) with lime. tlime-kill a lime-kiln. ?lime-lary a mason's labourer. tlime-redd rubbish from lime walls used by farmers as soil dressing. lime-shebers auicklime in lump form; unground .limeshells. ....- . kiln-burnt limestone; burnt lime before it is slaked. lime-wark a lime-kiln, a place where lime is worked and 'burned. pitleslie limesee pitleslie lyme. line, tlyne n a string or cord, with a pin or stick at each end, used by masons to mark out, on the ground foundations and walls etc; also used during wall-building operations to ensure that the courses are level: be lyne and level1 carefully, methodically U 1 to ensure that various points are in a straight line. 2 to ftw or mark out boundaries. tlinar, lyner an official of a burgh appointed to measure out and so fix the boundaries of holdings within the burgh. ?line-stonea stone set up to mark the boundaries of land, a marchstone. ?lineal stanes stones sold by the lineal foot. tlineator a surveyor, a measurer. lining boarding, usu thin and butt-jointed, providing a covering on the inner face of a room, cupboard walls, wainscotting, ceiling etc. (decree of) lining official permission to build issued by the Dean of Guild Court, according to plans submitted to and approved by the Court. link n 1 a straw rope used to hold down thatch. 2 one of the loops on a chain from which the pot-hook was suspended in an old-fashioned fireplace. linkstane a stone fixed as a weight at the end of a link '. tlin nail n a lynch pin. lintel n 1 a timber, stone, concrete beam over an opening. 2 a threshold. 3 a fireplace, esp the front view. tlintell ail1 drink given to builders when lintels have been built into position. lip n the timber fore edge (to a door, shelf etc). v 1 to break pieces from the face of edge tools. 2 to point. lipped (of a dyke) lime-pointed. tlipper hous n an asylum for lepers. lirk, lurk n a wrinkle, crease, eg on a piece of sheet lead or lead pipe. list n a very small rebate or chack. tlists 1 a palisade in front of a beleaguered town. 2 the bounds or limits of a town. lith n a gate, a gap in a fence CAITHNESS. lithie n a stout peg driven into the wall of a byre to which a cow can be tethered ORKNEY. tlithouse n a dye works. litter n, also tlitterstane a stone of a convenient size, (approx 2 ft X l f t X lft (300 X 150 X 150 mm)) for carrying on a litter by two bearers NE. ?litter tree a timber framework for carrying such stones; a handbarrow. little adj: little house a privy, a compartment containing a water-closet. little room a small parlour or breakfast room in a farmhouse used informally instead of the best room. ?liver-rock n a rock of homogeneous sandstone without any -


I l

, i





well-defined planes of stratification, therefore very suitable for a mason to work. loadberrie see lodberrie. loan, ?lone, tloyne n 1 also loanin a lane, narrow street, a street without pavements; orig a way where there was no buildings, ie between fields. 2speczfthe part of farm ground or a roadway which leads to or adjoins the house. 3 ?a street or roadway tloaning dyke the wall dividing the arable land from the common pasture. lock, tlok 2 1 : tlocked top a dyke with a cope consistins of longish flat stones set vertically to form a level top (said to be invented by John MacAtlam of Craigengullish in 1753). tlokkit furnished with a lock. lockfast t n a locked cupboard. adj fastened by lock and key. tlokhol(e) a keyhole. lockart see lokkat. lodarsee ledder. lodberrie, loadberrie n a type of 18th-century house esp in Lerwick, built at the edge of the sea and incorporating a pier, courtyard and store SHETLAND, ORKNEY. [ON blaaberg a flat rock forming a natural quay or harbour] lodge, ludge, tloge, tluge, tlwge n 1 a temporaryshed used by masons as a workshop, or for eating in, or generally as living quarters on a building site. 2 permanent quarters used as the mason's workshop. 3 an organized body of masons in a town or district. 4 only tloge a summerhouse. tlodgeable habitable. lodging a house, hall, or temporary accommodation, shelter or dwelling place. lodging house see model. lodi see lodie. tLodian brace n a grate set against a gable projecting all its width from the wall with two timber posts at the corners, supporting the timber flue which rises about three feet (910 mm) above the fireplace. [fr.Lothian the area in SE Scotland] tlodie, lodi n the corner of the sitting room where potatoes are stored SHETLAND. [ON hlaaa a storehouse] loft see laft. loge see lodge. loggie see logie. tlogie, loggie n 1 a vent hole at the foundation of slabs. 2 the fireplace of a kiln or the porch in front from which the fire is fed; cf killogie. lok see lock. lokart see lokkat. tlokkat, lo(c)kart n 1 one of a number of window bars, usz~ made of iron and used for holding glass in a window, also applied to the horizontal crossbars. 2 a nail or rivet for securing the metal work of a window. lokkit see lock. lonckart see lunkart. lone see loan. long see lang. longtaillit band see band. longart, lonker, lonket see lunkart. loom, loomb see lume. loop n an aperture in a wall (descriptive of its shape), a slit, 7~7u with circular ends. tloopstane one of a number of projecting stones built in at eaves level to which ropes are looped and tied in order to secure the thatch. loremeire see lorimer. tlorimer, loremeire n a maker of the metal parts of a horse's harness, a maker of small metal-wnrk.

losand tlosand unloading, used in old builders' accounts. lose' I?, also lose itself = die (into). :loseL, lewis 12 a mason who had not served a lawful or recognizecl apprenticeship and was therefore not atlmitted to his craft. losin, losing, lossane see lozen. +lot n the piece o f land allottetl to a particular tenant. louder see lewder. lounkart see lunkart. low back siphon trap (LBS) n an intercepting trap on a drain, ie a fireclay or iron pipe designed in such a way that water is retained in the lowest section and it thereby prevents the passage of sewer gases up the pipe. lowder see lewder. tlowdis (tymmer) n timber from Lowdis in Sweden. lowpin-on-stane rz a stone or stone steps used to assist a person to mount a horse. lowsin time n time to stop work, finishing time. loynesee loan. lozen, tlosin(g) n a pane of glass, usz~set in lead kames and orig a diamontl-shaped lozenge:four-lozened ujindae. losin-bole a window opening. tlossan(e) nail a door nail having a diamond-shaped head. tluckenbooth, luckenbuith, lukkinbuthe n a booth that can be locket1 up, a shop huilr within the bounds of the market, specif in p1 a row of such in the High Street of Edinburgh, tlemolished 1817. ludge see lodge. tlufferboard iz louvre board. lug 17 1 a projection (mu with a hole andlor a rebate in it to permit f ~ i n g ) .2 t a hidden recess from which one might overhear the conversation in a room. 3 the chimney corner. lugged projecting, where the horizontal element projects beyoncl the vertical elements: a lugged architraz~e. luggie a small cottage wirh one chimney-stack at the side; a hut or lodge in a park. lug sill a windowsill which extends in length into the wall beyond the reveal opening, i e it has reprises. luge see lodge. lukkinbuthe see luckenbooth. lum, lummie NE, ;lumb n 1 a chimney, the whole structure including the fireplace. 2 t a wide wooden canopy suspended over a fire serving as a smoke vent the part which projected above the roof was generally bound with straw ropes. tlummingis a chimney shaft. lumcan a chimneypot. lum-cheek the chimney corner, fireside. lumheid a chimney top, the part of the chimney rising above the roof. tlum pig a chimneypot or cowl. lumreek chimney smoke. lumroot the base of a chimney. lumtap = lumheid. lumtile a chimneypot. lume, loom, leem X, floomb n an implement, tool. tlummle n filings of metal. lump hammer n = masher. lunkart, .i-longart, tlounkart, +lonckart rz 1 a temporary shelter; a small temporary hunting-lodge. 2 tan open-air fireplace made of sods wirh an iron bar across the top from which to hang a pot X. 3 aL~olonker, lonket, lunkie (hole) a hole in a wall, made with a lintel stone, to allow sheep to pass through, or a stream to flow under SW. 4 tthe mouth of a sewer. [ScCael lonahort a harbour; an encampment; a temporary ,'welling]

mak lurk see lirk. tluting r7 caulking. lwge see lodge. ly, lyand, lyar see lie. lycht see licht. lyin, lying see lie. lyke, leek n a corpse; a wake. -tlyke house, leek house a mortuary. leek stane the stone on which a coffin rested; cf leckerstane. lynesee line.

maber see marbre. tmachcoule, machicoule n machicolation (in Scotland, mainly 15th century); an opening in the floor of a projecting parapet through which stones etc can be dropped on assailants. made see mak. magasin see magasine. imagasine, magasin ?z a store house, a warehouse. tmagister operis rz the master of (building) works; first recortlecl in 1375 in connection with the erection of David's Tower, Edinburgh Castle; ~fmaister of work. maid irne see mak. mail, male, tmeall, tmell n rent. mailin 1 a farm which is rented. 2 the rent of a farm. main a&: maindoor, maindoor flat a ground-floor flat with its own entrance as opposed to one with a common or shared entrance. tmaintree the ridge beam of a thatched roof. mainis see mains. mains, tmainis, tmanys n 1 the home farm on an estate or, in general, the part of an estate which is not let but which is cultivated for the laird himself. 2 the outbuildings of a farm as distinct from a farmhouse, esp the sleeping quarters of farmservants. [fr. OSc domaine (lands) demesne lands, the lands of the lord of the manor] maintenance n the upkeep of a building, esp with regards to its structure. mairch see march. tmaison-dew, massindew n an alms house. [OFr mesondieu, maison-dieu] maissoner see mason. maister, master n a skilled tradesman qualified to carry on trade on his own account, to employ others and train apprentices. adj (of a journqiman) qualified: a mai.rterjoine7; a maister painter. v (applied to timherfinishings etc) to be placed in front of, (partly) cover, project beyond. tmaister-couple the ridge of couple roof. maister man a foreman. tmaister stik a test piece (mu by an apprentice) to show one's ability in one's craft. tmaister work work on a home farm exacted from the tenants of adjoining smallholdings. maister wood, maister wud 1 the principal beams of wood in a tenant's roof. 2 timber for agricultural buildings paid for by a landlord. maister of work, master of work an official, usu of a niunicipality, in charge of building operations, the clerk o f works. mait almery see mete almery. mak, make L' (ofa mason) to dress (stones tmaid irne wrought iron, ironware

male made-up ground low ground which has been deliberately up-filled to bring it up to a higher level. made work pieced work, i e mosaic (also applied to the formation of a stained-glass window). t o mak(e) up 1 to build, erect. 2 to make good, repair. male see mail. tmalleables npl ironwork. mand see maun. tmandrill n a bending spring; the cylindrical core or axis, flsu made up of a series of hardwood cylinders, round which metal (wu piping) is moulded or bent or forged. jmaner, maner place n a manor house, the chief dwelling of an estate. 'tmanrent n (the holding of) land by a vassal whose superior could summon him to service in time of war. manse, tmanys n 1 a minister's house. 2 t a large or stately home, a mansion. 3 t a house reserved for the occupants of particular chairs at Aberdeen University 4 t a measure or piece of land. manteel n: tmantilling, mantling a covering, roofing. tmanteel wall a curtain- or outer wall, a rampart, a screen wall. manyssee mains, manse. tmarbre, marbyr, maber n marble. march, merch, mairch n 1 the boundary-line of a property or of lands belonging to a community 2 a boundary-marker, a landmark. march bauk a strip of land dividing two properties. march ditch a boundary ditch. march dyke a boundary wall. march roadie a path between boundaries NE. march stane a boundary stone. mare, jmear, tmeer, tmeir n 1a trestle supportinga scaffold. 2 l-a mason's hud. tmargent n the margin, referring to the flat or unmoulded portions of stiles and rails in framed and panelled work. margin n the edge of exposed surfaces of material, eg in building stone the margin can be tooled smooth in contrast with the rest of the surface which is left rough. marriage lintel, marriage stane n a lintel stone bearing, on the exposed face, the carved initials of the owner and his wife, the date of the house, marriage etc. marrow n a tradesman's helper or mate. tmarsh n the lower floor area at one end of the hall of a keep, with the elevated timber floor at the other end of the hall. mart ?z a building used for auctioning livestock. tmaser, massar n maplewood. mash, mash hammer, masher hammer n a heavy metalheaded, two-faced hammer, weighing 4 to 6 pounds (1.81-2.72 kg), used for stone-breaking or, with a flat-headed chisel, for hewing stone. mason, tmasoun, tmeason, tmeasson, tmasoner, tmaissoner rz a mason. mason's fit a mortar board, a shallow tray with a handle protruding downwards from the centre, used by a mason for holding mortar. mason's mear = mare n 1. mason's mark the symbol on hewn stone (always on the side to be exposed and generally on specially dressed stones, lintels, sills etc) which indicates the mason responsible, a signature; it is suggested that stones were marked in order to ensure that the mason got paid for his work, it could also indicate where the stone was to be laid (position mark). tmasoun merk the fee for admission to the membership of a lodge.

mett massar see maser. massie n a large wooden hammer, a mallet N. [prob. variant of mash] tmassimore, massymore n the dungeon of a prison or castle. [popularized by Sir Walter Scott; Sp ?nnrmowa a dungeon] massindew see maison-dew. massymore see massimore. master see maister. tmasticot rz 1 gum, mastic. 2 massicot (a yellow lead monoxide used as a pigment). tmattok, matok ?z a pickaxe. maun, tmand rz a basket made of wicker or wooden slats used by workmen. mausel see mausole tmausole, mausel n a mausoleum. meall see mail. mean n the ridge of a house. anj (of a gable) mutual. mear see mare. tmearing, me(i)ringn a strip of (uncultivated) land marking a boundary N. meason, measson see mason. meath see meith. meenie, minnie n a fine awl N. [ScGael minidh an awl] meer, meir see mare. meikle see muckle. meiring see mearing. meith, methe, ;meithe, tmeath n a (boundary) mark, line or channel; a measurement; in particular, a landmark for ships to steer by. [ON rni8 a fishing-bank marked by landmarks, miaa mark the position of something] mekill see muckle. tmele n the rental valuation of land SHBTIAND, ORKNN. [ON mcelir a measure] mell n a mallet made of timber (mu beech or hickory) for striking a mason's chisel; a chisel with a rounded head. tmellisman a mason. mell see mail. tmemmel n timber imported from Memel (a Baltic port in Lithuania), redwood, pitch pine for construction work. mendis see mends. tmends, mendis npl repairs. men3ell see min3ell. mercat n a market. mercat cross, tmercat cors a market cross. tmercatstead a market-place; a market town. merch see march. mering see mearing. tmerlin, merlon n the raised portion of a battlement. tmessagate, messigate n a path leading through cornfields, originally the road to a church O R K N ~[ON . mesa the mass gata a way; path] met see mett. metal n rock (mu whin) broken up and used in road-making. v to make a repair using this material. tmete almery, mett almrie, mait almery n a foodcupboard, a larder. methe see meith. mett, met n a boundary marker; a landmark used to determine the bounds of a property; a boundary stone SHETLAND, ORKNEY. tmettage 1 the measurement of the extent of a pieceu7orker's task in order to meet due payment. 2 the measuring of land, chiefly for the fuing or settling of boundaries; also the bounds settled by such measurement.



,,,ett almrie mett almrie see mete almery. tmichael, mickey n a privy. mickle see muckle. mid adj: midfeather a parting slip, cross-tongue; i e the slip of woocl wh~chIS ~nsertedinto grooves on two butting timber boards.

mid-house, mid-room 1 also mid-place the middle room in a three-roomed house; a bed closet. 2 the central storey(s) of a building. midden, midden hole n 1 a receptacle for refuse. 2 a privy. tmidden lair a place where the refuse from houses and streets was collected. midden walk a passage round the edge of a midden. midgie n an ashpit. tmigal, mygel n a mullion. milcie see milsie. milck wall see milsie. milk n.: "imilking shiel a shed used for milking. milkhouse a dairy. mill, imiln, tmyll, tmylne n 1 a mill. 2 a threshing mill. mill-cloose = trowse (see troch) tmill course, millgang, millrink n the farm building, round or octagonal in shape, containing a centrally positioned engine to drive a threshing mill in the adjoining barn. The engine was operated by horses walking round the engine perimeter; when round in shape the roof was conical and slated; when pantiles were used, the roof consisted of a number of plane pitches. tmilnhirst the place within which the millstone operates. mill-lade, mill-lead the channel that brings water to a mill; a mill-race. mill-ring the space between the revolving millstones and the wooden kerb or casting which surrounds them. tmillstead the ground and buildings comprising a mill. milton, tmill-toon, jmylnetoun n a collection of buildings, a village, containing a mill. miller, milloer, millor, millour see muller. milnsee mill. imilsie, milcie, milck wall n 1 a wall, wholly or partly formed of crisscross laths like the wires of a milk strainer. 2 a wall in a dairy with a window of perforated zinc or tin. 3 a wall containing battlements or loopholes. [milk q e a sieve] milton see mill. use n a SImall inn or alehou: tminch h01 mingol see min3ell. minniesee meenie. tmin3el1, mingol, mon3ell, men3ell n a monial, a mullion in a wi~ldow. model n. the Model (lodging house), ie a lodging house in the Model Lodging Association or equivalent, which registered, supenised etc lodging houses for the poor, vagrants and others. -9nkey n a tool with a ratchet used for tensing fence wire. onk key dung asbestos composition in the form of dry


fibrous powder which, when mixed with water, can be applied like mortar to form an insulating covering for piping, cylinders etc. mon3ell see min3ell. moose see mouse. mortar n a mixture of cement, clay or lime, sand and water which eventually sets hard and is used by masons and bricklayers for making joints between stonework and brickwork; orig used to describe clay soil which was used for similar building purposes; the strong clay was carefully carehlly tempered with 'sharp sand and gravel or could be beaten with a mixture of hot lime. fmortar stane a hollowed stone in which barley was pounded to remove the husks. jmortification n (law) a property bequeathed or allocated in perpetuity to a corporation or public body for specified religious, charitable o r social purposes. tmort safe n an iron frame or grid placed over a coffin in a graveyard as a protection against body snatches. mote'n originally a mound of earth forming the site of a fort or castle, ie an artificial hillock; applied to the timber tower erected on the mound (circa 12th or 13th century, mostly in south-west Scotland); a stone construction followed about 100 years later). mote" a kind of stone packing used with clay in the construction of walls. mou, mouth n 1 an opening, applied to a pend, pipe, drain etc. 2 the blade of a shovel or spade. 3 the working end of a pick. tmou hause a trapdoor opening; an enclosed stairway leading to it. mould see muild. tmount n a mounting block. mounter see muntin. mouse, moose n the small lead weight, attached to a cord, used by a tradesman to reach inaccessible places, eg by joiners to guide the weight-cords down in the cases of sash-and-case windows and by electricians to lead cables down behind plaster work, between the straps and through conduits; cf fish. mouse moulding a narrow quarter section of beading fitted to hide the join between skirting board and floorboard. mouth see mou. moveable adj (law) 1 applied to that form of property which is not heritable (personal belongings etc) and which formerly passed to the next of kin instead of to the heir-at-law 2 ?(of a tenant) removeable. muck n: muck hole an opening in a byre wall through which the dung is flung out. fmuck house a privy. muckle, mickle, meikle, tmekill a d j large, big. muckle hammer a metal-headed hammer, esp one used for chipping or flaking a block of granite. muckle-heidit (of m21ss, studs etc) having a large head. muckle kirk the parish church. muckle room the best room in a house. tmudmason n a builder who uses mud or clay tmug tile n a tile drainpipe of semi-circular cross-section, laid with the open section underneath. muild, mould, tmuld(e) n a mould, a template. tmuldry, mouldrie moulded work. mullar see muller. tmuller, mullar, miller, millour, mullo(e)r n 1 a timber frame, moulding or beading. 2 a ledge or string course on a building. tmullery, mullerit moulded, ornamented. tmullet n a crescent-shaped decorative moulding.

mullochie tmullochie n an earth house or the mound covering it N. [ScGaelmullach a hill, ridge] mulloer, mullorsee muller. munelicht flittin see flit. jmunger hoose n (j'i.sherman's taboo substitute) a church O R K N ~[ON ~ - , mz~nka-htis a monastery] jmunitioune n a fortification. muntin n 1 a decoration. 2 also mounter the central vertical frame in a panelled door, or division in a window. muralyeis see mural3e. tmural3e. muralyeis n a fortification. tmurdris hoill, murther hole n a slit or loophole in a castle wall through which the defenders could shoot. tmuryt a d j enclosed by walls. mutual gable n in certain circumstances a house owner can build the gable of his house, half on his own land and half on the adjacent unbuilt land; when the owner of the unbuilt land then builds he becomes a common owner of this mutual gable on paying one half of the cost of erection. tmygand n mixing, referred to in old builders' accounts. mygel see migal. myll, mylnesee mill.

nab see nabb. nabb, nab n a peg, a nail. nail, tnaill, tnale, tnel, tnell(e) n a nail. nailhead describes the decorative pattern on doors formed by square-headed nails. nailsick applied to slate-work when the slate-nails have rusted to such an extent that they fail to hold the slates. tnail string the iron rod from which nails are cut. naip see nape. nale see nail. nap see knapl. nape, naip, nep n a point, the peak of a gable, a ridge. naiphouse tnephousle) n 1 also tnepus gable a small gable carried up from the top of a front or back wall of a building and having a small dormer-like roof of its own, projecting from the main roof; its construction is similar to a wall-head dormer window, ie with a window on the same plane as the main wall. 2 a dormer. napper see knapl. natural bed see bed. tneal v to anneal. necessares see necessaris. tnecessaris, necessares npl the necessary rights of access or use (in property). tnecessarium n a privy nedil see needle. needle, tnedil, tneidill n 1 one of a number of wooden or metal bars passed through small holes cut into the wall; the projecting ends of the bars are supported by shoresZprior to and during the removal of the whole section of the wall immediately below the bars, ie while slapping; see diagram at slapping. 2 a rod about 20 ins (750 mni) long with a point at one end and a loop at the other, used in thatching. 2) needle a roof to interlace ropes in such a way as to hold the roof thatch down; the end of the rope, the simmen, was fixed to a strip of wood, the laight, and fixed across the rafter, parallel to and approximately 3 ft (750 mm) above the eaves; the rest of the rope was then taken over the ridge or overgaun and looped round a similar strip ofwood on the other side and the process repeated. tneed-nail, neid nail v to fasten by a clinched or bent nail; a window is neid-nailed when so fastened by nails on the

nosecock inside, thus preventing the sash being lifted. neidill see needle. neid nail see need-nail. nel, nell, nellesee nail. nep see nape. neppit see nippit. nephous, nephouse, nepus gable see nape. nessie, tnestreis, tnettie rz a latrine. nether adj the lower part of a building. tnetherhole the lowest vault of a prison. nettie see nessie. neuch see neuk. neuk, tneuch n 1 a niche. 2 an angle, either internal or external, a corner, a nook. neuk bed a recess bed, in a specially formed section of a room or in an outshot (ORKNEY) or within the thickness of the walls (HEBRIDES). neuk shaft a corner rounded moulding. neuk stone a cornerstone. tnevil stane n. the archstone, sometimes the keystone of the arch. newbaking (look) a d j (of masonry) recently hewn, unweathered. newel, tnowell n 1 a stone or timber vertical shaft round which a corkscrew or turnpike stair is formed. 2 a timber post into which stringers are housed;generally positioned where stair flights meet at an angle to one another. tnewelstair a spiral stair. newst see noust. nib n a projection, eg: 1 a short projection of walling; 2 the stud on the back of a pantile which holds the tile in position when laid on a tile batten. tnicht, night n night. v to cease labour (when daylight finishes); to stop work for the day nichting time the time when darkness stops work. nicht-bouer a bed-chamber. nidge v to dress a building stone roughly by picking with a sharp-pointed hammer (usually applied to granite). niggar, niggart n a brick of metal or fireclay used to reduce the size of the fire in a grate for economy reasons. night see nicht. nimsh n a small quantity, a distance. nippit, tneppit a d j short in size, quantity or number. nir, nirl see nirr. nirr, nurr, nirl, nurl, nir n a knot; cf knar. nirlie full of knots. ?nit wud n the wood of the hazelnut tree. nock see knock2. tnodding-ogee n an arch formed with 'S' curves so that the apex projects beyond the main wallface; when repeated it produces a rippling effect. tnog n 1 a large peg for pinning down the sods on the roof of a house, the sods or divots being laid on faille-timber (see fail). 2 a hooked stake driven into a wall. noggin, nokkin, nuggin n the head or top of a roof rafter where it joins another rafter forming the couple SHETLAND. nogging n an infill to framing or at the wallhead between the Feet of the rafters. nok see knock2. nokkin see noggin. tnoneschankis, noynsankis ?L a U L L U L M ~ meal, often referrtu to in old accounts, as workmen generally got this supplied or received money in lieu. nosecock, nosecran n a tap with a turned-down nozzle (us11 at the end of a standpipe and to which a hose can be attached).

out baits

notchheid notchheid n the mask ornament either on a cornice moulding or as the terminal of window or doorway labels.

oiler see oller. oilie see oyle. toillet n a loop hole in a wall. oily doly, oledoly see oyle. toliver n a special type of work bench used by nail-makers. [see .Scottish Studies V015 p. 1171 olksee ouk. toller, oiler n a drainage channel behind the cattle in a byre SHETLAND.

tnoup n a knob for hanging things on. noust, nowst, newst n a boat-shed or an enclosure for a beached boat SHEIZAND, O R m , CAITHNESS. [ON naUSt a boatshed, dock] novodamus n (law) the formal renewal by a feudal superior of a former grant. nowell see newel. nowst see noust. noynsankis see noneschankis. nuggin see noggin. nurl, nurr see nirr. to, oy, oye, aw(e), eyod n applied to several circular objects, eg 1 a sash-lift; 2 a circular opening for a window; 3 a small, circular window; 4 a fanlight. toarlie n an oriel window. tobder SHETLAND, odder ORKNEYn 1 a wooden lintel or shelf above a door. 2 the eaves of a house, esp the portion which projects over a doorway. 3 a small porch. odder-stane a stone lintel SHETLAND. [ONofd~m'a door lintel] oddle tn a sewer SHETLAND. od(d)ler a drainage gutter in a byre SHETLAND, ORKNEY, C M T ~ L ~ ~ E S[variant S. of addle, with influence fr. oller] oergang, oergaun see owergang. oerloft see owerloft. off, aff adz,,preposition off. toffcasting the moulding or crumbling of soft building stone in the weathering process. offcut see cut. aff-gang an outlet (of a pipe, channel, gutter etc). offset, affset ad! cranked, having a double bend. 71 what constitutes the ornament of something: 'Bow-u~indows arejist the aflset o the hoose'. tofferand. offranstane n an altar where an offering is made. office n a workshop, a factory. offices rhe sevice rooms of a mansion house, m7n : famz ojices; cotcrt of offices. toffice hous, hous of office a privy. offie rz a water closet. [diminutive of office hous] tofsahellik, ofshallek n one of a number of flat sloping stones laic1 along the eaves of a house (under straw or thatch) to run off rainwater SHETLLW~. ogee, og(g)ie n a fireplace (opening) in a kiln. [contraction of killogie] :ogeour, oger n 1also ogeour-pend a springer, arch-stone. 2 dubill-oger an ogee arch. oggie, ogie see ogee. '-glet tz a theodolite, or perhaps a dumpy level

tomnigaddrum n a class in the burgh of Stirling which included the unincorporated brethern, wrights, masons etc (the other two classes were: 1 merchants or guild brethren; 2 incorporated craftsmen). oncome n 1 the place where the cross-section of the opening begins to diminish, esp at the 'gathering' of a flue; cf income. 2 funnel-shaped pieces of fireclay linking the fireplace openlng with the fireclay flue-lining. oncost n the extra or additional cost over and above the net cost labour and material; (a wall) built with one finished outside face, onemface(wall) eg a retaining wall. onlay t , to set or place, fE in position, onset, onsett n 1 a farm-house. 2 a site for a farm-house and outhouse, a farmstead. 3 an addition to a building either an enlargement (sometimes described as the outset) or an outhouse (sometimes described as a taefall or lean-to). tonsilit a& without a ceiling, without panelling or wainscotting. oon see une. toosel, oozel n a tool of any sort. [variant of hoozle (see hozle)l oat- see out-, ootby see outby. open adj: topen gate a public street. open set a street gutter or sewer, open skew see skew. opensteek ornaments in architecture. toratour, oritore an oratory. torchle ['k'] n a porch. Oredsee orret. orlage, orlich brod see orloge. torloge, orlage n 1 a clock. 2 the dial or plate of a clock or sundial. orlys broad, orlich brod the plate of a clock, eg on a steeple. ornal, ornale see ornel. tornel, urnal(l), ornal(e) n dressed, coursed, stone facework of varying sizes; ashlar, particularly of facework of uniform size. orpanent see orpement. torpement, orpanent n orpiment, a gold pigment sometimes as King,sYellow, an arsenic orret, ored, orrow n a small wedge, esp one driven into the point of a wooden handle (or shaft) to expand it and prevent it from slipping out of the metal head or hozle SHETLAND. tosmond (irne), esmonde (irne) a fine Swedish iron in the form of very small bars or rods. tospital n a hospital. ostillary, ostlary see hostilary. tostrie an inn, hostelry. to a pit,. l.z a trapdoor, ouk, i.olk, tulk n a week, referred to in old accounts when L,

our see ower. ourelvar,. ourlvar see owerlyar, ourfret see over-fret. ourgilt see overgilt. out baits n a grazing area outside tne nu1 uyKe SHETI~


outband outband, outbound, out band rybat n the quoin or jamb stone, long on the wall face and short on the return or reveal, a stretcher at openings and angles as opposed to a header; cf inband. outby, ootby U ~ Zpreposition J, in or towards the outer part of a room, away from the fire. n tthe area of a n old house occupied by the animals SHETLAND, 0 m E Y .

outer head n the piece of walling which supports the outer end of the axle of a mill-wheel. out fall ?z 1 = tail drain. 2 the part of a building which projects beyond the general line of the street. toutfarm n an outlying farm, zrsu worked by a manager or subtenant. outfeild see outfield. toutfield, toutfeild n an area of a Scots farm, remote from the farm steading which initially was ploughed and rested alternately;usu the outfield was divided in two sections: a fold or fauld which was occasionally manured and a faugh which was never manured; the outfield was subsequently further divided so that a primitive type of rotation could take place; cf infield. outgang n = affgang (see 7nnderofF). toutjet n a projection, a jutting-out part of a building. toutland n an area on or beyond the burgh boundary. outlayer, outlier n a detached rock or boulder as opposed to stone won (see win) from a quarry. toutred, outrid, outtred n the completion of a job of work, esp signified by payment. tout room n an outlying room; in room in an outhouse; a room in a cottage with an outside door. outrun n the part of a croft which contains enclosed grazing. outschot see outshot. toutset n 1the piece of land in the common grazing which the laird let to a tenant who had to cultivate and build a house on it. 2 see onset n 3. outshot, toutschot n a projecting part of a wall or building; an extension built onto the side of a building. outshot window see shot2. outstair n an outside staircase giving direct access to an upper flat. toutsted, outsteid n a farm on the fringes of an estate. outtred see outred. toutsriking n striking out, making an opening (for a door etc). ovalo rz a timber moulding with a part oval (or quarter-round) cross-section. over see ower, uver. 1-over-fret, ourfret pastparticiple over-fret with decorated, adorned all over with. overgaun n a rope passing over the ridge to secure the thatch. tovergilt, ourgilt v gild over, overlay with (gold). overlap i z a manner of laying slates, tiles etc, i e each row or course covers the upper portion of the course immediately below. toversailyie ZJ to build over a close' n 3 to project. 12 the top course of the masonry of a wall on which is laid the wall plate which supports the lower end of the roof rafter: the masonry course projects slightly overstoop see overstop. toverstop, overstoop r~ an overhanging board above a door or window for carrying off the rain. tovey i? collectively, pieces of old wood laid across the purlins in a roof under the thatch SHETIAND. ower, our, over adrj, preposition over. owerfa'in: n at the owerfa'in on the point of falling down, vely clilapidated.

