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THE ISLANDS OF MACQUARIE HARBOUR

Resource, Management and Conservation Division Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment GPO Box 44 Hobart, Tasmania, 7001

THE ISLANDS OF MACQUARIE HARBOUR

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009 HAMISH SAUNDERS MEMORIAL T R U S T, N E W Z E A L A N D Editors

Michael Pember ton and Clare Hawkins

Depar tment of Pr imar y Industr ies, Par ks, Water and Environment


CITATION: Pemberton, M., Hawkins, C. (2011). THE ISLANDS OF MACQUARIE HARBOUR. Hamish Saunders Memorial Trust, New Zealand and Resource Management and Conservation Division, DPIPWE, Hobart, Nature Conservation Report Series 11/01 ISBN (Book): 978-0-7246-6567-9 ISBN (Web): 978-0-7246-6568-6

A partnership program between the Hamish Saunders Memorial Trust, New Zealand and Resource Management and Conservation Division, DPIPWE, Tasmania. DESIGN AND LAYOUT: ILS Design Unit, DPIPWE ILLUSTRATIONS: Brett Littleton OBJECTS PHOTOGRAPHY: Graeme Harrington, Tasphoto Services, DPIPWE COVER: Narrow cobble beach on the east coast of Neck Island. Photo Paul Donaldson. INSIDE COVER: Cape Sorell Lighthouse. Photo Brett Littleton. Š Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment, 2011. This publication is printed on recycled paper. COPYRIGHT This work is copyright. It may be reproduced for study, research or training purposes subject to an acknowledgement of the sources and no commercial use or sale. Requests and enquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Resource Management and Conservation Division, DPIPWE or the Hamish Saunders Memorial Trust, Auckland, New Zealand.


THE ISLANDS OF MACQUARIE HARBOUR

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009 HAMISH SAUNDERS MEMORIAL T R U S T, N E W Z E A L A N D D E PA R T M E N T O F P R I M A RY I N D U S T R I E S , PA R K S , WAT E R A N D E N V I RO N M E N T Editors

Michael Pember ton and Clare Hawkins


TABLE OF CONTENTS


Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

3

FOREWORD

5

6

Hamish Saunders

Acknowledgements

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7

Summar y of Results

INTRODUCTION

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NEW ZEALAND VOLUNTEER REPORTS

13

GEODIVERSITY

19

BIODIVERSITY

37

Flora

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Fauna 

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FOREWORD


Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

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The Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program was established in 2005 as a result of a par tnership agreement between the Tasmanian Government and the Hamish Saunders Memorial Trust following the tragic loss of Hamish while assisting in a conser vation sur vey on Pedra Branca, an island about 20 km south of Tasmania in 2003.

The aim of the program is to survey an island each year to collect information on natural values which will contribute to the management and conservation of these islands. The survey conducted in 2009 in Macquarie Harbour was the fourth in a series of multi disciplinary investigations following work on Tasman Island, Three Hummock Island and Prime Seal Island in previous years.

Islands play an important role in nature conservation given they can be remote and difficult to access providing natural barriers to some threats. Their remoteness also means that there is a lack of data for these places so the Hamish Saunders Memorial Trust Program provides the perfect opportunity to collect information that can contribute to island conservation but also provide a lasting legacy to Hamish Saunders.

The Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Survey Program provides important information on island conservation but is also a great opportunity for conservation scientists, including two New Zealand volunteers, to visit an island for about a week and work cooperatively to assess the natural diversity of these places.

Like past surveys the Macquarie Harbour Islands survey has resulted in the collection of a wide range of information which will assist in the future management of these important places.

Alistair Scott General Manager, Resource Management and Conservation Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment


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Hamish Saunders Hamish Saunders was a New Zealand volunteer who died tragically in 2003 while conducting survey work on a Tasmanian endangered species program. Hamish graduated from Waikato University with a First Class Honours and Masters degree in marine geology. He later completed a postgraduate GIS course with distinction. He also achieved qualifications as a scuba dive instructor, was a good sportsman and was talented, not solely academically, but as an all round individual. As an explorer, Hamish achieved in his 26 years much of which most only dream. From Antarctica to the Galapagos, Central America, South America, SouthEast Asia, Europe and Australia, he combined his passion for the

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

natural world and conservation with that of an interest in local cultures and people. Not only did he travel to these places, but he also took a great interest in the people around him. He touched many lives. Hamish was a remarkable and talented young man. The passion and enthusiasm he engendered in those whom he met and the gentle leadership he embodied is his legacy. This island survey program is dedicated to the memory of Hamish Saunders and intended as a platform for emerging leaders in marine conservation. The Tasmanian Government’s commitment and long-term support for the program was endorsed by the then Minister for Environment and Planning, The Hon. Judy Jackson MHA, on 8 July 2005.

Acknowledgements The Hamish Saunders Memorial Trust is acknowledged for taking part in the survey. In particular Alan and David Saunders who manage the trust in New Zealand and who assisted with the selection of the two volunteers from New Zealand Briar Hill and Natasha Wilson, thanks to you all. Chris Arthur, Parks and Reserves Manager, West Coast who suggested the Macquarie Harbour Survey and assisted with the logistics and operational side. His expert boatmanship was also appreciated. For assistance in the preparation of the geodiversity section, thanks to Mike Comfort, Rolan Eberhard and Jason Bradbury for their editing and comments on drafts; Greg Jordan for his thoughts on plant fossil significance; and all others involved in the islands of Macquarie Harbour expedition. For flora support thanks to David Storey for his assistance with data analysis, Tim Rudman and Micah Visoiu for their help identifying flora species. For support in the fauna component, thanks to Bob Mesibov: millipede and centipede identification; Kevin Bonham: snails, collembola identification; Michael Driessen: cave cricket and rodent identification; Lynne Forster: spider and beetle identification;


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Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Fox Eradication Branch for the loan of video cameras; Tracey Hollings for loan of hair tubes; Robert Raven (Queensland Museum): spider identification; Alastair Richardson: isopod and amphipod identification ; Michael Rix (Western Australian Museum): Micropholcomma and Hickmanapsis spider identification; Barbara Triggs: mammalian hair identification; finally Stephen Harris is thanked for his final edit of this report.

Biodiversity – Vegetation

Summar y of Results

A total of 122 vascular flora species from 56 families were recorded across the islands surveyed. The species are comprised of 50 higher plants (7 monocots and 44 dicots) and 13 lower plants. Of the species recorded, 14 are endemic to Australia; 1 occurs only in Tasmania. Eighteen species are considered to be primitive. There were 24 introduced species found with 9 of these being listed weeds. One orchid species was found that was not known to occur in the south west of the state and this discovery has considerably increased the known range of this species. All vascular species recorded are either represented in reserves in each bioregion or are reserved in half the bioregions within which they occur.

Geodiversity The islands of Macquarie Harbour are geologically and geomorphologically diverse. The islands are composed of either poorly consolidated Tertiary gravels, semi-lithified Tertiary sandstone or Cambrian to Precambrian meta-sedimentary basement rocks. The morphology of the islands are heavily influenced by their lithology, ranging from low-lying gravel islands bound by narrow cobble beaches and extensive marshlands to steep bedrock islands with dominantly cliffed coastlines and rocky shore platforms. An array of earth features of interest are dispersed throughout the islands, of which a number are to be considered for listing in the Tasmanian Geoconservation Database (TGD).

A total of fifteen discrete TASVEG vegetation communities were recorded during the survey. Of these 3 were Threatened communities listed on Schedule 3a of the Nature Conservation Act (2002). The most significant community was MSP (Sphagnum peatland) as there are only two other known sites for this community at sea level.

Biodiversity - Fauna One hundred and sixty fauna taxa were recorded during the survey, of which one hundred and thirty-two had not previously

been recorded in Macquarie Harbour. Of the newly recorded taxa, forty-nine were identified to species level and thirtythree were identified as distinct morphospecies, while the rest were identified less precisely. Numerous bird species had previously been recorded in ‘Macquarie Harbour’, but the survey provided more specific locations for many of these species. Isopod specimens of the genus Notoniscus found on three of the islands were likely to be a new species. The findings also particularly extended the known distribution of two invertebrates: the land snail Stenacapha vitrinaformis and the weevil Mandalotus subterraneus. A few exotic species were identified: most significantly, hair tubes collected hair that was confirmed as cat hair on Philips Island, and suspected as cat hair on Cat Island. A sea eagle’s nest was found on Philips Island. It is recommended that cat eradication is considered, and that disturbance on Philips Island is avoided during eagle breeding season (July to February).


INTRODUCTION


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Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Macquarie Harbour is located on the central west coast of Tasmania. It has a number of islands and islets nine of which were sur veyed over a five day period from the 7th to the 11th December 2009.

The overall form and shape of Macquarie Harbour region was probably well developed by about 40 to 50 million years ago in early Tertiary times. Many of the major mountain and valley systems evident today in the area, and in the rest of Tasmania, were probably formed by this time following the breakup of Gondwana. This resulted in the development of the broad valley system now flooded by the harbour’s dark waters with sediment provided by the Gordon River and its tributaries eroding highland areas as far away as Lake St Clair and the Vale of Rasselas. Macquarie Harbour has had a history of being drained and flooded over the last 2 million years as a result of various glaciations and ensuing sea level fluctuations. The mouth of the Gordon river was about 20 km out to sea around 20 000 years ago at the height of the last glaciation. Glaciers and small ice caps in the catchment started melting after this and by about 6000 years ago

the harbours current form was in place. This left the islands and coastline we see today. Many of the plant species in south western Tasmania and around Macquarie Harbour have evolved directly from species that occurred in Gondwana (the southern super continent) about 45 million years ago. The more rugged and mountainous parts of south eastern Australia and in particular Tasmania remained the “most Gondwanan”. Here the cool, damp climate remained similar to the temperate forests of Gondwana. However there are many other vegetation types represented in the area ranging from button grass moorland, heathland, a range of wet eucalypt forest types to coastal scrub.

This reflects the complex geology of the area and the climatic variations which occur as a result of proximity to the coast and changing altitudes. A recent discovery at Port Davey is the Port Davey skate which also occurs in Macquarie Harbour. This species is unique as the world’s only brackish water skate, and has its closest relatives in New Zealand and Patagonia again emphasising the Gondwanan link.


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Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Macquarie Harbour islands locality map. Base map: 1:100,000 map, insert maps: 1:25,000 map (reproduced courtesy of TASMAP, DPIPWE). Map produced by Paul Donaldson.


Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

With the exception of Sarah Island there has been very limited survey work done on the natural values of the islands in Macquarie Harbour. The Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Survey Program offered an ideal opportunity for a multi-disciplinary group of experts to visit the area to investigate conservation and management needs of these islands.

Macquarie Harbour has a oceanic climate with rainfall spread throughout the year with a mean annual average of about 1500 mm. Daily maximum summer temperatures vary between 18.9 and 21.5째C with overnight minimums averaging between 9.3 and 11.2째C. Winter maximum daily temperatures average between 12.2 and 13.2째C with overnight minimums averaging between 5 and 6.1째C.

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NEW ZEALAND VOLUNTEERS REPORT


Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Briar Hill Getting There I have been studying ecology and conservation for 7 years, and it has always been my plan to take my love for the environment overseas. When I saw an ad for the Hamish Saunders Memorial Ecological Survey, I applied straight away. It was a while before I heard back and as I got more and more distracted with my research, I forgot about the application. This meant that when I did find out that I had been selected for the Macquarie Island trip, it came as a complete and fantastic surprise. At that time I was experiencing some setbacks with my research, and being given the chance to get away and remind myself why it is that I am doing what I’m doing was so invaluable and allowed me to return to my studies full of enthusiasm and with a fresh perspective. The preparation for the trip happened very quickly, and before I knew it I was landing in Melbourne where I met up with Natasha. We got to know each other before making our way to Hobart, where on arrival we were collected by Mick Illowski and taken back to the DPIWE office to meet everyone and get a briefing on the trip. I was overwhelmed at how welcoming everyone was and how excited they all were about the trip.

We spent the first few days acquainting ourselves with Hobart, including a cruise on the harbour, visiting the weekend markets and going to the movies. We also got taken to the top of Mount Wellington, which allowed us to really appreciate the surrounding landscape. Clare Hawkins, who we were staying with and who

was also organising the trip, got Natasha and I to help with the preparation and packing for the trip; this was fantastic as it gave us a chance to become familiar with the gear that was to be used before getting into the field.

The Island Ecological Survey Many of the islands within the Macquarie Harbour formed part of the Macquarie Penal Station during the early 19th century, and was known as one of the most notorious and harsh penal settlements. Once closed,

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however, the islands were never re-occupied and have been left virtually untouched since the mid 1800’s. It is only in recent years that tourism has taken off in the area, with Sarah Island drawing thousands of visitors each year to see the old prisons, and Bonnet Island now open to tourists for penguin viewing. This increase in visitation is a concern as little is known about the ecological, geological and biological value of the islands within the Harbour. The ecological survey undertaken therefore aimed to investigate the flora, fauna and geology of numerous small islands within the Macquarie Harbour. The purpose of this was to establish an inventory to help guide better management and protection of the islands in the face of increasing development. The weather forecast for the week was not too great, but that didn’t dampen anyone’s spirits, so on the 7th December the boot clad group of 7 took off from Hobart and drove to Strahan. The drive alone was amazing, getting to travel across Tasmania with some of the most experienced scientists narrating local history, biology and politics in the background. When we arrived in Strahan we were briefed by Chris Arthur (Parks and Reserves Manager, West Coast - the man with ALL the knowledge!), and then it was straight out into the field.

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Over a 5 day period eight of the many islands were surveyed by the team of seven scientists. It was the most surreal feeling being on these small islands, knowing that few people had been there and that until then many of the islands had been left untouched by science. Natasha and I were on bug duty. On our first day we were left to it and being New Zealanders, believing that Australia is full of snakes, we walked very slowly and cautiously on that first day. It wasn’t until the following day on Philips Island that we observed the others thrashing through the forest and realised we had been a bit too cautious the day before. Lesson learned; we moved a lot faster from then on. The bush was very similar to New Zealand, with tree ferns creating a canopy above and ground ferns covering the forest floor below, and it was easy to forget where you were until you spotted an enormous Eucalyptus tree towering overhead. The bugs also made sure you didn’t forget where you were and never in a blue moon did I imagine that I would ever roll around on the forest floor in Australia lifting logs and digging dirt trying to find the biggest blackest spider, and then yelling screams of joy when I did! By far the most rewarding part of the trip was setting out the motion cameras on numerous islands and then a few days later

collecting them in and finding that we had set them correctly and managed to capture videos to show us what was creeping around at night. The craziest part of the trip was being filmed by ABC, ending up on the news months later, and having an Australian friend of mine call me up to tell me she had just seen me on TV - world famous!

Personal experiences This trip provided so many amazing experiences, above all meeting the other scientists who participated in the trip from whom I learnt invaluable knowledge and skills; including setting hair traps and camera traps and learning the saying that has now shaped my thesis “absence of evidence is not evidence of absence”. There was such a vast amount of knowledge, enthusiasm and laughter on the trip that it was impossible not to leave feeling completely rejuvenated and ready to tackle the world. Being a part of this survey has strengthened my desire to take my skills overseas and experience more new and exciting environments beyond New Zealand, and one day to be able to make a significant contribution to the protection of New Zealand’s natural heritage. I owe an enormous thank you to the Hamish Saunders Memorial Trust for continuing Hamish’s legacy in this way and


Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

providing this opportunity not only for myself but for those before and after me. It truly is an opportunity of a life time for such young scientists to be able to take their skills and knowledge overseas and expand on them at such an early stage. Thanks are also due to all the people at DPIWE and Chris Arthur who made this trip possible and so enjoyable. In particular to Clare Hawkins for taking us in and making our stay fantastic, and Nick Mooney, who provided us with so much insight into the natural heritage of Tasmania and also the rare opportunity to get up close and personal with devils, quolls and brown falcons. Finally to my volunteer buddy Natasha; thanks for all the laughter on the trip!