Paisley owergang, owergan, toergang, toergaun n 1:4 passage or crossing. 2 a coat of paint, plaster etc, sometimes whitewash. towerganger a foreman. owerloft, -;oerloft n a gallery towerlyar, our(e)lyar n a cover for a keyhole. owerrope n a rope passing over the ridge to secure the thatch. ower tree n a crossbeam, a lintel. oxengatesee oxgang. oxgang, oxengate, toxgate n an area of arahle land, zw7~ taken to be 13 Scots acres (5.6 hectares); see also Measures on p.105. oxter n the space (of triangular section) between short vertical timbers or struts (known as oxterpieces) which connect the rafters to the ceiling joists at a position near the eaves and the eaves itselE oy, oye see o. toyle, oilie n oil, egfor paintwork: /l~neseedoyle;seealso uilie. oyle cullor(is), oylie culour(is) oil paint. toily doly, oledoly, oyle de olive olive oil, eg used in painter work. oynesee une.

paand see pand. pace see paise. pack, tpak rz, L) pack. packing iron a plumber's tool for 'packing' yarns into a spigot and faucet joint. tpackad an ash box. tpackbrig a bridge with no, or low parapet walls to ease the passage of pack ponies. tpak hous, pack house a warehouse, a large store. pad n a footpath. tpaddock lok rz a portable lock, a padlock. paddocksee puddock. paddy n: paddy barrow a barrow without sides, usu used for carrying large stones. paddy shovel a long-handled shovel with a long narrow blade used for cleaning drains. [orig used by Irish labourers] padill see paidle. paffle, poffle, tpoffil n a small piece of land, a croft, an allotment. paidle, tpadill, tpatill, tpeadil(1) n a long-handled tool for weeding, scraping earth, mud etc from a hard surface or for clearing the coulter of a plough in the furrow, a hoe. 11to clean floors by scraping. paithment n a pavement, flooring (tau of a tpaidment, church). tpaikie, pykie n a casual worker, esp an estate labourer. pail see pale. paint, pent n, ZI paint. the paint the painted woodwork of a room, the paintwork. tpaintit werk stained glass. penter a painter. paiment see pament. pair o silessee sile. pairple, parpall, tperpell, tperpen, tperplin, tporple n a partition, qfie~zof wood or a sirnilar light material, between the kitchen ancl the spence 7z 2, the wall separating the dwelling from the byre or dividing the front from the back shop. pairshoose see puir. tpairtisay wa n a party, i e a mutual or shared. wall. tpaise, pace, pease n the counterweight used in a sash-anucase window. Paisley 12: Paisley screw a screw driven in by a hammer, suggesting i:rzin--

pass Paisley screwdriver a hammer. paistrie see pastry. tpait, pate, peit n a ridge, a cope, sometimes applied to a

pan and couple roof, t p a n and kabar roof the whole timber-framed roof +panL n, also hard pan a hard layer of subsoil underneath the top or vegetable soil.

this part of the building operation. paithment see paidment. pak see pack.

pans, formerly used for rendering or harling walls. pand, pawn(d), tpaand n a flounce draping the legs of a bed; orig also the canopy above it, a valance. panged adj packed close!y side by side, eg of cobblestones. panel, ipannell, tpannall n 1 a wooden panel. 2 t a rectangular Pane of glass or a number of such Panes forming a window-light. 3 a prefabricated section of timber walling forming a part of the external wall of a house. tpannalit panelled. pantseepantwell. pantile n a single-lap handmade tile, with an S-shaped section, complete with projecting n i b on the underside, which helps locate the tiles in horizontal rows when the tiles are 'hung' on the tile battens which are nailed across the rafters parallel to the ridge. [it is suggested that derivation may be from Finnishpaan = shingle, rather than fr. Engpan] pant well, pant n the mouth of a public well; a cistern; a fountain; generally covered with a stone or metal lid, sometimes an arched covering. pap 1 a nipple cast on an iron pipe to allow it to be bored and tapped for a branch connection. 2 an outlet nozzle from an eaves gutter. paraling see parraling. tpargen U to cover or daub with plaster. pargenar a plasterer. pargening, pargetting plastering, roughcasting. park n 1 ?(law) a large tract of enclosed (orig unenclosed field) ground where deer were kept. 2 land set aside for recreation, a garden. 3 by the late 18th century, an enclosed field: park o corn. tparlour n, origin a monastery, the room where conversation was permitted. parpall see pairple. parpen, tparpend n 1 a through bandstane with a finished face on both exposed ends. 2 a thin wall. 3 the parapet of a bridge, adj (of a dool; wina'ou~frame etc) in exact alignment, dead true, exactly parallel, perpendicular. parpen ashlar stonework faced on both sides as required, eg in a parapet wall. parpen sticks two parallel pieces of wood, eg in a door or window frame. parpen w a l l a substantial partition; a wall made of one thickness of stone throughout. tparraling, paraling n 1 equipment; furniture; the furnishings of a room. 2 a wall-hanging; a partition. tparticate n an area of measured land, usu a rood of land, one quarter of a Scots acre; see also Measures on p.105. ?particle, particule n a small piece of land, a plot of ground. parting board, parting bead n a thin timber plate fitted to the inside face of the case of a sash-and-case w i n d o w , which acts as a guide for the sash when it is moved up and down. pass1 n 1 an indoor passage or corridor. 2 the passage between pews in a church, an aisle. pass2v:pass-key 1 t a key for opening a particular lock. 2 1 key which operates any one of a set of locks. pass-lock one o f a set of locks made so that all can k operated by one key (a pass-key).

pale, tpail, tpeall n l a stopper, a spigot. 2 a pointed stake driven into the ground; a fence of such. 3 tgmund enclosed paling, pailing, tpealin(g1 a wooden fence made of pales. tpaleman a worker on pailings, a fencer. [cf peel] tpalice, palis n an official residence of the Scottish sovereign; the precinct of such a residence. pall, pawl n, also pal(l) stane a post or large stone set at the etige of a pavement, the foot of a tree, the corner of a building, to give protection from damage by carriage wheels.

PAL(L) STANE :flag and pal lay a pavement complete with a kerb: obligation toflag and pal. tpalyir n a dwelling SHETLAND. tPame hammer n a kind of hammer, perhaps a small hammer used in the palm of the hand. pament, paiment n paving; a pavement. 11 to pave. pamphil see pumphal. pan' n a purlin, which is horizontal and is fmed on top of and at right angles to the roof rafters (extending from gable to gable) and which supports the wattlings; the topmost pan is known as a rooftree (or ridge); see also first and Pan (under first2)and post and pan (pan implying a horizontal member of a timber framework). pan-checked splay rebated. pan raip a straw rope used in thatching, esp applied to the lowest cross-rope. f p a n tree, pauntree 1 a wooden beam spanning betweeen the wallheatls ant! positioned so that the chains or simmens attached to it were hung over the open fire; sometimes refers to a shorter beam spanning the chimney opening only, thus basically a beam to which cooking pots could be attached. 2 = n. t p a n and roof to built1 a roof.

6 ,

passage passage n 1 t a watercourse. 2 a corridor, a tunnel. tpassers n a pair of compasses SHETIND. pass-key, pass-lock see passZ. -;pastry, paistrie n a bakehouse. tpatent ad7 (ofa door) open. t h e most patent door the door of a church where proclamations were made. tpatern, patroune, patrown, pattren n a plan or design (of a building), a pattern. fpatie b o w i e n a glazing bar on a window. patill see paidle. , tpatlock n a padlock. patroune, patrown see patern. tpattie n a latrine. pattren see patern. pauntree see pan1. tpave 2,: pavement-stone 1 a stone at ground level course in a building. 2 sometimes applied to a paving stone. paver a paving stone. pavilion adj (of a 700A = peen-ended (see peen1). 2.1 to form such a roof. pawl see pall. pawn, pawnd see pand. peaches see piazza. peadil, peadill see paidle. peall see pale. pean see peen'. pease see paise. peat, t p e t e n 1 peat. 2 applied to various objects which resemble a peat in shape or colour, eg a bar of soap: apeat of sape. peat hole the corner in a house where peat is stored. peat house the outhouse where peat is stored. peat neuk, peatie neuk the corner or alcove, usu in a kitchen, where peat is stored. peat-stane, peat-steen N E , tpeit-stane, tpeittis-stane n 1 a skewputt. 2 a coping stone. 3 the keystone of an arch. Pecht see Pict. pedagog see pedagogy. tpedagogy, pedagog n a place of instruction, a college. tpedester n a pedestal, a structural base. peel, fpele, tpeill a defensive palisade or stockade; the ground enclosed by such; a fortified house or small defensive tower, probably one built within a palisade (mainly in the border counties of both England and Scotland). tpeel house a fortified dwelling or refuge. pil(l)muir a ~ ~ aapiece r of common land enclosed by a fence and cultivated as arable ground now inplace-names tpeel tower, pele t o w e r = peel, one built about the 16th century and basically of earth construction. [cf pale] peen'' tpein(d)r tpien(d) a coping' a'so peen hammer a bevelled or sharp-pointed mason's hammer; the point of the hammer itself. 3 also peentree one of the sloping ridges at the corners of a h i w e d roof, ie the junction formed where two adjacent sloping roofs meet. Peener a heavy sledge hammer. Peen-ended roof, peended roof, peen roof a roof with peens. Peen' n a pane of glass. Peer see puir. Peerie n a cone-shaped hardwood tool used by a plumber for belling out the end of a lead pipe to form a socket-type end in the making of a joint. Peerman, peershous, peershouse see puir.

peg n : peggie a timber peg (usu oak) used to keep slates (ILTII Arbroath slates) in position on a roof. pegging the placing of ridges on a roof. peill see peel. pein, peind see peen'. peir see pere'. peitseepait. peit-stane, peittis-stane see peat. ipelar 12 a pillar. pele see peel. peltie n a cshipyard) hammer. pen see pend. pencil round n a slight rounding of a timber or stone arris. pend, pen[n) n 1 also pend-close an archway, a coveretl way of passage. 2 a vaulted passageway in a drain or sewec 3 a birdsmouth-rebate (usu in stone or concrete), esp applied to steps. 4 a street drain sar, S. pendit vaulted. pendcheck any splayed rebate. pend gate 1 tan arched gate. 2 a gate closing the entrance to a pend. pend-mouth the entrance to a pend. pendstane a stone shaped to form a unit in an arch (as opposed to stones for wall building), a voussoir. pendicle n 1 a small piece of ground generally attached to a large area: parts, pendicles andpertinents. 2 a very small farm or croft. penfauld n a close or yard near the farmer's house for holding his cattle. pennsee pend. type sheep shelter pent n, a'so 'bentice a consisting of a large flat screen of wood leaning against a fence or wall. 2 (in general) an outhouse or any building with a mono-pitch roof attached to a bigger building. pent see paint. pentice see pent. tpentil steen n a flagstone N. peonersee piner. pepperbox, pepperpot n a turret. per see pere'. fpere', per n the masonry part of a building as distinct from the timber and other materials. tpere2,peir n 1 a pier. 2 perys a fence; see also pendicle. perfornis, perfurneis see perfurnis. tperfurnis, perfornis, perfurneis U to provide as a builder, to constr~lct. perk n a wooden pole or rod projecting from a wall o r window on which the clothes are hung to dry. perMree an upright pole or post set in the ground for supporting a clothesline; see also pulleyshee. perpell, perpen, perplin see pairple. tperron, perroun n the flight o f steps at the entrance to a house; sometimes applied to the platform or landing at the top of steps immediatelyin front of a doorway persail, pershalsee piercel. pertinents npl anything connected with or forming part of a piece of land or heritable property (except the regalia) that is not specially reserved from the grant, eg buildings on a pi,ce of land, a right of pasturage, perys see pere2. pete see peat. t p e t h n a narrow way, a path. pettis and gaites (law) paths and phan see faan. phioll see fy-"


phipple bitt iphipple bitt n a boring or gouging brace tool having a lip-like sl1al)e. piatches see piazza. piazza, ?peaches, tpiatches n in Scotland this refers to a single colonnatle in front o f a building; normally it does not project but forms part of the main body of the builtling; it provides a coverecl walk with a direct access to shops. pick' (in masonry) to finish with a pointed tool, to hew. pick', tpik 71 pitch; bitumen. picki dike see Pict. Pict, Pecht n one of an ancient Scottish people who inhabited Scotlanti north of the Forth; there is historical evidence for the Picts from the 4th to the 9th centuries. picts' house, pechts' hous an underground dwelling, a weem, souterrain, mainly dating from the first two centuries AI) SIIETIAND, ORKNEY, N. tpicki dike the ancient stone wall attributed to the Picts ORKNEY.

piece n, as in door-piece the stonework of a ctoor. tpiel n an iron wedge for boring stone N. pien, piend see peen'. i-piercel, persail, pershal n a gimlet SHETLAND. pigi, tpigg n an earthenware chimney pot: hollandpim pigwark a pottery. pig 77: pig's crae a low-roofed hut for pigs, u s z ~at the gableend of a house. pig's lug, also sow's lug, dog ear surplus lead after a plumber has formed a lead box. pigg see pig'. pik see pick" pike. pike, tpik r7. 1 a pickaxe. 2 a spike of a railing. i-pikespadea wooden spade with a sharp iron tip. pikit, ipykit adj (of a railing) having sharp iron spikes or points. pilenshin see plenshin. ipillar n 1a platform or stand in a church where persons found guilty of misdemeanours by the Kirk Session were sentenced to stand during a number of Sundays. 2 a post or stance on or beside the precentor's desk. the lettern on which the name of the psalm tune was displayed (now z ~ s uthe hymn or psalm number). tpilley stair n a pilaster. pillie schevis, pillyshee see pulleyshee. pillmuir, pilmuir see peel. pin, i p i n n i z 1 a small stone for filling up a crevice in a wall, driven in by a catchie. 2 i a kind of door-knocker. ipin(n)er a piece of wood used for stabilizing a structure, a Strut or tie. pinnings material used to fill up the interstices in masonry. pin stane, tpinn-stane 1 = rz 1 . 2a low masonrywall which supports a stud partition, a dwarf wall. pin and pole (of scaffolding) a light type of construction having only a 'pin' fucing it to the wall and generally used by roughcasters in ortier to avoid an ugly patching after the scaffolding is remox;ed. pinch ?a :I mason's chisel, used with a mash, for forming bullfacet1 rubble. us11usecl for rough work. r f to give a stone a preliminary rough dressing. pincher 1 = pinch n. 2 = pinch bar. pinch bar, pinching bar an iron crowbar, a leb,.. ipiner, peoner, pinour, poiner, pyonar ?z a labourer (esp for a mason) who z l s z ~prepares the mortar; sometimes refers to a jobbing carpenter. pinorie, py(o)norie street cleaning, i e work undertaken by piners. piner see pin.

tpinnakill, pinnakil n a small ornamental turret, usti terminating in a pyramid or cone. pinn, pinner see pin. pinour see piner. tpipe(s) n(p1) the wall-mounted spout of a public water supply; a stancl pipe. pipe box see box. pipe eye a ventilation or cleaning access in a drain, uszc a pipe carried up to the surface and fitted with a temporary closing piece or perforated grating. tpipehault n = wainscot loggin (see under wainscot). pipe key a key with a hollow stem made to fit over a small pin on a lock. pipe lock a lock which uses a pipe key. tpirnhouse n a weaving shed or shop. tpit' 12 1 a windowless cell, generally below the main floor level with sole access by a trapdoor in the floor. 2 one of a series of holes dug to mark a land boundary. z j to mark the boundary of. pit and gallows a right of jurisdiction over criminals found within baronial lands. pit-stane, puttstane a boundary stone. pit?,put, putt t j to set a person to work:pit twa lads tae labour put down demolish. put up to erect, construct. tpitleslie lyme n lime from Pitlessie in Fife, referred to in old accounts. tpittivout n a small arch orvault. place n 1 t a mansion, castle, palace. 2 a deep or sunk reveal in a walling. 3 an estate, farm; also placie a small farm or croft. ;place seat the pew assigned to the local landed family. tthe secret place, the quiet place euphemisms for the lavatory plainschour see plenshin. plainstane n a paving stone; plainstanes, plennies a pavement. plaister, plaster n plaster; plaster ceilings in the English manner superseded the old boarded and painted ceilings after the Union in 1603. plaisterer, plaisterman a plasterer. plasterer's snot see rivet. plaster and form to parge and core, ie after the inside of a flue is rendered with cement mortar, all the loose mortar is removed with a bundle of rags; this is called coring. plait ironworksee plet. planchin see plenshin. plank n a piece of arable land, m 4 of just over an acre; when the runrig system (see urzder rin) of land cultivation broke up in the 18th century each owner got his portion of land in one unit rather than in a series of rigs SHETLAND, ORKNEY,CAITHNESS. 2) to use the above method of consolidation SHETLAND, ORKNEY, CAITHNESS.

planker a land measurer, a surveyor


o m ,


planschour see plenshin. plant to attach or to lay in a moulding by nailing, screwing, glueing etc, as opposed to cutting or moulding solid timber; to build up using a number of individual units. plantiecrub see crub. tplashmill n a fulling mill driven by a watermill. plaster see plaister. plat, plate 2) 1 also platten to clinch a nail. 2 to apply plate. 1 l the thin-sectioned dressed timber used to cover (undressed) timber framing or joints between timber and plaster etc: sometimes described as a cover plate. 2 a slate; a thin flae. ZJ





platelock platelock a lock in which the mechanism is futed to a plate. platband see platt. platt ~z 1 a broad step next below a threshold or slip step. 2 ~ISO plettie a landing (of a staircase), a platform, in Dundee, esp of a built-out staircase. 3 a flat roof. plettie stanies a pavement. plettin stane the large flat stone in a smithy on which a horse's hoof was set flat after the shoe had been nailed on so that nails could be plattened. platband a straight or flat arch formed with archstones which are generally 'joggled' or interlocking. platform, tpletforme a flat roof; 0% also a partially flat roof serving as a walk on top of a building. platform boarding the boarding on a flat roof. . platform roof a flat roof. platten see plat. ?plea hous n a law court. pleasance n a walled garden; the unbuilt part of a close', the part fronting the street being occupied by the owner's house. +pledge hous n debtor's prison. plencheon naill, plencheour naill, plenching see plenshin. plenishing n 1 goods, gear, effects; see also displenishing sale. 2 the internal parts of a house; cf finishings; the fittings and/or furnishing of a house; the furniture. plennies see plainstane. plenschell-naill, plensher see plenshin. tplenshin, planchin, pilenshin, plenching, plensher n planking, boarding, esp flooring. plencheour naill, plencheon naill, plenshing nail, plenschell-naill, planschour, plainschour, plensher a flooring nail. tplet adj crisscrossed, interwoven. plet ironwork, plait ironwork (of metal bars in gratings, tidndow openings etc) set crisscross, interwoven. plettie, plettin see platt. pleuchgate, ploughgate n an area of arable land, usu taken to be 104 Scots acres; see also Measures on p.105. tplew n a plane for making a tongue and groove; a match plane. plint see plinth. plinth, tplint n (masonry) 1 the eaves course or wallhead course. 2 the uppermost projecting part of a cornice. tploud n a thick piece of turf used for roofing. ploughgate see pleuchgate. plucker n a kind of spokeshave, i e a tool for planing a curved surface. tplumb, plum see plum, plumb.plume n 1 lead or lead weight. 2 a privy.

poor see puir. +porchel, proch(e) n a porch, a portico. porple see pairple. port n 1agate, an entrance, esp one in a citywall. 2 the opening in a wall of a farm building into which a cart is backed when work was done. 3 a road leading to a gate open in streetnames. portioner n the proprietor of a small estate or piece of land once part of a larger estate; origalso a joint, mu female heir or her successor; a joint tenant; a joint proprietor. position mark see mason. tpost and pan, poist and pan n a wooden framework, filled in with stones and mortar to form a light type of wall or partition. [post = vertical, pan = horizontal; see pan1] postrome see postrum. tpostrum, postrome n a back or side door; a private door; a door or gate other than the main entrance. [Engpostem] tpot, pott, pote n a dungeon, a pit' n 1. v to place or set in a p i t or hole. pot metal 1 cast-iron, esp yetlin. 2 glass stained throughout its thickness (as opposed to surface only). tpotence n a ladder futed so as to swing round the interior of a dovecot to allow a person access to the pigeonholes. pottie, pott see pot. potty n putcy, pliable material which eventually

plumb lede unworked or untreated lead. plunge z 8 to apply a plunger, i e a kind of makeshift piston to open the end of a pipe to clear a blockage. ply n a fold, a layer or thickness of any material, a strand or twist of rope, wood etc. pocket n an opening (covered by a small removeable plate) on the inside face of a the case of a sash-and-case window, which gives quick access to the counter-weights. poddock see puddock. podger, pudger 1 2 = pinch bar (see under pinch). poffil, poffle see paffle. ipoind fold, pundfold n an enclosure or building in which h~rfeitanimals were kept; a pound. poiner see piner. Point 1 to provide a neat, mortar finish to joints in stone and brickwork, including packing mortar into the joints. 2 to pick a stone face with a pointed chisel. Pointing the mortared joints in stone and brickwork.

hardens, used for fucing panes of glass into wooden frames. pottie ark a heap of sand with a well in the centre into which the pottie lime is poured. The sand is gradually mixed in until both ingredients are thoroughly mixed and the mortar so formed is ready for use. pottie lime lime slaked with water until it forms the consistency of putty pou, pull n the draught of a chimney or flue, a strong draught in a fire. v (of a chimney etc) to have a strong draught. pouder myll see pouther milne. tpouther milne, pouder myll n a mill for makiLL5EULLyuWUCL, the place where this was thought to be done; perhaps a mill for pulverizing stone. pow', poll n the head or striking part of a hammer. powie a smith's hammer having both striking surfac bevelled or rounded off. tpow-headed (of a windou11 having a large round head.



poist and pan see post and pan. policy t n the improvement or embellishment of towns, estates, houses etc; improvement of amenity. policies 1 Z W . Z ~ applied to all land attached to a property (strictly the place within which one has authority to administer affairs). 2 a property created by human skill and labouc 3 the (ornamental) pleasure grounds of a country mansion. polish 2 ) to rub the surface of freestone until all toolmarks are obliterated. poll see pow'. poll platen a pole-plate, i e the horizontal member resting on (ZLSUchecked into) and at right angles to the ceiling joists; it, in turn, supports the feet of the rafters and these are generally checked over it. pollysheesee pulleyshee. tpomp, pump n a (stone) conduit for conveying water, esp from a sink. pone n a thin strip of turf, esp one used for roofing SFIETI.AND, ORKNEY.

!z to cover a roof with pones SHETLAND. pone spade a spade designed for cutting thin strips of turf SHETLAND. O R m .


PO* pow2n a ditch, esp, around the Firth of Tay, one which has been diverted for drainage purposes. pownie n a carpenter's trestle For supporting planks of wood for sawing etc. pox 7 1 botch (a joh), ruin (a piece of work), (specif i n stoned~e.r.sing)spoil (a stone) by bad cutting. tpoyntell ways ad11diagonally pozie n a narrow alleyway or passage between buildings, a close1 72 S X, prap, prop n 1 an object set up as a boundary mark. 2 a tall chimney stack. preas see press. tpreceptory n a collegiate church or hospital; an almshouse. preen-tae rz a building loosely attached to another; a lean-to. tprejuge n (lau~) to cause to interfere with or impede a building or &'assageway press, tpreas n 1 a large cupboard, usu one built into a recess in the wall. 2 a wooden canopy over a fireplace. press bed a bed built into a recess in the wall and shut off from the room hy wooden doors or a curtain, a box-bed. braw-press a cupboard usect to keep and display items of (family)value, a display cabinet. prick n 1 an iron spike. 2 a pointed piece of masonry prick batt a metal staple with sharpened points. prick roof a pointed roof such as one formed in masonry in the spire of a steeple. pricket n a pinnacle or small spire on a building, a pointed finial. tprintfield FZ a cotton-printing works. prise 7 1 ;n instrument used for levering. proch, proche see porchel. prod n 1 a wooden pin or skewer,esp one used as a thatching-pin. 2 a tradesman who uses prods, a thatcher. progger n 1 a pricker, a marking point. 2 a long spike or rod. fpromove 11 (of parts of a building) (cause to) project or to project. prood see proud. prop n a stopper, a bung, a wedge SHETLAND. propsee prap. :proper 77 one's own property tproperte adj (of land) exclusive private use as opposed to commonte. :proportionate adj well-proportioned. proud, prood adj 1 (of a roof) highly pitched. 2 protuberant, projecting, zau applied to an object or surface which is set higher than or in front of adjacent surfaces:Lee itproodandye can rub it doon eftm tprovidat adj (of zoorkws) equipped with tools and materials to do the job. public a 4 : tpublic right (law) a heritable right acquired when the purchaser of a property completes his feudal title with the seller's superior, 0% a distinct prccedure but latterlv a formality in conveyancing practice. public room a reception room in a house, excluding bedrooms, kitchen etc. puddock, paddock, poddock n a flat, wooden, m u triangular platform etc, usecl for transporting heaw loads of hav etc. [Sc pzddock a frog (from the shape)]


tpudge n a cottage. pudger see podger. puff, puff pipe n a small ventilation pipe connected to the waste drainpipe; usu acts (in addition) as an anti-siphonage pipe. puir, peer NE, poor, t p u r e adj poor. t p u r e band, puir band a metal strip for strengthening or hanging a door or gate. puirshoose, pairshoose, peershous(e) NE a workhouse. tpuir john an auxiliary strip of a wood nailed to the side of an existing rafter (which may have been of inadequate size or sagged or twisted) in order to bring it to the required height or slope. tpuirman, peerman NE n a rough iron frame which held a fir candle; sometimes the iron frame was supported by a timber pillar (about 4 ft (1200mm) high), the base ofwhich was fitted into a hole drilled into a stone base; occasionally the term is applied to such a stone which has a centrally drilled hole [thought to originate from the time when paupers held the candles in return for alms etc].

pull see pou. pulleyshee, pollyshee, tpillyshee, tpillie schevis, tpullisee n a pulley attached to a pole (perk), located some distance from a window; a continuous rope runs from the window to the pulley, and clothes hung on the rope to dry can be pinned and unpinned to the rope at the window opening and the rope gradually pulled round until the line of clothes stretch to the pulley; much used in the upper flats of tenements. pumfell, pumflesee pumphal. pump see pomp. pumphal, pumfle, pumfell n 1 a square enclosure made with stakes, usu for sheep. 2 also pamphil a type of church pew in the form of a rectangular enclosure, (uw of panelled timber work) with a bench seat round the inside and a small table for books in the centre, the enclosure being entered by a small gate. punce see punze. punched see puncheon. puncheon n a mason's pointed chisel with a rounded head for use with a mell (used for broaching), the same as a cloorer which, however has a flat head and is used with a mash. puncheoned, punched (of a stone) having an approximately flat surface which has been formed with a puncheon.

pundfold punclfold see poind fold. punish 7.1 to reduce a stone too much by cutting and dressing. punse see punze. tpunze, punce 2, 1 to pierce or punch with a bradawl. 2 also punse to emboss. punsit embossed. pup n a small or 'baby' brick; cf whalp. pure see puir. purpose steen n a stone that can be used for building SHETLAND.

purpresture see purprision. tpurprision, purpresture n (law) the illegal enclosure of, or encroachment upon land or property of another. put see pit2. tputlog n one of the short horizontal timbers which are inserted into holes in walls, the ends being left to project and support a hoarding. putlog holes the holes for putlogs. putstop see putt. t p u t t n 1 a buttress to a wall; a short length of wall at right angles to the main section of walling. 2 the striking plate of a lock. 3 a metal fitting on a gate. putstop the keeper of the lock. puttstane one of a series of stones used to make a buttress or a kerb (which can be regarded as the equivalent of a buttress to a pavement). putt see pit2. puttar n a crowbar. puttstane see pit', putt. pykie see paikie. pykit see pikit. pynorie, pyonar, pyonorie see piner. quareor see quarreour. tquarnelt, quernallit adj square-shaped, cornered, having angles. [cf kirnel] quarrel, tquer(r)ell n 1 a quarry; material from a quarry. 2 tbuilders' waste. v to pave with square-shaped or rectangular slabs. tquarrell mell a heavy hammer, 0% one used in a quarry. tquarreour, quareor, quarrour, querreour n a quarries, a quarryman; a mason. quarter n one of four sections making up a building, a side or angle of a building. tquarter house a house to stay in, lodgings. tquay neb n the jutting-out point of a quay or pier. queem, tqueme v to make to fit exactly: queem the mortice i n the wood. queer see quere. queme see queem. tquere, queir, quier, queer, quire n the choir of a church. querell see quarrel. quern n a stone used for grinding, mu two types: 1 a saddle quern, comprising a hollowed stone used with a shaped stone; 2 (in ScGael bra(tb)) comprising two flat round stones, the upper one having a central hole in it into which the grain to be ground was poured; in Orkney farmhouses (dating c 1700) were two aumries with rounded backs, known as the sae bink (for water tuh) and the quern ledder (for the stone handmill). quern ledder, quern bink a recess in an Orcadian farmhouse. quernallit see quarnelt. querrell see quarrel. querreour see quarreour.

rain quheill, quhele, quheyll see wheel. quhin see whin. quhite see white'. tquhitstane ?I a whetstone. quhyn see w h i n . quick adj (of sand) sharp and therefore suitable for making mortar. quier see quere. quiet placesee piace. quinziesee cunyie. quire see quere. quiss see whiss. tquitalum n alum, a pigment. quoin see cunyie. quoy n a piece of land enclosed and cultivated SHETLAND, OKWM,CAITHNESS.

rabbet see rybat. rabblach see raible. race rz a passage along a wall where sheep are graded or separated. rachter see rachtir. trachtir, rachter, raghter n a batten, a rafter. [ ~rafter] f rack n 1 a wood-shelved frame attached to a wall for holding plates etc. 2 a piece of wood fitted at an angle to keep a post or . tinpl, the like steady in an upright position, a stay, a s t n ~ t3 often rax or (double pl) raxes a set of bars or chains to support a roasting spit: spits and razes. rackle, trakkill, treckle n a chain or ring. trackler nickname for a surveyor, a user of a measuring chain. rael tree see ravel. rafres see refresch. trafter n a horizontal bar in a timber fence. [cf rachtir] rag1n 1 the top layer of stone on a dyke forming the coping. 2 a rough projection on a surface left after sawing, filing or cutting; a burr. [Eng = a scrap of cloth] rag2 v (of a wall) to develop cracks or bulges, get out of alignment. [perb. fr. Eng rag] rag3n a whetstone. [Eng = a hard stone] raggle v to cut a groove in stone (or wood) to receive another stone etc, eg in the steps of a staircase, the edge of a roof. n 1 the groove cut in stone or wood. 2 a joiner's tool for making a raggle, a router plane. 3 a narrow water or drainage channel. raggling iron a stone chisel used for making raggles. raglet n = raggle. raglet plane a plane used to groove a piece of wood. rag(g)lin often i n p l a cut to accommodate the edges of the slates at an abutment or the skew of a roof. raghter see rachtir. raible, trabblach n a carelessly erected huilding etc, something ruinous or dilapidated. raik n t(as a unit of measurement of work done) a single journey made for the purpose of transporting material erc from one place to another (referred to in old accounts). raik dyke n a stone dam built across a raik, ie a stretch of a river used for salmon fishing. rail n a horizontal member of a frame tenoned into vertical members. railing a handrail. rail stair a staircase fitted with a railing. rail wand the railing of a staircase. rail tree see ravel. rain v :(of moisture) to leak in.


rain tree rain tree n a bevelled horizontal wooden bar fitted to the foot or the external face of a tloor to deflect rainwater from the thresholtl SHETIAND; cf raintree (under rantle).

rain ( w a t e r ) conductor the vertical pipe connected to the drop nozzle (see drap) on a rone and which takes rainwater to the ground level or drain. trainure n one of the vertical slots into which is fitted a supporting beam to which chains are fixed to control a drawbridge; the beam fitted into the slot when the drawbridge was in the raised position. raip, rape, rope n 1 rope. 2 the hemp rope used by a plumber in caulking pipe joints. roper, roping iron a tool using in caulking. traip-thackit acij (of a building) having the thatched roof secured by a network of ropes. thack and raip see thack. raise 1 1 1 to build, construct. 2 ( l a u ~ )to remove a property from the possession of a tenant. 3 to increase in height. traisin dwang, raise and dwang the pole used as an axis in trundling home a millstone from the quarry. raith see rath. raivel see ravel. rake n (of a rooJ;gable or staircase) the pitch or gradient. rakkill see rackle. tramfors, ramforce 21 to strengthen, block up (a door or gate). rammle back see rantle. tramper n a rampart, a dyke, a barrier. rance n 1 a wooden support for a wall, fence etc. 2 talso rancer the fore-part of the roof of a bed, the cornice of a wooden bed. rl to place a wooden support as i n n 1;to place a stake behind a door to keep it shut. crance pillar n the bar or bolt of a door. randit acij (of a tree) stripped of bark. random rubblesee rubble. range see reenge. rank n the grain (of a stone). rannle-bauksee rantle. cransoning the stacking ot tlmoer for drying purposes. [perh. related to rance] rantle 77: rannle-bauk(s),rammle back ORKNEY, rantle tree 1also rantree, raintree CAITHNESS (cf rain tree under rain), rantree beam ORKNEY a wooden or iron bar across a chimney to hold a pothook. 2 a beam along the ridge of a roof. 3 the horizontal beam along the wall of a byre to which the ends of the vertical stakes are fixed; cf ravel. 4 a storage space within a roof. [Scandinaviar'

reek rape see raip. trasphouse, rasphous n a prison, a house of correction. rat n: trat-course a string course on a doocot to prevent rats climbing the wall and entering the building. rat raik a ruinous building with rat infestation. trath, raith n (mainly in place-names) a circular earthwork or mound; a fortified enclosure. ravel, raivel, revel, raveling n 1 a rail or railing, a balustrade; the parapet of a bridge. 2 talso ravel tree, rael tree, revel tree, rail tree, ryll tree a horizontal beam in a byre fixed to the tops' of the stakes for the tethers; cf rantle. raw, row n a row of identical houses: a miners' raui rawestre see revestry. rax see rack. raxed adj (of a wall or of a building) stretched, strained, cracked. readyke see redike. treapen v (of stone) to reach a condition favourable for polishing, engraving etc. [ Eng ripen] rebat, rebbit see rybat. rebig 11 to rebuild. reckle see rackle. treconis, recognose, recognis LJ (law, of afeudalsuperior) to resume possession of (lands), recover. [L recognosrere to recognize; to review] trecours, recourse n : have recours t o o r t i l (lazu) to have access to, to l~dvethe right to enter. rectangular doocot see doocot. red see redd, reid. redd, rid, red n waste material, debris, usu small rubble. redd up to put in order, tidy up. tmakand red cleaning up. void and redd see void. tredeme v to repurchase a former possession. tredestand n a lectern, a pulpit. redify see reedify. tredike, readyke n a deep ditch around a hill, built for defensive purposes. ree, reed, reeve, treve, treive n 1 a yard or enclosure for storing coal and from which it may be sold retail. 2 an enclosure or pen for animals: (1) often reed (mainly around the Tay) a stone-built yard, wholly or partly covered, in which cattle are wintered; (2) a permanent stone sheepfold, used during stormy weather, shearing etc. 3 a pigsty, usu a building ~ a prehistoric hill fort, and an outdoor' run. 4 t m a i n ( ~reeve a circular mound with regular ditches (fosses). v to surround or enclose with a wall of stone or turf. reed n 1 the direction of the grain in wood, stone or metal. 2 a defect in a lead pipe running longitudinally and caused by faulty moulding. v (of a leadpipe) to split longitudinally reedie (of a leadpipe) liable to split. reed see ree. reedify, redify v to rebuild, construct or restore (a building or part thereon. treeding plane n a plane which cuts three rows at once; a centre bead plane which makes two or more beads. reef see ruif. reek, treik n 1 smoke. 2 a house with a fire burning on the hearth, an inhabited house; cf smoke. reeking (of a hozae) inhabited. :reek hole a hole in the roof of an Orcadian cottage through which the smoke escaped.


reel +reek meall, reek penny a tax imposed on houses with a chimney. reel n a mason's hammer of medium weight with two oblong faces. 11 to dress a stone with such a hammer. reeled (of stone) roughly dressed. reen, reend, rind, treind, t r h i n d n 1 a strip or slat ofwood, a thin piece cut off the edge of a board, a beading. 2 main(11 rind the edge of cultivated land or of a pathway. 3 in a regular series of studs, the one positioned at the t u r n o u t distance in a standard partition. treen barn n a barn built of slats of wood with spaces between for ventilation. [prob. fr. Eng r i n d ] reenge, range, ringe t n a semi-circular seat around the pulpit in a church on which the elders sat. 11to clear out ash from choking the bars of a grate: reenge the ribs. reesh tree see reest. reest n a framework of spars on which fish, meat etc are hung to dry in the smoke above the fire. treest tree, reesh tree a beam fixed in a chimney reest see roost. reeve see ree, rive, ruive. treform U to rebuild, reconstruct, restore, repair. trefresch, rafres v to restore, renovate (a building). regalia n (law) rights held by the crown, comprising majora, which are inalienable, and minora, which may be conveyed to subjects by royal grant. register 72: register g r a t e an iron fire surround, uszc with moulded opening and complete with a timber-mantle outer surround and sometimes including a draughtcontrol device. register of sasines the record which contains details, ie documents creating and conveying interests in land (and hence property); see also sasine. tregress n (law) the readmission of a feudal superior of a vassal to land which the vassal has conveyed to a creditor or wadset as security for a debt and which he has managed to redeem. reid, red adj red. reid leid, t r e d ( e ) le(i)d red oxide of lead in paint, red lead. treid w u d wood from the core or the heart of a tree, usu dark or reddish coloured. reik see reek. reind see reen. reir see rere. reist, rest n 1 the socket into which the bolt of a door rests. 2 a hiqge of a door. reive see ree. trekster n an enclosure into, or walled track along which sheep are driven: rekster-dyke SHETLAND. trelicks npl the ruins of a building. trelieve z! to cut back one material from another, eg the plaster finish from a timber moulding. relocation n : tacit relocation (law) the assumed continuation of a lease or contract of employment 011 unchanged terms if no action is taken at the date of expiry. tremain 21 1 to continue to belong to. 2 to live, dwell, reside. remed see remede. tremede, remed, remeid n repairs. rendal see rundale (under rin). treparall, reparell, reparrill L) to repair, refit (mucn usea 111 oltl accounts). reprise, trepryse n 1 a seat worked on a sill for a jamb or

mullion to rest on, tisu applied to sills with projecting wall rests. 2 a recess in the stonework of a building. I


trere, reir v to build up. treredorter n euphemistically used of a latrine in a monastic building; it usually incorporated a stream or other watercarriage facilities. [lit. behind the dormitoql] treseise, ressese 11 to restore (land) to the owner. tresett, reset TZ 1 a refuge, a shelter. 2 a place of refuge, later esp for criminals err; an abode, residence or haunt. resp see risp. tressavand n taking delivery of (materials), referred to in old accounts. ressese see reseise. rest n 1 a wallhold, bearing for a structural member on a wall. 2 a landing of a staircase. resting step a step with a wallhold at both ends, ie supported at both ends. tresting stane a stone used as a seat or resting place; spectf one on the road to a churchyard where the coffin was laid while the bearers rested. rest see reist. retention 1 2 (law) the right of an owner of any property under contract to be conveyed to another to retain it until the other party fulfils some counter-obligation. retention sum (in a building corntract) the sum withheld from payment to the builder until a specified period has elapsed during which faultyworkmanship may be revealed and must be rectified by the builder before the sum is released. retour n (law) the return or extract of a decision sent to chancery, esp one declaring a successor heir to his ancestor; the record of such a return, esp one specifying the annual taxable value of the land. t r e t t n an enclosure for animals SHETLAM). retta-dyke a wall built to facilitate herding into the rett SHETLAND. returned on itself adj applied to moulding detail where the members of the mould which run parallel to the wall are returned through a right angle and butt into the wall; occurs commonly at the ends of a bedplate. reu see rew. treul n a rule, a graduated measuring rod. of t h e reul in accordance with standard measurements. reve see ree. revel see ravel. trevel, revvle n a wattled fence, a fence of interwoven slats SHETMWD.

trevele n a reveal, an external return at a door or window opening. trevestry, rawestre n the vestry of a church. revolvers, revolving pipes npl the flow and return pip between the boiler and the hot-water cylinder. r e w l e see revel. trew, reu, ru(e)n a street; a village. [Fr rue] trewine, ruyne 11 1 ruin. 2 (of a buildi?z,q) to fall down.


rhind deteriorate beyond hope of repair, go to ruin. n (a) ruin. rhind see reen. rhone see rone. rib 7.1 1 inpl the bars of a grate: ripe the &S. 2 a horizontal roof timber. 3 the horizontal spar in a (standard) partition. 4 an iron beam or joist in a floor. 5 a water channel or gutter alongsitle a road. rice, trise, trys n small branches, twigs, brushwood etc, cut down ancl used as wattles. stake and rice, tstab and rice, stob and rice a method of :onstruction by which twigs are horizontally woven between rertical stakes, used for fencing or forming an inner framework 'or turf walls; a fence thus constructed; wattle-work used as an armature for an earthen wall. [OlderSc, Middle Engrys, n'se, Old Eng b6.s, ON hds twig(s), brushwood] ricketie n a ratchet brace or drill. rickle 17 1 an untidy collection or huddle of ramshackle buildings. 2 a loosely built, one-stone-thick drystone wall. 3 a layer of small stones placed on top of larger stones as a coping to a drystone wall. 1 to construct loosely or insecurely 2 to build without mortar, often rickle up to build (a drystone wall). trickler an unskilled builder in stone; a poor workman. ricklie badly constructed, ramshackle, rickety rid see redd. riddle, tryddil(l1n a coarse-meshed sieve.

riddlings the coarser pieces of stone etc retained by a riddle sometimes used for upfilling. ide z: n: rider (in buildilzg zuith zmdressedstone) a stone which completely covers a smaller stone beneath and partly overlaps the two adjacent to it. triding stone a stone in a river at a forclable place serving as an indicator of the depth of the water for those intending to cross on horseback. tridgepole n a ridgeroll, a wooden roll round which the join is made between metal, ie zinc, copper or lead sheets, in preference io a clinked joint. riff see ruif. ig, rigg n 1 (1) a measure of land, long rather than broad. (2) (ear!y,famzing) each separate strip of ploughed land, raised in the middle and sloping gradually to a furrow on either side, and the group of rigs mu bounded by patches of uncultivated grazing; now one of the divisions of a field ploughed in a single operation. 2 t a strip of land leased for building, usu with a narrow street frontage and considerable extension backwards: lang rig; subsequent building development resulted in the formation of a lane or narrow path (either a pend or a vennel, developing into a close1) which led from the street frontage along one of the long boundaries of the rigg and gave access to a series of dwellings which were built fronting the lane, and therefore were at right-angles to the house fronting the street (foreland). 3 a measure of land 240 paces by 6 paces, ie 600 ft X 15 ft (183m X 4.6m)(although it should be noted that at St Andrews each rigg averages 30 ft @.lm)wide). riggin(g) the ridge of a roof; the roof itself; the ceiling; the

material of which the roof is made. riggin divot a turf used a5 a ridge-coping for a thatched roof. riggin-heid the ridge of a roof riggin stane 1 a stone used as a ridge stone of a roof. 2 the cr()wn of a road. riggin tree the ridge beam of a roof trigined, rignit having a ridge. rim in to cause, eg lead, to melt and run into a prepared hole in stone in order to form an anchorage. rin, run, ryn n a layer or course of stone. runner (of astandardpartition) the horizontal framing f ~ e to d the ceiling (tap runner) and the floor (bottom runner). run bar a sliding bar of a door. runbead continuous beading. runbearn any continuous horizontal beam acting as a support. jrundale, rendal a landholding system similar to runrig but involving larger portions of (mainly ouffieldl land. +run joist, rin jest a beam which is fuced at right angles to the rafter couples to support thatch, a purlin. rin lime mortar poured liquid into the crevices of stonework and left to set. ?run metal cast-iron, i e made from mould, not wrought. trinnand adj (ofwater) implies that it is a piped water supply trun pan, ryn pan 1 a purlin. 2 a gutter. trunrig a system of joint landholding by which each tenant had several detached rigs allocated in rotation by lot each year, so that each would have a share in turn of the more fertile land; such a portion of land; cf rundale. trin ruf(e), run roof, runeroof a sloping (narrow lean-to) roof. run rubble masonry consisting of small undressed stones bound together by mortar. trin-wall, run-wall a light partition wall from one side of a house to the other. rin side-dykes w i see side. rindsee reen. ring n 1 ta prehistoric circular fort or entrenchment. 2 a piece of wood used for a slate pin. tring board a circular framework or shuttering of wood lining the sides of a well while it is being dug. tringpen, ringstane one of the stones forming an arch, a voussoir. tring quheill a wheel fitted with a metal rim. ringesee reenge. trink n a seat encircling fire in an old-fashioned open fireplace. [perh. confused with bink n l ] rinnicksee runnick. rip v to saw timber along the grain. n a guiding mark on the wood for the saw to follow. ripsaw a coarse-toothed saw used for ripping. tripe, rype v to clear obstructions, eg in a rone pipe; see also rib. rise v, n: riser 1 a stone which reaches to the h l l height of a course of rubble walling. 2 avertical part of a step (as opposed to the tread). 3 a vertical pipe or conduit which travels upwards. 4 generally any vertical section adjacent to and rising above a horizontal area. riseband a vertical joint rising through several courses without bonding. rise see rice. risp, resp n 1 a rasp, a coarse file. 2 ?also risp pin a kind of doorknocker consisting of avertical, serrated, metal rod fixed to the door and a ring which was drawn up and down to produce a rattling noise. rit n a scratch made (as with a nail) on a slate etc; an incised straight line, usu applied to the mark made for a shallow trench or furrow as a guide in draining. 12



rivatwarie scratch, score, groove. 2 to mark with a shallow trench or furrow as a guide in ploughing, draining etc. ritting spade a double-handled spade for making the first cuts in draining. rivatwarie SHETLAND n 1 a large nail. 2 a tool for boring holes, an auger, esp an improvised one. rive, reeve U to split, burst. trivin, roffin, rofin adj (of a building) badly cracked, damaged. rivet rz (in plaster work) part of the plaster which passes between the laths and spreads out and hardens to form rivetlike f ~ n g ,also called plasterer's snot, which refers particularly to the portion of plaster above lath level. t~ 1 to

2 an estate; a piece of land rented from a landowner; a farm; a tack2,an arable holding. room door the door of the parlour. room-end the end of a but-and-ben cottage away from the kitchen, the best room. ?room-free not incurring the payment levied on corn for occupying space in a mill while awaiting grinding. roon, roond see round. roonall see roundel. roost, reest n the open cross-joists of a cottage living room SHE'I'IAVD.

RIVETS roan see rone. roch see ruch. rochel, rockel n a porch, a vestibule BANFF. rocht see wrocht. rodding n 1 a narrow track or path, specifone trodden out by sheep; any private unmetalled track or rough road. 2 tthe roddings ? an area criss-crossed by tracks or paths. rodding eye an opening in a drain to allow obstructions to be cleared. roff see ruif. roffin, rofin see rive. rois see rose. roll n: troll (moulding) the simple round edging (approx 3/4 of a circle in section) formed at the outside vertical corners of

I rybats at door and winc nings, on2 Norman and characteristic of 16th- and 1 ury Scottish detailing. troll and fillet phrase commonly used in Scotland to describe Gothic architecture. rone, rhone, roan, ?run n the horizontal, half-round eaves gutter for the collection of rainwater: a ronepipe. roof see ruif. rood see ruid. room, troum, trowme n 1 the parlour, the best sitting room.

rooter up 11 to build (roughly and unskilfully). roove see ruive. rope see raip. ros see rose. rose, jros, trois n 1 a rose. 2 appears to be part of a lock for a window or door: ring's, roissis and sneikkis. trois of Paris, rois aparice, rosa paris n a pigment usecl in red or reddish paint. roset n resin, rosin. rosety ruits fir-roots used as fuel. rouch, rough see ruch. roum see room. round, roon(dl n 1 a buttress, wedge-shapedon the plan, with a rounded apex, as built at Rosslyn Castle. 2 also round-about a circular fort or earthwork. 3 also round-about a freestanding fireplace allowing people to sit round it. 4 a circular tower or turret, particularly one incorporated in a curtain wall, ie a mural tower, generally used as a lodging subordinate to the great tower or principal residence; militarily it was used for a flank defence of the curtain. 5 t a rounded recess or room partially enclosed by the inner wall of a corner tower, sometimes partitioned off to make a separate apartment. 6 a circular or semi-circular wall used in hill country to protect sheep in snowstorms. 7 a circular pane of glass. 8 a spiral staircase. roundel, roonall n 1 = round n 4.2 a circular sheepfold. 3 ta rounded enclosure at the foot of a pulpit. roundel stair a narrow winding in a turret. row v to roll. trowit and betit sharpened and repaired. row-heid the part of a curved waterway (convex in form) which carries water from the mill-lade to the breast of the millwheel. row see raw. rowme see room. ru see rew. rubbin stane n a piece of pipe-clay used to whiten doorsteps, blue cam. rubble n small shapeless stones usually used for packing the inside ofwalls; cf hearting but can be used exposed, in rubble walling either uncoursed (random rubble) or in layers (coursed rubble); sometimes the stones are roughly shaped into rectangular form (squared rubble) which can also be built either random (if of regular size) or coursed: sometimes when small squared stones (snecks) are introduced to 'break' the courses it can be described as (squared) snecked rubble; in general the term when applied to walling refers to the coarsest masonry with rough undressed stones (it has been suggested that the stones have been so called as they were formed by the 'rubbing' of water). Note, it is a feature of 15th-century building that the regular form of the squared rubble assumed a 'squarer' face compared with the long shallow appearance of the 13th-century work; meanwhile the random rubble of the 14th century was also genera

sauf described as outband and inband. [cf Eng rebate, rabbet] ryddil, ryddill see riddle. ryll treesee ravel. rvn see rin. rype see ripe. rys see rice.