Improvements that could be made It would have been great to have a better brief of the dates for the trip prior to booking the flights. As we were not informed of the survey itinerary until only a couple of days prior to departing New Zealand, we were not able to organise any extended time within Tasmania to explore more after the trip to Macquarie Harbour. This was a shame as it felt very rushed getting back from the field and having only an evening before heading home again. From the Tasmanian end, it also would have been great to have been provided with more resources

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on the natural biota to help with identification whilst in the field. Other than that, everything was fantastic!

animal scat (taking photos of any interesting finds and collecting droppings) and set up hair tubes and camera traps.

Natasha Wilson

Every island was unique. With a total of nine islands in the survey of Macquarie Harbour, a diverse array of flora, fauna and topography were found. As part of the animal species survey team, our main priority was to be on the lookout for anything animal, but as our eyes tuned in to all weird and wonderful things we had the pleasure of discovering several delicate tree orchids and observing the amazing bark forms on the various gum tree varieties. Some islands were covered in thick bush that reminded me of any North Island forest, but had the added danger of snakes and spiders.

Six months have passed since I set foot on Tasmania and entered a whole new world. Now whenever I see a stray gum tree or hear an Aussie accent, the memories come flooding back. A whole week was spent going back and forth between islands, collecting specimens and setting traps. As part of the animal species survey team, I helped collect numerous insects in jars (whatever we could find under tree bark, crawling on the ground or flying through the air), searched the ground for burrows and


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As foreigners in the land, Briar and I quickly developed a wariness of all moving things. We only saw one small snake on the whole trip though. Spiders kept us on our toes a bit more as we had no idea which ones were poisonous and which weren’t. We learnt one thing for certain – never put spiders together in the same specimen jar. Several of our smaller specimens were consumed or well wrapped up by the time we got back to the base in Strahan at night. One particularly large spider attacked its neighbour with its large fangs and we were thankful it hadn’t landed on either of us. Who knows what could’ve happened. With a full team of zoologists, botanists and geologists it was easy to learn a lot about Tasmanian flora, fauna and topography. Each and every person had something to share. Not only did we learn about the islands, we learnt about Australian wildlife in general. Nick Mooney was particularly keen to show off his nature-bound backyard. We saw Tasmanian devils as part of the breeding program that’s in place. We saw wedge-tailed eagles that were preparing for release back into the wild. We saw two different kinds of quoll. And to top it all off, we saw dozens of potoroos and other types of wallaby.

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

The entire week was one great adventure that guaranteed a wealth of knowledge and conservation ideas for the future. It was a rare insight into the biology of old; the way naturalists made discoveries and documented new lands. Being one of the first to survey an area, like Elizabeth Island, is an amazing thing and not common in the world today. I gained an enormous appreciation for the conservation work that goes on in Tasmania and the difficulties they encounter from both mining and disease. Clare Hawkins, our lead zoologist, ensured we knew as much as possible about the project at hand and how different trapping methods worked that we hadn’t used before. It was my first experience using both hair traps and camera traps but with a quick explanation and demonstration we were ready to go. Many of our camera traps that returned with dark video footage for the night sections were a disappointment but reinforced the need to double-check the setup was working on all cameras. I learnt many important things from the whole trip. Not only how to set and use new types of traps but also the types of work conservationists may come across in the field. It is exciting to know that there are still places that remain relatively unexplored with

the possibility of extending plant distribution ranges or finding new animal species still exists. With an ongoing interest in conservation and ecological research, I hope to use the knowledge and skills I’ve learnt to continue the preservation of species for future generations. Without the support of the Hamish Saunders Memorial Trust, this amazing experience wouldn’t have been part of my life. Universities have such a large portion of learning focussed on theories and books that it is easy to forget the field opportunities that lie in wait. What better way is there to understand and expand your knowledge of conservation than to get out in the field and see for yourself? The many differences and similarities that exist between New Zealand and Tasmanian bush make you think that if there are that many different species within similar landscapes, conservation on a global scale really is a diverse field waiting for further exploration, research and management. I think this program provides the perfect opportunity for young New Zealanders to get out and explore conservation in another part of the world. It is inspirational to work with such a knowledgeable group of people who all share a strong passion for the environment and do their best on a daily basis to preserve it


Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

for future generations. It has been a useful and insightful journey that will act as a good foundation for future study and work in the ecological field. For future volunteers I recommend: • Providing the opportunity to extend the flight back to New Zealand by a couple of days as many people in the Wildlife Department offered to show us more things and areas of conservation interest if we had time. An agreement could be made for volunteers to meet the costs of any extra day’s accommodation and food, and pay for any extra cost incurred with a delayed return. • Advertising this amazing opportunity in universities, particularly Zoology and Ecology departments

And finally, I would like to thank the Hamish Saunders Memorial Trust, and all of the people involved on the Tasmania side of things as well, for this memorable experience that will set me in good stead for future conservation work and hopefully further research and a life-long career in meeting conservation needs in both Tasmania and further afield. I hope to continue the tradition of passing knowledge onto others in this field, both now and in the future.  

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GEODIVERSITY


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Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

The Cap Island, Macquarie Harbour. One of the many small islands dispersed throughout the harbour. Photo Paul Donaldson.

Paul Donaldson Introduction Over 25 islands of varying size are dispersed throughout Macquarie Harbour on the west coast of Tasmania. Geologically, the harbour is situated within the Macquarie Graben, a large down faulted structure which formed from regional tectonic activity during the Early Tertiary in association with rifting between Australia and Antarctica (Stacey and Berry, 2004). The Macquarie Graben is bound by uplifted older basement rocks to the south and filled with a thick sequence of semi to unconsolidated Eocene marginal marine sediments (Baillie and Hudspeth, 1989), of an inferred thickness of greater than 500 m (Leaman, 1974). The northwestsoutheast trending graben is 10-12 km wide over most of its length. It includes Ocean Beach spit and the general area of Strahan in the north, Macquarie Harbour and its many associated islands within the central basin and extends south of the Harbour, narrowing to 6 km in a southern dog-leg section which includes Birches Inlet (Corbett, 2003). It is both the south-western bedrock boundary of the graben and the sub-aerial exposures of the thick sedimentary infill which comprise the geological base of the Macquarie Harbour islands.

Macquarie Harbour forms Tasmania’s largest estuary system with an area greater than 290 km 2 (Edgar et al., 1999). The mouth of the harbour (Hells Gates) opens into the high energy coastline of the west coast, through a shallow and narrow channel positioned between the northern tip of Cape Sorell Peninsula and the southern end of Ocean Beach spit. The restricted opening results in little ocean swell entering the harbour and a tidal range of less than one metre. The harbour is generally a low energy environment. However a fetch of up to 30 km along the harbours northwest-southeast axis commonly results in the generation of a locally derived choppy wind swell. Currents in the harbour are complex and variable, dominated by the Gordon River in the south and King River in the north (Koehnken, 1996). Evidence for the complex hydrodynamics of the Harbour is seen in the coastal morphology of a number of the harbours island shorelines. The geomorphology of the Macquarie Harbour islands is variable, ranging from lowlying islands bound by narrow cobble beaches and extensive marshlands, to steep bedrock

islands with dominantly rocky coastlines. The variation between the islands morphology results largely from their geological differences. Broadly, the islands can be divided into three geological groups: • the suite of north-western islands composed of Tertiary gravels; • the central-eastern islands composed of semi-lithified Tertiary sandstone; and • the chain of Cambrian to Precambrian bedrock islands positioned along the southwestern shoreline of the Harbour. Together, these islands comprise an array of geological, geomorphological and soil features of interest, of which only the Sarah Island sea caves are at present recognised for their conservation significance. A number of these features do however warrant consideration for listing in the Tasmanian Geoconservation Database (TGD).


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Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Methods

Results/Discussion

Geomorphology:

A reconnaissance study of the island geology and geomorphology of Macquarie Harbour was undertaken for eight of the harbours largest islands over a period of five days in December 2009. Each island survey consisted of brief field examinations (typically three to five hours for each surveyed island), focussing on the coastline morphology, bedrock exposures, known sites of geoconservation significance (Sarah Island sea caves) and additional features of interest as interpreted through analysis of satellite imagery (e.g. Neck Island tombolo). The islands surveyed were Bonnet, Cat, Elizabeth, Magazine, Neck, Philips, Sarah and Soldiers Island. Access to the islands was by the PWS boat Shearwater.

Bonnet Island

Bonnet Island is a small, ovate bedrock island with an approximate north-south axis of 65 m, east-west axis of 30 m and an maximum elevation of 10 m above mean sea-level (MSL). The island’s rocky coastline varies from a narrow shore platform with abundant rocky debris, to lowlying cliffs which plunge steeply into the sea. Abundant burrows are found throughout the soils of the island, formed by the resident colony of Little Penguins. The surface morphology of the island centre has undergone both historic and recent anthropogenic modification as a result of historic farming by past resident lighthouse keepers and the recent development of tourist infrastructure that includes multiple viewing platforms and a central gravel pathway.

Geology: Bonnet Island comprises a single outcrop of metamorphosed sedimentary (metasedimentary) rocks. This metasedimentary sequence includes a succession of interbedded metamorphosed quartz sandstone and siltstone, and forms part of the more extensive geological unit that occupies the northern extent of Cape Sorell. This unit is known as the Mesoproterozoic Rocky Cape Group Correlate (Corbett, 2003).

Bonnet Island, Macquarie Harbour. Photo Paul Donaldson.


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Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Earth features of interest/ significance: • Herringbone sedimentary structures Large scale herringbone crossbedding sedimentary structures are well preserved in the naturally outcropping sequence along the eastern coastline of Bonnet Island. This sedimentary structure formed in a subaqueous environment where tidal currents periodically change direction, thus resulting in the deposition of cross beds dipping in opposite directions. The herringbone

cross-bedding on Bonnet Island was noted by the Geological Survey of Tasmania as “well developed..., large scale (100300 mm)... and indicative of very shallow water deposition� (Baillie and Corbett, 1985). As such, the outcrop is considered to be of significance for its size, exposure and its representative value for this depositional process. This feature is also indicative of the geological setting for which the metasedimentary Rocky Cape Group Correlate of the Sorell Peninsula was deposited.

Management issues Observations made across the island suggest that the upgraded walking paths have resulted in the concentration of surface water runoff down slope of the newly gravelled paths. This is likely contributing to the localised erosion which was observed adjacent to the viewing platforms.

Well developed, large scale herringbone cross-stratification on the eastern side of Bonnet Island (note the camera lens cap for scale). Photo Paul Donaldson.


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Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Cat Island

Geomorphology:

Geology:

Cat Island is a low lying irregularly shaped island with an approximate north-south axis of 600 m, east-west axis of 630 m, and a maximum elevation of 4 m above MSL. The island is composed of poorly consolidated sediments, with narrow pebble to cobble beaches to the east and extensive marshland to the west which forms intermittent, irregular marshy embayment’s. The islands coastline is commonly scarped, providing a local source of sediment to the adjacent cobble beaches. A sandy organic soil layer of varying thickness covers the island. This is well exposed along the scarped shoreline.

Cat Island is composed of a clast supported pebble to cobble conglomerate sequence with a variable sandy component. The unit consists of poorly consolidated, non marine sandy gravels, likely Tertiary in age. Sediments include well rounded, poorly sorted quartzite, sandstone and siliceous gravels. This island forms part of the Macquarie Beds, a thick semiconsolidated sedimentary sequence which occupies much of the Macquarie Graben (Baillie and Corbett, 1985).

Earth features of interest/ significance: • Cobble spit A narrow cobble to pebble spit forms at the southern coastline of the island, diverging perpendicularly from the coast for ~100 m. The sediment composition and geomorphic setting of this spit makes this landform unique, as pebble to cobble spits and spits of a sheltered origin are both uncommon landforms in a Tasmanian context.

Left: A satallite image of Cat Island. The non marine cobble spit is located in the south-western corner of the island. (bottom left). 2005 SPOT satellite image, courtesy of TASMAP, DPIPWE Right: Narrow cobble to pebble beach, Cat Island cobble spit. Photo Paul Donaldson.


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Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Elizabeth Island Geology: The geology of Elizabeth Island is composed of a deformed siliceous metasedimentary sequence, which forms part of the Cape Sorell Mesoproterozoic Rocky Cape Group Correlate. The geology of Elizabeth Island is structurally complex. The rock sequence is strongly foliated with abundant well formed deformation textures outcropping along the northern coast. Geomorphology: Elizabeth Island is a small bedrock island with an approximate north-south axis of 230 m and an east-west axis of 145 m, and rises steadily out of the harbour to an elevation of 23 m above

MSL. The shoreline is mostly steep, descending to a rocky coast with regular boulder size slope deposits. A number of small coves are found around the island, one containing a narrow gravel beach and another housing a small sea cave. The island centre is steep and undulating with a number of well exposed outcrops.

the complex polydeformational history of the region. However, it should be noted that these structures are a common feature of the Rocky Cape Group Correlate (R. Berry 2010, pers. comm.), thus their value is primarily at an aesthetical level.

Earth features of interest/ significance:

The small shallow sea cave on the western coast of the island is a structurally controlled erosional feature. The cave forms a raised and inactive landform at present, with a base of 1 - 2 m above MSL. This erosional feature likely formed at a time when Elizabeth Island was exposed to marine swell and/or at a time of relative higher sea-level.

• Deformation structures Deformation structures are well exposed on bedrock outcrop throughout the northern coastline. Structures observed include complex folding, quartz vein en echelon arrays and crenulations cleavage. These structures are a striking example of their type and are indicative of

Elizabeth Island, Macquarie Harbour. Photo Paul Donaldson.

• Sea cave


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Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

 

Small, shallow joint controlled sea cave on the west coast of Elizabeth Island (note backpack in left midground for scale). The base of this cave is raised above the high tide mark, indicating that it formed at higher relative sea-level.

Quartz en echelon array at Elizabeth Island. Cavities in the semi-brittle rock form through shear tension as a result of regional deformation. Quartz crystals grow incrementally as cavities are formed. This feature is indicative of a localised shear zone.

Crenulation cleavage development in the metasediments, resulting from multiple deformation events. All photos Paul Donaldson.


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Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Magazine Island Geology: Similar to Cat Island, Magazine Island is composed of a poorly sorted conglomerate sequence of the Tertiary Macquarie Beds. Sediments are primarily composed of poorly sorted, well rounded, siliceous pebble to cobble clasts with a variably sandy matrix. Geomorphology: Magazine Island is a small, low lying Island with an approximate northwest-southeast axis of 250

m, a northeast-southwest axis of 100 m and an elevation of up to 5 m above MSL. The island coast varies from dominantly narrow south facing cobble to pebble shorelines, to thick organic rich marsh deposits along the northern coast. The island body is largely flat with a thin layer of organic rich soils mantling the surface, interspersed with cobble to gravel size siliceous clasts. These soils are heavily bioturbated in places. Historic shallow earth works and building remains are common in the central west of the island, including handmade bricks and a footing for a building

Neck Island Geology: Neck Island is composed of a weakly consolidated pebble to cobble conglomerate sequence within the Tertiary Macquarie Beds. The sequence includes poorly sorted, well rounded, sandstone, quartzite and siliceous conglomerate clasts with a sandy matrix. Geomorphology: Neck Island has a unique planform shape, consisting of a central body of approximately 400 m

Left: Narrow cobble beach on the east coast of Neck Island, Macquarie Harbour. Photo Paul Donaldson. Right: Narrow gravel beach, Magazine Isalnd. Photo Natasha Wilson.