)mposetl of the long stones rather than deep stones which ... ter developetl into random work incorporating larger boulders. RUBBLE


i l l



blie a big stone [prob. one used in rubble masonry]. ruch, rough, roch, trouch adj rough, unpolished, unwrought. rough size the dimension measured between unfinished surface, eLy the width between the brickwork of a window opening before it is plastered. ruch (stane) dyke a tlrystone wall. ruch stane a natural boulder. truch layer a workman who carries out ruch work. ruch mason, truch dyker a mason who builds only with unhewn stone. rudesee ruid. rue see rew. t r u g saw n a two-handed saw. truid, rude, rood n: see also Measures on p.105 1a land area of '10 square falls or a quarter of a Scots acre. 2 a square measure which ecluals 36 square ells (also known as the little or short ruid) and as such was used in the measure of masonry and slatework. 3 a piece of ground apportioned from land belonging to a burgh to anyone wishing to build a house ancl cultivate a garden around it. trud(e) loft the loft or gallery over the rood screen. ruif, roof, riff, reef NE, trufe, troff n 1 a roof. 2 the ceiling of a room. roof binding a roof truss. roof timbers rafters or woodwork. ruif-tree, rooftree the main beam or ridge of a roof. uive, roove, reeve N, t r i v n an iron rivet or washer used for riveting the end of a seam nail or bolt. v to rivet, clinch (a nail or bolt). rumbled see rummle. rumford, rumfoord U tto improve the draught of a (chimney) by narrowing the vent. rumfo(o)rdina sheet of metal used as a lining or casing for the back of a fireplace. [fr. Count von Rumford (1753-1814) who suggested this method of improving smoky chimneys] rummle v: rumbled (of nzmonq~j collapsed, fallen in SHETLAVD.

rummlin applied to a system of drainage by ditches filled with loose stones, instead of pipes or tiles, eg rummlin cundie, rummlin drain, rummlin syver. [prob. onomatopoeic] run see rin, rone. runch n a wrench, screw key: a tool for tightening nuts or screw bolts. frungle pin n a spar of wootl. runnick, rinnick n a small water channel or drain, zrsu in a byre JHETLATI). ORKNEY. [ON renna a nin, course] r u t see rute. trute, r u t 17 the bottom or base of a wall, building etc. ruynesee rewine. rybat, rabbet, rebat, rebbit n a hewn stone at the side of a door or wintlow opening forming a reveal, rybats can be

saal see salle. tsab v = sad. tsad 11 (offloors, soil etc) to sink or settle, subside saddid.'saddit lofa ~, , ..floor etc) trodden hard. saddle see saidle. sae, say, s(e)y n 1 a small tub or bucket. 2 a wooden tub, carried by nvo people on a pole or rope, used for transporting water SHETLAND, ORKNFI, C A I ~ I N E S S . sae bink a round recess in the wall just between the outby and the but-end. A flagstone was built in horizontally which, with its projecting edge rounded, formed a convenient for the sae (wooden water tub) ORKNEY. safe see sauf. tsaidle, saddle n the part of a stall on which an animals stands. sail 1 1 to be awash, covered with liquid: Theflair'ssailin. saillie, sailyesee sai13ie. tsail3ie. sally, saillie, sailye 12 1 a projection; applied to a room which projects beyoncl the face of a house or wall; such a projection on a fortified wall was described as as corbal sailye. 2 stones projecting from a wall face, water spout, corbelling in general, tsaip-wark, soap-work, soaperie n a soap-factory sair n a flaw in metal, a crack. sair see ser. salar see solar. tsalle, saal n 1 a long open work-room in a factory, uszc used for the finishing process, or for the dispatch of goods esp in a paperworks. 2 f a hall. 3 'ya great hall of a palace. sally see sail3ie. salor see sellar'. salt see saut. San see saun. sap spail, sap wud n the sap wood of a tree. sarge see serch. sark L> cover the rafters of (a roof) with wooden boards, line (a roof) with wood for the slates to be nailed on. sarking the rough boarding, plain-edged or rebated, nailed on of the rafters and to which slates are nailed, sarkle a lining of wood round the lower part of a room, usz~ referred to as the skirting, sash, window see chess. sasine n (lazo) the act or procedure of giving possession of feudal property, orig by symbolic delivery of earth and stones, now by registry at the General Register of sasines in Edinburgh; see also register. sattle, settle n 1 the middle passageway through a byre between the rows of stalls. 2 a ledge or raised platform (usu in a byre). one Of the large stones which sattle stane, form the kerb of a stall. 2 a stone seat on each side of the hearth. sauf, safe n t a ventilated safe or store for provision, usu located outside. saving a recess. saving - stone a stone built over a lintel to distribute the load of the wall above onto the jambs. brad a window shutter, safe lintel, safer S I ~ I ~ A Na Dwooden lintel generally placed -





behind the outer stone lintel of a door or window. saun, saund, San n sand. saut n: saut(ie)-bucket, saut(ie) backet 1 a salt-box, now uszc one with a flat back and a curved front made to hang on the wall. 2 t a house of this shape, with a bow front. tsalt cott a salthouse. tsaut-girnal a store-house for salt. saving see sauf. saw 12: tsawar a sawyer. sawins sawdust. sawdraft one of a number of shallow cuts, by a saw, across the grain of a timber so that it can be slightly curved. sawstick, sawstock a log of rough-hewn timber. tsaxeane adj made of stone. 'say see sae, sey. scabbled, scappled adj (of stone) roughly faced with a pick, chisel or hammer. scabbler a mason's chisel (llh-2 ins (37-51 mm) wide used with a mell. scaddin n turf used for thatching. scailie, scailyie, scail3e see skaillie. tscalan n a rough hut or shelter. [ScGael sgalan] scale, iskaill, tskelly n t l a scale, a ladder. 2 a flight of steps. scale stair a straight (as opposed to a spiral) staircase. scale and platt stair a staircase consisting of a straight flight of steps with a landing at the top. scant n a short slate nailed immediately under the ridge. scants the highest row of slates on a roof; the last row of slates to be fixed. scantlings npl small beams or pieces of wood sometimes restricted to those less than 5 ins (125 mm) square, sometimes particularly applied to: 1 the upper ties in roof trusses; 2 the rafters, particularly those forming a lean-to roof; the meaning is sometimes extended to the junction between a wall and the roof scappled see scabbled. scarcement see scarsement. scarsement, scarcement n 1 a row of stones which separate slates of two adjoining roofs. 2 the projection or ledge shelf (formed by contraction in width of a wall either at foundation level or at the skew level of a gable) to carry the ends of joists or sarking boards. 3 the footing or stepped projection at the base of a wall. 4 road edging. tscathles, skaithles adj: keep a person o r place scathles to keep a person or place safe from falling masonry or the like during construction work. scattald, scattold see skattald. schaffathing see schalfalting. tschalfalting, schaffathing n a scaffolding. tschef, schefe n a quantity of iron or steel. tscheif n a sieve. scheif see scheve. schele see shiel. scheme n: housing scheme a local-authority housing estate. tscheret, scherret, shirrel n a piece of turf, for example one of a row used in laying a ridge of a thatched roof: faill and scherrettis. ischeve, scheif, schyf(f), shaven a sheave, a pulley(-wheel). tschide n, p1schidis a billet of wood; a chip, splinter of wood. school see schule. schore see shore. fschorn, shorn adj (eg ofa tracery window) carved. schorne werk n metal or timber worked by a turner or carved. schort see short. What see shot.


tschout 11to conduct (rainwater) clear of a building to let it run away. tschriffon npl stone tiles. schule, scuil, school n. 1 a school. 2 a classroom; a lecture room (in St Andrews University). tschool chamber the accommodation reserved for the parish schoolmaster, his house or living room. schule see shuil. schutestock see shootstick. schyf, schyff see scheve. scillop see skillop. sclaitepynnis see slate. sclammer n a paste of red or white lead with linseed oil, used to pack washers in taps. sclate see slate. tscley n clay scob, scowb n a twig or cane of willow or hazel, esp one bent over to fasten down thatch, make baskets etc. tscowb and scraw a form of construction of a partition wall using wattles with straw or thin pieces of turf, sometimes used to give the idea of snugness. tscolla n a hut, a shed SHETLAND. [ON skdli] sconce, skonce n a screen or shelter (of stone, wood etc) against the weather, fire or for concealment etc. scone n 1 a small piece of brick or stone used to fill an interstice in a wall; the implication is that the brick or stone must first be cut to fit. 2 a thin firebrick used in a boiler. scontion see scuncheon. scoor see scour. scoot see scout. score U to mark or scratch a line on a surface with a sharppointed implement. score hole n a narrow space between the walls of two adjoining houses which do not have a common gable. scotch see scutch. Scotch see Scots. Scots, Scotch a 4 Scots acre was considered the area that could be ploughed by an ox team in a working day; see also Measures on p.105. Scottish baronial see barony. scotch bond n (in brickwork) four stretcher courses to one header course. scotch bracketting (of a cornice) n the timber framework on which the plasterwork of an elaborate cornice is supported. tScots ell the Scottish yard of 37 ins (0.94 m) See also Measures on p.104. scotch harl = flushpointing. ?Scotch house a characteristic style of 17th-century house which succeeded the early fortified tower as a laird's dwelling. Scots milesee Measures on p.104. S c o t c h pantile a single-lap handmade tile, with an S-shaped section, complete with a projecting nib on the underside; this helps to locate the tiles in horizontal rows when the tiles are 'hung' on the tile battens which are nailed across the rafters parallel to the ridge. scoug see scug. scouk n a peephole (opening through a channel, arch or wall, eg in a church, to enable the worshippers inside the chapel or aisle to see the host). tscouling adj (of a skyliHt) projecting (by analogy wi animal horns which turn down). scour, scoor n a channel, gutter etc. scourcock a drain cock, ie a tap or valve, the opening of whi, facilitates the draining of a system of water pipes. scout, scoot n a water pipe for collecting water from a roof scow, skow n 1a board made from the outer section of a tree.


cowb 2 a fragment cut from a plank; a splinter, sliver of wood. 3 a small wattle used for fvting thatch. scowb see scob. scra, scraa see scraw. scratch coat n a preliminary (under)coat of plaster which is scratched, ie deliberately indented, in order to give good adhesion for subsequent coats. scraw, scra, scraa n divots or thin pieces of turf used in walling or thatching. scraw-built built using scraw. cree n a ritldle or sieve, esp box-shaped, for sifting grain, sand, ,.,,<l


screed n a thin strip or layer of material, zfiu applied to concrete. screefer see scriever. scribble n hammer-dressed beds or joints of masonry with marginal chisel drafts. scrieve 11 to scratch or incise a mark on (wood), eg to show the shape of something that is to be made. scriever, screefer n a tool for tracing shapes on a surface before carving it (as above). tscriff-scraff n a German jack plane which is pulled rather than n,l<l,~rl "-:"'-"'

icrlm n 1 a thin, coarse cloth used by plasterers as a kind of reinforcement for their hardwall plaster at joints in plasterboard and other places. 2 lining paper used in painting and decorating.


-. .. .- . ..... . ....... ,


tscrows npl long strips or thin scraps of hides or skins, used for making glue. scrub n a kind of joiner's plane which is first applied to smooth the rough timber surface, the fore plane. tscrunt v 1 to plane a board roughly so as to remove a thick shaving, as in planing the joints in flooring. 2 to roughen pointing with a hand pick, usu prior to repointing. scug, skug, scoug n a shelter, shack. scuil see schule. scuncheon, tscuntion, tscontion n 1 the inner (unfinished) edge of a window or door jamb. 2 the open finished end of a wall. 3 a; labourer's morning snack. scurdie see scurdy. scurdy, scurdie, skurdy n 1 a kind of whinstone or basalt, sometimes used to pave a street. [perh. fr. Scurdy Ness near Montrose, which is made of it] scutch, scotch, skutch v to dress (a stone) roughly with a pick. scutter n to work messily. scuttle hole n a hole in the wall of a byre through which the dung etc is thrown out. sea n : tsea car(r) a sea wall. sea-stane a stone taken from seashore or cliffs and used for building purposes; probably because of their salt content such stones show dampness in wet weather; they are also very hard and difficult to hew and therefore do not make very good building stones and are not popular with builders. sea tOUn a seaport town, usu comprisin~an 18th-century harbour built by improving lairds with the fishing villages

which grew up around them. seam v to fit one edge of a plank to another. seat n a wall rest or level bed used to support the end of a beam, lintel etc. ?seat breast 1 the front of a church pew 2 the book board of a pew. tseat-house the dwelling place or manor-house on a small estate. second, secont adj (of storeys in a house) in Scotland, historically, this m u referred to the storey immediately above the ground floor (now only in non-technical usage); called 'first' in English (the t e r d now generally adopted in Scotland); cf first'. secret place see place. seep v (of a l i q u i g to penetrate, percolate. sege, seige see siege. sekket, grupet an sekket see gruip. self-contained adj (of a house) having an entry and grounds separate from those of the neighbours, eg detached or terraced as opposed to flamed; also extended to flats which contain all facilities (ie no outside or shared toilets etc), hence: to rent: self-containedflat. tsellar' n a storage place, whether above or below ground. [Eng cellar] tsellar2, cellar, salor n in old Orkney houses, the apartment leading off the living-room and used as a bedroom. [ON salr a naul +ellurn n a parapet of a bridge. tselvedge n a parapet of a bridge. tsemble n a parapet of a bridge. ser, sair v to serve. sering serving, eg pipe 'serving' taps etc. tserch, sarge n a kind of worked stone for a building. service n 1 assistance given to the masons or carpenters while building or repairing a house, usu labourers ('most commonly the landlord pays the materials and the workmen (craftsmen) and the tenant carries the one (materials) and furnishes meat and service (labourers, unskilled workmen) to the others'). 2 (law) the procedure by which heritable property was transmitted to an heir, a special service referring to particular lands, a general service having no such tserviceman, servitor an assistant who passes the straw up to the thatcher. servitude n (law) the obligation attached to a property limiting the proprietor's use of it or permitting others to exercise specified,rights over it. 1 ?the building where the Court of Session session house was held. 2 the room in or attached to a church, in which the kirk session meets. sesters npl the channel in the floor of a byre behind the stalls into which the urine etc runs ORKNEY. set n a twist or warp in a piece of wood. setstane a hone; a stone with a smooth surface used for setting or giving an edge to tools. sett n a paving stone, usu refers to rectangular shaped blocks whinstone or granite used as a road finish, settle see sattle. seuch see sheuch. sevendle adj strong, firm, securely made, built or fvced,

. ..~

tsew a sieve,


a tongue or projection running along the side of a plank, esp of flooring, made to fit into a groove cut in the side of its neighbour. tsexand greeped, grupetan sekket see gruip.






sey, say n a test-piece, a sample, specifone submitted as proof of competence for entry to a trade incorporation. sey drink, say drink a round of drinks paid for by an entrant to a trade when submitting his sey. sey see sae. seyloring see sylour. tshackle craw n an iron lever with a ring or loop at the end used for drawing bolts from wood. ?shade1n a shed, a roofed structure used as a shelter or storehouse. tshadeZ n a piece of land, usu a strip or portion of arable ground, larger than a rig. shaif laft n a barn loft where sheaves are stacked before being put through the threshing mill. &hair,,, sherp, sharp adj (ofsand used in building open, loose, made up of angular particles. n a long type of nail with an extra-sharp point. zj to sharpen. shairoina stane a whetstone. tshamells n a slaughterhouse, a shambles; cf skemmels. shangie n 1 a temporary handle fixed to the point of an ordinary saw to make it usable as a cross-cut saw. 2 a washer, usu of straw or hemp, put round a drill or bolt to prevent leakage of water or grit, as in quarrying or coal-boring, or shipbuilding. 3 tan early piece of plumber's equipment used for boring water mains consisting of a clamp for the underside of the pipe and a drill on top of the pipe operated by a ratchet. 4 a tie bar used. ep in shutterina for concrete SHETLAND. shank n 1 a heavdless nail. 2 a handle: a brush shank. 3 a chimney-stack. shankie, shunkie, chunkie n a WC. [fr. the manufacturers, Shanks & Company, Barrhead, Renfrewshire] shannel n a hard gravelly type of subsoil, good for foundations SHETLAND. [variant of channel] sharkie n a notched spanner. sharl n: sharlins hinges. sharlpin a pin or pivot on which the loop of a hinge turns, esp on an old-fashioned type of door SHETLAND. sharn-hole n = scuttle hole. sharp see shairp. a saw. ie sawdust from sawing. tshauve shauvinsn waste,

shieling, tshealing, tsheeling 1 a high or remote summer pasture, us24 with a shepherd's hut or huts. 2 a roughly-made hut, esp one for shepherds and dairymaids on a shieling, or for salmon-fishermen. shiel house a shepherd's or fisherman's hut. shield n an escutcheon, keyhole cover. tshieldo n a small porch with open sides, a small wall in front of an outer door with the roof connected to the main roof of a house ORKNEY shifflesee shuil. ~hillseeshuil. shimley see chimley. ?shinty n a street curved like a shinty stick, a crescent. shirrel see scheret. shiver n a chip or splinter of stone, esp one broken off during the mason's dressing; sometimes refers to a defect in stone. shiver bottoming hardcore upfilling or bottoming. shod v to fit a spade with a metal tip etc. tshod shovel, shod scoop a spade or scoop fitted with a metal rim, used to clear out ditches. shoddie n 1 a natural building stone, used roughly dressed. 2 a small, fill-in stone. shoe n 1 the lower end of a rainwater conductor in the form of an open-ended bend. 2 an iron fireclay box built into a wall with an open side exposed and into which a timber beam is placed; used (a) where a beam would otherwise be very near a flue and liable to be charred, or @) where a wall is affected with



shave see scheve. shavelin, Tchaveling n 1 a tool for smoothing hollow or circular wood or plaster, a kind of spoke-shave. 2 a morticechisel (used to take offflaesocks or small pieces in mortising). shaven latten see lattoun. shealing see shiel. shear see shore'. tshedda half n a portion of land facing north. sheel see shuil. sheeling see shiel. sheeling stane n a millstone. sheil see shiel. shelf press n a wall cupboard with shelves. sherp see shairp. shess see chess. sheuch, sheugh, tseuch n 1 a ditch, a drain; a ditch round a fortification. 2 an open street gutter. 3 an alley between houses. sheul see shuil. shiel, sheil, tshield, tschele n 1 a temporary or roughlymade hut or shed, ofen one used by (salmon) fishermen or 11erds and their animals. 2 t a small house, a hovel.







shoot see shuit. shootstick, tsuitstock, tschutestock n (masonly, carpentcy) a bevel, an adjustable square. ?shore1,shear n a sewer: the common shore. shore', tschore n a temporary timber support given to a wall, roof etc during slapping. shorn see schorn. short, jschort a& tschort buyttis small, irregular pieces of lana. tschort w o r k smaller building material in wood or stone. tshot1,shott n the bucket or box on the rim of a millwheel into which water falls. tshot2, schot n, also shot w i n d o w , outshot w i n d o w 1 a small opening in the wall of a house, ofen on a staircase, acting as a window but closed by hinged wooden shutters, sometimes with small panes of glass at the top, a kind of small casement. 2 a shutter used to close such. 3 sometimes means an oriel or bow window or small projecting window used by wardens view .- - . . vicitnrc . ...-.- - . shot hole the opening for a shot w i n d o w . shott see shot1. shottle n a small drawer in a cabinet, counter or trunk. shouldered adj 1 torched, ie each succeeding layer of slates tiles is bedded in mortar on tou of the preceding flower) laver

. .



show or (not good practice) on a supporting lath. 2 (in a description of springers) of an archway with splayed jambs. shown flaxwaste, zdsu in the form of a thick layer under a roof thatch. shuffle see shuil. shuil, sheel w, shuffle, shiffle, shull, shill, sheul, tschule, -i-shwl77 a shovel, a spade with the sides of the blade slightly curvet1 upwards in order to contain the material lifted. v to shovel, clean, clear a ditch, smooth the bottom of a gutter. shuit, shoot zl (ofa building etc) bulge, protrude, collapse. shunkie see shankie. shut n a shutter. shuttering n timber moulds or supports into which loam is rammed or concrete is poured (any reinforcement is aiready in position); after the concrete has set the shuttering is struck, ie dismantled and removed. shwl see shuil. side n : sideband in a turf wall, a sod laid parallel to the wall to cover the ends of those sods laid transversely from the other sicle. tside dyke a wall running alongside of a piece of ground; uru in tenements of burgh land dividing properties. rin side-dykes w i to be neighbours with. ?side-schoola subsidiary school, US~Lone in an outlying part of a parish. side wall the main wall of a house as opposed to agable wall. siege, tsege, l.seige n 1 a wooden or stone bench on which a rrlason dresses his stones. 2 a small iron block or rest with a square straight edge against which a slater dresses slates using a slater's knife, ie a tool with a cutting edge, hooked end and with a spike on the back. sike see syke. sile, tsill, tsyle n 1 a roof rafter, which when pinned or nailed at the upper end to a corresponding rafter forms a 'pair 0 siles' (equivalent to a couple) which supports the roof; these are generally strengthened by the addition ofhorizontal beams or ties, the lowest tie being at the level of the foot of the rafters, ie wallhead level and is known as a jeest, joist or sileblade; the tie above this, approx halfway between the jeest and the riggin or ridge is known as the bauk or spurbauk; an even higher tie is known as the wee bauk. The operation for joining all these members together is known as knittin the siles. 2 the foot or lower part of a rafter. 3 a wall plate, ie a wooden plate mnbedded on top of a low supporting wall to which the ground-floor joists are nailed. or of a wallhead on which the rafters rest. 4 a ground-floor joist to which the floorboards are naiied. fti to put up a ceiling over, roof. tsiling, syling 1 a ceiling; cfsylour. 2 wainscotting. sileblade 1 a tie beam at wallhead level, futed to the lower extremities of siles or rafters. 2 the foot or lower part of a rafter. knitting the siles see n 1. silouring see sylour. ~immens,simmonds npt types of ropes made of straw, heather. rushes etc, made by a semi-plaiting method and used with stone weights to hold down thatch on houses and stacks SHnzhWD, ORRiEu, CAITfrJK5S.

summer the principal beam in the roof of a building, esp one supporting the joists or rafters, in particular a beam or joist in the drying floor of a corn-kiln. 2 a summer, a supporting timher beam or lintel. 3 a large stone laid on top of a column or pilaster. 4 the first voussoir above an impost or stringer.

simmondsseesimmens. tsinapar, sinapire, synapar n cinnebar, a sublimation of red sulphides of mercury used as a pigment. single n, also single dyke, +single-work the one-stone-thick upper part of a dry-stone wall; cf'double dyke. single end, singal en a one-room house. single-flooring a flooring nail of ordinarylength, as opposed to the long double-flooring size. single house a house of one single room in depth. single work see single dyke. sinnie n a kiln for drying corn, built into one end of a barn SHBI'IAND.

tsircular mashine n seems to be a revolving chimney cowl, a grannie. sire see syver. sit v to sit. n a sinking or a settling down of the surface of the ground or of anything built on it. sitfast a stone deeply and firmly embedded in the earth. sithouse a dwelling house, especially on a farm. skail r 1 (of a wall) to jut, project or lean outwards. skaill see scale. skaillie, scailie, tscail3e, tscailyie n 1 blue slate. 2 stone shingles. 3 stonework (in general). tskainie, skenye n a skein of thread or mason's line. skairl, tskare n a slanting cut or notch in a piece of wood by which it can be joined to another of similar shape. U to splice (two pieces of wood etc). tskairi n a plot of land, esp one of the many parcelled out of common lands SW. tskaitgis to fut gangis npl straps fvted to planks, probably to provide a good foot grip, esp if the planks are sloping. skaithie, skathie n 1 a fence made of stakes and ropes. 2 a wind screen erected outside a door, of stone or turf, or boards or branches of straw. 3 aroughly-built shed of boards or backs. skaithlessee scathles. tskakkarium lz the rofi custom house. skare see &air. &athie see skaithie. skatt a tax on land levied in Shetland and Orkney (as a relic ,)ftlle Norse occupation), tskattald, scattald, scattold n SHETUWD 1 a group of inhabited townships; the lands pertaining to them. 2 the lands of such a township, in some instances, specif its pasture-land or outfield. [ON skattr tax, tribute] skee a small llouse sHEnmm, ORmm,[c-skeo] skelb see skelfl. skelf', skelb, skelp n 1 a splinter or flake of wood. 2 a very thin flagstone slab. cut or take offin thin slices;to separate laminates, skelfer a thin lamina or flake ofstone ORmN. skelf in 1 a shelf or a frame containing several shelves, usu with crossbars in front to prevent the utensils from falling off the shelf. 2 a shelf above a box-bed, USZL used a sleeping bunk for small children, . skelly see scale. skelp see skelf,. skembels see skemmels. a slaughterhouse, a shambles; cf skemmels, skembels


skenye see skainie. skeo i r 1 a: little hut built of drystone so that the wind can pass through to air-dry fish and meat SHEn.AND, ORKNEY.2 a poorly constructed house SHETJ


skew skew, skyow n used to describe something not straight, oblique, misted: 1 also skyoo the raking top of a gable; 2 the gable coping; 3 a stepped flashing; 4 stone slates used for swept valleys; 5 a timber chimney cowl. 11 1 to build in an oblique form, to lay at a rake or a batter. 2 to cover a gable with sods or divots. closed skew the point where the raking part of a roof ab~lr.7a wall. open skew the open end of a pitched roof. skewputt, skewblock, skewbutt, skewcorbel n in general applies to a stone so shaped that it supports the stones built higher and at an angle to it, q:1 the springer or lowest stone forming an arch; 2 the lowest stone of a gable coping, which generally projects and is moulded.

tskewtabling the flat stones forming the gable coping. skewed geelum see geelum. skiffin rz a thin partition. skiftin see skifting. skifting, skiftin n 1 a shaving of wood. 2 also skifting board a narrowpiece of boarding, a skirting board. ,I.skillop, scillop n an auger with a rounded tapering blade. skinch n a botched, bad piece of workmanship: a skinch o a job. tskivet n a mason's hand brush used to clean stones. sklaffend hole see sklafford hole. tsklafford hole, sklaffend hole n the hole in the wall of a byre. sklait, skleat see slate. skleff adj a shallow, flat piece of wood, stone etc. sklent adj oblique, slanting. skonce see sconce. S~OW see scow. skug see scug. tskur, skurr n the rough projecting surface of stone. skurdy see scurdy. skurr see skur. skurrock n a stepping stone ORKNEY. skutch see scutch. skyle to set up a screen o r a shutter at the end of a long pole of a chimneytop so that it may vent better SHETLAND, ORKNEY, C.UTHNESS.

skyle-a-lum a piece of wood used for this purpose [ O N sk$la to protect, shelter] skyoo, skyow see skew.



slabstone n a Bat doorstep, a threshold. tslack a ~ i(qf j bztildings) untenanted. slader see sled. slairter 1) 1 to work messily 2 to make mesix mlear. slaister pointing flush-pointing smeared onto surrounding fl.,: c t \tones. slap, slop n, also slapping, slappie 1 also gateslap an opening in a wall etc. 2 a narrow passage or lane running between houses below street level and the street itself NE. 1' to make a gap or break in (a wall etc) or for (a door, window etc). A SLAPPING

slate, tsclate, tsklait, tskleat n (a) hlue slate, eg from Easdale, Ballachulish, Dunkeld, Aberdeenshire or Wales (fr. approx 1750 onwards). sclater a slater. slating 1 a roof covering, not necessarily of slates. 2 a roof. sclate house a house with a slate roof. tsclaitepynnis pins or nails for f ~ n slates g to roof boarding. slaverpiece n a plumber's flashing, m u fitted as an extension to a gutter or rainwater pipe, used to direct the rainwater over or around an object. sled n 1 a hand- or horse-drawn vehicle without wheels generally used in places where wheeled carts could not operate. 2 a flagstone, flat stone lying on its natural bed. sledder, tslader a person who pulls a sled. sledge mell, sledge mill n a sledgehammer. sleeper rr 1 orig a timber beam resting directly on the ground and to which floor-boarding was nailed. 2 a small or dwarf wall which supports floor joists. sleeve n a tube inserted through a wall and through which a pipe passes; the tube thus allows the pipe to expand and contract without cracking the wall or wall finish. tsleike n a whetstone. slicht, slight a& (of a szc~face) smooth and level SHETLAND, ORKV?"


slide .h]to raze to the ground, demolish. slide n a sliding bolt to fasten a door. slider a heavy rectangular steel plate with pierced decoration which is fixed in various positions in front of a fire in order to hold pots, iron etc. slight see slicht. slip n: slips 1 glazing beads, cover fillets. 2 a term applied to atlditional members, eg rafters, joists, studs etc, which are needed to make up a required area, the members when placed at standard distances apart not filling the area exactly. slippers npl timber rods, one fued at the top and one at the hottom of a template parallel to the line of the cornice, which run or slip on the cornice rods and thus guide the template along the correct line. slipbolt n a barrel bolt. .i-slipponisnplpossihly window sashes. slipsill, slipsole n a sill which is only the width of the window opening, ic which fits in between the reveals; in contrast with a lug sill which extends into the wall beyond the wall rests. tslipsole 1 a step of a staircase. 2 = slipsill. slipe, slype n l t a covered passageway in a monastery; uszc between the transept and the chapter house, a kind of private pend. 2 a wooden frame used as a cart (without wheels). tslite, slyte v to make sharp, whet. slocken. fslokkyn 11 to slake (lime). slop see slap. tsloped gaw n an open drain. slop stone rz 1 a stone (later fireclay) sink. 2 a dished gulley to[' slot, tslote n the bar or bolt of a door. to secure with bolts. slotit faqtened by a bolt. iludgecock n the cock or valve which is used to drain a water system of pipes, tanks etc; the draw-off cock is used esp when cleaning out a system. ;lump n a rough statement or estimate; a spot item without measurement in a schedule of quantities. slumpy calculated in a rough-and-ready manner. slunge n a sink with an open-ended waste-pipe. tslychtasur n ground or powdered paint, esp azure. slype see slipe. slyte see slite. sma wud n shorter pieces of wood on a roof, purlins. ?smearing-bucht, smearin(g)-house n the pen or shed where sheep were smeared with a compound of tar and grease as a protection against damp and parasites. ;meeo see smoo. imiddie n a smithy, a blacksmith's workshop. smiddie-end the gable wall of a smithy often used as a storing place for scrap iron. ismoke n an inhabited house; cf reek. smokebrod the wooden flap or canopy placed overa fireplace to regulate the draught and prevent the chimney from smoking. smoo SHETLAND, ORKNF( n 1 a covered drain. 2 also smeeo, smugga a gap in a wall to allow the passage of sheep. tsmout n a nassaee through a wall for water etc. :smudge n a mixture of lamp black and glue size, applied by the plumber to the surface of lead in order to confine the area to be soldered. see smoo. snap. snag n the bolt of a door, consisting of a wooden button, pin or knob fixed to the doorpost to keep the door shut SHETLAND. I )

snagging n making good defects on completion of the main building works. tsnap, snab n the coping For a drystone wall, in which triangular stones were placed so that their points jutted upwards.


snap (topped-)dyke, snap-fence a stone wall with a snap. sneck n 1 the latch of a door, a lifting lever which passes through the door and actuates a fall bar. 2 one of a number of small stones packed into the spaces between larger stones in a rubble wall. 3 sometimes applied to the through-stone or inband, ie a stone set across the thickness of a wall, and thus if the wall begins to collapse the deterioration stops at the sneck or sneckpin. v to close or fill up (a crevice) in a rubble wall by filling the spaces between the large stones with tightly-packed smaller ones, or by filling up the interstices or joints between the stone with lime. sneckled) harling roughcast applied to the joints in a wall to cover snecks but leave the face stones exposed, eg projecting bands round window openings. sneckhead a latch catch. sneckpin n = sneck n 3. v = sneck v, extended to apply to filling the spaces between large stones with small stones. sneck(ed) pointing flushing up the joints in walling with mortar, leaving the faces of the larger stones uncovered. snecked rubblesee rubble. aff the sneck unlocked. backsnecked (of a stone u~all)finished on the inner side. squared sneck a small squared stone used in building squared random rubble (see rubble), m in order to break the courses; the type of walling produced is sometimes known as snecked rubble.