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in width, extending south into a narrow neck for over 1200 m. The island is mostly low lying with a maximum elevation of 6 m above MSL. The shoreline line is dominated by long, narrow gravel beaches to the east and thick marsh deposits overlying a gravel base to the west. A blanket of soil and gravel cover the central body of the island. Neck Island has diverse shoreline morphology. The southern neck of the island forms a thin gravel tombolo which connects the island to the mainland at the distal end of Ocean Beach spit. The northern end of the Island includes a triangular ‘cuspate foreland’ like spit which protrudes west from the islands centre; a set of well developed prograded pebble to cobble beach berms; and a well exposed buried soil horizon, overlain by a gravelly soil mixture. These features are detailed below.

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Earth features of interest/ significance: • Longshore drift derived pebble to cobble coastline. Neck Island’s shoreline comprises two distinctive longshore drift aligned pebble to cobble deposits, including: a narrow, north-south directed tombolo which connects the southerly neck of the island to the mainland; and the near symmetrical, triangular spit like feature, which protrudes west from the main body of the island. The tombolo is approximately 100 m in length, narrows to only a few metres wide and adjoins the recurved hook of Ocean Beach Spit enclosing Swan Basin. This low lying feature is primarily composed of well rounded pebble to cobble sized clasts and is more formally defined as a tie-bar, due to its partial submergence at high-tide (Bird, 2008). The triangular spit like feature has formed by wave/tide action approaching at an angle to

Shoreline erosion at mooring site adjacent the shack at Neck Island. Photo Paul Donaldson.

the northeast shore from both a southerly and northerly direction. Individually, these two spit like features are largely uncommon in a Tasmanian context due to their sediment composition (primarily well rounded, siliceous, cobbles), shoreline morphology and formation in sheltered, low energy environments. • Prograded cobble berm coast. A set of shore parallel pebble to cobble berms have deposited along the northern coast of Neck Island. The berms form a set of steeply stacked narrow ridges. This depositional feature is a good example of a locally prograding coast, with each berm ridge likely formed in a single depositional (? storm) event. • Buried soil. A buried fibrous organic rich soil horizon, overlain by a layer of pebbly soil is well exposed on the eroding west coast of Neck Island. The buried organic soil layer is approximately 15 cm thick and has formed on a pebble to cobble base. This unit is well developed and thus indicative of a significant period of stable paleoenvironmental conditions. The upper boundary of the buried soil forms a sharp, and likely erosional, contact with the overlying deposit, suggesting that the poorly sorted pebbly soil layer was deposited during a high energy (?storm) event. This well


Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

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Clockwise from top left: Siliceous cobble to sandy deposits of Neck Island. This poorly consolidated unit comprises a conglomerate sequence of the (? Tertiary) Macquarie Beds. The geology of Cat and Magazine Island comprise the same, or a very similar sequence (note pencil for scale). Pebble to cobble tombolo, connecting Neck Island to the mainland. Photo is looking south with Neck Island in the foreground, the tie bar in the mid-ground and Ocean Beach spit in background. Palaeosol overlain by a gravelly soil layer on the north western shore of Neck Island (note pencil for scale). A set of sub parallel prograded cobble beach berms on the north coast of Neck Island, indicative of a seaward building coastline. All photos Paul Donaldson.


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exposed feature is indicative of local paleoenvironmental change. Management issues A shack is located within a small cleared area on the island. The human impacts from its use include: • Local foreshore erosion: A small section of marshy coastline on the west coast

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

adjacent the shack is obviously used by visitors for mooring boats. This has lead to the erosion of the inherently unstable marshy coastline. • Tree cutting for fire wood. There is evidence for firewood collection within the vicinity of the shack. This is causing degradation of the adjacent bush.

Philips Island Geology: Philips Island is primarily composed of a semiconsolidated interbedded sandstone and siltstone sequence with minor coal beds. The basal carbonaceous sandstone unit is well consolidated and highly fossiliferous. Geomorphology: Philips Island forms the tallest island within Macquarie Harbour, rising sharply from the shore to a maximum elevation of 41 m above MSL. The island has an ovoid shape with an approximate east-west axis of 530 m and north-south axis of 200m. The northern coast is dominated by a rocky platform composed of fossiliferous carbonaceous sandstone boulders. The southern coastline is dominated by a steep to cliffed shoreline, exposing the semi consolidated sedimentary sequence. Historic earth works and terracing occurs within the island as a result of earlier pig farming practices.

Top: Fossiliferous well consolidated sandstone boulders, with plant stem impressions. North coast of Philips Island. Photo Paul Donaldson. Bottom: Coalified unit (possible tree stump ?) within a carbonaceous sandstone boulder. North coast of Philips Island. Photo Paul Donaldson.


Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Earth features of interest/ significance:

Sarah Island Geology:

• Fossiliferous sandstone boulders Fossiliferous sandstone boulders form a narrow shore platform along the northern coast of Philips Island. The well consolidated boulders contain fossil flora including plant stems and leaf impressions of which the taxa are unidentified. Tertiary sediments throughout this region are known to be commonly fossiliferous (G. Jordan 2010, pers. comm.), however the age and significance of the plant fossil site at Philips Island is unknown.

Sea caves on the west coast of Sarah Island have developed along plains of weakness within the Cambrian bedrock. Development of this sea cave initiated through preferential erosion of the finer grained (siltstone) sub-vertical sedimentary bed. Photo Paul Donaldson.

Geologically Sarah Island is composed of an interbedded siltstone and sandstone sedimentary sequence of Cambrian age (Corbett, 2003). The sequence is predominately

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siliciclastic, with abundant quartz grains in the sandstone units. The sub-vertical beds are north striking, young to the east and contain regular load structures. Sarah Island forms part of the larger Noddy Creek Volcanics and correlates, a volcano-sedimentary sequence of the eastern Sorell Peninsular region (Corbett, 2003).


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Geomorphology: Sarah Island forms a lensoidal shaped island with an approximately northeastsouthwest axis of 650 m, northwest-southeast axis of 165 m and a maximum elevation of 18 m above MSL. The islands morphology is structurally controlled with the north striking, sub-vertical sedimentary beds forming abundant northerly facing coves which back onto a north trending hilly terrain. The island has a predominantly steep rocky coastline, with minor sandy beaches located on the southeast coast. The northeast coast comprises plunging rocky cliffs with interspersed with deep narrow coves, rocky shore platforms and cobble to boulder deposits. A sea arch and multiple sea caves of varying sizes have also formed along this coastline (detailed below). Sarah Island has the longest history of human occupation of the Macquarie Harbour islands, and as such, exhibits the most modified landscape of the islands visited at Macquarie Harbour. Deforestation, building construction and general earthworks including terracing and quarrying occurred throughout the history of the Sarah Island penal station in the early to mid 1800’s. Many historic remains of the infamous settlement are present today.

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Earth features of interest/ significance: • Sarah Island Sea Caves Multiple sea caves of variable size and morphology are located on the west facing coast of Sarah Island. The geometry of the many caves are structurally controlled, largely forming along the north striking sub vertical bedding plain of the outcropping geological unit. The Sarah Island Sea Caves were initially reported by Bradbury (pers. comm. 1995, in Dixon, 1996) and have been subsequently listed in the Tasmanian Geoconservation Database as an outstanding geomorphological site of local significance (Dixon, 1996). The most well developed cave of the island will be briefly described below. The largest and most geomorphologically diverse sea cave on Sarah Island is approximately 20 m long, 8 m wide and is located at the foot of a steep sea cliff approximately 1 2 m above MSL. Two west facing entrances access a long, linear, low lying passage which is orientated in a northerly direction. Collapse of the outer cliff has partially covered the southern entrance and adjacent floor of the cave. The remainder of the cave floor is mantled by layer of organic matter, including soil and abundant woody debris. Large cave crickets were observed on the roof of the main

passage including species of the genus Micropathus (M. Driessen 2010, pers. comm.). An array of secondary mineral coatings and crystal growths of varying mineralogy, colours and textures have formed throughout the cave, including a ferruginous drip water speleothem, multiple small radiating needle like crystal growths (frostwork speleothem) and abundant small nodular concretions of unknown mineralogy. The formation of these types of secondary features in a non carbonate geological unit is an unusual phenomenon and thus contributes to the conservation significance of the Sarah Island Sea Caves. • Sea Arch A sea arch is located within the central western coast Sarah Island. This feature consists of a rounded 2 m wide, 3 m long, opening through the sandstone sea cliffs. Tafone (“honeycomb”) weathering has developed on the internal walls of the arch, forming cavernous weathering hollows of variable size. Sedimentary structures are well exposed on the outer wall of the arch. These structures are common throughout the island (discussed below). • Sedimentary structures Sedimentary load structures were regularly observed along


Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

the Cambrian interbedded silt to sandstone sequence, on the west coast of Sarah Island. Load structures form at the time of deposition as a result of differential soft sediment compaction. Flame structures are a specific type of load structure which are common throughout the sequence, resulting from an injection of the underlying finer bed up into the overlying coarser bed during compaction. These structures are indicative of both the depositional environment and younging direction of the sedimentary sequence.

Top: Main passage of largest sea cave at Sarah Island. Note the ferruginous speleothem in the top right of the photo. Middle: Cave crickets, including the genus Micropathus, on the roof of the large sea cave, Sarah Island. Bottom: Sub centimetre frostwork speleothems (middle of photo) and nodular concretions (top right of photo) of unknown mineralogy, on the roof of the large Sarah Island sea cave. All photos Paul Donaldson.

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Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Soldiers Island

Geomorphology:

Geology:

Soldiers Island has a unique duck like planform, up to 700 m long on a northeast–southwest axis and up to 450 m wide. The terrain is low lying in the north and rises steadily in the far south to a maximum elevation of 21 m above MSL. The island is largely fringed by coastal marsh deposits, however, tall sub-vertical sea

Soldiers Island is composed of semi consolidated sandstone sequence which forms part of the greater Macquarie Beds. The sequence dips slightly to the north and is well exposed along sea cliffs at the southern tip of the island.

cliffs dominate the south west coastline. The semi consolidated sediments which make up the island show signs of structural instability, with wide spread slumping commonly observed along the cliffed shoreline. A number of intertidal sea notches have formed in the south eastern cliffs. Earth features of interest/ significance: • Soldiers Island intertidal notches A number of intertidal notches have been cut into the semiconsolidated sandstone sea-cliffs at Soldier Island. The series of notches were observed locally along the southeast coast at varying levels within the present tidal range. The abundance of notches observed within a small area along the cliffed coast suggests that further notches may be present along the Soldiers Island coast. Intertidal notches have been widely used as a geomorphic indicator of past relative sea-levels. As such, this coastline warrants further investigation.

Sea arch, Sarah Island. Photo Paul Donaldson.


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Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Conclusion The islands of Macquarie Harbour are geologically and geomorphologically diverse. The geodiversity of the islands are attributed to a combination of variable lithology and structure of the underlying geology and on past and present geomorphic processes. Broad geomorphic similarities are readily observed between the islands of a similar geological composition. These include: • The longshore drift aligned coastlines have formed in the low lying, unconsolidated Tertiary gravel islands, including Neck, Cat and Magazine Island; • The gently northerly dipping strata of the semi-lithified Tertiary sandstone Philips and

Soldiers Island, has resulted in an east-west strike ridge dominating the topographic highpoints of the island as well as the formation of steep and actively cliffing shorelines along sections of their southern coast.

The similarities within and diversity between each group, highlight the influence of underlying geology on the islands geomorphology, most notably their coastal morphology.

• The rocky shore platforms steep plunging bedrock cliffs and structurally controlled earth features (e.g. sea caves) are common to the Cambrian to Precambrian bedrock islands, including Bonnet, Elizabeth and Sarah Island.

Above: Load structures in the Cambrian sedimentary sequence, resulting from differential soft sediment compaction at the time of deposition. Here the underlying finer unit (bottom) has injected into the overlying coarser sand unit (top) in a flame like pattern (note hand lens for scale). Left: Intertidal notches cut into the foot of the semi-consolidated sandstone cliffs at Soldiers Island. Photos Paul Donaldson.


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The number of features identified during the island survey indicate that the Macquarie Harbour islands have a geomorphic history which includes both past and present processes. For example, the well developed and slightly raised sea cave at Sarah Island suggests that the islands present shoreline morphology has formed over a period which predates the present sea-level. The age of the caves are not known, however their formation presumably dates back to at least the last interglacial stage. Locally raised coastlines are also known to also exist within the greater Macquarie Harbour region, including relic beach deposits within the Ocean Beach spit which have been attributed to a last interglacial age (Banks et al., 1977). The more recent geomorphic features of the islands, including the pebble to cobble beaches and marshy coastlines, have however formed in their present state since the culmination of the rising sealevel to its present level some 6000-7000 years ago (Lambeck and Nakada, 1990; Sloss et al., 2007). Much of this younger coastline shows evidence for continued reworking (e.g. Neck Island buried soil horizon), due to the combination of locally derived waves, tidal fluctuations and variable harbour currents, indicating that the islands coastlines are continuing to evolve.

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Management Recommendations Tasmanian Geoconservation Database (TGD) recommendations: The geodiversity of the Macquarie Harbour islands include a range of geological and geomorphological features which are well developed, uncommon and/or of potential scientific significance. As such, a number of earth features identified throughout the 2009 Hamish Saunders islands survey are deemed worthy of nomination for listing within the TGD. These features/sites are listed below. • Neck Island’s coastal geomorphology. The island as a whole should be considered for listing due to the diversity of coastal features which have formed in a sheltered environment. • Fossiliferous sandstone boulders on Philips Island. These fossil rich boulders have the potential to be of geological significance, to help better constrain the deposition history of the Macquarie Harbour Graben. • Cat Island cobble spit. The Cat Island spit is an uncommon geomorphic feature at the regional scale. Also, the current Sarah Island sea caves listing should be updated with additional descriptive information as detailed in this report. The following recommendations are made in relation to a number of the management issues identified in the field: • The present shoreline erosion observed on Neck Island should be documented/mapped and any further erosion monitored. If erosion continues, consideration should be made into the construction of a low impact mooring structure. • The impact from surface water runoff from the newly gravelled pathways at Bonnet Island should be monitored, as there is the potential for an erosion issue to develop.


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References Bird, E. (2008) Coastal geomorphology: an introduction. Wiley, West Sussex. Banks, M., Colhoun, E., and Chick, N. (1997) A reconnaissance of the Geomorphology of Central Western Tasmania. In: Banks, M. and Kirkpatrick, J. (Eds), Landscape and man: The interaction between man and environment in Western Tasmania. The proceedings of a symposium organised by the Royal Society of Tasmania. Baillie, P. and Corbett, K. (1985) Geological atlas 1:50 000 series. Sheet 57 (7913N). Strahan. Explanatory Report Geological Survey Tasmania. Baillie, P and Hudspeth, R. (1989) West Tasmania Region. In: Burret, C. and Martin E. (Eds), Geology and mineral resources of Tasmania. Geological Society of Australia: Special publication no. 15, Sydney.

Corbett, K. (2003) A review of geology and exploration in the Macquarie Harbour-Elliot Bay area, South West Tasmania. Tasmanian Geological Survey, Record 2003/04. Dixon, G. (1996) A Reconnaissance Inventory of Sites of Geoconservation Significance on Tasmanian Islands, Parks and Wildlife Service Tasmania. Edgar, G., Barrett, N. and Graddon, D. (1999) A classification of Tasmanian estuaries and assessment of their conservation significance using ecological and physical attributes, population and land use, December 1999, A report to Marine Research Laboratories – Tasmanian Aquaculture and Fisheries Institute, University of Tasmania, Tasmania. Koehnken, L. (1996) Macquarie Harbour - King River Study: Technical Report, Department of Environment and Land Management, Hobart.

Lambeck, K. and Nakada, M. (1990) Late Pleistocene and Holocene sea-level change along the Australian coast. Leaman, D. (1974) Gravity profile, Cape Sorell to Trial Harbour. Technical Report, Department of Mines Tasmania. 17: 113 – 114 Sloss, C, Murray-Wallace, C. and Jones, B. (2007) Holocene sealevel change on the southeast coast of Australia; a review. The Holocene, 17, 999-1014. Stacey, A. and Berry, R. (2004) The structural history of Tasmania: a review for petroleum explorers. PESA Eastern Basins Symposium II, Adelaide.  


BIODIVERSITY - FLORA


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Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

VEGETATION Naomi Lawrence and Felicity Hargreaves Vegetation mapping and species surveys were undertaken on 8 of the 10 islands located in Macquarie Harbour. The two islands that were not surveyed were Hallidays Island because it is largely devoid of vegetation and Sarah Island which was surveyed by Walsh in 1992. The vegetation communities were mapped for 7 of the 8 islands and species lists generated for all eight islands. The aim was to record what vegetation is currently present on the islands and to document the conservation values of the vegetation. The relative diversity and conservation values of the flora on the islands was also assessed to assist land managers prioritise conservation and management actions. Recommendations for some management actions have also been provided.

Vegetation Mapping Introduction The existing vegetation mapping for the Macquarie Harbour area was completed in 2003 with little field verification. TASVEG records indicate over 40 TASVEG communities for the area. These range from button grass moorland, coastal scrub and wet and dry eucalyptus forest to pure rainforest communities.

This survey recorded 15 discrete TASVEG vegetation communities (excluding Entrance Island which was not mapped) (see table 1). Of these 3 are threatened communities listed on Schedule 3a of the Nature Conservation Act 2002. The published literature does not report any of the recorded communities to be of bio-regional significance.

Table 1 Communities recorded for the Islands surveyed TASVEG Community code ARS ASS ASF DNI FWU NLE MSP NME NNP SSC SMR SBR WNI WNL WNR

TASVEG Community Name

Status

Saline sedgeland/rushland Succulent saline herbland Freshwater aquatic sedgeland and rushland Dry Eucalyptus nitida forest Weed infestation Leptospermum forest Sphagnum peatland Listed NCA 2002 Melaleuca ericifolia swamp forest Listed NCA 2002 Notelaea-Pomaderris-Beyeria forest Listed NCA 2002 Coastal scrub Melaleuca squarrosa scrub Broad-leaf scrub Wet Eucalyptus nitida forest Eucalyptus nitida over Leptospermum Eucalyptus nitida over rainforest


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Descriptions of the communities found on each island are given below. Islands surveyed include: Cat Island, Magazine Island, Neck Island, Bonnet Island, Elizabeth Island, Philips Island, and Soldiers Island. Entrance Island was not mapped.

Neck Island The following TASVEG vegetation communities were recorded for Neck Island: WNL, NME, NLE, ARS, and MSP. ARS - Saline sedgeland/rushland occurs on the intertidal fringe of the island to the north-west. Species include Juncus kraussii, Apodasmia brownii, Selliera radicans, Distichlis distichophylla and Poa poiformis. NME - Melaleuca ericifolia swamp forest occurs to the west of the island with Melaleuca ericifolia dominating the canopy to 4-5m. NLE- Leptospermum forest surrounds the Sphagnum peatlands in the interior of the island. Species present include Leptospermum scoparium and Melaleuca squarrosa to 5m in height. WNL- Eucalyptus nitida forest over Leptospermum occurs across the majority of the island. The main canopy is 7-10m and is dominated by Eucalyptus nitida. The mid-storey is between 4-5m and consists of Melaleuca

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

ericifolia, Banksia marginata, Acacia longifolia subsp. sophorae, Monotoca glauca, Leptospermum scoparium and Pittosporum bicolor. The understorey is sparse and contains large patches of Dianella tasmanica and occasional shrubs of Leptecophylla juniperina, Exocarpos syrticola, Pimelea linifolia, Olearia stellulata, Coprosma quadrifida, Pteridium esculentum (bracken) and Drymophila cyanocarpa, reflecting the coastal nature of this community. MSP - Sphagnum peatland. A surprisingly large community of MSP is hidden in the centre of the island. There is a sparse canopy of Leptospermum scoparium, Melaleuca squarrosa and Monotoca glauca to 4m, and an understorey of Gahnia grandis and Gleichenia microphylla.

Elizabeth Island The following TASVEG vegetation communities are recorded for Elizabeth Island: ARS and WNL. WNL-Eucalyptus nitida forest over Leptospermum with a canopy to 15m, dominates the island. Its distribution is across the entire island with the exception of its northern side where occasional inundation occurs and saline sedgeland/ rushland (ARS) dominates. A few scattered individuals of Eucalyptus delegatensis are also recorded. The understorey consists of scrubby sections between

3-6m of Banksia marginata, Leptospermum scoparium, L. nitidum, Acacia verticillata, Pittosporum bicolor, Monotoca glauca, Coprosma quadrifida, Nematolepis squamea, Correa backhouseana and Leptecophylla juniperina. On the steeper, rockier sites the understorey changes to Blechnum wattsii, Microsorum pustulatum and Pteridium esculentum (bracken). To the south, a large area of Dicksonia antarctica (tree fern) dominates the understorey.

Philips Island The following TASVEG vegetation communities were recorded for Philips Island: WNR, WNI, NME, and ARS. Philips Island is dominated by a main ridge top with steep sides. The island was cleared and the northern end was farmed in 1822-1835, but has since been left to regenerate. The vegetation is dominated by mature Eucalyptus nitida over rainforest (WNR) to 30m in height along the southeastern half of the ridge top. The north-western half of the ridge top changes to wet Eucalyptus nitida forest (WNI) reaching 20m in height. The ridge is flanked by short Eucalyptus nitida over rainforest to 15m in height along the slopes. Given time, the island will revert back to rainforest. In the north of the Island a small area of Melaleuca ericifolia swamp forest (NME) occurs along a flat


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Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

at the water’s edge and includes the community Saline sedgeland/ rushland (ARS) where it fringes the water. Only a single individual of Eucalyptus brookeriana was noted on the island. WNR – Eucalyptus nitida over rainforest is the main vegetation type on the island, with a canopy of E. nitida reaching a height of 30m. Nothofagus cunninghamii, Eucryphia lucida and Atherosperma moschatum are sub-dominant. The understorey is carpeted by Blechnum wattsii to 1.5m and the occasional Dianella tasmanica, Gahnia grandis, Cyathea australis or Coprosma quadrifida. On the side of the ridge the canopy reaches 15m and comprises a mix of E. nitida, Nothofagus cunninghamii, Eucryphia lucida, with shrubs to 4m of Olearia argophylla, Pomaderris apetala, Notelaea ligustrina and Coprosma quadrifida. Here the understorey includes Gahnia grandis, Cyathea australis, Blechnum wattsii, and Drymophila cyanocarpa. At the base of the ridge the understorey is very scrubby and includes Olearia stellulata, Melaleuca ericifolia, Pomaderris apetala, Nematolepis squamea, Prostanthera lasianthos, Leptecophylla juniperina, Pittosporum bicolor, Acacia verticillata, Monotoca

Example of WNR on Philips Island. Photo Naomi Lawrence.

glauca, Leptospermum scoparium, Dicksonia antarctica and Cyathea australis. ARS - Saline sedgeland/rushland occurs as several small patches at the water’s edge. Species found here include Ficinia nodosa, Poa poiformis, Hydrocotyle sp., Apium prostratum subsp. prostratum and Juncus kraussii. NME -Melaleuca ericifolia swamp forest attaining a height of 6m occurs on the western end of the island with a sparse understorey of Acacia melanoxylon, Gahnia sp., Notelaea ligustrina, Carex sp. and Leptocarpus tenax. WNI -Wet E. nitida forest to 20m occurs on the western end of the island over an understorey composed mainly of Blechnum

wattsii to 1.5m until transitioning to a more diverse understorey of Pteridium esculentum (bracken), Dianella tasmanica, Microsorum pustulatum, Billardiera nesophila, Clematis aristata. There are occasional shrubs to 4m of Notelaea ligustrina, Nematolepis squamea, Coprosma quadrifida and Leptospermum scoparium.

Soldier Island The following TASVEG vegetation communities were recorded for Soldier Island: NME, WNR, and NNP. NME - Melaleuca ericifolia forest is found on the neck of the island and on the flat land along the coast to the east and west. It is dominated by Melaleuca ericifolia to 12m in height with sparse


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Gahnia grandis and Lepidosperma filiforme. WNR - Wet Eucalyptus nitida forest up to 20m with a midcanopy up to 12m of Acacia melanoxylon, Phyllocladus aspleniifolius, Atherosperma moschatum subsp. Moschatum in inland locations, with Melaleuca

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

ericifolia and Melaleuca squarrosa on the coast. There is a scrubby understorey with rainforest elements. On the coast the understorey contains dense patches of shrubs that open to areas of thick ground cover of more open wet forest species. The shrubs include Tasmannia lanceolata, Leptecophylla juniperina,

Monotoca glauca, Leptospermum scoparium, Coprosma quadrifida, Prostanthera lasianthos, Zieria arborescens, Pimelea ligustrina, Nematolepis squamea, Olearia stellulata, Olearia argophylla, Pomaderris apetala, Pittosporum bicolor, Anopterus glandulosus, Cenarrhenes nitida, Aristotelia peduncularis, Anodopetalum biglandulosum and Notelaea ligustrina with Billardiera nesophila and Sarcochilus australis very common companions to these shrubs. Sarcochilus australis is located on Pomaderris and Melaleuca postings. The groundcover is composed of Dianella tasmanica, Drymophila cyanocarpa, Blechnum wattsii, Pteridium esculentum, Dicksonia antarctica and Gleichenia microphylla. NNP - Notelaea-PomaderrisBeyeria forest dominated by Pomaderris apetala and Notelaea ligustrina to 8m was found to occur just south of the headland. The understorey, entirely comprised of the fern Asplenium flabellifolium, is sparse to absent.

Example of WNR on Soldiers Island. Photo Naomi Lawrence.


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Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Bonnet Island

Cat Island

The following TASVEG vegetation communities were reported for Bonnet Island: FWU, SSC, and ASS.

The following TASVEG vegetation communities were recorded for Cat Island: SSC, ARS, NME, SMR, MSP, WNL, SBR, and FWU.

ASS - Succulent saline herbland is located on the rocky foreshore on the southern perimeter of the island. The dominant species are Rhagodia candolleana and Selliera radicans.

Cat Island has the greatest diversity of vegetation communities of the islands visited during this survey. The island shows zonation from the water’s edge through Saline sedgeland/ rushland (ARS) of Juncus kraussii to Leptocarpus tenax, to Poa poiformis to Melaleuca ericifolia swamp forest (NME). This is replaced further inland with scrub and a few patches Eucalyptus nitida to 10m in height and some very old individuals of Banksia marginata (up to40cm diameter). Pockets of Sphagnum peatland (MSP) occur within this

FWU – Weed infestation. The southern quarter of the island is mostly covered by exotic grasses and Rubus fruticosus (blackberry). R. fruticosus also extends along the centre of the island where it has invaded the remnant coastal scrub which serves as a rookery/nesting burrows for Penguins. SSC – Coastal scrub is located on the northern three quarters of the island. Species include Leucopogon parviflorus, Correa backhouseana, Muehlenbeckia gunnii, Leptecophylla juniperina, Acacia longifolia subsp. sophorae, Leptospermum nitidum, Pittosporum bicolor, Solanum laciniatum and Nematolepis squamea. Ground cover species include Dianella tasmanica, Poa poiformis, Microsorum pustulatum and Lepidosperma gladiatum.

Example of NME on Cat Island. Photo Naomi Lawrence.

community. There is also a cleared semi-cultivated area with a shack on the north eastern side of the island that is ringed by invasive Rubus fruticosus (blackberry) vines, Genistifolia monspessulana (broom) and fruit trees. This has been mapped as weed invasion (FWU). The ground cover is also diverse and varies from a pure cover of Blechnum wattsii, Dianella tasmanica, Pteridium esculentum or Dicksonia antarctica to patches of Gahnia grandis and Sphagnum bogs to bare ground under impenetrable scrub. SSC - Coastal scrub dominates the vegetation of the island with a diverse canopy to 6m of Acacia verticillata, Leptospermum scoparium and L. nitidum, Banksia


42

marginata, Melaleuca ericifolia, Pomaderris apetala with an understorey of Zieria arborescens, Monotoca glauca, Coprosma quadrifida, Pimelea ligustrina, P. linifolia, Tasmannia lanceolata, Olearia stellulata, and Leucopogon parviflorus. SMR - Melaleuca squarrosa scrub was observed by its profuse yellow flowering on the southern side of the island from the boat during departure from the Cat Island. WNL - Wet Eucalyptus nitida forest over Leptospermum occurs on the western side of the island. The canopy is up to 10m in height and the understorey includes Leptospermum nitidum and Acacia verticillata.

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

ARS - Saline sedgeland/ rushland rings the western half of Cat Island at the waterline and includes Juncus kraussii, Leptocarpus tenax, Apodasmia brownii, Selliera radicans and Poa poiformis.

Magazine island The following TASVEG vegetation communities were recorded for Magazine Island: SSC, ARS, NME, SBR, and FWU. ARS - Saline sedgeland/rushland rings Magazine Island above its water line and contains Juncus kraussii, Leptocarpus tenax, Poa poiformis, Samolus repens, Apodasmia brownii, Schoenus nitens and Apium prostratum subsp. prostratum.

NME - Melaleuca ericifolia swamp forest replaces ARS and continues up to 5m inland. SSC - Coastal scrub dominates the vegetation of Magazine Island. The dominant canopy species include Acacia melanoxylon, Acacia verticillata, Banksia marginata, Melaleuca squarrosa Monotoca glauca, M. ericifolia, Pomaderris apetala, Leptospermum scoparium, L. nitidum and Nematolepis squamea to a maximum height of 6m. FWU - There are a few exotic weeds on the island at location (0359518E 5328652N). These include Rubus fruticosus (blackberry) and Hedera helix (ivy vine). SBR - Broad-leaf scrub is located in the northern part of the island and contains Acacia melanoxylon, Pomaderris apetala, Olearia argophylla and Monotoca glauca.

Landing on Magazine Island. Photo Naomi Lawrence.


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Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Sarah Island A previous survey of Sarah Island (Walsh, 1992) mapped 9 types of vegetation. These have been allocated a TASVEG equivalent where possible, based on similar vegetation communities mapped on nearby Philips Island.

Figure 1. The number of islands each vegetation community occurs

Based on this none of the vegetation communities recorded on Sarah Island appear to be threatened communities. Figure 1 shows the number of islands on which each vegetation community occurs (this does not included Sarah Island for reasons provided above). Five of the seven islands surveyed (Neck, Philips, Soldiers, Cat, Magazine) contained the threatened community NME. Two islands, Neck and Cat have the threatened community MSP. Only Soldiers Island contained the threatened community NNP.