sned v 1 to hew or polish stones with a chisel. 2 to cut off, trim. snib n a small bolt for a door, 0% a small piece of wood inserted into the loop which prevented the sneck from being raised on the outside. snibbing-bolt, snibbing-post = snib. snickle rz the feather below the countersink on a bolt which fits

snod into a groove and prevents the bolt from turning. snod a& (ofa home) neat, trim. snod and bein'd see biened. snow n : snowboard boarding (sometimes wire netting in wooden frames) fitted above rones to prevent large masses of melting snow slipping off the roof; it retains the snow in position and allows it to melt safely into the rone. snow cradling the wood framing containing open boarding fitted into the gutters etc, to give protection against chokage by heavy snowfalls and to allow the snow to melt slowly and safely into the gutters. snug n a compartment in a taproom of an old-fashioned inn. soal see sole. .isoane v to fall into place (generally of a hewn stone). soaperie, soap-work see saip-wark. sod n a piece of turf. soddie a seat or bench of sods or turf in a cottage. sod-coping a top covering of turf on a drystone wall. sod-dyke a turf wall. sodder see sowther. sodger see soldier. soffit n the under face of a lintel, ceiling etc; now used in English practice where originally it applied to the horizontal under face of the classical architrave or cornice. tsolar, salar n a medieval chamber, mu adjacent to the upper end of the great hall, or in an upper floor; the laird's chamber. soldier, sodger n 1 one of a row of short vertical framing pieces (timber) such as those fitted: (a) into the web (bosom) of a steel joist in order that suitable fdngs be provided for casings or @) to give additional strength to built-up skirting. 2 the stay for a ladder so that it can be secured to the ridge of a roof. 3 a drip of molten solder; cf sowther.

soldier bricks, soldier course a row of bricks built on end, ie with the longest dimension vertical. sole n 1 also soal, sol1 a sill, esp the internal sill or window. 2 = sile n 2. 3 subsoil. sole-ale the drink of ale given to the builders to celebrate laying of window sills during the construction of a house. tsole-footed (ofa roof ofpoor construction) described in 1755 as 'hanging Post and Spur-band' type. sole rail the bottom horizontal frame in a panelled door. soletree 1 the large beam extending on the ground from one wall of the byre to another, into which the foot of each vertical post is mortised, forming the crib or manger, a sill beam. 2 the bean1 on which the axle of a wheel of a horizontal water-mill rests and revolves SHETLAND, ORKNEY. sole of the ark see ark. solid bossing see boss. Sol1 see sole. -. . solum n 1 the area within the walls of a building after removal of top soil, the subsoil. 2 (law) the ground belonging to a

speet person, or ground on which a building actually stands. tsonedyall n a sundial. sonk see sunk1. so0 see sow. sookan, suggan, tsoucan(d) ?z a s t n w or heather rope. strictly one-ply and 1rs74 usedon ricks nther than house roofs. soor see sour. sord see swurd. sornie n the flue leading from a fireplace to a drying platform of a kiln; by extension, the fireplace itself CAITHNESS. sorrow-rape n the shoulder strap or rope attached to the handles of a barrow to relieve the strain on the bearer's arms. sort U to mend, repair. soucan, soucand see sookan. souder, sounder see sowther. sound tzi to test (a building) for its acoustics. soundin box a canopy etc over a pulpit to reflect the speaker's voice out into the congregation. sour, soor v to soften, esp of the action of water on lime, to slake. sow, so0 n a sow; a pig. soo house a pigsty sow's lug = pig's lug. sowther, souder, sodder, tsounder v, n (to) solder. sowthering airn, souderin iron a soldering iron. tspadarack, spidarrack rz literally work done by a spade in one day, esp in peat-cutting. spadd see spaud. spaik, spake, spoke n 1 a spoke of a wheel. 2 a rung of a ladder. 3 a pale in a wooden fence. spail, spale, spell n 1 a small piece of broken stone. 2 a thin timber plank or lath used for filling up spaces between beams. 3 a splinter or chip of wood (usu applied to a piece which penetrates the skin); cf spile. fspale kirk a temporary wooden building put up by the Free Church of Scotland after the Disruption in 1843. spairge, splairge n roughcast, pebbledash. v to harl; sometimes to whitewash. tspargeon, spargein to plaster; to roughcast. sparginer, spargiter a plasterer, a roughcaster. spairge pipe the water pipe which provides water for flushing, a flush pipe, eg at a urinal. spake see spaik. spale see spail. spar ,2 to shut, fasten a door with a bar of wood (the bolt). vz 1 a wooden bolt for securing a door. 2 a rafter, a purlin. 3 a bar or rail of a wooden fence or gate. 4 a rung of a chair or Iaaaer. sparred (of shelving) slatted. spargein, spargeon, sparginer, spargiter see spairge. spaud, spadd n a spade mainly NE. spauled see spawled. spawled, spauled past participle (of irregular shaped (~uhin)stonesin wall huiLing) made into courses by the introduction of smaller stones. speak-a-wee, speak-a-word room n a waiting room rather than a parlour, W L a room in a manse for the convenience of parishoners consulting the minister. tspean n a span:JanrC?-spean. tspeck n a thatching rod. [? variant ofspaik] special service see service. speeach, speeock n an oak stake. tspeer, speere n the opening in a house wall through which conversation could take place without the need for opening a door or window speet see spit. 3


stair tspeg n a pin or peg of wood, a nail. speilach see spelk. spelk n a splinter or chip of wood, a shaving. -;speilach = spelk [fr. Gaelic spealg (itself fr. Sc spelk)] . tspelkin nail a wooden nail. spell see spail. -Ispence 71 1 a larder, a store-room where provisions are kept. 2 ;I (country) parlour, a living room. 3 an apartment where the familv dined, and which was entered from the kitchen. 4 the room in which a loom is put up. spence door the door between the kitchen and inner room or pantry ispick, spike n a large nail, a spike nail. spicket, spigot n 1 a tap; esp an outdoor tap, open one supl>lyingwater for a locality 2 also spigot and faucet joint the end of a pipe which is fitted into ari enlargecl end or faucet! of another pipe: the joint is subsequently made tight; in the case of fireclay pipes, with rope and cement mortar, and of cast-iron pipes, with lead. spidarrack see spadarack. spigot see spicket. spike see spick. spile 77 1 a splinter, chip, narrow strip of wood; cf spail. 2 a kind of crowl~arfor making holes for fenceposts. spiletree the bar on which Fishing lines are hung to be cleaned and unravelled. spire n, also spire wall, spire w a 1 the lower part of a rafter or couple. 2 the part of an earthfast couple or cruck extending from the floor to the wallhead and partly recessed into the wall. 3 the wall (zcc-uincorporating a seat) which forms a draughtscreen between the fire and the door. 4 an iron projection from a wall. spit, tspeet n a spade depth. tspittal, spittall ?z a hospice, a shelter. splairge sec spairge. isplash-cask 11 a showerbath. splice 11 a splinter or sliver of wood. splice (up) to finish, square up, a rough opening or slapping in a wall. split n,71: splitter a mason's long, thin chisel used for carving almost inaccessible stones. split-face (?fstone) having a surface which is formed by splitting a larger stone with wedges, riven. tsplit and daub = cat and clay. tspogshave n a spokeshave, ie a plane for working on a curvctl wood surface. spoke see spaik. spon, spone see spune. -;-spoortz a roofing shingle, a wooden slate. [prob. variant of spune] spoot, spout n 1 an outside tap or standpipe. 2 a horizontal roof gutter or rone.. spouted (?faroof) fitted with rones. tspowne see spune. fsprent 17 an iron clasp (on a lock), a hasp. sprig 71 a small, thin flat nail without a head, IL~Uused to hold i l putty dries. glass in a sash ~ ~ n tthe sprig-bit a bradawl for boring holes for nails. spring L, to lever off (esp facings, skirtings, cover plates etc) causjng minimum damage to the woodwork. tz the rise, slope, height (of an arch). springer the support from which an arch 'springs'. :spring-board a string or stringer, ie sloping board at each side of a stairmay raggled to take the ends of the treads and risers. ipring-snib a sash fastener for a window.

sprocket n 1 the small joist futed at right angles to a gable or end couple or rafter and to which the barge or fascia is futed. 2 the small joist futed near the lower end of and at a slighter flatter pitch than a rafter to form a bellcast; a cocking piece. [Eng = a tooth on a wheel] tspule n a thin piece of wood; (a) roofing shingle. spule thack shingle roofing. [perb. variant of spune] tspune, spowne, spon(e) n a roofing shingle. [Engspoon; cf spoor and spule] spur n : tspurband 1 a shoring timber or prop. 2 a strut or diagonal stay in a roof truss. tspurbauk a cross- or tie-b2am. spurtle n a thatching fork. squair see square. square, tsquair n 1 the standard size of a firebrick. 2also the square a farmsteading, esp where the building forms the sides of a square. make it square with to form a right angle to. squared rubble see rubble. square doocot see doocot. squareman a carpenter, a mason, one who regularly uses a square (term now used only in freemasonry). square pitch (at the roof ridge) the constituent rafters of a couple meeting at right angles. tsquair rule a carpenter's square. tsquarework carpentry, joinery tsquarewricht 1 a joiner. 2 an architect. squeeze n a plaster impression or mould of an existing cornice which is taken so that an accurate profile can be prepared in order to form a similar or matching cornice. squint a 4 off the straight, set at an angle. sta, staw n 1 a stall in a stable; a booth at a market. 2 tquarters. accommodation (in an almshouse). stab see stob. stab and rice see rice. stachlestane see stacklestane. tstacket 12 a palisade. stacklestane, stachlestane n a dressed round stone (about 2ft (000mm) diam) set on a squared plinth (about 2ft (6OOmm) high); sixsuch toadstool types are used to support acornstack, keeping it dry, ventilated and free from attack by rodents. [cf stathel]

staddle see stathel. stainchel, tstanchel, tstenchel n 1 a stanchion. 2 a wooden or iron bar, m14as part of a grating for a window etc. 3 a bar for securing a winclow or gate. t z f 1 to fasten (a window) by driving nails into the sash in order to prevent it from being moved. 2 a bar for securing a door or gate. staincheon, tstenchion n a stanchion. stair ?z 1 a flight of steps, a staircase. 2 a common stair. stairfit the foot of a staircase and the space or flat adjacent. stairheid the landing at the top of a flight of stairs or the landing at the top of a stair 2. down the stair downstairs. up the stair upstairs.

staithel staithel see stathel. stake and rice see rice. tstake and t o w = cat and clay. stale see steel'. stalk n 1 a chimney stack. 2 t a long, thin support or pedestal for an hour-glass in a church. stallboard, stallriser n. the part of a wall or panel below a window, z ~ s applied t~ to a section between a shop window-sill and the pavement. stance n 1 a building site. 2 a foundation of a wall etc. 3 tan overnight stopping place on a drove road. 4 a site for an open-air market, fair etc. 5 a space for a single stand, side-show etc, a street-trader's pitch. 6 a station or terminus for buses etc, a place where public vehicles etc stand waiting for passengers, eg at the beginning of a run. stanchel see stainchel. stand n. 1 a stall or booth at a market. 2 a place to stay in, a stopping place. standing having the vertical dimension greater than the horizontal one; describes the shape of a panel or the direction of the grain in wood, stone etc. Compare lying (under lie). standing graith see graith. standard see standart. standart, standard, stannert n 1 a door post. 2 a stud, quartering or upright post in a timber-framed partition. standard partition a timber-framed partition comprising standarts n 2, dwangs, and top and bottom runners. Stane, stone n a stone. tstane couples, stone couples stone arches or more probably internal gables (instead of timber trusses) across which rough spars are laid for supporting thatch. istane crib, stone crib a lock-up or jail. stane dyke a drystone wall. stane dyker a builder of such. tstone house a curling clubhouse (where the curling stones are kept). stane-(klnapper a person who breaks stones. I stone-land, stane land a large, stone-built tenement. L .

tstone thrust a small pier or projecting quay istane window a storm window, a dormer. stane and lime, stone and lime masonry, sometimes a general term referring to property or buildings: Pit yer siller intae stane and lime = invest in property tstang n 1 the spindle of a door knob. 2 (of a lock) a key stangril a tool for pushing straw into thatching, a thatching fork. stank 71 1a moat, a ditch, m u applied to a natural stream which has been straightened to form a boundary, or to function in a drainage system. 2 a street gutter; the grating in such; cf syver. 3 a gutter or drainage channel in a byre. 4 a fish pond, particularly for the supply for fresh fish. t v 1 to strengthen a bank, to form a bank. 2 to drain by open ditches. stannert see standart. Stap 17 a step. stap stane a stepping stone. stappit a 4 (of apipe, drain,flue) blocked or choked. stapplel, steeple, tstiple, jsteeplick n a catch or fastening for a bar or bolt. [Engstaple] stapple2n a handful of thatch, esp a sheaf of straw or rushes tied at one end. [prob. fr. Du stoppel stubble] start n 1 an upright post. 2 a tall, thin rybat @su two or three starts at most are required in the height ofa door); usu refers to the stone which is not bonded into the walling. starter ?z a springer, ie the lowest arch stone. stathel, staddle, staithel, stethale n the foundation of a

stiddie stack of grain, built of stone, wood, metal etc to protect it from vermin and damp. stethlin, staddlin the foundations of a stack, the materials ~ ~ s for e dthis. [cf stacklestane] stave 71 to caulka joint in an iron pipe by compressing lead after it has been run in. hard-staved well-caulked. staver 1 the rung of a ladder. 2 a bar of a hayrack. tstay staw see n a sta. stile, a set of steps leading over a wall or fence. stayband see steyband. stead see steid. steal see steel'. steamie n a public wash-house. sted, stedding, steding see steid. tstee n a ladder. steek, steik 1 1 to close (a door or entry), to prevent access, to steekit, make steikit fast. locked. lock, steel' n a steelyard. steel:, stale, tsteal n a foundation. [cf stathel, stell] steel steepsee house stiel.see geilhous. steeple see stappleJ. steeple ruit n the foot of a church steeple. steeplick see stapplel. steet see stuit. steid, stead, stied, sted n 1 a site, foundation, base of a building or wall. 2 a steading l . steading, tstedldling 1 the buildings on a farm, sometimes but not always including the farmhouse. 2 a building site; a piece of ground on which a house or row of houses is built; the site of the buildings on a farm. steik see steek. steil see stiel. tsteip n a street gutter. tstekill n a latch for fastening a door. stele see stiel. stell n 1 an open, m u circular, enclosure of drystone walling, used as a shelter for sheep on a hillside. 2 a prop, support, framework. I/ to place in position, set up, prop. stenchel see stainchel. stenchion see staincheon. stengle SHETLANDI' to enclose; to close up a door opening with loose stones; to secure a door with struts or bars. tstent' n an assessment of the annual value of a propert): m u land, as a basis for tax evaluation. stentchamber the office of a collector of stent. stent roll the valuation roll. stent n an allotted task, a portion of work to be undertaken within a given time. stent" 11 to stretch, extend. stenter 1 an extension of a roadway. 2 a built-up approach to a briclge. stenting post a strainer in a wire fence. stethale see stathel. steug see stug. steugie n an extension of a sheepfold wall which facilitates penning of the sheep SHETI.AND. stewg see stug. steyband, stayband n 1 = ledge n 3. 2 the bar slotted through both leaves of a two-leafed door to secure from the inside. tstick, stuck n a timber beam or batten. stiddie see studdie?.


stied stied see steid. stiel, steil, steel, tstele n the shaft, eg of a barrow. stiggie n a stile, an arrangement of steps to allow passage over a ~\-:tll SHETI.AND. stile n a vertical member of a frame, w u of a door or window, tenoned onto rails. stillicide n (law) = eavesdrop. tsting n = stob n 5. 21 to Fasten thatch by thrusting the thatching material into the existing roof by means of the above tool. stinger 1 a mender of a thatched roof. 2 = sting. stiple see stapplel. stitch 21 to fix by nails in a temporary fashion, ie the nails are not driven fully in. stithy see studdie'. stob, stab n 1 a stake, a post. 2 a bradawl. 3 a small splinter of wood. 4 also stobnail a coarse nail, a short stout nail. 5. a stick or rod with a forked iron tip used by thatchers to push straw into the roof. I , 1 to fence with stakes, mark or bound with posts. 2 to thatch with stobs. stobbie a thatcher. stob dyke = stob and wire fence. stob-stick = stob n 5. tob spade = stangril (see under stang). tobthack, tstobthaick 1 the thatch is formed as follows: abers are laid across purlins, or thatching battens across rafters, broom or heather may be laid on, and at an angle to, the cabers; over this is placed a complete covering of divots or turf; using a stob spade handfuls of straw or rushes are pushed between the divots forming a layer 4-8ins (100200mm) deep which is snloothly cut and trimmed. 2 thatch is laid like slates, each layer being fixed either by clay or sewn with twine; along the eaves is run a straw rope which is fixed down by sharp wooden pieces (stobs or scabs).



B U ~ T L I N Srrsacr L L Q U t h L D TO F I L L srhcr, D L T W L L N


STOBTHACI stab and rice, stob and rice see rice. stob and wire fence a fence comprising posts linked with horizontal wire strands and secured with staples; sometimes called a stob dyke. stock n 1 a block of wood, log; a tree-stump. 2 the outer edge of a box-bed, ie the edge furthest from the wall; in general the framework of a box-bed. stocklock a wooden lock or bar. fstockstove prefabricated timber, from Norway, for constructing walls, roofs and partitions in a turf-covered timber house SHETLAND. +tog see stlln

stone see stane. tstonner 1 a plank used in centering, and subsequently reused for wallplates. 2 a stone foundation; the hard pan below the topsoil. tstook, stouk, stowk n the part of a church with a separate altar of its own; a side-chapel. stookie n 1 plaster of Paris. 2 a plasterer. stoop, stoup n 1 a post, a pillar, a support, eg of a gateway, or in a mine. 2 a wooden bench beside a cottage door. stoot see stuit. stoothe 21 to lath and plaster (a wall). stop n 1 the plain planted moulding fxed to a doorpost against which the door shuts. 2 t a prop or support. storm n : storm gavel a gable formed on a front or back wall, carried up to form a small attic. stormhead window, stormont window, storm window a projecting window with a small roof and sides, a dormer window. stouk see stook. stoup see stoop. stowk see stook. stracht see straight. strae n stramT. strae-thackit thatched with straw. tstrae-and-dash a mortar consisting of a mixture of straw, wet clay and aggregate, used in old rural buildings. straight, stracht, straucht adj: straightening a plaster rendering for filling in the hollows of rubble and other walls with an irregular surface; a second or floating coat of plaster. straight edge, stracht edge 1 a straight edge, a mason's metal rule; a joiner's straight timber batten with 'true& edges for taking or checking levels etc. 2 a wooden board running along the lower edge of a thatched roof (like a fascia). tstraik n a measure of timber. strand, straun n an artificial water-channel, a (street-)gutter. strang-hole n a seepage pit serving farm buildings. strap, strapping n battening; firring (applied only to walls); plugged, ie dooked or nailed grounds (see grund); sometimes wallstrap. straucht see straight. straun see strand. street-house n a ground-floor flat having direct access from the street. tstrenyeour n a stretcher used in bonding a wall. strike L) to remove the shuttering after the contained concrete has hardened: the concrete set, tbe sbutteringstruck, the next lift in place. striking plate a keeper 2. strike out make a (a door or window) by knocking a hole through a wall. strin, strind n a gutter in a byre. string n : stringer one of the two timber bearers which carry timber steps. tstringin spurtle n = sting. string course the horizontal line of projecting moulding carried along the face of a building, similar to a bandcourse, which can also project but implies that it consists entirely of bandstanes. strip U to draw an edged tool across a rough surface in order to trim or sharpen it. strippin(g) block a block or frame with a flat fde, over which a saw is drawn to reduce the teeth to a uniform height before sharpening. stripe n 1 a small open drain or watercourse. 2 a street-gutter. strodie see strothie. stroint SHETLAND n 1 a spout. 2 = stripe.


stroop stroint-pipe the mouth of a drain, an effluent pipe. stroop see stroup. strothie, strodie n a narrow avenue or lane between two parallel walls SHETLAND. stroup, stroop n 1 a spout. 2 a water tap. 3 the down-pipe from a roof gutter. 4 = stripe. stuchin see stuckin. stuck see stick. stuckin, tstuchin n a stake, generally burned or charred at the lower end to delay deterioration, and driven into the ground to support a paling. stud, stud partition n = standard partition. ?stud and mud = cat and clay. tstuddie' n a small room, usu contained within a corner turret. studdie', stiddie, stithy, tstudy n an anvil; a smith's forge. stug, stog V 1 to dress (stone) roughly with a pointed chisel, wzt to give adhesion for an applied coating. 2 (in turning, chipping orplaning wood) to cut too deep. tn, also steug, stewg a rusty nail. stuit, stoot, steet N, tstut V to prop, support, shore up. istuthe n a stud or knob. tstyag n a pen for geese SHETLAND. subfeu n (law) afeu granted by a vassal to a sub-vassal. t~to make a grant of (lands) in subfeu, subinfeudate. subject n 1 t a piece of property; subjects one's estate or effects. 2 (speciflaw) a piece of heritable property, eg a piece of land, a house. tsubstantious a d j (of structures) substantial, solid. tsub-vassal n (law) an under-vassal,a vassal of a vassal. tsucken n 1 an obligation on tenants on an estate to use a certain mill; the payment due in kind, service or money for the use of the mill. 2 the lands on an estate on which there was a sucken 1;all the tenants of such a land. a d j applied to those who are legally bound to have their corn ground at a certain mill. sugar work see sugary. tsugary, sugar work n a sugar factory. suggan see sookan. suitstock see shootstick. summer see simmer. sunk:, sonk n 1 also fealy sunk NE a seat made of turf, zlsu at a fireside or against a sunny gable. 2 a bank or wall, esp of turf or earth. sunk dyke, sonk dyke n a wall of stone or turf retaining earth. sunk" l a draw well. 2 the basement of a house. sunkwricht ( w u in stone carving) incised or engraved work. tsuperior n (law) a person who has made a grant of land in a feu to another (a vassal) and receives annual payment (feu duty) for it. t a d j (of stones) sold by 'foot super', ie the square foot. tsurbase n 1 a dado rail. 2 the moulding over a baseboard. tSwaden n, also Swaden burd timber imported from Sweden. swap v to throw (a straw-rope) up and over a hay- or cornstack to hold down the thatch; rope (a stack) thus, edder NE. tswaptha(c)k thin wooden boards firmly fastened over a thatched roof as a girding of the thatch. sway see swey. swear dyke n a wall of turf NE. [SCswaird sward dyke] swedged a d j (ox eg a cope) grooved. swee SHETLAND, ORKNEY V to bore with a red-hot iron point. . sweeoo-iron, tsweein irn, sweein bar an iron bar heated at one end for boring work. [ON st11da to scorch] W e e see swey. tsweerie n a place for getting water, eg the mouth of a field-


drain or a spring. sweeten v to modify two adjacent obiects or surfaces so as to make one even continuous shape with no obvious joints; to eliminate irregularities. swey, sway, swee n 1 a moveable iron bracket over a fire on which pots, kettles erc can be huna. 2 a crowbar. 3 t a crane, a derrick. SWEY

swirlie a d j 1 (of wood) with twists in the grain, knotty, gnarly. 2 (of stones) full of defects. sword see swurd. swurd, sword n 1 a slat of wood or tang of metal on the end of a ladder, which fits on the ridge of a roof, used to prevent it from slipping. 2 also tsord the crosspiece on a barred gate.

sy see sae. syke, sike n 1 a small stream; a (roadside) ditch. 2 t a streetgutter. syle see sile. sylering, sylor see sylour. tsylour, sylor, sylering, silouring, seyloring, cylering n a ceiling, but w u the covering to a ceiling such as a lath-andplaster or timber lining (by extension this may be applied to a timber lining other than on a ceiling); cf siling (under sile) sylour nail a nail used for wainscotting. tsymond, symont ?z cement. synapar see sinaper. tsyppilling n a sapling. syver, siren 1 the drain trap in a street gutter. 2 a street gutter. 3 a field drain. 4 a kitchen sink.


taave taave SHETI.ANI) 1) to caulk, close up a hole by stuffing. taavin carefully packing cloth or paper into the crevices of a tloor or window in order to prevent rain and wind penetration. table n: tabled coped. tabling 1 a stone coping of a wall or gable. 2 flat stones for a string course, cornice etc. ttable seat an extended church pew set out in a rectangular plan with a table in the centre. tablestone, table-tombstone a horizontal gravestone. ta brig sec tae'. :-tabulet adj boarded, panelled. tach see tack1. tacit relocation see relocation. tack', ?.tach1 1 1 t o drive a nail so as to give only a slight and temporal? hold. 2 to h,ztszl by a glazier, using tackets. n, also tacket a small nail. tack' 17 a lease, tenancx e.sp the leasehold tenure of a farm, mill, mining or fishing rights, tax- or toll-collectingetc; the period of tenure held on a lease. tacket see tack'. tae', tee NE, to, ttooprepasition, adv to. tto-brig, ta brig n a drawbridge; cffa-brig (under fa). tae-faw, tee-fa NE, tae-fall, to(o)-fall a timber outbuilding with a lean-to roof, uszc a sniall shed at the end of a farmhouse where implements are stored; a penthouse; a porch. ttae2n a branch of a drain NE. [SC= toe] taftl, toft ? l : ttoft stead a yard, homestead and the land attached to it. ttaft dyke a (turf) wall round a taft. ttoft and croft (Irazc~) = an entire holding comprising site, buildings ancl arable land of a homestead. taft' o to use a mallet lightly in shaping malleable material, eg lead. ail n 1 a long narrow piece of land jutting out from a larger piece, esp from a croft. 2 (of a drain) also tail drain the section between the disconnecting trap and the main sewer or between a septic tank and a ditch. taillizr see tailyie. tailliesee tailyie. ttailor's link n the upper link of a chain upon which pots are hung from the swee over the fire. ttailyfre n freestone subdivided, after quarrying, into usable shapes. ttailyie, taillie n an account, a reckoning. tailler the person who kept tally or account. talbot lz the screw-down valve fitted by a plumber directly on top of a public water main at the point where the branch is made; cfthe stopcock or the valve fitted on a branch contained in a toby, generally situated immediately outside the property it serves. [fr. the manufacturer's name] "iallan n an internal partition. [misprint for hallan] ttangit adj metal-edged, having a rim of iron. tangle t z a knot of scn)ll-workor strapwork carved on Celtic crosses. ttannage n a tannery, a leatherworks. tannor .we tenor. ttanyard n ;I poorhouse. tap, top n, 11top. top range the highest course or cop~ngon a wall. tap runner see rin. taperpiece tz a wedge-shaped piece of timber. tappietourie, tappie-toorie, ttappiloorie n anything rising to a peak or pinnacle. occasionally suggesting that it is erected on a tottering founclation. ttarras I? a terrace. ttas de charge iz corner springers.

task n: tasker a worker paid for specified tasks; a pieceworker. taskwork work which is paid for according to the work done rather than on a time basis, ie piece rates. i-tassel-stanen the projecting stone above the door of a castle from which enemies were hung. tattie hoose n a potato store. tave see taw. ttavern n 1 a wine cellar. 2 a workshop or shed. taw, tave 11 to mix, work up, plaster or mortar. ttawpon n a plug. [? misprint for tampon] tea-caddy a d j (of a roof) bipped. tteach 77 a house. [ScGael] ttect-demolished adj having the roof removed. tee see tae'. tee1 see tuil. to point, usu with lime, a drystone wall. teeth teeth tool, toothtool, tuith tuil a mason's chisel with a serrated edge (teeth). teind n, usu teinds an allocation of a tenth of the produce of a parish paid to the church, now an amount paid to the Church of Scotland. tteind barn a tithe barn. tteind-yard a stackyard used for storage of teind-sheaves, ie every tenth sheaf from harvest is taken as part of teind. tekkel n the top course of flat stones on the walls of a house, the eaves course on which the roof rests ORKNEY. ttemple n a (hazel) rod used to hold down thatch. [Eng = a rod for keeping cloth stretched in a loom] tenancy-at-will 7z (lau~)a tenancy peculiar to the North-East of Scotland in which the owner of the property owns only the house and not the land; originated in the mid-19th century when land was probably only gifted for use and not itself conveyed. tenant n: ttenant sted the section of property occupied by a tenant. ttenantrs) toun a small hamlet of tenants who leased land as a group. tenement n 1 a tenement, a holding; specifland held in tenure and built on. 2 a large building, m u of three or more storeys and divided into flats for separate householders; the section of such a building served by one staircase. tenent see tenor. ttennies n a slaughterhouse. tenor, tannor, ttenent, ttenow n 1 (ofwood) the part that is fitted into a mortice, the tenon. 2 also tenor saw a tenon saw, a kind of fine-bladed saw with a strengthened back. tent n a portable pulpit for open-air preaching. tep ZJ to dam up ORKNEY. teppin a dam wall ORKNEY.[ON teppa to close, block up etc] iterrie n an open half loft, or a shelf in a roof of a house formed by boards nailed over the roof joists SHETLAND. ttess v to bevel the foot of a rafter to fit the wallplate. ttewarne bore n iron, hardened with cast-iron to make it withstand the forge fire. tteypard biggin n a tall insubstantial building. thack, theck, thek; tthak n thatch. 2) to thatch, to cover a roof with any material, eg lead. thacker a thatcher. thacking peg, thacking prick a stick or rod used in thatching. thacking spurtle = stob n 5. tthak burd a roof. thackgate n the scarsement or ledge at the top of a gable wall where it reduces in width and on which the thatch was extended and supported. thack house a thatched house.

thairben tthack lead a lead roof. thack-raip a straw-rope used to secure thatch on a house or stack. thackstane 1 a stone fit for covering house roofs. 2 a projecting stone on a chimney head which covers the upper edge of the thatch laid on the thackgate.

t z j

thack and raip zJ to secure with thatch and ropes. n the thatch on a house and the ropes tying it down (a reference in deeds for giving and taking possession of a building). thairben see thereben. thaksee thack. ithane n 1 a weather vane. 2 a pennant. theck see thack. theek, thick u 1 t t o roof (a building) with (stone, slate, lead etc). 2 to roof, cover (a building, stack) with (thatch). ??thatch. theeker a thatcher. theekin spurtle = thacking spurtle. theekit thatched. thek see thack. thereben, thairben adr~in the inner apartment of a house. [Engthere ben] tthesaurarie n a treasury house or room, office of a treasurer. thick see theek. T-hinge n a cross-garnet hinge, ie the long horizontal strap frxed to the face of the door and the cross bar or vertical strap foted to the door frame. tthirl v (law) bind (lands or tenants) to have grain ground at a particular mill. n 1 the obligation on the tenants of an estate to grind their corn at a particular mill. 2 the land and tenants thirled to a particular mill.; cf sucken. thirl-mill n a mill to which thirl applies. tthirl pin n the pivot on which doors without hinges turn, tlsu conlprising hardwood projections at the hanging side of the door which turned on hollows cut in a stone sill and lintel. thorter, twarter SXFTLAND, tthortour n a timber or iron Crosspiece (athwart). a 4 (oj'tuood) cross-grained. tthortir barris the crossbars of a window. thrae throok see thraw. thrashel, threshel, threshwart n a threshold, comprising a timber sill f w d to a door stane against which the door shut and orevented the rain penetrating.


timmer tthreshstane a threshold. thrave .we threave. thraw o to turn (a key) in a lock, (a knob) in a door. thrawn (of 111oo& warped. out o thraw (ef stone, esp i n mason?)) into alignment, dressed, squared and plumbed. thrawcruik, thrawhuik, thrae throok a rope twister, a hand winder (shaped like a carpenter's brace) for twisting heather and straw into ropes. tthreave, thrave n a measure of cut straw reeds etc for thatching = 2 stooks. tthreefoot rule n the four-fold rule, three-foot longwhen Fully open, was the one generally used by the building trade in Scotland; in England a Four-fold two-foot rule was used. threshel, threshwart see thrashel. throating n 1 the narrow entrance to a flue etc. 2 the groove on the underside of projections (eg of a sill) which prevents rain travelling along the soffit. throu, through a@j(of a room) one entering off another. thorough-band, throughband, trowband smn.mD, CAITHNESS a stone which goes through the whole thicltness of a waU. throughgaun, throughgang, throughgate, through close 1 a thoroughfare. 2 a passage linking streets, houses, rooms, esp a living room with a byre and stable. 3 esp throughgate an aisle in a church. through house a house whose rooms lead off to one another, with no lobby. through lock, tthrochtlok a lock which has a keyhole passing right through and thus can be operated from both sides of a door. through stanesee thruch. tthrower n a passageway, an alley. thruch, through stane, thruff stane a flat gravestone. thumbat n 1 a lead wedge. 2 a wall hook for foting sheet lead. thwaite n 1 a piece of cleared land on which a house was built. 2 a cottage with a paddock. tthwart bawk, twart back n a crossbeam in a roof; a tie SHETLAND, ORKNF?I.