Table 2. TASVEG equivalents for communities recorded on Sarah Island by Walsh 1992 Vegetation Community description in Sarah Island site plan 2006

Approximate TASVEG Equivalent

Rock foreshore and shore platform Pebbly beaches Eucalyptus nitida, Pomaderris apetala Dicksonia antarctica wet forest Acacia melanoxylon, Pomaderris apetala wet forest Leptospermum scoparium, Melaleuca ericifolia wet scrub Gahnia grandis and exotic species grass community Juncus kraussii rush community Main area of weed control under Acacia melanoxylon trees Rubus fruticosus, Muehlenbeckia gunnii infestation Lawn area

ORO ORO WNR NAR NLE FRG ARS FWU FWU FAG


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Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Tree fern (Dicksonia antarctica) frond. Illustration Brett Littleton.

The most common TASVEG community recorded was ARS followed by SSC and FWU. Figure 2 shows that Cat Island has the greatest diversity of vegetation communities, followed by Neck and Magazine Islands. The lowest number of TASVEG communities was recorded for Elizabeth Island. While Soldiers Island has low diversity of vegetation communities, two of the three TASVEG communities present on this island are threatened. Table 3 shows the approximate area of the threatened communities recorded on the islands. There are only small areas (less than a hectare in total) of NME on Magazine, Neck and Philips Islands. However on Magazine Island NME covers a quarter of the island. Soldiers, Cat and Neck Islands are significant as they each have two threatened communities recorded. Soldiers Island has one of the largest areas recorded for NME . It

covers a quarter of the island. The sphagnum community recorded on Neck and Cat Islands is highly significant as there are only two other known sites in Tasmania of this community that occur at sea level. Cat Island has the second largest area of NME recorded however this covers only a small portion (8%) of the Island.

Figure 2 . Number of vegetation communities on each island surveyed

Table 3. Approximate area, (Ha) of each of the threatened vegetation communities on each Island of occurrence.

Cat Magazine Neck Philip Soldiers

No patches 2 1 3 1 4

NME Total Ha 2.2 0.6 0.96 0.25 4.52

% No Coverage patches 8.1 0 25.0 0 5.3 0 5.2 0 34.0 1

NNP Total Ha 0 0 0 0 0.25

% No Coverage patches 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1.9 0

MSP Total Ha <0.5 0 <0.5 0 0

% Coverage <2.0 0 <11.0 0 0


45

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Flora Sur veys Introduction There have been few flora surveys undertaken in the Macquarie Harbour area. Data on the Natural Values Atlas (NVA) shows that observations for this area are sourced from the Herbarium, projects undertaken by DPIPWE (or its predecessors) such as the Huon Pine Survey and the Millennium Seed Bank Collection project. Other data has been added to the NVA as part of composite data sets such as Tasforhab and wetforest data the sources of which are not easily traceable. Early observations for the area go as far back as 1819 and were lodged with the Tasmanian Herbarium by A. Conningham. The most recent observations were recorded in 2002 by Micah Visoiu as part of the Millennium Seed Bank Project. Currently the NVA holds approximately 446 flora records for the area immediately surrounding the harbour, 30 of which are non-vascular flora species, 47 introduced vascular species and 369 native vascular flora species. The diversity of the species reflects the range of community types recorded: from coastal to wet forest vegetation.

The most studied island is Sarah Island. This island has had several plans developed that have included flora surveys but have focused on the historical value of the island. The NVA holds some observations but the species list is not as comprehensive as that given in the plans. The Sarah Island Visitor Services Site Plan (2006) cites a survey undertaken by Walsh (1992). The species recorded for Sarah Island have been added to some of the tables in this report.

Sur vey Method Botanical surveys were undertaken for the following islands in Macquarie Harbour: Soldiers Island, Neck Island, Cat Island, Magazine Island, Elizabeth Island, Entrance Island and Philips Island. Each island was traversed and surveyed on foot. Areas with different vegetation communities were strategically targeted to ensure that as many of the species present were recorded. All vascular plant species encountered were recorded until it was evident no further species were being added to a list. Only a few non-vascular species were recorded. All data was collected using a Garmin GPS. This data was incorporated into the NVA and re-extracted using the stored biometric values for the species.

Results A total of 122 vascular flora species from 56 families were recorded across the islands surveyed. The species are comprised of 50 higher plants (7 monocots and 44 dicots) and 13 lower plants. Of the species recorded 14 are endemic to Australia; 1 occurs only in Tasmania. Eighteen species are considered to be primitive. There were 24 introduced species found with 9 of these being listed weeds. One orchid species was found that was not known to occur in the south west of the state and this discovery has considerably increased the known range of this species. All vascular species recorded are either represented in reserves in each bioregion or are reserved in half the bioregions within which they occur. A species list for each of the islands is provided on the following pages.


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Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Table 1. Soldiers Island Species List Soldiers Island Species List Species Name

Common Name

Family

Reservation Status

Asplenium flabellifolium

necklace fern

Aspleniaceae

2

Olearia argophylla

musk daisybush

Asteraceae

2

Olearia stellulata

sawleaf daisybush

Asteraceae

3a

Atherosperma moschatum subsp. moschatum

sassafras

Atherospermataceae

2

Blechnum nudum

fishbone waterfern

Blechnaceae

2

Blechnum wattsii

hard waterfern

Blechnaceae

2

Anodopetalum biglandulosum

horizontal

Cunoniaceae

3a

Ficinia nodosa

knobby clubsedge

Cyperaceae

3a

Gahnia grandis

cutting grass

Cyperaceae

2

Lepidosperma filiforme

common rapiersedge

Cyperaceae

2

Histiopteris incisa

batswing fern

Dennstaedtiaceae

2

Pteridium esculentum

bracken

Dennstaedtiaceae

2

Dicksonia antarctica

soft treefern

Dicksoniaceae

2

Rumohra adiantiformis

leathery shieldfern

Dryopteridaceae

2

Aristotelia peduncularis

heartberry

Elaeocarpaceae

3a

Leptecophylla juniperina

pinkberry

Epacridaceae

2

Monotoca glauca

goldey wood

Epacridaceae

2

Anopterus glandulosus

tasmanian laurel

Escalloniaceae

2

Primitive Species

y

y endemic

endemic

Pultenaea daphnoides

heartleaf bushpea

Fabaceae

2

scrambling coralfern

Gleicheniaceae

2

y

Sticherus tener

silky fanfern

Gleicheniaceae

2

y

Selliera radicans

shiny swampmat

Goodeniaceae

3a

Grammitis billardierei

common fingerfern

Grammitidaceae

3a

Juncus kraussii

sea rush

Juncaceae

3a

Lamiaceae

2

Dianella tasmanica

forest flaxlily

Liliaceae

2

Drymophila cyanocarpa

turquoise berry

Liliaceae

2

Lycopodium deuterodensum

conifer clubmoss

Lycopodiaceae

2

Acacia melanoxylon

blackwood

Mimosaceae

2

Eucalyptus nitida

western peppermint Myrtaceae

3a

Leptospermum scoparium

common teatree

Myrtaceae

2

Melaleuca ericifolia

coast paperbark

Myrtaceae

2

Melaleuca squarrosa

scented paperbark

Myrtaceae

3a

Notelaea ligustrina

native olive

Oleaceae

2

endemic

y

Gleichenia microphylla

Prostanthera lasianthos var. christmas mintbush lasianthos

Bio Uncommon Geographic Origin

y

endemic


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Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Soldiers Island Species List Reservation Status

Primitive Species

Bio Uncommon Geographic Origin

Species Name

Common Name

Family

Sarcochilus australis

gunns tree-orchid

Orchidaceae

3a

Billardiera nesophila

coastal appleberry

Pittosporaceae

3a

Pittosporum bicolor

cheesewood

Pittosporaceae

2

Poa poiformis

blue tussock grass

Poaceae

3a

Phyllocladus aspleniifolius

celerytop pine

Podocarpaceae

3a

y

Microsorum pustulatum subsp. pustulatum

kangaroo fern

Polypodiaceae

2

y

Samolus repens

creeping brookweed

Primulaceae

3a

Cenarrhenes nitida

native plum

Proteaceae

3a

y

endemic

Lomatia polymorpha

mountain guitarplant

Proteaceae

2

y

endemic

Clematis aristata

southern clematis

Ranunculaceae

2

Apodasmia brownii

coarse twinerush

Restionaceae

3a

Pomaderris apetala

dogwood

Rhamnaceae

2

Coprosma quadrifida

native currant

Rubiaceae

2

Nematolepis squamea

satin wood

Rutaceae

2

Zieria arborescens

stinkwood

Rutaceae

2

Pimelea ligustrina

tall riceflower

Thymelaeaceae

3a

Tasmannia lanceolata

mountain pepper

Winteraceae

2

For Soldiers Island a total of 51 species from 37 families were recorded. Of these 4 were endemic, 9 were considered primitive and there were no introduced species recorded. All native species recorded had examples reserved in all bioregions in which the species occurred or were reserved in half or more of the bioregions in which the species occurs. A species of note on this island is Sarcochilus australis. This species

has been assessed as uncommon because it only occurs in small localised populations with no sub population with an area of occupancy greater 1ha or more than 1000 mature individuals. It is widely distributed in Tasmania, occurring in two main clusters in the north west and east coast and is recorded on King and Flinders Islands. This is the first official record for this species for the west coast. This observation extends the known geographical

Y endemic

endemic

range of this species considerably. There have been anecdotal reports of Sarcochilus australis occurring around the Pieman River area but these have yet to be confirmed.


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Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Table 2. Cat Island Species List Cat Island Species List Reservation Status

Species Name

Common Name

Family

Phormium tenax

new zealand flax

Agavaceae

Apium prostratum subsp. prostratum

sea celery

Apiaceae

3a

Cassinia aculeata

dollybush

Asteraceae

2

Hypochoeris radicata

rough catsear

Asteraceae

Olearia stellulata

sawleaf daisybush

Asteraceae

3a 2

Senecio minimus

shrubby fireweed

Asteraceae

Sonchus sp.

sowthistle

Asteraceae

Alnus sp.

alder

Betulaceae

Blechnum wattsii

hard waterfern

Blechnaceae

Buddleja davidii

butterflybush

Buddlejaceae

Wahlenbergia sp.

bluebell

Campanulaceae

Ficinia nodosa

knobby clubsedge

Cyperaceae

Primitive Status

Bio Geographic Origin Introduced Environmental weed on Tas Weed Act

introduced

2 Introduced Environmental weed on Tas Weed Act 3a

Gahnia grandis

cutting grass

Cyperaceae

2

Schoenus nitens

shiny bogsedge

Cyperaceae

3a

Histiopteris incisa

batswing fern

Dennstaedtiaceae

2

Pteridium esculentum

bracken

Dennstaedtiaceae

2

Dicksonia antarctica

soft treefern

Dicksoniaceae

2

Drosera peltata

pale sundew

Droseraceae

2

Rumohra adiantiformis

leathery shieldfern

Dryopteridaceae

2

Leptecophylla juniperina

pinkberry

Epacridaceae

2

Leucopogon parviflorus

coast beardheath

Epacridaceae

2

Monotoca glauca

goldey wood

Epacridaceae

2

Genista monspessulana

canary broom

Fabaceae

Introduced On Tas Weed & Quarantine Act and WRA score sheet & WONS nominated

Trifolium dubium

suckling clover

Fabaceae

introduced

Trifolium repens

white clover

Fabaceae

introduced

Selliera radicans

shiny swampmat

Goodeniaceae

Ribes sanguineum

flowering currant

Grossulariaceae

Gonocarpus teucrioides

forest raspwort

Haloragaceae

Hymenophyllum rarum

narrow filmyfern

Hymenophyllaceae

2

Juncus kraussii

sea rush

Juncaceae

3a

Dianella tasmanica

forest flaxlily

Liliaceae

2

Drymophila cyanocarpa

turquoise berry

Liliaceae

2

Acacia melanoxylon

blackwood

Mimosaceae

2

Acacia verticillata

prickly moses

Mimosaceae

2

Eucalyptus nitida

western peppermint Myrtaceae

3a

endemic

Leptospermum nitidum

shiny teatree

3a

endemic

Myrtaceae

y y

3a introduced in Australia, naturalised in Tasmania only 2 y


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Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Cat Island Species List Reservation Status

Species Name

Common Name

Family

Leptospermum scoparium

common teatree

Myrtaceae

Melaleuca ericifolia

coast paperbark

Myrtaceae

2

Melaleuca squarrosa

scented paperbark

Myrtaceae

3a

Primitive Status

Bio Geographic Origin

2

Chiloglottis sp.

bird-orchid

Orchidaceae

Pterostylis sp.

greenhood

Orchidaceae

Billardiera nesophila

coastal appleberry

Pittosporaceae

Holcus lanatus

yorkshire fog

Poaceae

Poa poiformis

blue tussock grass

Poaceae

3a

Muehlenbeckia gunnii

forest lignum

Polygonaceae

3a

Rumex crispus

curled dock

Polygonaceae

Microsorum pustulatum subsp. pustulatum

kangaroo fern

Polypodiaceae

Anagallis arvensis

scarlet pimpernel

Primulaceae

Samolus repens

creeping brookweed

Primulaceae

3a

Banksia marginata

silver banksia

Proteaceae

2

Apodasmia brownii

coarse twinerush

Restionaceae

3a

Pomaderris apetala

dogwood

Rhamnaceae

2

Malus sp.

apple

Rosaceae

Introduced

Prunus domestica

plum or european plum

Rosaceae

Introduced

Prunus persica

flowering peach

Rosaceae

Introduced

Rubus fruticosus

blackberry

Rosaceae

Coprosma quadrifida

native currant

Rubiaceae

2

Nematolepis squamea

satinwood

Rutaceae

2

Zieria arborescens

stinkwood

Rutaceae

2

Exocarpos syrticola

coast native-cherry

Santalaceae

2

Veronica calycina

hairy speedwell

Scrophulariaceae

3a

Solanum laciniatum

kangaroo apple

Solanaceae

3a

Sphagnum sp.

peat moss

Sphagnaceae

Pimelea ligustrina

tall riceflower

Thymelaeaceae

Pimelea linifolia

slender riceflower

Thymelaeaceae

Viola hederacea

ivy-leaf violet

Violaceae

Tasmannia lanceolata

mountain pepper

Winteraceae

For Cat Island 67 species from 41 families were recorded. Of these 3 were endemic, 5 considered primitive and 13 were introduced, 4 of which are listed weeds. All native species recorded

3a

endemic introduced

Introduced Environmental weed on Tas Weed Act 2

y Introduced

y

Introduced

3a 2 1 or 2 2

had examples reserved in all bioregions in with the species occurred or were reserved in half or more of the bioregions in which the species occurs.


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Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Table 3. Bonnet Island Species List Bonnet Island Species List Reservation Status

Primitive Status

Species Name

Common Name

Family

Zantedeschia aethiopica

arum lily

Araceae

Senecio biserratus

crosscut fireweed

Asteraceae

2

Senecio glomeratus

purple fireweed

Asteraceae

3a

Sonchus oleraceus

common sowthistle

Asteraceae

Ozothamnus sp.

everlasting bush

Asteraceae

Raphanus raphanistrum

wild radish

Brassicaceae

Rhagodia candolleana subsp. candolleana

coastal saltbush

Chenopodiaceae

2

Lepidosperma gladiatum

coast swordsedge

Cyperaceae

3a

Pteridium esculentum

bracken

Dennstaedtiaceae

2

Leucopogon parviflorus

coast beardheath

Epacridaceae

2

Leptecophylla juniperina

pinkberry

Epacridaceae

2

Selliera radicans

shiny swampmat

Goodeniaceae

3a

Dianella tasmanica

forest flaxlily

Liliaceae

2

Acacia longifolia subsp. sophorae

coast wattle

Mimosaceae

3a

Melaleuca ericifolia

coast paperbark

Myrtaceae

2

Leptospermum nitidum

shiny teatree

Myrtaceae

2

Pittosporum bicolor

cheesewood

Pittosporaceae

2

Dactylis glomerata

cocksfoot

Poaceae

Introduced

Holcus lanatus

yorkshire fog

Poaceae

Introduced

Poa annua

winter grass

Poaceae

Introduced

Poa poiformis

blue tussock grass

Poaceae

3a

Muehlenbeckia gunnii

forest lignum

Polygonaceae

3a

Microsorum pustulatum subsp. pustulatum

kangaroo fern

Polypodiaceae

2

Acaena novae-zelandiae

common buzzy

Rosaceae

2

Prunus cerasus caproniana

kentish red cherry

Rosaceae

Rubus fruticosus

blackberry

Rosaceae

Correa backhouseana var. backhouseana

velvet correa

Rutaceae

Nematolepis squamea

satin wood

Rutaceae

2

Solanum laciniatum

kangaroo apple

Solanaceae

3a

For Bonnet Island 29 species from 17 families were recorded. Of these 1 was endemic, 1 considered primitive and 8 were

introduced, 1 of which is a listed weed. All native species recorded had examples reserved in all bioregions in with the species

Bio Geographic Origin Introduced Tas Weed Act & WONS nominated

Introduced Introduced

e

y

Introduced Naturalised in Tas only Introduced 2

occurred or were reserved in half or more of the bioregions in which the species occurred.