?ticket 21 (specifofGlasgow Touln Council in the late 19th and earl))20th centuv) to put an official notice on the door of (a house) to certify its cubic capacity and the number of people allowed to spend the night in it. ticketed house a house bearing such a certification. tie n : tie joist a tie beam. tie stane a bondstone, eg one which links the wall of one house to its neighbour. ttigni immittendi n (law) the name of a sewitude which permits a house owner to fur into his neighbour's house a joist o r beam from his own. ttild, tyld n tiles; bricks: the material they are made from. tile stane n a brick. till ?z a stiff, zznsu impervious, clay found in glacial deposits and forming a poor sub-soil. till-airn a crowbar, e.p one for making holes in till. ttilliesoul n a small private inn erected by a landowner for the servants and horses of his guests and any others whom he did not want ro entertain himself. timber see timmer. time and lime n describes the hro factors which account for the cost of a job, time = cost of labour and lime = cost of material. timmer, timber, ttymmer n timber. ttimmer bush, timber bush a timber yard. ttimmerman a carpenter, ttirnmer propt supported with wooden props.

walkmiln uppit, upput z~ to put up, erect. .;upputar, upputter a builder; a person who has something h11111 ... ~ . ~ ~ tuppitting n the action of erection, building, setting up. upset ad/ of a price at which a property is offered for auction or snlc, ie the minimum price acceptable to a seller. n a roof spar spanning between purlins, or between the wall head and lowest purlin, to support cross-spars on which thatch etc is laid. upstand n 1 a step, vertical section adjacent to and rising above a horizontal area. 2 the parapet wall between adjoining houses which juts up between them a little higher than rtmf-level and is clearly visible on a flat rooftop. upstart n 1 an upright or vertically set jamb- or revealatone in a door or window-case.2 = upset n. urnal, urnall see ornel. i-uver, over adj (in a bttilding) upper; upstairs. vaedik n a ditch, a drain, an open sewer SF.vaggel n the small tie or cross-spar on which meat or fish is hung fol- hmoke-curing SHETLAND. vagissee wadge, wage. tvalent n (lati,)the value of a piece of land. tvalras adj oak. tvan 17 a wagon. tvarneys n varnish. tvarrgries, viriditer n verdigris. vassal 12 (Iau~)the tenant holding land under a superior for payment of a fixed annual sum of money (feu duty). tvastage n waste land. vattertabil see water. tvattill 11 wattle. veggel n a wooden stake driven into a wall of a byre with a hole thn~ughwhich the fastening for the animals was passed.-S venal1see vennel. vennel, tvennell, tvenall n an alley, esp the passageway between the gable ends of houses; cf close' and pend. vent n 1 the flue in a wall, a chimney 2 the opening of fireplace. 3 the chimneyhead or stack. vent-lining the fireclay pipe used to form the flues built into a wall. verge n the projecting edge of a roof overhanging the gable of a building. vergeboard a wooden plate enclosing the edge of the roof which runs along the face of a gable. vernish n, i 1varnish. ivertiter 12 a blue colour used by painters. tveshel, weschel n, also veshel buird a plate- and pot-rack above a kitchen dresser. weschel hous, vessel hous the place where plates and dishes used at the table of a great house were kept. tvesiar, vesiater, vissier n a surveyor, vessel hous see veshel. vice, twyce n a (blacksmith's) vice. tvice counges a hand vice. tvice nail, vyce nail, wycenail a screw nau. vice turcas a bench vice. viddy .see widdie. vikat see wikkit. vindoy see window. viral see virl. viriditer see varrgries. virl, virrel, tviral, tvirol n a ferrule, a band of metal, wood, bone etc. fitted around a rod. cane, or pipe etc to prevent iolitting or fraying

vissier see vesiar. vizzy 11: vizzy hole a peephole or wicket in a door or gate. tvizzying port the door or gate in a castle having a vizzy hole. void and redd, tvoid and rid (law) an obligation on a departing occupier to leave a house empty and clean for the incoming occupier. volt, vout see vowt. vowt, tvout, ?volt n a vaulted chamber, a vault. tvpone preposition above (much used in old documents in descriptions of buildings). vricht see wricht. vrocht see wrocht. vyce see vice. vyndo see window.

war wall n a wall. wa's a roofless building, ruins .W: auld wa's. t w a drap (law) = eavesdrop. w a heid, wall head 1 the top of a wall. 2 the space between the top of a wall and and the roofbeams, used for storage. t w a hold the distance the end of a beam, lintel etc extends into a supporting wall. w a iron a crowbar. wall pipe a down pipe. wallplate the timber plate laid on a wall (sometimes bedded (see bed) in mortar) to which the ends of joists and rafters are fixed. wall press a recess in the thickness of a wall which is made into a cupboard; a built-in cupboard. t w a rase a wall plate. twallrae green growth on walls NE. w a stade the foundation of a wall. wall stane a building stone, masonry. wallstrap see strap. fwa toun a walled or fortified town. waage see wage. twacht n a wall of a house. wadge 72, v wedge. twaggis, weggis, vagis wedges. wadge see wage. twadset n (laul) of a properry, with a conditional . . . a mortgage right of redemption. wadsetter the holder of a wadset. wag n the remains. of a large iron-age house, of massive drystone construction CAITHNESS. wage, wadge NE, waage n a wage. tvagis wages. twagitman a man hired at fixed wages. waild wanscot see wainscot. wailling see waling. wain see wane. -iwaingate n a cart-track. wainscot, twanscot, twynscott n a wainscot. $21 to line walls with boards, wu of oak. twanscot loggin wood from Holland used for wainscotting. twaild wanscot specially chosen pieces of (oak) wainscot. wair see ware. waird see ward. twairdgairt V I a wardrobe. waling, fwailling n handling or selecting. walk 11 a passageway in a byre, or round the edge of the midden or cattle court. walkrniln see waukmill. -

wall wall, well n 1 a well. 2 a drinking fountain. 3 a water standpump. 4 a tap. 1, to weld. wall see wa. wally close n a close' with a tiled dado, regarded in Glasgow as a sign of social superiority wally-close-gless-door socially pretentious. walt, welt n the seam of a join, m u in sheet metal, by a plumber. v to join a seam in sheet metal. twand n the sign of an ale house, a country inn, a changehouse, ie where horses were changed. twane, wain n a habitation, a dwelling. twangus n the support for pots hung over the fire. wanscot see wainscot. twantwud n the piece missing from the edge of a plank due to the log being squared too roughly, wane. warand see warrand. tward, waird v to fasten a mortised joint by driving a pin through it. tward holding, wardship n the tenure of land which involved obligatory military service, free hospitality and other services to the superior; on the death of the wardholder the land reverted to the superior (ie escheated); the tenure could continue if the heir was of age and paid a sum equivalent to one year's produce; if the heir was a minor, wardship arose, the superior administrating the land until the heir's majority. twardrobe n a personal storeroom containing not only garments but documents, money etc; a lumber-room. ware, wair n: tware almery, ware sta a cupboard for storing goods. tware stair a lumber press. wark v to finish or dress timber. n, also werk 1 ta fortification.2 t a public or any imposing kind of building. 3 ta workhouse. 4 a building operation. warklume, warkloorn a tool, implement. warpen see warping. warping, warpen n 1 the method of making embankments by dr~vingin piles or stakes and intertwining them with wattles. 2 a strut, a brace. 3 a ground. twarrand, warand n a shelter or protection from enemies. warrant see jedge. wart n 1 a beacon, watchtower from which signals were made SHETUND, O R K N ~ .2 a small stone-built shelter ORKNF(. [ON varaa a pile of stones raised as a mark, a beacon] wase, wease, wassock n 1 a bundle off straw, esp for thatching. 2 f a bundle of twigs, straw etc placed against a cottage door as a windbreak or draught-excluder. wash v : wash down or off to cut to a slope or bevel. n a bevelled edge or slope on a board, stone etc. washing weathering. wash board, twashing board a skirting board. wassock see wase. twaste adj (of buildings) ruined; unoccupied, empty wasty a 4 desolate, uninhabited. wasty wanes a stripped or emptied house. watchie n a lighthouse. water, watter n: waterie, watterie a WC. water barge see barge. water dyke a flood wall or embankment. water table, tvattertabil a projecting moulded ledge at the base of a chimney stalk or wall sloped on an upper surface to throw off water; a weathering course. twatterteich watertight. water in the windae a sink set in a small wooden draining board in the bossing of a window with a cupboard underneath.

wheel wind and watertight (of a house, esp in leases) secure against wind and rain or flood. wattles npl (in thatching) the interwoven twigs on which the turf or thatch was laid; also orig used to form the walls of buildings. twat(t)lin(g) twigs etc which have been or can be plaited to form wattle-work. waulkmill, twalkmiln n a fillling mill (ie a mill in which cloth is pressed between rollers and cleaned with soap or fuller's earth). wave n the swivel-catch on the doorframe of a door which opens outwards SHETLAND. way n: twaygate an exit, a way of escape, esp drainage for surplus water. tway loom the tailrace of a mill. tweacker n wicker. wease see wase. weather n: weather bar 1 a metal bar (rather like a tongue) which fits into facing slots in wood, stone, concrete etc to prevent water or rain penetrating between the two materials (eg wood and stone sills).


weatherstane a water table at the foot of a chimney stack. wee adj: t w e e bauk the uppermost tie in a roof truss. wee house an earth clost; a toilet. wee schule the infant department of a school. weel: weel-bedded see bed. wee1 foggit see fog. tweem n 1 a cave. 2 an underground dwelling dating from the early Iron Age, a souterrain, sometimes known as a picts' house. weeper n 1 the weephole or slot formed in a retaining wall to allow surface water to escape and thus reduce the possibility of damage to the wall by a build-up of water pressure. 2 the crosswall in foundations, constructed so as to direct ventilation through the foundation and dry out any condensation. weggissee wadge. jweint n an alle);, a passage. weir n: jweir buist, weir buse the wooden partition between the cows in a byre. tweir wall a rampart. well see wall. welt see walt. wendoch see winnock. jwenschou n a wainscot. werk see wark. weschel see veshel. weys n a public weightbridge. whalp n a standard size of brick, a firebrick. [Sc = whelp; cf PUP1 wheel, tquhele, tquheyll, tquheill n a wheel. wheeler ?z (ofa step or stair) circled, curved, as in 2 spiral stairca


wheeps tquheyll barrow a wheelbarrow. twheelgate a revolving gate, a turnstile. wheel rink = millrink. twheeps nplthe apparatus for raising the bridgeheads of a mill, ie the supports of the spindle of the millstone N. whigmaleerie n a piece of ornamentation in stonework. whin, whun, tquhin, tquhyn n: whinchipsee chip. whinstone, whunstane, tquhynstane 1 any one of various hard clystalline types of igneous rock, sometimes a term applied to all rocks not obviously of the sandstone variety; used regularly in bottoming; can also be used in building but in random style (see rubble), as it is difficult to square. 2 a hone. whirl v : whirlie 1 a small wheel, a caster. 2 a wheelbarrow. 3 also whirligig a revolving chimney cowl. 4 also whirlygate a turnstile. whirl-barrow a wheelbarrow. twhirrock n a knot in wood caused by the growth of a branch from that place. whiss, quiss t~ to dress (stone) S H ~ L A N D . twhistle-kirk n a church with an organ. white', fite NE, tfyte NE, tquhite adj, n: whitening chalk for making walls or floors white. white airn tin, sheet iron coated with tin; cf black-airn. white house a house of stone, strictly with stone walls and a slateti roof. (ScGaeltai$$geal; cf black house] twhitework, quhitewerk tinned iron. white.', fite NE, fyte NE 21 to cut with a knife, pare. twhitings npl wood shavings. whun secJ whin. whurl, horl, thoral n 1 a small iron or wooden ring used as a pulley 2 a caster or small wheel. 3 the curved Partern made for ornamentation with pipeclay on a flagstone floor. [Eng whorl] ?wicker n a hut made of wickerwork, us21 for temporary purposes. twicket n a small opening or unglazed window in a wall. twiddie, widdy n, also tviddy a rope of interlaced willow or other pliahle twigs used eg as a loop or latch to fasten a door or gate. (mwiddies refers to the door fastenings including both hinges and latch.) [Eng withy] twigg n (apparently) a wall. wig to the wa from pillar to post. twikkit, vikat n a wicket, the small door set into a larger door. twilderness n a kind of maze, walks bordered by hedges having crazy intersections. willie miln n a latch or door-fastening worked with a string. [It is suggested that as the term lasted longest in Dysart, Fife; it may be the name of a blacksmith who lived in Pathhead; or perh. 0% a twisted willie = withy, a willow twig]



win1,twynn v to raise (stone) from a quarry (much referred to in builders' accounts). win2v to dry out, season (wood, cheese etc). wind see wynd. windae see window. wind and watertight see water. twindband n an iron hoop put round any splintered or spliced work for the purpose of strengthening or holding it together. twindbauk, windbaulk n a collar beam. windie see window. twindis n a pulley window, windae, windie, tvindoy, tvyndo n a window; see also winnock. ?window band a window frame. window bole an opening in a window (mu part-filled by wood which opens in casement fashion). twindow brace the part of a window on which the sash rests, presumably the sill, but it may in fact refer more generally to the window breast (see breist n 3). window brod, window board a shutter. window-cheek the side of a window. window chess a window sash or frame. twindow pace a sashweight. window-snecka window catch. window sole an inner sill. windskew n 1 a skew raised higher than thatch. 2 a device used to prevent down draughts in the flue by creating a vacuum behind the board and over the flue; it consists of a broad piece of wood to which is fixed a long handle; the piece is placed on the chimneytop and the handle hangs of down the flue and is manipulated at fireside level to vary the position of the a tack or clip for fixing piping to a wall, wing winnock, twendoch n a window; see also window. winnock-bole n = window bole. winnock brad a shutter, twinnock bunker a window seat with a lifting lid, twinnock lug, winnock neuk a window corner, winter n an iron rack which hangs on the bars of a fire-grate to support a kettle or pot; a trivet. twire n a thin metal glazing- and frame-bar in a church- or similar wireball gratingsee grating. wirlie n a place where a field-wall crosses a stream, an opening in a wall to let running water pass through SHETLAND. if applied to steel rods it means 30 wisp a handful or within itself adj (of a house) detached: a house within itselJ: twitterstane n a boundary stone. twoill n a well. womal see wummle. twoman house n 1 the laundry of a mansion house. 2 inpl a kind of hostel for female immigrant workers at the bleach-field at Neilston, Renfrewshire. wommle, womyl see wummle. twonnin, wunnin, wonnying, wyning n a dwelling, esp a chief house on a farm; sometimes referred to a dwelling occupied by a tenant. wood see wuid. tworm n a gimlet. twra n a hiding place. twrake n a wrecked edifice. wricht, wright, vricht NE n 1 a craftsman. 2 a woodwright, a carpenter. wright's black coal a kind of graphite used as a pencil by woodworkers.

wriggle twricht work carpentry, joinery ?wrigglen a smoke deflector in a chimney wright see wricht. wrocht, vrocht, rocht NE adj wrought, worked, finish, often applied to timber. wud, wudd see wuid. wuarum n water running ., down the wall of a house from leakage at the eaves CAITHNESS. wuid, wud(d), wood n wood. twoodlaid adj floored. wumble see wummle. wummle, wumble, wommle, twomal, twomyl n a wimble, an instrument for boring, an auger. wunnin see wonnin. wyce see vice. wynd, wind n a street, a lane, orig at right angles to and connecting gates (see under gate1). wyning see wonnin. wynn see win. wynscott see wainscot. twyntawering n a wine shop, a tavern. twyssing n coating, waxing. yadder see yader. tyader, yadder n the layer of sods forming the top or cope of a turf wall SHETLAND. [ON jaaaara border, edge] tyair, yare n an enclosure, usu of stonework, occasionally wattlework, stretching to a tideway for catching fish as the tide ebbs. yaird, yard n 1 a yard, a garden (ong of pot herbs), an enclosure or court near to a house. 2 a churchyard. 3 earth. 4 where a contractor's permanent workshop, stores etc are located. 5 mainly yards a school playground: High School Yards (of the old Royal High School in Edinburgh). yaird dyke agarden wall. tyaird hous an underground dwelling dating from the early Iron Age, a souterrain. tyairden hunger a passion for gardening, cultivating an estate or more broadly, aspirations to own landed property. yare see yair. tyark o a hoose n a badly-furnished house, without suitable partitions N. yarpoan v to thatch a roof with pones (turf), usu in a double layer, without straw SHETLAND. vat, ?yet t v 1 to found, cast (metal). 2 set or fur (eg iron in stone). 3 to set or fur with lead. 4 to rivet, fasten in the firmest manner.

yuffie yetlin, yetling 1iron not made malleable; cast-iron. 2 a boiler. yate see yett. tyattle aclj (ofpound) covered with small stones. tye-sa n a street cry referring to the sale of yellow sand used to sprinkle on stone kitchen floors. [onomatopoeic] yet see yet, yett.

yett, yet, yate n a gate; orig with heavy iron grilles. In l606 there was an act which decreed that such grilles should be removed from all openings in property belonging to the enemies of the Crown. The construction was peculiar to Scotland and northern Italy, i e each bar was carefully drilled for half its length for holes to receive bars at right angles, while the remaining undrilled half was threaded through holes drilled in bars placed at right angles to it. tyett cheek, yettchek the side-post of a gate. tyett house a gatehouse. yill see ale. yle see aisle. yokesee yolk. yolk, tyoke n 1 a round, opaque and radiated cystallization in w~ndowglass as a result of being cooled too slowly [fr. the resemblance to the yolk of an egg]. 2 a thick pane of glass cut from a circular plate where it has been separated from a glassblower's blowpipe. 3 t a hard nodule in a softer stone. yoofer n a timber pole (mu of fir) for scaffolding SHEnAND. Yorkshire stane, York stone n a flat paving stone of similar characteristics to Caithness stone. yuffie n a WC., usu on the common stair of a tenement.



3. plumbing 4. roofing, including thatching

(a) ancient @) domestic

(c) (d) (e) (Q

5. plastering, lathing 6. scaffolding,ladders, props, temporary protection

(i) individual buildings (ii) partslsub-sections (iii) built-in/small units storage,seatbench, bed, lights, washing containers etc, wa%edisposal, clothes drying, external items, miscellaneous religious (i) individual buildings (ii) partslsections (including kirkyards) (iii) furniturelfumishing defensive (i) individual buildings (ii) parts/sub-sections (iii) enclosures/outworks public buildings and locations agricultural (i) individual buildings (ii) partslsub-sections (iii) details (iv) byre drainage (i) individual buildings (ii) sub-sections/associatedparts

7. transport 8, measuring, setting out 9, general or unallocated 10. description of tools, their condition F BURMNG-m 1. in stone 2. in timber 3. in plumbing and metalwork 4. general or unallocated 5. operational adjustments, directions, refinements

G C 1. Stone

m (a) foundations, ground, subsoil

(b) walling, general (C) edges of walling (d) openings in walling (e) decoration, mouldings etc (Q surface treatment, shaping, hewing (g) dykes, including composite constructions 2. timber (a) roof woodwork @) beams (c) flooring, including deafening (d) partitions (i) general (ii) timberltimher plus other materials (iii) light screens (e) other timber (rough and concealed work) (f) finishings (g) doors, gates etc (h) windows (i) types (ii) general details (iii) shutters and grilles (iv) glazing (i) ironmongery (including timber equivalent) (i) doors, gates etc (ii) windowslshutters (iii) lockslkeys (iv) general (even of wood) (i) furings (i) nails (U) screws (iii) miscellaneous (k) fences 3. plumberwork (a) lead, other metals, roof coverings etc @) rainwater goods (C) water system and supply (d) iron drains (see also G9) 4. plaster and cementwork 5. roughcast work 6. roofing (a) thatch, straw and turf (b) other coverings 7. fire (a) fireplace (b) flueslchimneys (c) cowls/controls 8. steps, stairs 9. drains (see also G 3(d))

(j) inns (including signs) (k) other commercial buildings (leducational )

(0) recreational (p) water and dry closets etc (q) general termslmiscellaneous 2. Description of accommodation, including location and condition

B BUILDINGS, GROWS AND ASSOCMT03 LANDS I. 'Urbanâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC; (a) building groups (b) building sites (c) circulation areas (d) street drainage 2. land (a) adjacent to buildings @) for agricultural use (c) small pieces of land (d) land drainagelditches 3. boundaries (dykes, fences, marchstones etc)


5. decoration, including paint and paper 7 . other building materials 8. description of materials, intrinsic qualities, deformation 1. workers in stone and clay 2. workers in wood 3. workers in metal 4. workers in plaster etc

7. other workers, unclassified 8. ranks of workers 9, others not directly involved in construction

H OLD BURMNG ACCOUNlSXXMnMONPHRASES ETC 1. reference to building works 2, dimensions, quantities 3. payments, wages, taxes, breaks 4. construction celebrations

E TOOLSlEOUlPMENT 1. stone working and general building (a) general terms

I lAWTERMSANDwnClALPROCEDWKs J 'FLWlNGS 1. badly constructed or in bad condition 2. poor workmanship 3. incompetent workers/contemptuous names for workers

(e) whetstones 2. timber working



tc /

A l(a) ANCIENT BUILDINGS borra bothan broch burian cbester crannog doone doungeoun dun erd-house %ersty how keir mote' mullochie picts' house picki dike rath reeve reive ring round-about wag weem wheelhouse wheel rink wheel shed yaird hous

(i) INDMDUAL BUILDINGS backhous(e) backjam bail baskethous bastle hous big(@ biggin biggit wa big hoose bilbie black house boo brickie bruchack buckie(-huusr) buith bull' byke case chemis 3v biggin

cooncil house corshous cot cottar house creaga crelehous crue cruive double hoose double-pile plan fire house flat fluir foghouse foreland fore-lodging foretenement front-door flat front-door house gillha grass-house gushet house ha half house hallan hall house harboury haud(din) head-bu(i)l heftl heid-house hoit hole-in-the-wa@) hoose house to itself house within itself howhouse hut inland innery kirk house laich biggin land lodberrie lodge lodging loge luggie maindoor flat maner (place) manse manys onsett palyir place pudge quarter-house reek reset(t) saut(ie)-bucket school-chamber sclate house

Scotch house seat-house self-contained house shiel single-end single house sithouse skee skeo smoke stone-land street-house taft' teach tenement through house thwaite tilliesoul toft tollbar tower house twa-biggin twa rooms abreist wane whitehouse wonnin wing yett house (ii) PARTS/SUBSECTIONS abune-the-fire ahint-the-fire ail-sell= ale hurry allouring ander angle bartizan averyhous backgate backjam@) (parlour) backland bartice batteline bauk bellheid bellus berfrois ben-the-hoose best-end bey blind storey boan bogie-hole booral bour bredehous brewhous L,.+

cabinet cahute capehouse catwa(l1) cave cavie cearn cellar chaurner chamber of deas chekin ciel cilehous circuler cleit close closet coal neuk coorie cophous corback cubikill cuddy house cudge deas doocot doon hoose doon the hoose dorter dressory dunny eik piece en entersole entry fire and flet fire end fire room first floor flackie flanker flate fluir forechalmer foredoor fore-e-fire fore entress forehall forehouse fore jam(m) fore-lodging foreshot forestair

W gable end gable room gaillie galderie ~alry gantree garderobe garret gauntress

glory-hole goit' grunhous ha en ha(l1)-chalmer haghous hallan hellar hen-laft horn-en(d) inby income ingang ingate inland inner house innerie inset intersole jamb jowell house kiching kitchie knock house laem laft(ing) lanterne escalier librar liggater room little room marsh mete almery mid-house mid-room muckle room naiphouse nicht-bouer oerloft offices onsett ootby orchle outjet out room outshot owerloft passage peat house pentice pepperbox pepperpot pig's crae pinnakil porchel postrum preen-tae public room quarter quarter (house) riff room room door room-end roost

ruif salar salle salt cott saut-girnel second (storey) sellar' sellaP silouring solar speak-a-wee spence studdie' sunkz sylour tae-faw tarras tavern terrie throughgaun thrower tirvin to(o)-fa(l1) trance twa-bey wally close wardrob(e) woman house wonnin (iii) BUILT-IN/ SMALL UNITS STORAGE INCLUDING SHELVING

aumrie barn bench bink bink-awmry bole bonker boss braw-press bunker cap alrnery cavie crue2 dale dresser-window easwas fallachan fitgang flake fore end garderobe girnal glory-hole heck keeping kist laem laidner

lockfast lodie mete almery obder odder peat hole press quern ledder rack saebink sauf saut-bucket shelf press sliottle skelP sparred (shelving) spence veshel @uird) wa heid wair almerie ware stair waird gairt wall press wardrobe weschel hous winnock-bunker

bunker deas fauld soddie stoop sunk'

bed door bed stoup box-bed bun breest close bed coumit bed fitgang frontale haffet lid neuk bed pand press bed rance(r) skelf stock LIGHTS

bouet candyllar chan(d)ler Cruisie hairse lant puirman

rosety ruits

gavock givo WASHING lowpin-on-stane (containers etc) mount orloge baeshin orlys broad balne pant(wel1) bathfat phan boyne potence cood rat-course jaw sconce jawer stane skaithie knave sonedyall sae stoop sae-bink sunk2 slop(-stone) than(e) slunge trulis splash cask upliestane water in the win,dae wall wase WASTE DISPOSAL wassock wease flossmat green brees MISCELLANEOUS gully hole hurry backhol(e) jawbox barasis jawer stane bauk jawhole bennel leepie boist midden hole boxin (g) midden lair boxladder midgie brander packad cammel toom chapper tume dresser-window flooty CLOTHES DRYING furm g-bracket perk ha door perktree insicht pollyshee jetee pulleyshee kaim cleaners scheve knockin stane windis laigh door laird's lug EXTERNAL lant lug air cock mortar stane allars mou hause bee-bole nabb beestane oon bree stane plenshin coksaill pricket dial cock quern dial stane reek-hole doocot snowboard faan snowcradling flackie soddie foghouse speer(e) footstick unt forewa fore-3ett funtain

(i) INDMDUAL BUILDINGS burly hoose cel channery disert fraterie grief hous hostilary kirk kirk house laich kirk lyke house mausole muckle kirk oratour preceptory session house spale kirk whistle-kirk (ii) PARTS/SECTIONS (including KIRKYARDS) aisle aumrie aurrie bauks blind storey breist o the laft buik buird cashel chancelar wall cocklaft cross kirk dorter fitgang forebreist o the laft fraterie kirk-hole kirk stile kirk yaird knock laft laft laich kirk laird's loft laver leckerstane leek stane mort safe owerloft paidmen parlour pass patent, thr rriusr patent door quere reredortc

resting stane revestrye rud(e) loft scouk slipe solar steeple ruit stook tablestone throughgate toopic(h)an toupie yaird (iii) FURNITURE/ FURNISHING awter boxpew breast seat boucht cobill dask deas fauld' fauld board foredask fore seat frontale furm haffet hairse lettern offerand paintit werk pillar place-seat purnphal redestand reenge roundel seat breast soundin box stalk tent seat table

- -



DEFENSIVE (i) INDMDUAL BUILDINGS bastle house blokhouse catrail creaga forslet forth harboury rnunitioune mural3e tour o fens wark

(ii) PARTS, SUBSECTIONS allouring aluryt angle bartizan bartice battelline bretasche brig buttlins cave chemin de ronde doungeoun dungering fa brig fore building gaff gairdhous garret hoarding hole kirnel machcoule marsh massirnore merlin milsie mote murdris hoill netherhole oubliette pit1 Pot putlog rainure ramper round tassel-stane tour to-brig tour o fens vizzying port (iii) ENCLOSURES/ OUTWORKS barmkin barrace barticeyett barras basecourt bayle foussie lists rnanteel wzll murYt peel redike stacket stank to-brig


almous hous hedehouse bibliotheck borestone charter hous chekker house cooncil hoose cowp cross cunyie hous fair gaisthous goif stok ironhouse jougs jowell hous Kilmarnock well knock house landport librar lipper hous maison-dew mercat midden lair model netherhole ospital palice pantwell piazza plea house pledge hous port preceptory puirshoose rasphouse resett salle session house skakkariun spittal sta steamie stentchamber tanyard thesaurarit tolbooth toun ha toun housr towbuith trades ha tron tryst wark feys

(i) INDIVIDUAL BUILDINGS bail croft ferm onstead fermtoun flaucht kil(l)croft mailin mains onsett outfarrn outstecl paffle pendicle placie shiel-house sithouse steading twa-biggin wonnin (ii) PARTS1 SUB-SECTIONS airie barnfauld bern(e) berrick bilehous bothy boucht bowhous bull hure end burran hyke' byre cauf ward cavie cornlaft cottar house court courtin cruel dryho~ fank gaillie gang gavock gin-case gingang gin-house gin-rink girnal givo grange gylve ha haggard hallan

hernmel hen-laft hind rooms hinds' raw horsecoorse horsegang horsemylne horsewa(i)rd hyrdhous inset kill(barn) mains milkhouse mill course millgang millrink onsett outby pent pig's crae poind fold race ree(d) reen barn round roundel sattle shaif laft smearin@) bucht soo house square steading stell steug(ie) swag tae-faw tattie-hoose teind yard walk (iii) DETAILS back hol(e) baikie barge barnbole beuld hissing boose eye flingin tree foresta gligg gloystane hallan heckdoor kuddie do01 lithie milsie port railtree rekster sai "' -~

scuttle hole settlestane sharn-hole sinnie sklaffend hole sklafford hole smoo soletree sta stacklestane staddle travise veggel weir buist (iv) BYRE DRAINAGE addle hole addle-pool aidle-dub boose cobill gruip gulgrave oddle oller runnick SeSterS stank strang-hole strin(d) A 1 (g) MILLING

(i) INDMDUAL BUILDINGS black mill breast mill klickmill lad(d)le mill millstead pouther milne thirl-mill (ii) SUBSECTIONS1 ASSOCIATED PARTS acetree ark awe backfa

clack cloose damtree foreschete gainshot harp hem


landmercat luckenbooth


lichtenin-tree mill-cloose mill-lade mill-ring milnhirst ouier head quern raisin dwang row-heid shot' sole of the ark troch trows (e) underhus way loom wheeps A IN K l W

kilO kilhous kill@arn) kil(l)croft killogie kill pot killstead kill stick kill tree kilnhead kilpensten lime-kill lime-wark logie ogee sornie A l(i) INDU!STRUU (buildings and partstherd

alewark barkatt' bouchery bouthous brewland brewstead butch hoose corff hous

glesserie gutte~ haghous joinery ledehous lime-wark


shamells skemmels smiddie



DO -F ACXXMWDAllON (includinglocation and condition (see also FLYnNGS

back and fore

wasty wasty wanes watterteich wee1 fo~git wind ancl watertight within itself woodlaid

allars backgate backland backraw

through close throughgaun throughgang throughgate thrower


boulder-stane bow



spiletree steel' steep house studdie sugar wark sugary tannage tavern tennies townet hous


waulkmill yill wark A 1 0)INNs (including signs)

ale-house buddel changehouse clachan enseigne hodle host hostilary howff king's house minch house ostillary ostrie snug stand tilliesoul wand

carrgate close1


drove road

brander glet

knap of the causey knibblockie

open set

muck house necessarium

house-hicht cottoun

kirk clachan mercatstead

sea toun


march roadie messagate

rummlin cundie

open gate



toun raw wa toun B l @) BUILDING pend-close



bordel buith


chaik house


crarne flake flesch-hous flesch-mercait forebuthe foreshop halis


atween-lichts twa-lofted underputtec unsufficient up the house



skurrock slap(ping)

cruive 'oredoor

glebe goit hoosimal kailpaird lot park pleasance policies rim ruid score hole tail tort steatl toon mall toun loan toun mill wildernesss yaird

B 2 (b) FOR AGRICULTURAL USE commontb croft crub dale fank fauld flaucht garth haining haugh heid room horsewa(i)rd infield ingres inland out baits outrun outset paffle park penfauld pilmuir pumphal

quay rekster rett room rundale runrig shade skare skair aft! ail

B 2 (c)SMALL PIECES OF LAND crub cunyie doonfa fent garrick gusset heater manse paffle particle pendicle plantiecrub schort buyttis vastage

bauk boxdrain cast chanrock conduck dockie draucht dubeye easin(g)-gang foussie gatton Raw gore graf laid-drain lateral leader lunkart mug tile Pomp POW'

rummlin sire sloped gaw smoo stank stripe sweerie syke syver tae trink vaedik waygalc

B 3 BOUNDARIES crib cuist Iavkw. ff3lc=# marchstonesetc) deeds dockie borestone flag flitter boult freestane cairn garl criggie greywacke cross dyke greet deval gutter stane draucht hardcore dool? haithens dull knibloch geit kyslestone gerbick leck gersty litterstane gray stane liver-rock hairstane marbre head dyke metal kenmarrie mote" land meith niggar lanimer outlayer line-stone paver lists pentil steen loaning dyke pinnings march pin stane march bauk plainstane march ditch plennies march dyke purpose steen march stane quarrel1 mearing quhynstane meith riddlings mett rubble pit-stane rublie PraP ruch stane side dyke sclaite treb(dyke) scone witterstane scurdy sea-stane BUILDING serch MATERIALS sett shiver bottoming C 1 STONE shoddie skaillie Arbroath (stone) skelf(er) ballisten slate binnie sled bitlag snap blinding tailyfre boo1 tirr bottoming trink boulder-stane wall stane breese whin chip briestane whinstone Caithness stone Yorkshire stane canestane Carmyllie flag C 2TIMBER channel-stane chip aik chuckie (stane) aschin cleckin-stane back clinkers baff coble Baltic (timber) cornizer

bresell bubhlewud buird byche bordis chabyll cladding clift dale Danzig red Eastlan burdis etnach ezar faille-timber fatholt featherboarding fethering dail firdale firren fluring fyrburd gad hardtree hattyr knapburd lining lowdis maser memmel nit wud reid wud sap spail sawstick schorne werk scow speeach stockstove Swadii burd timmer trood valras vattill waild wanscott wea(c)ker


MORTAR etc alabast cockleshells flakit powder griff hair harl lime limeshells lime-shebers mortar owergang pan cratch plaister pottie ark rin lime saun stookie

strae-and-dash symond

varrgries vertiter wyssing

black-airn bress (in) claith Danskene iron esmonde irne feicham gad irn lachter lattoun leid maid irne malleables osmonde irne plumb lede pot metal quhitewerk run metal shaven latten tewarne bore white airn whitework yetlin

baff blaes' brock byewood caddis cut deeds downtakings flaesock foud fulyie' futherins grummelO lime-redd lummle offcut redd sawins schide shauvins skelf' skifting

C5DEcoFaTHMl including paint and paper


amal anneill asure Badeas, Ind of biswys blew buke ceres fast and tablet, black florey fulyiez Ind of Badeas layke lefe masticot oledoly orpement owergang oyle oyle cullor(is) quitalum reid leid rois of Paris scrows sinapar slychtasur Tynecastle canvas ule lingit ulie varneys

Belgian straw blaes' blinding bogthak burn cam casting claith clay-cat claythak colfing creesh dad danders dauk deafening dent divot evor fail flae flakit powder flauchter feal floss l0 01 n gay haw clay heather heather and d a~b ~

keling sound kemple knyttil lime liming limeshells lime-shebers monkey dung pi(c)k Pitleslie lyme ploud pone pot metal pottie pottie lime PUP raip riggin divot rope rubbin stane saun scaddin schort work scley scow@) scraw screed scrim show smudge

cling clinty cranked crasit cut daised dozened exposed face feather edge figure fineer flashed free freuch funseless gaig gaunwey gel1 gizzen gnarr greet grupet-and-sekkit heather strain hem iron eer kelyeit kemple knagg~ knar lean sod lick spune lirk stapple nailsick strae newbaking (look) symond nirlie taavin nirr thack offcasting tllack-raip over-fret overgilt tild till plasterer's snot vattill plet (ironwork) P~Y wattles whitening quarnelt ye-sa quick randit C 8 DESCWPTKMI rank OF MATERIALS. reapen INTRINSIC reed reedie QUALITIES, DEFOWVIATION rocht ruch awte sair bait saxeane birnist set sex and greeped blob body shairp bort shiver broken sitfast camshachle skelf cantit skelb cappie skur cast slicht cheaft swirlie cleckirl->L~L~C *'-7rter

D 8 RANKS OF WORKERS D4WORKERSM I'mslERetc cork dauber deacon pargenar fee man plaisterer magister operis plaistirman maister of wark sparginer maister man stookie omnigaddrum tradesman DIWORKERSIN D 5 WORKERS IN owergang(er) SrONE AND ROOFING wagitman CLAY prod D 9 OTHERS NOT beilder sclater DlRECTLY serviceman bigger INVOLVED IN servitor builder-mason CONrnUrn stinger clay and dubber stobbie clay bigger agent thacker clay davie Dean of Guild cowan factor dorbie gable-endie drystane dyker land-metster barraman dyker lanimer clay davie goniel linar darger lathomus lineator fillar layar planker hudman lose" rackler hurler lewis tailler lewis meason tronman lime-lary mellisman vesiar lose' mudmason wadsetter marrow quarreour paikie ruch mason E TOOW piner squareman EQUIPMENT py(o)norie stane dyker ruch layer stane-knapper E 1 STONE serviceman WORKING AND upputtar servitor GENERAL sledder BUILDING D 2 WORKERS M WOOD D 7 OTHER E l(a) GENERAL WORKERS, TERMS bruise-wood UNCLASSIFIED caibe backet hawkathrraw blaster banker joiner cacier bevelstop dauber piner boaster glasinwricht sawar bro(a)ch glesser squareman cave1 me11 catchie ledar squarewricht paleman timmerr chipen penter wricht clamp tasker cleaner D 3 WORKERS IN cloorer METAL club hammer drove brookie fit bruntie float burn-the-wind former colibrand frame ledeman gavelock lorimer hud(d)

thrawn twarter wallrae wantwud whirrock win wrocht yolk DPEoPlE

irons jib jumper kevel hammer knap!per) line lump hammer mare mash massie me11 muckle hammer peen' peener pie1

till-airn tramp pick wa iron

pinch(er) puncheon quarrell mell raggling iron reel scabbler scriever siege sltainie skivet sledge me11 splitter teethtool trowan truan tumbling tom tuith tuil

bull2 glaan haning stane hone quhitstane ragi setstane shairping stane sleike whunstane

bishop cassiedunter cavel me11 dumper dunter gating mell kevel hammer

~shach coruie crais of irn craw crawiron crawsteel creepie gavelock guddle heel bar kinch lew(d)er pinch(ing bar) poclger prise puttar soile

E l(d)SIEVES flake harp riddle scheif scree sew


WORKING E 2 (a) GENERAL aeger aix balax barkatt2 birce borag boral (tree) bowsaw brade brog bullax burde pleaning cloves cuddy drugsaw eetch flower gemlet Glesca screwdriver gudge ?Pm hack hackie hag haimmer hake hirstle horse kluvie lay2 meenit Paisley screwdriver

pierce1 pownie ricketie ripsaw rug saw shackle craw shangie shauve shavelin skillop sprig-bit tenor (saw) turning lay worm wright's black coal wummle



auldwife's tooth casements cockbead plane countercheck (plane) feelister fielding plane geelum grannie's tuith halflin handplane heading plane hollow plew plucker raggle raglet plane reeding plane scriff-scraff scrub shavelin skewed geelum spogshave

E 4 ROOFING, INCLUDING MATCHING beater beikledder bowt glaiks heuk needle pone spade prick prod scob siege spurtle stangril stinger thacking peg thacking prick thacking spurtle thrawcruik tweezle twinecruik

backer baton burnstand claik cornice rod flower u~uild pottie ark pottie lime scrim slippers squeeze

E6 S C ,beetle cramp-and-ratchet dook mandrill packing iron peerie risp roper shangie sowthering airn tawpon toby key virl



barkatt2 batten beikledder carpoll centreis cleeding coom develling fitgang fluring form frame gaberts hand ladder h a ~

hoarding horal horse kessel kramestock ledder ledge mare needle pin and pole pm(n)er putlog rance ring board rungle pin scathles schalfalting scheve sheave shore2 shuttering skaitgis to f u t g q i s soldier spar spurband stee stell stonner stop swurd tress whirl whurl yoofer

sorrow-rape stiel tram van whirl-barrow whirlie windis



bang barra barra tram bloke blondin cairt cheen cleps coupcart cradling cranl creepie dog fit gylomys hud(d) hurl(ie) barra kramestock laid trees litter tree mailleis paddy barrow puddock raisin dwang scheve sled slipe

E 8 MEASURMG, SRTlNG OUT boning rod cheen draucht dumpy gage jedge line oglet passers patern plumb plume cackle rue1 shootstick skainie slump square, make it square with squair rule straight edge threefoot rule

bass bass (broom) besom bowster brander brookie burelo) burnstand carsackie cavel chaffer chessell chuffel clams clat clet crookstudie drevil ee flauchterspade foal's foot (chisel) forehaimn former fwe





furm gibblet gimmel glaiks glaums graith gudge hake hakhammer hakheid hand ladder heel ho(o)zle hud(d) instrument killick kippage kirner kw@er) knyttil ledder lede mylne lump hammer lume mand maun massie mattock meenie monkey mou mouse oliver oosel orret paddy shovel paidle pame hammer peltie phipple bitt pick pikespade plettin stane pone spade POW' powie pownie progger POP

risp runch scheve scriever shackle craw sharkie shod shovel shod scoop shuil sile skillop spaik spaud

strip stripping block studdie turkas turning lay vice counges vice turcas waggis warklume windband womyl wummle wYce

clumber check cradle cheeknailing dabb(l)ed clamsh dicht countercheck ding (doon) dicht drove die (into) dunt ding face up dress flushpointing enter (wi the brog) gouf feather harl (point) feeze (aff or on) haunch fenestring hou fester howk field E 10 hunger-pointing fineer DEscxmloNOF indent fite TOOLS, THEIR joint harl fleech CONDmON etc hing key UP jeest lay aber lip join abraidit mak knit bleezed nidge leech braiggle outstriking need-nail byke2 oversailyie pavilion cannel pick Peg coummie point plant cum" polish queem curly-heidit put down raggle duffie ramfors Put UP faize quarrell ransoning fire edge raggle reeve fling raise rip fluise rance riv rickle sawdraft gleg glittie shore scrunt grose slap seam hand canny sneck(ed) pointing skair heftZ sned spar laborious splice (up) spring lip stainchel stainchel rowit and betit stengle steek shod strike out stitch slite stug tach tangit teeth tack1 u p f ~ g tess whiss tryvis win umcast wainscot wynn F 1 IN STONE wa(i)rd F 2 IN TIMBER wark back filling white back-snecked bevel-checked bagrubbed bonker F3PLUMBlNG batt bonnet AN) beamfill bottle METALWORK bemmel box big' built-up batt blin butt2 butt2 ca byewood flushing calfat cast ca clink clamp carf dicht clour chap1 dress

finger wiping knit late leet plunge rim in sowther stave taave taft2 wall Yet

aither batter bemmel bennel bigg (up) butt' cairt cantle cassie cast chirk clash up clat' clat2 clatch clem clumber cog collour condampne coomceil core crank decore deigh delf demoleis dicht ding dish dit divot draw dress fish flauchter float flush foussie grave harl heft2 inamel join kinch kirr

lace lagger lay liming neal needle onlay owergang paidle panged pargen Peg plaster (and form) plunge punze rebig rim in ripe riv sail score scrieve seep slite slocken snagging sound sort spairge spargeon stank stengle stentJ stoothe straightening swap swee taave tave tep thack and raip theck tire thraw tummle twig-rape t~ld umcast undercut upbeild upbiggit upbringing upmak uppitting vernish waling wall walt warping white' yarpoan Yat

F5 0PERATK)NAL ADJUSIMENTS, DIRECTIONS, REFINEMENTS ace adience ajee alenth angle argh bay belay belly bevel checked bind body boss bow camshachle cant cap chirk cockle cranked daylight (size) deval die (into) ease ee sweet erdfast fang finished (size) fite flush four n(e)ukit fykie glaid gleg gourd haffit clos' hard hinging humour jeeg jimp knee lick lift lose itself lying nimsh nippit offset parpen pit' plunge poyntell ways oroportionara

proud queem rag2 raxed relieve returned on itself ripe rive rof(0in sab sad skail sklent skyow soane squint standing swedged sweeten tabled thorter thraw, out o thraw timmer propt twarter wash weather white2

G l(a) FOLmDATlONS, GROUND, SUBSOIL blinding bottoming burde die (wall) foun(d) lairstane larach logie made-up (ground) pan' pavement-stane pedester shannel sleeper stance stead(ing) steel2 steid stonnl tramp upfilling wa stade G l (b) WAUMG,

GENERAL aislar aPPuY band basecourse batt baste1 beamfill bed beestane blunkart buttereis cant-bedded channelled joint codding corbel1 corbal table crance crap o the wa easwas fealy gable flanker hainch hallan hearting hem lie-bed lift manteel-wall mote2 natural bed nib ornel outbound parpen(d) parpen ashlar parpen wall pere' pilley stair pin(n) (stane) pinnings puttstane random rubble rest rider rin riser riseband rubble run rubble saving saving stone scanement schriffon scone seat shoddie side wall simmer sneck sneckpin

snecked rubble spawled strenyeour summer throughband tiestane tour-sneck tusks tYmPanY vowt weeper

tabling tekkel thackgate thackstane tusking tympany wa heid wa hold water table weatherstane Gndskew

G 1 (c) EDGES OF G l (d) OPENINGS IN WAUMG WALLING arras bol12 barge crannie begstone crawlhole butt stone creephole caip crown catstep closed skew dornal dressings clubskew gateslap corbal table giblet-check corbal sail3e hainch corbiestane hallan stane crawstane impost crawstep inband crownstone ingo(ing) cunyie easin(s) jamb licht easin(g) heid longstone saving easwas fealy gable loop fourn(e)ukit losin-bole gable end lug sill min3ell gavel nevilstane gruggle odder-stane hoose end ogeour hooseheid oillet intak outband kneeler pendstane muller piece nape pittivout nephous(e) nepus gable platband reprise neuk (stone) ofsahellik revele ringpen open skew ringstane oversailyie rybat pait safe lintel pall (stane) saving stone peat stane scouk plinth scuncheon putt slabstone riggin stane simmer slap slipsill skew slipsole skewputt soffit skewtabling stormhead window springer stane couple: storm gavel

start starter tas de charge threshstane upstart

advice stane angle roll bandcourse bead-and-hollow bottled carrit cheptour corunnell crownel(l) curly-wurlie decorement dial stane drop@ed) sill dumb dummie (window) frontale gailyeown gallean-heid gergon hood moulding hollow (moulding) hous(s)ing label (moulding) lugged marriage lintel mason's mark mullery neuk shaft nodding ogee notchheid pencil round plintQ position mark prick roll (moulding) sail3ie string course sunkwricht tangle tappietourie tirlie toopic(h)an toupie torris whigmaleerie


angle boasted bro(a)ched bull2 clour dabboed dreep droved gorge harl pointing hungry keel-shafted kilt margin nidge ornel pencil round pendcheck punched polish poyntell ways quarnelt reeled scabbled scribbled shouldered skur slaister pointing sned split-face stug sunkwricht swedged tabled teethe throating tooled (ashlar) undercut washed weathered whiss




auchenhalrig (work) back(it) dyke barteshing buck and doe buck and hen burbenk butt and hudd cassin dyke clapdyke clay and boo1 clonk consumption dyke Coverband crannie

criggie cundie double dyke dump and hole drystane dyke dyke dyke end exposed face face dyke fail and divot fald dyke fleet dyke flow dyke forskin Galloway dyke Galloway hedge gateslap glipek gull halfdyke ham and egg work head dyke he(a)rting kenmarrie lift lipped loaning dyke locked top lunkart march dyke one-face (wall) rafter rag1 raik dyke retta-dyke sea car(r) sideband side dyke single dyke single-work smoo smout smugga snap (tapped-)dyke sod-coping sod-dyke stane dyke sunk dyke swear dyke taft dyke tinker fence truff dyke water dyke wirlie yad(d)er yaird dyke


ad ander angular backtree barge bauk bellcast birk bond (kipple) bougar bougar-stakes bound couples bridle (back) caber camceil capraven cheveron coom (ceiling) corback cors couple couple baulk couple leg cove (ceiling) croonpiece cross crownpost crub crukit tymmer dock doon fa decker doubling double dreep easin(g) (buird) easin(g) drap fa doon faille timber first2 first and pan fit fore-roof fork garro(u)n geist half-tree hanger hanging post henbauk hen laft hooseheid hoo (staik) hune jeest keptrie kilt (fillet) kintye kipple kipple bauk kipple fit kipple pin 'cnokkins

laight lang band lath(er) 1% lew(d)er maintree maister-couple maister wood mantilling mean noggin overstop oxter(piece) pan' pan and couple pan and kabar pavilion peen roof peen (tree) platform boardirlg platform (root) poll plate prick roof puir john rachtir railtree rib riggin(g) riggin tree rin-rufe roof roof binding roof-tree runjoist run roof scantlings sarking sile sileblade simmer sma wud snowboard snow cradling spar spire wall sprocket spurband spurbauk square pitch summer sylour tea-caddy thwart bawk tie joist upset upstart vergeboard wee bauk windbauk

G 2 (b) BEAMS

backtree barrot batten bauk bom bridle built beam corbaltre crookbauk crookstudie crooktree cross tree gaff galley-bauk geist jeest knarrat lang band lat rnaintree obder odder ower tree pan tree rachtir railtree dggin tree safe lintel runbeam

(i) GENERAL bartice bennel catwa dwang flooty fossing band Galashiel's partition hallan milsie par(r)aling rib rin-wall runner skiffin standard partition stud (partition) tallan transing wall (ii) TIMBER1 TIMBER PLUS OTHER MATERIALS

simmer sleeper soletree stick stuck summer tram tree (in compounds)

cat cat and clay catwa clamstaff and daub cla(u)t and clay clay and boo1 clay and mott daub and stower hallan G 2 (c) FLOORING heather and daub (include kebber and daub deafening) pairple post and pan deafening board rice feather scowb and scraw floorhead split and daub fluir stab and rice gruip stake and rice grupet an sekket stake and tow midfeather stob and rice plenshin strae-and-dash sex and greeped stud and mud sile wattling (iii) LIGHT SCREENS flackie flake gavock givo hallan manteel (wall)

sconce skiffin spire wa(ll) G 2 (8) OTHER TIMBER (rougN concealed)


bond timber bowster

chack cheek dook dool' dowtal eik piece form fossing band

haffet half-checked

reen rhind rungle-pin scotch bracketting

strap(ping) tannor taperpiece tenor thorter throating trennal wa rase wallstrap warping


base baseblock baseboard beading bedplate belt(ing) belt rail bolection (moulding) bottle h~~rrlin

caip carrit cockbead cope corner bead cover plate covetta cran box face plate feather fielded panel finishings gallows (bracket) gantree haffet hollow moulding ingo(-plating) knop knulling laEn lafting lining lip list margent mouse moulding muller ova10 overstop pannalit pencil round pipehault ~lat(e) rail reind runbead sarkle schorne werk skiftin(g) slip sparred stop tabulet tannor tenor torris wainscot wanscot loggin wash board wenschou G 2 (g) DOORS, CiATESetc

but-dore chack clapdoor door board door cheek door heid door sole door stane door stoop door thrashel dornal fleein yett gallows grind ha door halfdoor hanging side har(r) horn ledge lefe lid liggat lip lith muntin nailhead parpen sticks postrum rail rain tree sole rail sord spar standart stop thrashel tirless vett tollbar turnie-box vikat vizzy hole vizzying port weather bar wheelgate whirlygate wikkit yett yett cheek G 2 (h) WINDOWS

(i) TYPES bar barge barras-dore barred d( batten beltrail bom brent bund bun door

archar windo blin boist bole boss cant case(ment) catslide chess

circuler crocemygellit croisie dead dumb eyod fa doon fenester gavelwinnock kist lewder licht o oarlie outshot OYe pow-headed sash-and-case scouling shess shot' stone storm stormhead stormont trance (ii) GENERAL DETAILS astragal back boxing band baton rod bossing breacs breist (lining) case casement chess counterchack dropbed) sill elbow estickel glasschack haffet ingo-plating inside facing kist ledge lefe lewder licht min3ell mounter muntin mygel o OYe paise parting bL. pocket sash slipponis


sole stallboard stallriser trancis underchess vindoy weather bar wendoch window band window brace window-check window pace window-sneck winnock winnock bole winnock brod winnock bunker winnock lug winnock neuk (iii) SHUTTERS AND GRILLES backfold boist bred brod close2 darkening brod fallboard fauld' grating schot safe brod shot hole shut stainchel tirless tirlets window brod (iv) GLAZING astragal . band estickel eyod flashed glassband glasschack kame lant latchet laylight licht lokkat lozen made work OYe paintit werk panel patie bowie peen2 pot me+-'

round thortir barris wire yolk

stekill steyband T-hinge thirl pin tirlie tirling pin toll@ar) tricker wave

G 2 (i) IRONMONGERY (including timber equivalent)

widdie willie miln

(i) DOORS, GATES etc band bats and bands batt bot(-stane) catband catbar chapper charnel chin cleek cleket clowg conter-tree cruik (and bottis) cross-taillit @and) door band door crook door sporre edge hinge gabreall crook gallows gemma bands glaiks har(r) hesp hirst h(u)idden jirnmer larach longtaillit band pin@) pure band rance pillar reist rind risp run bar sharlins sharlpin slot(e) snag sneck snib snibbing-bolt snibbing-PO:snickle spar stainchel stang stapple' stec-"