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Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Table 4. Entrance Island Species List Entrance Island Species List Species Name

Common Name

Family

Reservation Status

Tetragonia implexicoma

bower spinach

Aizoaceae

2

Pteridium esculentum

bracken

Dennstaedtiaceae

2

Dianella tasmanica

forest flaxlily

Liliaceae

2

Mimosaceae

3a

Mimosaceae

2 2

Acacia longifolia subsp. sophorae coast wattle Acacia verticillata

prickly moses

Bio Geographic Origin

Leptospermum scoparium

common teatree

Myrtaceae

Fuchsia magellanica

fuchsia

Onagraceae

Introduced Environmental weed on Tas Weed Act

Pinus radiata

radiata pine

Pinaceae

Introduced Environmental weed on Tas Weed Act

Dactylis glomerata

cocksfoot

Poaceae

Introduced

Muehlenbeckia gunnii

forest lignum

Polygonaceae

Rubus fruticosus

blackberry

Rosaceae

Introduced

Coprosma repens

mirrorbush

Rubiaceae

Introduced Environmental weed on Tas Weed Act

Correa backhouseana var. backhouseana

velvet correa

Rutaceae

Hebe sp.

hebe or veronica

Scrophulariaceae

Solanum laciniatum

kangaroo apple

Solanaceae

For Entrance Island 15 species from 15 families were recorded. Of these none were endemic, none considered primitive and 6 were introduced, 4 of which are listed weeds. All native vascular species recorded had examples reserved in all bioregions in with the species occurred or were reserved in half or more of the bioregions in which the species occurred.

3a

2 Introduced 3a


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Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Table 5. Elizabeth Island Species List Elizabeth Island Species List Species Name

Common Name

Family

Reservation Status

Tylimanthus sp.

moss

Acrobolbaceae

Apium prostratum subsp. prostratum

sea celery

Apiaceae

Hydrocotyle hirta

hairy pennywort

Apiaceae

2

Asplenium obtusatum

shore spleenwort

Aspleniaceae

3a

Senecio sp.

fireweed

Asteraceae

Primitive Status

Bio Geographic Origin

3a

Blechnum wattsii

hard waterfern

Blechnaceae

2

Ficinia nodosa

knobby clubsedge

Cyperaceae

3a

Pteridium esculentum

bracken

Dennstaedtiaceae

2

Dicksonia antarctica

soft treefern

Dicksoniaceae

2

Rumohra adiantiformis

leathery shieldfern

Dryopteridaceae

2

Leptecophylla juniperina

pinkberry

Epacridaceae

2

Leucopogon parviflorus

coast beardheath

Epacridaceae

2

Monotoca glauca

goldey wood

Epacridaceae

2

Selliera radicans

shiny swampmat

Goodeniaceae

3a

Juncus kraussii

sea rush

Juncaceae

3a

Dianella tasmanica

forest flaxlily

Liliaceae

2

Drymophila cyanocarpa

turquoise berry

Liliaceae

2

Lycopodiella lateralis

Slender clubmoss

Lycopodiaceae

3a

Acacia melanoxylon

blackwood

Mimosaceae

2

Acacia verticillata

prickly moses

Mimosaceae

2

Eucalyptus delegatensis

stingy bark

Myrtaceae

2

Eucalyptus nitida

western peppermint Myrtaceae

3a

Leptospermum scoparium

common teatree

Myrtaceae

2

Melaleuca ericifolia

coast paperbark

Myrtaceae

2

Leptospermum nitidum

shiny teatree

Myrtaceae

3a

endemic

Ulota sp.

moss

Orthotrichaceae

Billardiera nesophila

coastal appleberry

Pittosporaceae

3a

endemic

Pittosporum bicolor

cheesewood

Pittosporaceae

2

Poa poiformis

blue tussock grass

Poaceae

3a

Rumex sp.

dock

Polygonaceae

Microsorum pustulatum subsp. pustulatum

kangaroo fern

Polypodiaceae

2

Samolus repens

creeping brookweed

Primulaceae

3a

Banksia marginata

silver banksia

Proteaceae

2

Ptychomnium aciculare

moss

Ptychomniaceae

Apodasmia brownii

coarse twinerush

Restionaceae

3a

Pomaderris apetala

dogwood

Rhamnaceae

2

y

endemic

Introduced y


53

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Elizabeth Island Species List Species Name

Common Name

Family

Reservation Status

Coprosma quadrifida

native currant

Rubiaceae

2

Correa backhouseana var. backhouseana

velvet correa

Rutaceae

2

Zieria arborescens

stinkwood

Rutaceae

Nematolepis squamea

satinwood

Rutaceae

For Elizabeth Island 40 vascular species from 25 families were recorded. Of these two were endemic, 2 considered primitive and 1 was introduced. The only weed recorded on Elizabeth Island, a dock, was found on shore at the land site and was removed and destroyed. All native vascular species recorded had examples reserved in all bioregions in with the species occurred or were reserved in half or more of the bioregions in which the species occurred.

Primitive Status

Bio Geographic Origin

2

Banksia marginata. Illustration Brett Littleton.


54

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Table 6. Magazine Island Species List. Magazine Island Species List Species Name

Common Name

Family

Apium prostratum subsp. prostratum

sea celery

Apiaceae

Hedera helix

ivy

Araliaceae

Reservation Status

Introduced Environmental weed on Tas Weed Act

Cassinia aculeata

dollybush

Asteraceae

2

musk daisybush

Asteraceae

2

Olearia ramulosa

twiggy daisybush

Asteraceae

2

Senecio linearifolius

fireweed l

Asteraceae

2

Ficinia nodosa

knobby clubsedge

Cyperaceae

3a

Schoenus nitens

shiny bogsedge

Cyperaceae

3a

Pteridium esculentum

bracken

Dennstaedtiaceae

2

Rumohra adiantiformis

leathery shieldfern

Dryopteridaceae

2

Leucopogon parviflorus

coast beardheath

Epacridaceae

2

Monotoca glauca

goldey wood

Epacridaceae

2

Genista monspessulana

canary broom

Fabaceae

Pultenaea daphnoides

heartleaf bushpea

Fabaceae

Pelargonium australe

southern storksbill

Geraniaceae

2

Selliera radicans

shiny swampmat

Goodeniaceae

3a

Gonocarpus teucrioides

forest raspwort

Haloragaceae

2

Juncus kraussii

sea rush

Juncaceae

3a

Dianella tasmanica

forest flaxlily

Liliaceae

2

Drymophila cyanocarpa

turquoise berry

Liliaceae

2

Acacia melanoxylon

blackwood

Mimosaceae

2

Acacia verticillata

prickly moses

Mimosaceae

2

Leptospermum nitidum

shiny teatree

Myrtaceae

3a

Leptospermum scoparium

common teatree

Myrtaceae

2

Melaleuca ericifolia

coast paperbark

Myrtaceae

2 3a

scented paperbark

Myrtaceae

Acianthus sp.

mayfly orchid

Orchidaceae

Bio Geographic Origin

3a

Olearia argophylla

Melaleuca squarrosa

Primitive Status

Introduced On Tas Weed & Quarantine Act and WRA score sheet & WONS nominated 2

Chiloglottis sp.

bird-orchid

Orchidaceae

Gastrodia procera

tall potato-orchid

Orchidaceae

Pterostylis sp.

greenhood

Orchidaceae

Billardiera nesophila

coastal appleberry

Pittosporaceae

3a

Endemic

Plantago triantha

saltspray plantain

Plantaginaceae

3a

Within Australia occurs only in Tasmania

3a


55

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Magazine Island Species List Reservation Status

Species Name

Common Name

Family

Holcus lanatus

yorkshire fog

Poaceae

Poa poiformis

blue tussock grass

Poaceae

3a

Microsorum pustulatum subsp. pustulatum

kangaroo fern

Polypodiaceae

2

Samolus repens

creeping brookweed

Primulaceae

3a

Banksia marginata

silver banksia

Proteaceae

2

Apodasmia brownii

coarse twinerush

Restionaceae

3a

Leptocarpus tenax

slender twinerush

Restionaceae

3a

Pomaderris apetala

dogwood

Rhamnaceae

2

Rubus fruticosus

blackberry

Rosaceae

Bio Geographic Origin Introduced

y

y

Introduced

Coprosma quadrifida

native currant

Rubiaceae

2

Nematolepis squamea

satin wood

Rutaceae

2

Veronica calycina

hairy speedwell

Scrophulariaceae

3a

Solanum laciniatum

kangaroo apple

Solanaceae

3a

Pimelea linifolia

slender riceflower

Thymelaeaceae

2

Viola hederacea

ivy-leaf violet

Violaceae

For Magazine Island 48 vascular species from 31 families were recorded. Of these 1 was endemic, 1 occurs only in Tasmania, 2 are considered primitive and 4 are introduced, 2 of which are listed weeds. All native vascular species recorded had examples reserved in all bioregions in with the species occurred or were reserved in half or more of the bioregions in which the species occurred.

Primitive Status

1 or 2


56

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Table 7. Neck Island species list. Neck Island Species List Reservation Status

Species Name

Common Name

Family

Olearia stellulata

sawleaf daisybush

Asteraceae

3a

Senecio biserratus

crosscut fireweed

Asteraceae

2

Lobelia anceps

angled lobelia

Campanulaceae

3a

Wahlenbergia sp.

bluebell

Campanulaceae

Cladia sp.

coral lichen

Cladoniaceae

Gahnia grandis

cutting grass

Cyperaceae

2

Pteridium esculentum

bracken

Dennstaedtiaceae

2

Drosera peltata

pale sundew

Droseraceae

2 or 3a

Leptecophylla juniperina

pink berry

Epacridaceae

2

Leucopogon ericoides

pink beardheath

Epacridaceae

2

Leucopogon parviflorus

coast beardheath

Epacridaceae

2

Monotoca glauca

goldey wood

Epacridaceae

2

Aotus ericoides

golden pea

Fabaceae

2

Genista monspessulana

canary broom

Fabaceae

Primitive Status

Bio Geographic Origin

Introduced On Tas Weed & Quarantine Act and WRA score sheet & WONS nominated

Gleichenia microphylla

scrambling coralfern

Gleicheniaceae

2

y

Sticherus tener

silky fanfern

Gleicheniaceae

2

y

Selliera radicans

shiny swampmat

Goodeniaceae

3a

Gonocarpus teucrioides

forest raspwort

Haloragaceae

2

Hypopterygium rotulatum

moss

Hypopterygiaceae

Juncus kraussii

sea rush

Juncaceae

3a

Dianella tasmanica

forest flaxlily

Liliaceae

2

Drymophila cyanocarpa

turquoise berry

Liliaceae

2

Acacia genistifolia

spreading wattle

Mimosaceae

2

Acacia longifolia subsp. sophorae

coast wattle

Mimosaceae

3a

Acacia melanoxylon

blackwood

Mimosaceae

2

Acacia verticillata

prickly moses

Mimosaceae

Eucalyptus nitida

western peppermint Myrtaceae

3a

Leptospermum scoparium

common teatree

Myrtaceae

2

Melaleuca ericifolia

coast paperbark

Myrtaceae

2 3a

2

Melaleuca squarrosa

scented paperbark

Myrtaceae

Chiloglottis sp.

bird-orchid

Orchidaceae

Pterostylis sp.

greenhood

Orchidaceae

Billardiera nesophila

coastal appleberry

Pittosporaceae

3a

Pittosporum bicolor

cheesewood

Pittosporaceae

2

Distichlis distichophylla

australian saltgrass

Poaceae

3a

Endemic

Endemic


57

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Neck Island Species List Species Name

Common Name

Family

Reservation Status

Primitive Status

Bio Geographic Origin

Endemic

Poa poiformis var. poiformis

coastal tussockgrass

Poaceae

2

Phyllocladus aspleniifolius

celerytop pine

Podocarpaceae

3a

y y

Banksia marginata

silver banksia

Proteaceae

2

Baloskion tetraphyllum subsp. tetraphyllum

tassel cordrush

Restionaceae

3a

Apodasmia brownii

coarse twinerush

Restionaceae

3a

Pomaderris apetala

dogwood

Rhamnaceae

2

Coprosma quadrifida

native currant

Rubiaceae

2

Zieria arborescens

stinkwood

Rutaceae

2

Exocarpos syrticola

coast native-cherry

Santalaceae

2

Schizaea fistulosa

narrow forkfern

Schizaeaceae

2

Sphagnum sp.

peat moss

Sphagnaceae

Thuidium sp.

moss

Thuidiaceae

Pimelea linifolia

slender rice-flower

Thymelaeaceae

2

Tasmannia lanceolata

mountain pepper

Winteraceae

2

For Neck Island 49 vascular species from 29 families were recorded. Of these 3 are endemic, 5 considered primitive and 1 is a listed introduced species. All native vascular species recorded had examples reserved in all bioregions in which the species occurred or were reserved in half or more of the bioregions in which the species occurred.

y


58

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Table 8. Philips Island Species List. Phillips Island Species List Species Name

Common Name

Family

pium prostratum subsp. prostratum

sea celery

Apiaceae

Hydrocotyle sp.

pennywort

Apiaceae

Reservation Status

Primitive Status

3a

Olearia argophylla

musk daisybush

Asteraceae

2

Olearia stellulata

sawleaf daisybush

Asteraceae

3a

Atherosperma moschatum subsp. moschatum

sassafras

Atherospermataceae

2

Blechnum wattsii

hard waterfern

Blechnaceae

2

Cyathea australis subsp. australis

rough treefern

Cyatheaceae

3a

Carex appressa

tall sedge

Cyperaceae

2

Ficinia nodosa

knobby clubsedge

Cyperaceae

3a

Gahnia grandis

cutting grass

Cyperaceae

2

Schoenus nitens

shiny bogsedge

Cyperaceae

3a

Carex sp.