(ii) WINDOWS/ SHUTTERS awe closer cott(e)ril gemma bands hak(e)

pass-key pass-lock patlock pipe key pipe lock platelok putstop roissis ros shield slipbolt sprent staple stocklock striking plate through lock tower bolt (iv) GENERAL (even of wood)


balljoint cammel hangrell


nab@) noup


(ii) SCREWS cottril feeze feeze garron feeze nail feeze pin grub screw vice nail (W

batbolt batt bowt buttZ cleek COttri1


crampet dool'

aiknail bakneill bauk nalis bellheidit bispik blind bowspleit boyspikar cadden carve1 clinknail clow

dowelling farebot gibbon cleik haudfast kipple-pin lin-nail Peggie prickbatt roove ruive snickle SPeg spelkin

coppertacking dowbill flaw garron lapnel lathbrod lede-nail


losin muckle-heidit nailstring need-nail Paisley screw plencheon

laykyn lift(er) lockfast lokhol(e) owerlyar paddock

plencheour rivatwarie sclaitepynnis shairp shank single-flooring

kep kipper



paise pand snib

backsprent bar-loke barn slit bossheid bosslok boull bowt cantlok chaklok check clowg contertree crook key door staple drawbar farebot fetherlok gin hanging lock hank hesp how stappill inlok kaipe-quheill keeper

VC? spick spike sprig steug stob sylour

thacking peg thumbat tingle trennal wa(i)rd wing

stuckin G3


aprin bat(t) cake char claith clink craw dicht dog ear flank(er) flashing guter claith kaik leid kilt fillet landgutter latchet leids pig's lug ridgepole slaverpiece smudge sodder sow's lug thack lead thumbat tingle upstand walt G3b)


pa(i) ling pele

affgang bat (t) boxgutter butt" conductor crampet deval drap dripbox drop nozzle

PeVs ravelpike(ng) skaithie spaik spar stab stenting post

easin(g) butt easin(g)-gang elbow grating hartstol heid outgang

stob and wire stob dyke

Pap rain (water)

G 2 (k) FENCES

conductor r(h)one SCOUt shoe spicket spoot stroup wallpipe wing wireball grating G 3 (c) WATER SYSTEM AND SUPPLY

ballcran bibcock bizzel blister boss and flange (cran) burelu) bush' candle cleeding cock-and-key cock-and-pail coupling cran2 cuml expansion pipe feicham frostcock fullblow heid jamnut knave knee langshank laver monkey dung nosecock nosecran pale Pap Pipe revolvers revolving pipes rinnand riser sclammer scourcock scout sleeve sludgecock spairge (pipe) spoot stroup talbot toby UG virl __^I,

G 3 (d) DRAINSIRON (see also G 9)

bar and nail breather brig and nail brick ee dumbbell dumbplate faucet grating gulley hole gutter hole handhole horn luting pend puff pipe slunge spicket spigot and faucet joint stappit G4 AN)

CEMErnK corner bead cornice rod cove celing finishing griff key' laight lath(er) pargetting plaister plaisterer's snot scotch bracketting scratch coat screed scrim slippers straightening sylour GSROUGHCAST

WORK eyebrow harl scotch harl sneck(ed) harling


G 6 (a) THATCH, STRAW AND TURF aither bagraip Belgian straw benlin (stane) bougar braithin bridlin (rapes) buttlins caber claythack divot edd(e)rins faille-timber flae floss fog(-theekit) garbendlin gorsimmon heather heckle house pin kemple kinch Link(stane) loopstane maintree nog ofsahellik (stane) overgaun (rope) ovey owerrope panraip pone riggin riggin divot riggin-heid scheret scob SCOW

scraw simmonds sookan speck stapple2 stobthack stracht edge strae-thackit swap swaptha(c)l temple thackstane thak burd undrawn ~t(t)lin

aik-nail brattishing cannowse codding doubling gray slate bap hoisting mantilling nib ofsahellik overlap overstop pantile peggie pegging plate riggin stane ring scant schriffon sclaite pynnis Scotch pantile shouldered skaillie slating spoor spule (thack) spune tekkel thack lead tingle trotter-roofing

ammertree ass ass hole backpeat back(stone) backtruff ballisten bannock stane bar barrace barstane bitt brace brandreth breist byke" cat-hud catstanc cheek cheekst,,,, chimlev

chimley brace chimley can chimley end chimley heid chimley lug chimley nook chimley-rib chimley-rink cradle chimley cran' denrick dogstane eulcruke floorstane fore face gab galley-bauk gibbet (gab) greesh hanging lum hars-stane hogie hood hud(d) ingle ingle bow ingle-cheek ingle-en(d) ingle-neuk ingle-side ingle-stane jambstane jambwall kilchan landier lodian brace logie lug ]urn@) lum-cheek lunkart niggar ogee packad POU preas raxes reest tree register grate rib rink round rumfo(o)rd sattle stane simmens slider smokebrod swey tailor's link wangus winter


barge blaw-doon bowie lum bozen brig built vent burbenk can chimley chimley can chimley end cbimley heid coring crawheid elephant's foot flan glack hainch income intak lumcan lumheid lummingis lum pig lumreek lumroot lumtap lumtile oncome pig' POU PraP rag(g)lin rantle rantree reek hole rumford shank shoe stalk thackstane throating vent vent-lining weatherstane wriggle G 7 (c)COWLS/ CONTROLS

aip house auldwife birlie caillich coksaill flow grannie sircular mashine skyle

skyle-a-lum windskew

drop shaft dumbbell ee faucet hartstop hartstrap invert low back syphon (trap) lunkart oddle outfall pipe eye Pomp shear shore1 spicket spigot and faucet joint tae2 tail vaedik

backstair ballester boxladder breastplate brdst common stair dippen flat flate forestair gavil gree greese grete hinging step kirnell turnpik lanterne escalier H OLD BUILDING newelstair ACCOUW outstair COMMON perro(u)n PHRASES etc platt plettie HIrailing TO BUILDING rail stair WORKS rail wand ravel (ing) affeirin rest batis resting step beiting riser birding scale stair scale and platt stair boting buldrie slipsole coft spring-board crukis and bottis stair edefeit stairfit enterit stairheid falt stap fasing stay fraucht stiggie furing stringer gaberts and gangs trap gangin graith trip step grathing turngreis iris turnpike iron graith turnpike foot laid turnpike head ledar turnpike yett lichtsum upstand lodar wheel(er) losand G 9 DRAINS (see lyin graith made work also G 3 (d)) maintenance mak(e) up breather malleables brick ee mendis Buchan trap

mygand ouk outred paittit pere' perfurnis pit2 providat putt raik remede reparell ressavand reul, of the reul. rowit and betit service standin graith stane and lime ulk vagis van vpone win

DIMENSIONS. boll' carrucat cairt (draught) chalder chamdrocht char chopin clatch clof couple davach daylight draucht ell fa faddom fadmel fall finished (size) futher gage haddock horsegang hunder husbandland jedge lineal (stones) manse oxgang oxengate particate pennyland pleuchgate rake rig rit

road rough size ruid rundale schef Scots acre Scots mile slump spidarrack straik superior threave turnout size wisp

annual arlis (money) brunt-money buntha darg (days) disjune drink siller earnest money entry silver flitting frist gaitdichting gait mail1 jornal key silver lowsin time mailin masoun merk mele mettage nicht nichting time noneschankis olk oncost ouk outred reek meal1 reek penny retention sum room-free scuncheon spadarack stent' stent2 tack tailyie taskwork time and lime ulk

H4 CONSTRUCTlON CELEBRATIONS couple yill daubing foundin pint heat the house house heating lintell ail1 sey drink sole-ale

I LAW TERMS AND OmClAL PROCEDURES appraising ticket assedation barony blench (ferm) bounding booking burgage by-law carriage chalking charterbole common stair commontk comprisement @oak) darg days decree (of lining) demayne dereliction direct labour displenishing dispone dominant tenement dominium directum dominium utile casements

eavesdrop erd and stane excamb(ion) fail and divot fe(e) fee and heritage feu feu charter feu duty feu ferme flag and pal frank (tenement) freelage glebe grassum ground annual ground-stead had(d)in(g) haifreis-dyk half gavill 'lauding

hasp and staiple (infeftment by) haud husbandland insicht (and plenissing) ish (and entry) jadge jedge and warrand king's keys kirk kirsitsett kyndnes land meithing licht lining (decree of) lot maintenance maister stik maister wood maister work manrent mean mele mend(i)s mortification mutual gable necessaris novodamus pairtisay wall pal, flag and pal pertinents pettis and gaites pit and gallows plenishing plank policies portioner prejuge promove proper propert6 public right purpresture purprision raise reconis recours(e) redd up redeme register of sasines regress relocation remain reseise retention retour rid rood ruid rundae sasine servic-

servitude sey piece solum stance standin graith stane and lime stent stent stillicide roll subjects sucken superior tack2 task tenancy-at-will tenant sted tenement thack and raip ticketed house tigni immittendi tofts and crofts translet udal upset valent vassal void and redd wa drop wadset ward holding wardship warrand

J lBADLY CONSIRIN BAD CONDITION bensell brock clatch clooter clutber cruive ennis finger wiping galderie gamPY gillha gowl gowstie jamb jammie jiwle jum keerie kellach larach preen-tae rabblach raible ra* '.-:l-

relicks rewine rickle ricklie rummle skinch sole-footed tappietourie yark

5 2 POOR

bluiter clatched up crenished Glesca screwdriver hameart Paisley screw (driver) POX rooter up scutter slaister stog

53 MCOI\IIPETENT WORKERS I CONTFlVlPUOUS NAMES FOR WORKMEN brock bullax wright colibrand connach cowan rickler timmer whiter tottlin pin

K FOLKLORE, LEGEND, SAYINGS affset auchindoras arseverse avis-bore broonie's stane coglin tree covin tree deidchack rin side dykes wi tassel stane wally-close-gless door whurl wig to the wa yairden hunger ye-sa

MEASURES Interpreting Scots Measurement Units by A C Simpson, National Museums of Scotland, Edinburgh and R D Connor, University of Manitoba,W~nnipeg The old Scottish system of weights and measures used for trade and for other forms of contract probably had its origins in the early English system of the 12th century, but it evolved along a separate path and so the units came to be of different sizes. The names for many of the units were the same in both systems - including inches, pounds, stones, pints and gallons - but others were distinctive Scots terms, such as the 'firlot' for dry capacity measure, which was the equivalent of the English 'bushel'. In each system there were also varieties of units for different types of goods: for example, there were separate gallons for wine and ale and different pounds for weighing different commodities, some of them introduced through the commercial influence of dominant trading partners overseas. Thus, for any particular reference, it may not be possible adequately to identify the variety of unit in use.

England and Scotland were replaced by the new simplified 'Imperial' system, which was enforced in Scotland from the mid-1830s. Much of the received view of Scots metrology is based on somewhat naive compa'risons made at the time between the new Imperial standards and the traditional units, and on earlier antiquarian enquiries. The information here is intended as a corrective to this view, and it is taken from the present authors' volume, The Weights and Measures of Scotland (National Museums of Scotland, forthcoming), where the subject is treated in greater detail. This project has been supported by the Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada and by the National Museums of Scotland.

country mile of 1500 paces (of 5 feet) by which itineraries were computed was 1.42 English miles, 2.29 km. 1 [Scots] chain (18th century) = 4 falls or 24 ells (74 feet or 22.5 m, alternatively 74.4 feet or 22.7 m using the ell of 37.2 inches), with 100 links to the chain. The English chain of 66 feet (20.1 m) was also used for surveying particularly in southern Scotland. Land Area Measure 1 [square or superficial] fall = 36 [square] ells, or an area of 6 ells X 6 ells. 1 rood, also referred to (16th century) as the particate = 40 [square] falls or 1440 [square] ells (sometimes erroneously given as 240 ells), or a ploughed area of 40 falls X 1 fall. 1 [Scots] acre = 4 roods or 160 [square] falls, thus the acre's width was 1fall; the acre was considered the area that could be ploughed in the ox team's working day; in the 18th century, 1 [Scots] acre = 10 square [Scots] chains (1.26 English acres or 0.510 hectares; alternatively 1.27 English acres, 0.515 hectares, using the ell of 37.2 inches).

Linear Measure

The size of certain units, and the relationships between them, was specified at intervals by the Scots parliament or Privy Council. These enactments were limited in scope and did not, for example, explicitly cover the 'trone' (latterly 'tron') weight of the internal burgh markets. Nor do they take account of custom and practice in the use of measures. Thus the pint used in the burghs (for regulating the sale of ale) was larger than the statutory pint because it included an allowance or 'charity' of one-sixteenth of the volume. Similar allowances (normally of one-eighth) applied to grain and meal measure until the Assize of 1618, although an allowance of a quarter-firlot per 'boll' of 4 firlots (the 'charity to the boll' of one-sixteenth) was often applied subsequently. The size of some units remained unchanged: for example, the 'ell', which formed the legal basis of all linear and area measurement, was defined as 37 inches throughout the whole period of record. However, the legal size of certain units was altered from time to time (particularly that of the dry measure, which tended to increase at each major assize of weights and measures), and the multipliers that related some units (such as the number of ounces in the pound or pints in the gallon) also occasionally changed. The situation had stabilized by 1618 and the details given below for weights and capacity measures are largely of the customary units that resulted from the 1618 Assize. In theory, the Scottish system was abolished in favour of the existing English weights and measures at the Union of the parliaments of England and Scotland in 1707. In practice, Scottish units continued in use, particularly in country markets, well into the second-half of the 19th century, although weights in particular were often calculated in terms of convenient multiples of English units. In 1824, the

The Scottish and English inch were identical. 1foot = 12 inches; 1ell = 37 inches (0.940 m), or 3 feet and 1 inch, but in use it was divided into binary factors (half, quarter, eighth, etc, or 4 quarters each of 4 'nails'). A longer ell of 37.2 inches (0.945 m) is also found in the 18th century This seems to have its origin in the standard 'reel' measures for yarn, which were square winding frames of side X ells and circumference of 2%ells or 92%inches: a late 17thcentury remeasurement of the reel standards at 93 inches appears to have led to the redefinition of an ell of 37.2 inches so that the reel circumference remained 2%ells, with the ell notionally divided into 37 longer inches. The precision of the standards that emerged from this led to the ell of 37.2 inches being widely (but inappropriately) used from the late 18th century as a basis for land measuring. (An ell of 37.0598 inches - again considered as divided into 37 over-sized inches - is widely quoted in early 19th century sources but is based on a faulty interpretation of the Edinburgh standard ell bed in 1811. Although this was adopted as the official size of the ell in terms of the Imperial standard yard in the 1820s, it had almost no effect on measurement practice and may be ignored.) For land and the measurement of building work: 1 [lineal] fall = 6 ells or 18%feet (5.64 m); initially (to 14th? century) the rod for measuring land plots in burghs was 20 feet (sometimes erroneously described as the rood of area in the burgh being 20 square feet). 1 [Scots] furlong = 40 falls, also considered as the length that could be ploughed by a team of oxen without a rest. 1 [Scots measured] mile (from 16th century) = 8 furlongs or

A ploughgate (pleuchgate) or carrucat was an area of arable land, taken to be 104 [Scots] acres (53 hectares), which could be tilled by an eight-ox team in the course of a ploughing season. An oxgang was the area of arable land considered to be the contribution of a single ox in the ploughing team and was therefore an eighth of a ploughgate, taken as 13 [Scots] acres (6.6 hectares). A davoch was a tax assessment term for land in Gaelicspeaking areas and was of variable size; depending on the proportion under cultivation it could be considered as up to 4 ploughgates in area. Work Area Measurement 1 [square] fall, or 36 [square] ells, was also considered (from

at least the 16th century) the 'rood of work' (or little rood) for measuring the work of craftsmen, notably masons, slaters and wrights, and was analogous to the English work rood (1 square rod of 5%yards, or 30%square yards). The [lineal] fall came to be divided (as did the English rod) into 25 parts, or 'feet' (of 8.88 inches, 0.22 m), each of 10 'inches', when greater precision was required; this foot was the same length as the link of the 4-fall survey chain. Thus, glass and glazier's work was measured by the [square] foot, using the Scots glaziers' foot of about 9 inches (although redefined by the Convention of Burghs in 1625 as Yi ell or 9% inches), or more commonly using the equivalent English glaziers' foot of about 8 inches, reflecting the origin of most window glass. An attempt to suppress this short foot was made in a ParliamentaryAct of 1661 which applied to wrights, glaziers, masons and other workmen, however this was

was noted that carpenters, masons and painters measured their work with a tape of links. Weights

The Scots 'troyes' pound, originally for fine and imported goods, adjusted to the so-called 'Lanark' standard of the 1618 Assize, was equivalent to 1.09 avoirdupois pounds or 0.493 kg. (Although the standard stone of this series, at 16 pounds to the stone, was committed to the care of the burgh of Lanark, earlier references to the 'Lanark stone' are to the standard of the larger trone weight series.) From the 18th century, the troyes (or 'Dutch') pound was normally accepted outside Edinburgh at 17%avoirdupois ounces, or 0.496 kg. The trone pound, although theoretically abolished in 1618, remained the principal market weight series, defined at 20 troyes ounces (and 16 trone ounces) to the pound = 1.36 avoirdupois pounds, or 0.616 kg. From the 18th century, the trone pound was often accepted (as in Edinburgh) at 22 avoirdupois ounces, 0.624 kg, or else at 24 avoirdupois ounces (hence 1%avoirdupois pounds), 0.680 kg, or a similar locally accepted number of avoirdupois ounces. Capacity 1boll (or bow) = 4 firlots; 1 chalder = 16 bolls. The statutory Scots pint, based on a standard in the keeping of the burgh of Stirling (the Stirling pint, 'stoup' or 'jug') = 2.99 Imperial pints or 1.70 litres.

At the 1618 Assize, the firlot for wheat, oatmeal and some other goods was set from the standard in the keeping of the burgh of Linlithgow (which included allowances of about an eighth) at 21% [Scots] pints = 34.6 litres by dry fill. Barley, malt and oats, previously sold by notional heaped measure of 1%times the size, were from 1618 measured by a larger firlot of 31 pints = 49.5 litres. These were still liable to increases from charities allowed on trading in bolls and chalders. From the 1680, meal was measured by weight rather than by volume, reckoned at 8 troyes stones per boll = 140 avoirdupois pounds or 63 kg (and for most regions this still applied in the early 19th century). By the late 18th century, the Linlithgow firlots were described (incorrectly) as by water fill from the 1618 specification (which should have resulted in capacities of 36.0 and 52.5 litres), but were typically found larger in the burghs at about 37 and 54 litres. In the 1820s the standards were determined to be 36.3 and 52.9 litres. Lime was sold by the boll of 4 firlots (or of 2 barrels). Specific references in the early 19th century are normally to the barley boll, although there was local variation: some areas (mainly in the south-west) used the wheat boll or an English unit of

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF AUTHOR'S SOURCES A. Modern Standard Reference Dictionaries The Oxjord English Dictionary (OED) 1881-1928. The Scottish National Dictionay, (SND) ed. by William Grant and David D. Murison, 10Vols 1931-76. A Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (DOST) ed. by Sir William A. Craigie and A. J.Aitken et al 1931.. The Concise Scots Dictionary (CSD) ed. by Mairi Robinson 1985. The Linguistic AtlasofScotland Scots section, ed. by J. Y Mather and H. H. Speitel, Vol. I 1975, Vol I1 1977.

B. Other Regional Dictionaries, Glossaries etc Dictionary of Scottish Language by Ebenezer Picken 1818. The Scottish Gallovidian Encyclopedia by John MacTaggart 1824. Glossary of North Counhy Words in use by John Trotter Brockett 1825. Dictionaly of Scots Language by Capt. Thomas Brown 1845 short but of historic value. The Dialect of Banffshire by Walter Gregor 1866. An Etymological Glossary of Shetland and Orkney Dialect by Thomas Edmondston 1866. Gaelic Etymoloffi of the Languages of Western Europe by Charles Mackay 1877 - Gaelic biased. An EQlmological Dictionary of the Scotti'sh Language by John Jamieson revised and collated with entire Supplement incorporated by John Longmuir and David Donaldson 1879-87. Supplementary Dictionary of Scottish Language by W M. Metcalfe, supplement to above edition ofJamieson's Dictionary Notes on Jamieson'sDictionary by J. B. Montgomerie-Fleming 1899. The Scottish Language as Illustrating Civilization in Scotland by Franc~sque-Michel1882 - French biased. A Dictionaly of Lowland Scotch by Charles Mackay 1888. The English Dialect Dictionary ed. by Joseph Wright 1896-1905 - interesting bibliography Chambers's Scots Dictionary compiled by Alexander Warrack 1911. A Comparative Gaelic-Scots Vocabulary by R.. L. Cassie 1913. Lowland Scotch as Spoken in Lower Strathearn District of Pmhshire by James Wilson 1915. Glossay, ofShetlandDialect by James Stout Angus 1914. Z3e Roxburghhire Word-Bookby George Watson 1923. The Dialects of Central Scotland by James Wilson 1926. The Orkney Norn by Hugh Marwick 1929. Lallans by James Nicol Jarvie 1947. Loudand Scots Glossary by lain Mackinnon 1966. The Patter by Michael Munro 1985. Scoor-oot by James A. C. Stevenson 1985 Articles with Word Lists Article in Glasgou~ Herald (3 November IYSI) xcnitecture in Scotland, influence of The Aulcl Alliance' by T. Smellie.

Article in The Builder (20 June 1952) 'Scottish Building Glossary, survival of Craft terms' by Ralph E. Bullock. C. Books of Building and Architecture Royal Commissionon AncientMonuments, Scotland - various Inventories, Reports and Glossaries. Ministry of Public Buildings and Works (Ministry of Environment). Essa.y on the Construction of Cottages by George Smith 1834 wen-detailed specifications. The Baronial and Ecclesiastical Antiquities in Scotland by R. W Billings 1845-52. The Architecture of the Farm by John Starforth 1853. Castellated and Domestic Architecture in Scotland by D. Macgibbon and T. Ross 1887-92 - particularly Vol. VMasons and Architects and Vol. N p. 30. Burgh Police (Scotland)Acts 1892, 1903. The Scottish Mode ofMeasurement 1917. The Mediaeval Castle in Scotland by W Mackay Mackenzie 1927. Norse Building Customs in the Scottish Isles by Aage Roussell 1934. Story of Scotland in Stone by Ian C. Hannah 1934. The Stones of Scotland ed. by George Scott-Moncrieff 1938. Scotti'sh Mason and the Mason Word by Douglas Knoop and G. I? Jones 1939. Borderland Castles and Peles by Robert Hugill 1939. The Thatched Houses of the Old Highlands by Colin Sinclair 1953. Scottish Castles of the 16th and 17th Centuries by Oliver Hill 1953. Spons Practical Builders Handbook 9th Edn. ed by A. W D. Fryer 1954. Dry Stone Walling by F. Rainsford-Hannay 1957. The Scottish Castle by Stewart Cruden 1963. Mediaeval Stone .Carver in Scotland by James S. Richardson 1964. The Historic Architecture of Scotland by John G. Dunbar 1966. Architect Ro.yal by Hubert Fenwick 1970. DesertedMediaeval Villages Part Two Scotland ed. by Maurice Beresford and John G. Hurst 1971. A Histo? of Architecture in Scotland by T. W West. The Plumbers' Companion by James Hastings 1972. Inoeraray and the Dukes ofArgyll by Ian G. Lindsay and Mary Cash 1973. Painters in Scotland l30l-l70U by M. R. Apted and S. Hannabuss 1978. Materials and Traditions in Scottish Buildings ed. by Anne Riches and Geoffrey Stell 1992. Earth Structures and Con.itruction in Scotland A Guide to the Recognition and Conseruation of Earth Technolog,in Scottish Buildings by Bruce 'Xfalker, Christopher McGregor, in collaboration with Rebecca Little 1996

Thatch and Thatching Techniques A guide to conserving Scottish thatching traditions by Bruce Walker, Christopher McGregor, Gregor Stark 1996. TheHebridean Blackhouse Aguide to materials, construction and ~ and Christopher McGregor 1996. maintenance by B N CWalker

D. Books of Building and Architecture (English) Building in England down to 1540 by L. F. Salzrnan 1952 excellent for English building. Building Accounts of King Henry 111 ed. by H . M. Colvin 1971 Latin translated with small glossary. The Pattern ofEnglish building by Alec Clifton-Taylor 1972. A Dictionary ofBuilding by John S. Scott 1964. Illustrated Glossary ofArchitecture by Harris and Lever 1966. E. Original Sources (from St. Andrews University Archives) Accounts and Vouchersfor St. Leonard's College St. Andrews 1693-1704 SL 516/1. Accounts and Vouchersfor St. Salvator's College St. Andrews 1696-1726 SS 516/. Quaestor'sAccountsfor Univem'tyLihrarySt. Andrews 1729-85. Quaestor's Vouchers and Accounts of United College St. Andrews 1750-61. Contracts of Structural Alterations to University Library St. Andrews 1765, 1806,1823. Bills of Quantities of Alterations and Additions to University Libray, St. Andrews 1907. E Printed Records of Original Sources or References to

Same Catalogue of the Publications of Scottish Historical and Kindred Clubs andsocieties 1780-1908by C. S. Terry 1909. Catalogue of the Publications of Scottish Historical and Kindred Clubs and Societies 1908-1927 by C. Matheson 1928. Proceedings of Society of Antiquaries of Scotland eg Vol. 111 1857-60 The Parish Church of Mid-Calder Vol. V1 Fifth Series) 1919-20 The Accounts of Dr. Alexander Skene, Provost of St. Salvator's College, St. Andrews 1683-1690 Vol. W1 (do.) 1921-22The Accounts of St. Salvator's College, St. Andrews 1679-1689 Vol. XC 1956-57 Some Cruck-framed Buildings in the Aberfeldy District of Perthshire. Publications by Spalding Clubs (esp. appendices with details of builders accounts) Publications by Bannaryne Club Transactions of Scottish Dialects Committee No. I-N Scottish Historical Reviews eg articles by M. A. Bold Vol. 24 p.179, Vol. 25 p.163. Scottish Studies Vol. 1-10, Register of VariousAccounts eg Register of Cupar Abbey Index to Records of the Convention of Royal Burghs 1295-1738 Ancient Laws and Customs of the Burghs of Scotland 11241424. Ayr Burgh Accounts 1534-1624. Burgb Records ofDunfermline 1488-1584.


Exh-actsfrom Records o f B z q h ofEdinbur@ 140.3-IG656 Vols. with index. The Mastermasons to the Cmrun of Scotland by R. S. Mylne 1893 - excellent detailed specifications etc. Accounts of the Master of Works ed. by Henry M. Paton 1957 excellent glossary Accounts of Lord High Trearurer of Scotland Vol. I-H excellent glossaries. Accounts ofthe Treasurer of Scotland Vol. XI1 - glossary. Ledger of Andrew Halyburton 1492-1503 issued by Her Majesty's General Register House Edinburgh 1867. Lettersfrom a Gentleman in theNorth of Scotland to hisfriazd in London by Edward Burt 1754 (written in the 1730s). Letters and Journals of Rohert Baillie I775 ed. by David Laing 1842. The Measurer and Tradesman's Assistant 1775 by William Good. Pitsconie's Cmnicles of Scotland ed. Ae. J . G. Mackay 1899 glossary

G. Background Virp'l'sAeneis ...To which is added a L a ~ Glossary e ... u~hich may serve for a Dictionary to the Old Scottish Language translated by Bp. G. Douglas, ed. by Thos. Ruddiman 1710. Scottish Proverbs by Andrew Henderson 1832. Domestic Annals of Scotland fiom the Reformation to the Revolution by Robert Chambers 1858. The Proverbs of Scotland by Alexander Hislop 1862. l%eBurgh Laws of Dundee by Alex J. Warden 1872 - interesting glossary Early Travellers in Scotland ed. by I? Hume Brown 1891. Scotland before I700fiom Contemporary Documents ed. by I? Hume Brown 1893. The Social Life of Scotland in the 18th Century by H. G. Graham 1899. Scottish Diaries andMemoirs 1550-1746 ed. by J. G. Fyfe 1927. Scottish Diaries andMemoirs 1746-1843 ed. by J. G. Fyfe 1942 esp. that of George Robertson. The Social and Economic Development of Scotland before 1603 by I. F. Grant 1930. Students' Glossary of Scottish Legal T e r n by A. D. Gibb 1946. The Domestic Life of Scotland in the 18th Centuy, by Marjorie Plant 1948. The Scots Household in the Eighteenth Centuly by Marion Lochhead 1948. Scottish Farming in the Eighteenth Century by James E. Handley 1953. TheJames Carmichael CollectionofProz1erb.i in Scots ed. by M. L. Anderson 1957. The Economy of Scotland 1550-1625in its European Setting by S. G. E. Lythe 1960. Source Book of Scottish Economic and Social History by R. H. Campbell and J. B. A. Dow 1963. The Surnames of Scotland by George F. Black 1971 - glossary The WeiphtsandMeasures of Scotland by A. D. C. Simpson and R. D. Connor (forthcoming).