sedge

Cyperaceae

Pteridium esculentum

bracken

Dennstaedtiaceae

2

Dicksonia antarctica

soft treefern

Dicksoniaceae

2

Rumohra adiantiformis

leathery shieldfern

Dryopteridaceae

2

Aristotelia peduncularis

heartberry

Elaeocarpaceae

3a

Leptecophylla juniperina

pink berry

Epacridaceae

2

Monotoca glauca

goldey wood

Epacridaceae

2

Eucryphia lucida

leatherwood

Eucryphiaceae

3a

y

Nothofagus cunninghamii

myrtle beech

Fagaceae

2

y

Gleichenia microphylla

scrambling coralfern

Gleicheniaceae

2

y

Sticherus tener

silky fanfern

Gleicheniaceae

2

y

Selliera radicans

shiny swampmat

Goodeniaceae

3a

Hymenophyllum rarum

narrow filmyfern

Hymenophyllaceae

2

Juncus krausii

sea rush

Juncaceae

3a

Lamiaceae

2

Prostanthera lasianthos var. christmas mintbush lasianthos

Bio Geographic Origin

y

y Endemic

Endemic

y

Dianella tasmanica

forest flaxlily

Liliaceae

2

Drymophila cyanocarpa

turquoise berry

Liliaceae

2

Lycopodium deuterodensum

conifer clubmoss

Lycopodiaceae

2

Acacia melanoxylon

blackwood

Mimosaceae

2

Acacia verticillata

midlands wattle

Mimosaceae

2

Eucalyptus brookeriana

brookers gum

Myrtaceae

3a

Endemic

Eucalyptus nitida

western peppermint Myrtaceae

3a

Endemic

Leptospermum scoparium

common teatree

Myrtaceae

2

Melaleuca ericifolia

coast paperbark

Myrtaceae

2

y


59

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Phillips Island Species List Species Name

Common Name

Family

Reservation Status

Notelaea ligustrina

native olive

Oleaceae

2

Chiloglottis gunnii

tall bird-orchid

Orchidaceae

3a

Gastrodia sesamoides

short potato-orchid

Orchidaceae

3a

Pterostylis nutans

nodding greenhood

Orchidaceae

2

Pterostylis sp.

greenhood

Orchidaceae

Primitive Status

Endemic

Billardiera nesophila

coastal appleberry

Pittosporaceae

3a

Pittosporum bicolor

cheesewood

Pittosporaceae

2

Poa poiformis

blue tussock grass

Poaceae

3a

Microsorum pustulatum subsp. pustulatum

kangaroo fern

Polypodiaceae

2

y

Tmesipteris obliqua

common forkfern

Psilotaceae

2

y

Clematis aristata

southern clematis

Ranunculaceae

2

Apodasmia brownii

coarse twinerush

Restionaceae

3a

Pomaderris apetala

dogwood

Rhamnaceae

2

Coprosma quadrifida

native currant

Rubiaceae

2

Rutaceae

2

Pimelea linifolia

slender rice-flower

Thymelaeaceae

2

Tasmannia lanceolata

mountain pepper

Winteraceae

2

Nematolepis squamea

For Philips Island 53 vascular species from 36 families were recorded. Of these 6 were endemic and 10 considered primitive. No introduced species were recorded. All native vascular species recorded had examples reserved in all bioregions in which the species occurred or were reserved in half or more of the bioregions in which the species occurred. A species of note for this island is Cyathea

australis subsp. australis. It is the most common of the three Cyathea species which occur in Tasmania. There are currently 484 observations for this species in the NVA. Its distribution is concentrated in the northwest, north and north east of the state, and extends down the east coast to the south east. There are few observations for this species in the west and southwest where it is relatively uncommon.

Cyathea australis on Philips Island. Photo Naomi Lawrence.

Bio Geographic Origin

Endemic


60

Figure 1 shows a comparison of the percentage composition of family groupings, higher plants (then divided by dicots and monocots) and lower plants, to give an indication if there were any marked differences in the species composition between Islands. This shows that the composition is similar between Magazine, Neck, Cat, Bonnet and Entrance Islands (those Islands closest to the open sea), while Soldiers, Philips and Elizabeth Island, which were further east, are very similar. The main difference between these island groups is that those closest to the sea ward (western) end of the harbour had fewer fern species recorded and more higher plant species than those further east. The percentage of monocots to dicots is similar between all islands. Figure 2 is a comparison of the number of species with biometric values between the islands. Soldiers and Philips Islands had no weed species recorded and had the highest number of endemics and primitive species recorded. Cat Island had the highest number of weed species recorded, followed by Bonnet, Entrance, Magazine, Neck and Elizabeth Islands. Entrance Island had no endemic or primitive species recorded. Sarah Island (according to Walsh 1992) has had a higher number (17) of weed species recorded. Figure 3 shows that Cat, Philips and Neck Islands had the largest number of native vascular species recorded and Entrance and Bonnet Islands the least.

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Figure 1. Comparison of the Percentage Composition by Family Groupings between islands.

Figure 2. Comparison of the number of species for each of the biometric values recorded between islands.

Figure 3. Number of native vascular species recorded for each island surveyed.


61

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Table 9 Presence/absence data for the occurrence of the native vascular species on all islands. SPECIES NAME

Entrance

Bonnet

Neck

Cat

Magazine

Elizabeth

Philips

Soldiers

1

Acacia dealbata Acacia longifolia subsp. sophorae

1

1

Acacia melanoxylon Acacia verticillata

Sarah

1

1 1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Acaena novaezelandiae

1 1

Acianthus sp.

1

Anodopetalum biglandulosum

1

Anopterus glandulosus

1 1

Aotus ericoides Apium prostratum subsp. prostratum

1

Apodasmia brownii

1

1

1

1

1

1

Aristotelia peduncularis

1 1

1

1

1

Asplenium flabellifolium 1

Asplenium obtusatum

1

Atherosperma moschatum subsp. moschatum Baloskion tetraphyllum subsp. tetraphyllum

1

Banksia marginata

1

1

1

1

Billardiera nesophila

1

1

1

1

1

1 1

Blechnum nudum 1

Blechnum wattsii

1

Carex appressa 1

Cassinia aculeata

1

1

1

1

1

1 1

Cenarrhenes nitida 1

Chiloglottis gunnii Chiloglottis sp.

1

1

1

Clematis aristata 1

Coprosma quadrifida Correa backhouseana var. backhouseana Cyathea australis subsp. australis

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1 1

1


62

SPECIES NAME Dianella tasmanica

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Entrance

Bonnet

Neck

Cat

Magazine

Elizabeth

Philips

Soldiers

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Dicksonia antarctica Distichlis distichophylla

1

Drosera peltata

1

1

Drymophila cyanocarpa

1

1

1

1

1

1 1

Epacris impressa 1

Eucalyptus brookeriana 1

Eucalyptus delegatensis 1

Eucalyptus nitida

1

1

1

1

1

1

Eucryphia lucida 1

Exocarpos syrticola

1 1

Ficinia nodosa 1

Gahnia grandis

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Gastrodia procera

1

Gastrodia sesamoides Gleichenia microphylla

1

Gonocarpus teucrioides

1

1 1

1

1 1

Grammitis billardierei 1

Histiopteris incisa

1 1

Hydrocotyle hirta Hydrocotyle sp.

1 1

Hymenophyllum rarum 1

Juncus kraussii

1

1 1

1

1

1

1

1

Lepidosperma filiforme Lepidosperma gladiatum

1

Leptecophylla juniperina

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Leptocarpus tenax

1 1 1

Leptospermum glaucescens 1

Leptospermum nitidum Leptospermum scoparium

Sarah

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1


63

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

SPECIES NAME

Entrance

Bonnet

Neck

Cat

Magazine

Elizabeth

1

1

1

Philips

Soldiers

Sarah

1

Leucopogon ericoides 1

Leucopogon parviflorus

1

1

1

Lobelia anceps

1 1

Lomatia polymorpha 1

Lycopodiella lateralis

1

Lycopodium deuterodensum 1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Notelaea ligustrina

1

1

Nothofagus cunninghamii

1

Melaleuca ericifolia Melaleuca squarrosa

1

Microsorum pustulatum subsp. pustulatum

1

Monotoca glauca Muehlenbeckia gunnii

1

Nematolepis squamea

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Olearia ramulosa 1

Olearia stellulata Ozothamnus sp.

1

1

1 1

Pelargonium australe Phyllocladus aspleniifolius

1

1

Pimelea ligustrina

1

1

Pimelea linifolia

1 1

Pittosporum bicolor

1

1

1

1

Poa poiformis Pomaderris apetala

1 1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Prostanthera lasianthos var. lasianthos 1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

Pterostylis nutans Pterostylis sp.

1

Pultenaea daphnoides Rhagodia candolleana subsp. candolleana

1

1

Plantago triantha

Pteridium esculentum

1

1

1

Olearia argophylla

1

1

1

1


64

SPECIES NAME

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Entrance

Bonnet

Neck

Cat

Magazine

Elizabeth

Philips

Soldiers

Rumohra adiantiformis

1

1

1

1

1

Samolus repens

1

1

1

1 1

Sarcochilus australis 1

Schizaea fistulosa Schoenus nitens 1

1

Senecio biserratus

1

1

Senecio glomeratus

1

Selliera radicans

1

1

1

1

1 1

1

1

1

Senecio linearifolius 1

Senecio minimus Senecio sp. Solanum laciniatum

1 1

Sphagnum sp.

1

1 1

1

Sticherus tener

1

1

Tasmannia lanceolata

1

Tetragonia implexicoma

Sarah

1 1

1

1

1

1

1 1

Tmesipteris obliqua Veronica calycina

1

1

Viola hederacea

1

1

Wahlenbergia sp.

1

1

Zieria arborescens

1

1

Table 10 shows the presence/ absence of the native vascular species recorded on the islands which includes the list of species recorded for Sarah Island by Walsh (1992). This information was used to help determine the similarity or difference of the suit of species which were recorded for each island. Of the species recorded, only two, Pteridium esculentum and Dianella tasmanica were present on all the islands surveyed. However, D.

Tasmanica was not recorded by Walsh (1992) for Sarah Island. A number of species were only recorded on 1 island. Table 10 provides a list of these species. The islands that recorded the greatest number of species occurring on no other island were Philips (8) while Cat and Entrance Islands each recorded the presence of only one species that did not occur on any of the other islands. A comparison was done with the species recorded

1

1

around the harbour on the mainland (records extracted from the NVA) with those recorded on the islands. All species record on the islands (except for Sarcochilus australis) were also recorded on the mainland however not all the species recorded on the mainland were recorded on the islands.


65

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Table 10. List of species which were recorded on only one of the Macquarie Harbour Islands. Species

Island

Acacia dealbata

Sarah

Acianthus sp.

Magazine

Anodopetalum biglandulosum

Soldiers

Anopterus glandulosus

Soldiers

Aotus ericoides

Neck

Asplenium obtusatum

Elizabeth

Atherosperma moschatum subsp. moschatum

Philips

Baloskion tetraphyllum subsp. tetraphyllum

Neck

Cenarrhenes nitida

Soldiers

Chiloglottis gunnii

Philips

Distichlis distichophylla

Neck

Epacris impressa

Sarah

Eucalyptus brookeriana

Philips

Eucalyptus delegatensis

Elizabeth

Eucryphia lucida

Philips

Gastrodia procera

Magazine

Gastrodia sesamoides

Philips

Hydrocotyle hirta

Elizabeth

Lepidosperma filiforme

Soldiers

Lepidosperma gladiatum

Bonnet

Leptospermum glaucescens

Sarah

Leucopogon ericoides

Neck

Lomatia polymorpha

Soldiers

Lycopodiella lateralis

Elizabeth

Nothofagus cunninghamii

Philips

Olearia ramulosa

Magazine

Ozothamnus sp.

Bonnet

Pelargonium australe

Magazine

Plantago triantha

Magazine

Pterostylis nutans

Philips

Rhagodia candolleana subsp. candolleana

Bonnet

Sarcochilus australis

Soldiers

Schizaea fistulosa

Neck

Senecio glomeratus

Bonnet

Senecio linearifolius

Magazine

Senecio minimus

Cat

Tetragonia implexicoma

Entrance

Tmesipteris obliqua

Philips


66

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

An analysis of the correlation between vegetation diversity (species & communities) with a number of biophysical parameters was undertaken. These parameters are shown below in Table 11. There was no observed increase or decrease in diversity in relation to any of these parameters for species recorded. Also included was the correlation of species diversity in relation to

vegetation community diversity and vice versa. Again no trends of any significance were evident. To confirm this, a cluster analysis was undertaken of all islands using the biophysical characteristics of elevation, size, position, species composition and vegetation community composition. Figure 4 shows that there is strong similarity between 6 of the eight islands (Magazine, Soldiers, Neck,

Elizabeth, Philips and Cat) despite the differences in elevation, size and position in the harbour. Bonnet and Sarah Islands have split out as a cluster of one island each. Further analysis revealed that of the 6 like islands (see figure 5), two main clusters are evident, with Neck, Philips and Soldiers Islands being the most similar to each other and the other

Tablel 11. List of Biophysical attributes used for analysis

Island

Size (Ha)

Bonnet

0.17

Maximum elevation m (ASL) 10

Cat

27.26

4

Lower

Elizabeth

2.12

23

Middle

Entrance Magazine

0.61 2.37

4 5

Entrance Lower

Neck

18.22

6

Lower

Philips

8.99

41

Upper

Sarah

8.29

18

Upper

Soldiers

12.98

21

Upper

Position in Harbour Entrance

Geology Bedrock Metasedimentary Poorly consolidated sediments Bedrock Metasedimentary ? Poorly consolidated sediments Weakly consolidated Pebble conglomerate Semi-consolidated sandstone/siltstone Inter-bedded siltstone/sandstone sediment Semi 窶田onsolidated sandstone sequence

No. Native Vascular Species 21

No.Veg Communities 3

52

8

38

2

9 43

? 5

49

5

52

4

34

7

44

3


67

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Figure 4. Biophysical cluster analysis B onnet

Axis 2

S arah

cluster showing Cat, Magazine and Elizabeth Islands to be most similar to each other. Interestingly Soldiers and Philips Islands split out again from the second cluster as being most similar to each other. To summarize the results, the islands were given a ranking (see table 12), 1 being least and 10 being most, diverse for species and communities, values, and disturbance. This shows that Philips Island is the most diverse, had the most values and was one of the least disturbed of the islands, followed by Soldiers and Cat Islands, whilst Bonnet and Entrance Islands were ranked lowest for all these values.

M agazine S oldiers Neck Phillip E lizabet C at

Axis 1

Figure 5. Cluster analysis dendrogram for eight Islands.

Macq_Harb_Eight_Is_Cluster 3.4E-02

2.6E-01

100

75

Distance (Objective Function) 4.9E-01

Information Remaining (%) 50

7.1E-01

9.4E-01

25

0

Bonnet Neck Phillip Soldiers Cat Magazine Elizabet Sarah

Table 13. Ranking of diversity and values for all islands surveyed Island

Diversity

Values

Disturbance

Rank total

Entrance Bonnet Elizabeth Magazine Neck Cat Soldiers Philips

1 2 3 5 6 8 4 7

1 2 4 4 5 6 7 8

2 1 7 5 4 3 8 8

4 5 14 14 15 17 19 23


68

Discussion Of the islands surveyed Cat Island had the most diverse flora but ranked lower for diversity and value (table 12) than Philips and Soldiers Island. This is because Cat Island was the most disturbed island, which lowered the total ranked value. Cat Island should be the focus of management actions to protect the values recorded. Neck & Magazine Islands should be given high priority for management whilst Entrance and Bonnet have lower priorities for management as there are few flora values, diversity is low and they are both very disturbed. The most important values on Cat Island are the threatened communities (NME & MSP) and the diversity of the communities and species present on the island. Though MSP is not currently included in the definition of the sphagnum community listed on the EPBC 1999 it is listed on the TSPA 1995. Cat Island has the second largest area of NME recorded for the islands but it only represents 8% of the vegetation coverage on the island. The disturbance on Cat Island was concentrated mainly around the shack area with small patches of weeds encountered in other locations. Most of these have probably originated from the shack area. Most of the introduced species recorded from the shack area were fruit

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

trees and other â&#x20AC;&#x153;garden plantsâ&#x20AC;?. Three of the weed species recorded are listed on the Tasmanian Weed Management Act 1999 thus there is a legislative requirement for their control. Management required is mainly weed control focusing on the small patches which have established in native vegetation. The shack still appears to be used and it is recommended that some form of awareness raising and/or conservation program be considered for shack users regarding the introduction and spread of exotic species. The most important value on Philips Island is the threatened community NME. There is only a small patch of approximately 0.25 hectares which covers approximately 5.2% of the Island. A species of note on this island is Cyathea australis subs. australis for reasons discussed earlier. The most important values on Soldiers Island are the vegetation communities NME & NNP and the uncommon species Sarcochilus australis (gunns tree-orchid). Soldiers Island has the largest area, approximately 4.52 ha of NME which covers 34% of the Island and a very small patch, about 0.25 ha of NNP which covers about 1.9% of the island. Sarcochilus australis is Tasmaniaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s only epiphytic orchid. It is listed by the Forest Practices Authority as a priority species for a level of

conservation in high quality forests in the Woolnorth, Ben Lomond and Freycinet bioregions and is classed as poorly reserved in the North East of Tasmania by the Forestry Division (Smith 2007). The record for this species on Soldiers Island considerably extends the geographic range of this species and is the most western occurrence of the species in the state. Sarcochilus australis prefers moist habitats, such as permanently moist gullies and moist forest types. As an epiphyte Sarcochilus australis requires a host species to anchor on. Smith (2007) found that S. australis used 10 tree and shrub species as hosts but was found 80% of the time on either Coprosma quadrifida or Pomaderris apetala. On Soldiers Island most individuals were on either Pomaderris apetala or Melaleuca ericifolia. Individuals were flowering at the time of the survey and there was a large variation in the size of individuals suggesting that reproduction and recruitment are occurring in the population. The plants were widespread on the island with the largest concentration on the eastern end of the island extending into the southwest. The total population size is somewhere between 100-200 individuals. This species does not tolerate disturbance from forestry operations or any other activity that removes preferred hosts.


Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

It is susceptible to exposure to sun and drying winds and clearing around habitat can cause permanent drying out of the habitat (Jones et al. 1999). The most important values for Neck Island are the threatened communities NME and the MSP. There are 3 small patches of NME totalling 0.96 hectares covering 5.2% of the island. MSP is important as it is not common vegetation type in Australia as a whole and is a community which does not tolerate disturbance, particularly disturbance which causes drying out of the habitat. The most important value for Magazine Island is the threatened community NME where there is one small patch of 0.6 ha which covers 25% of the Island. This Island had been reportedly been substantially cleared (Chris Arthur pers. comm.). While regeneration has occurred, some very weedy, disturbed areas are still evident. Two of the weed species present are listed on the Tasmanian Weed Management Act 1999 thus there is a legislative requirement for their control. Elizabeth Island has no recorded biometric values, however it is in very good condition. Only one weed species was recorded which was removed and destroyed during the survey. Bonnet Island was very disturbed with a large area of the Island

infested with exotic species. One of these is listed on the Tasmanian Weed Management Act 1999. Entrance Island was in a similar condition and three introduced species Tasmanian Weed Management Act 1999. Again there is a legislative requirement to control these weeds. Overall the values of most note were the presence of the listed communities NME, NNP and MSP on some of the islands. According to Pannell (1992) most swamp forest in Tasmania has been disturbed with only small areas left which are unaffected by logging or drainage operations. The floristic and structural character of what remains has been altered by fire resulting in a decline in the floristic and structural heterogeneity of swamp forests in general. Thus it is important to conserve the full range of structural and floristic diversity of swamp forests. The communities of NME on Neck, Philips and NME and NNP on Soldiers Islands have been undisturbed and retain the full structure and floristic diversity of this community type. Although disturbed on Magazine and Cat Island, NME is still in good condition. Though small, the patches of NME and NNP on the Macquarie Harbour islands are important representatives of these communities in the reserve system.

Sarcochilus australis. Photo Peter Tonelli.

69

The occurrence of MSP on Cat and Neck Island is of great interest as sphagnum bog communities are in general rare and most commonly occur above 600m. There are only two other known occurrences of sphagnum bogs at sea level which are located behind dune swales in the north east of Tasmania. Currently sphagnum bogs below 600m do not fit the community description listed on the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 but efforts are in progress to address this (Jennie Whinam pers. comm.). There is a need to identify the Sphagnum species and another sample is required to do this as the one collected was overlooked.


70

Biophysical similarity The cluster analysis undertaken to determine how similar the islands were to each other and what, if any biophysical attributes were influencing this â&#x20AC;&#x153;likenessâ&#x20AC;? grouped the islands into 4 clusters. Interestingly the islands one might expect to be most similar for flora composition, because of their position in the harbour, altitude and/or size were not. Thus something other than these attributes are having a stronger influence on the species and community composition of these Islands. Though all islands

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

had a suite of similar species occurring on them, each one was surprisingly different and each island had one or more species occurring on it that did not occur on any of the others. It might be expected that as most islands are close to the mainland that birds are easily able to fly between islands and the mainland potentially bringing seeds with them attached to feathers or as regurgitate. This may account in some part for the divergence of the species composition between the islands. The fact that Bonnet and Sarah Islands split out on their own as a cluster of 1 island

Shack and surrounding area on Cat Island. Photo Naomi Lawrence

is probably more related to the degree of human disturbance of these islands than any of the other biophysical characteristics and is supported by the data which showed that these islands have more introduced species and communities recorded than any of the other islands. This result indicates that each island should be treated as unique and that management may best be undertaken on a case by case basis for each island rather that a one rule fits all approach.


71

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

References Management Recommendations Implement hygiene measures when visiting the islands to limit further weed establishment. Undertake control measures for listed weeds and remove other weed incursions. Monitor islands for further weed incursions Consider implementing a conservation management program with shack users of Cat Island. Adopt a no camp fire policy on the islands. In the event of wildfire, suppression would be a priority for Neck and Cat Islands to protect MSP which is a fire sensitive community, Soldiers Island to protect the population of Sarcochilus australis (gunns tree-orchid) and Philips as it is mainly wet forest with fire sensitive species and to protect Cyathea australis.

Jones, D., Wapstra, H., Tonelli, P. Harris, S. (1999). The Orchids of Tasmania. Melbourne University Press, Victoria. Parks & Wildlife Service Tasmania (2006) Sarah Island Visitor Services Site Plan. Department of Tourism, Arts and the Environment. Pannell, J. R. (1992) Swamp Forests of Tasmania. Forestry Commission Tasmania. Smith, T. J. (2007). The Ecology of Sarcochilus australis, Tasmaniaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s only epiphytic orchid. Honours Thesis, School of Plant Science, University of Tasmania. Walsh D. (1992) Sarah Island W.H.A. Visitor Service Site, Vegetation Survey. Unpublished report for the Department of Parks, Wildlife and Heritage. â&#x20AC;&#x192;


BIODIVERSITY - FAUNA


73

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Yellow-throated honeyeater (Lichenostomus flavicollis). Illustrations Brett Littleton.

Clare E. Hawkins, Nick Mooney, Natasha Wilson and Briar Hill Summar y Fauna surveys were carried out across 8 islands in Macquarie Harbour in December 2009: Bonnet, Cat, Elizabeth, Entrance, Magazine, Neck, Philips and Soldiers Islands. Of one hundred and sixty fauna taxa identified by the survey, one hundred and thirty-two (primarily invertebrate) taxa had not been previously recorded. These included fortynine taxa identified to the level of known species and thirtythree taxa identified as distinct morphospecies, while the rest were identified less precisely. A species of the isopod genus Notoniscus appeared to be new to science, though this could not be confirmed at the time of writing. Numerous bird species had previously been recorded in â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Macquarie Harbourâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, but the survey provided more specific locations for many of these species. The findings particularly extended the known distribution of two invertebrates: the land snail Stenacapha vitrinaformis and the weevil Mandalotus subterraneus. A few exotic species were identified: most significantly, hair tubes laid on Philips Island and Cat Island collected hair

that was confirmed as cat hair (for Philips) and suspected as cat hair (for Cat). A sea eagleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s nest was found on Philips Island. It is recommended that cat eradication is considered, and that disturbance on Philips Island is avoided during eagle breeding season (July to February).

Introduction Prior to the survey described in this report, very limited data were available on the fauna of the Macquarie Harbour islands, apart from those available from two reports for Sarah Island (Phillips 1992; Mallick 2000). Almost all data were confined to the birds of the area. Natural Values Atlas data on fauna on the islands were almost exclusively confined to a bird list for the Harbour (Table 2), with no precise location provided for the majority of the records. The exception to this was for Sarah Island, where two studies (Phillips 1992; Mallick 2000) provide bird records specifically for this island. It was therefore timely to survey the fauna of the other large islands in the Harbour, to guide their management by the Parks & Wildlife Service. It was expected that islands would host a subset of the species as found on the nearby coast, hosting a greater number of

species if they were closer to the coast or larger in area (MacArthur & Wilson 1967). Nonetheless it remained possible that one or more islands might host relict populations of species which had been lost from the nearby coast. Cat, Magazine and Neck Islands, since they had similar geology and were close neighbours, would be expected to show a great deal of overlap in species compositions. Philips and Soldiers were also expected to host similar species due to their similar geology, while the same assumption held for Bonnet, Elizabeth and Sarah Island. However, the level of disturbance would be expected also to affect species number and composition.

Methods While some fauna groups, such as birds, can easily be identified from calls and sightings during a simple traverse of a survey area, others, such as many mammal species, are difficult to identify to species level without trapping. Within the available time (9th 11th December 2009), and given the unreliable weather conditions, trapping was not possible since each island could not be visited


74

for trap-checking each day. Instead, other techniques were used which required only a single return visit. Eight islands were surveyed, of which four were visited twice (Table 1). Additionally, Sarah Island was visited for a geological survey, and some fauna data were provided from this.

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Island traverses, hand collection, direct observation, call surveys, field signs During the first visit to each of the eight islands, four people walked independently across it for approximately one hour in the case of the smallest

islands and approximately four hours in the case of the larger islands. A second opportunistic traverse was possible for Neck Island. During these traverses (and where possible on the four islands re-visited to collect equipment), all fauna species observed were recorded, along with all identifiable bird calls and mammalian field signs. Small numbers of each species of invertebrate observed which could not be immediately identified were collected by hand and stored in alcohol for subsequent identification by specialists.

Hair-tubes, camera traps, pitfall traps For the four islands which were to be re-visited, various arrangements of hair tubes, camera traps and pitfall traps were placed. Hair-tubes were made of polypropylene tubes, 90 mm in diameter and 400 mm in length, with stiff plastic netting, containing peanut butter mixed with oats,

Hair-tube in place, Elizabeth Island. A peanut butter bait is placed within netting in the centre of the tube. Three strips of double-sided sticky tape are evenly spaced around the inside of the tube, oriented from each end towards the centre, to catch hairs of visiting mammals. Photo Clare Hawkins


Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

wired into the centre of each. At both ends of each hair tube, three strips of double-sided sticky gaffer tape were placed at 60째 angles to one another, to catch the hair of visiting mammals. Hairs subsequently collected were identified by expert consultant Barbara Triggs. These were scattered widely across Elizabeth and Soldiers Islands, and a small number were also put in areas where rodent signs (digging and scats) were observed on Cat and Magazine Islands. A small number of video camera traps were set across Philips Island, and also on Soldiers Island and Magazine Island where signs of rodent digging were observed. A bait of walnut oil mixed with water in which mushrooms had been soaked was dribbled in a position in front of each camera such that visiting animals would trigger filming. Michael Driessen assisted with identifying filmed mammals. Pitfall traps were scattered widely across Soldiers Island, and small numbers were also placed in areas of Cat and Magazine Islands. Each trap comprised a disposable plastic drinking cup half filled with alcohol, with a little

Top: Signs of rodent digging on Cat Island. Bottom: Successful hair-tube. Photos Clare Hawkins

disposable plastic food container lid supported by wooden skewer pieces placed above each cup to limit falling vegetation and rain entering the trap. Invertebrates collected by hand or pitfall trap

75

were identified by Kevin Bonham (molluscs and collembolans), Lynne Forster (spiders and beetles) and Alastair Richardson (amphipods and isopods).


76

The various traps and hair-tubes were left on each island for 2-3 days. After identification for the purposes of this report, all invertebrate samples were

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

made available to the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery in Hobart and the Queen Victoria Museum and Art Gallery in Launceston, with the request that any samples subsequently identified to species level

would be reported for recording on the Natural Values Atlas.

Results The results of the fauna survey are presented in Table 2. One hundred and sixty fauna taxa were identified during the survey, of which one hundred and thirty-two had not been previously recorded in Macquarie Harbour in the Natural Values Atlas, Phillips (1992) or Mallick (2000) (Table 2). Forty-nine of these newly recorded taxa were identified with confidence to species level, with thirty-three additional taxa identified as separate morphospecies. The rest were identified less precisely. One hundred and fifteen taxa were invertebrates, including 32 spiders, 19 beetles and 14 gastropods identified to species level as well as 14 collembolans identified at least to genus level.

Top: Pitfall trap in place: a plastic cup half filled with ethanol, protected from the rain by a lid suspended with cocktail sticks. Bottom: Setting up a video camera trap. Walnut oil and mushroomsoaked water is dribbled on the ground one to two metres in front of the camera, such that movement in that area will trigger the video camera to start operating for one minute. Photos Clare Hawkins


77

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Scarlet Robin (Petroica multicolor). Illustration Brett Littleton.

Isopod specimens of the genus Notoniscus found on three of the islands were exceptionally large and also likely to be a new species. However no Australian taxonomist is currently working on onoscideans, and those elsewhere in the world were currently unavailable to examine the specimens.

Eighteen spider morphospecies were named during the survey by Lynne Forster. Morphospecies are taxa which are morphologically distinct from currently known species; they may therefore constitute separate species, but await formal description to confirm this. However, none of these were newly identified,

with many being common and widespread across Tasmania. Similarly, most of the named spider species are not only widespread in Tasmania, but also found on the mainland eg Novodamus nodatus and Prostheclina amplior. Even the endemics (Ommatauxesis macrops, Stanwellia pexa) have a

Table 1. Dates on which each island was visited (bold = main visit)

Island

Size (Ha)

Maximum elevation m (ASL)

Position in harbour

Geology

Date

Method

Bonnet

0.17

10

Entrance

Bedrock Metasedimentary

10 Dec 2009

Traverse

9 Dec 2009

Lower

Poorly consolidated sediments

Traverse, 4 hairtubes, 4 pitfalls

11 Dec 2009

Collect pitfalls, hair tubes

Cat

27.26

4

Elizabeth

2.12

23

Middle

Bedrock Metasedimentary

10 Dec 2009

Traverse

Entrance

0.61

not recorded

Entrance

no information

11 Dec 2009

Traverse

9 Dec 2009

Lower

Poorly consolidated sediments

Traverse, set 2 hair tubes, 1 camera

11 Dec 2009

Collect hair tube, camera

Magazine

Neck

Philips

Sarah

Soldiers

2.37

18.22

8.99

8.29

12.98

5

6

41

18

21

Lower

Upper

Upper

Upper

Weakly consolidated Pebble conglomerate

Semi-consolidated sandstone/ siltstone

Inter-bedded siltstone/ sandstone sediment

Semi 窶田onsolidated sandstone sequence

7 Dec 2009 9 Dec 2009

Traverse Traverse

8 Dec 2009

Traverse, set 3 cameras, 20 hairtubes

11 Dec 2009

Collect cameras & hair-tubes

11 Dec 2009

Traverse

8 Dec 2009

Traverse, set 3 cameras,15 hairtubes, 10 pitfalls

11 Dec 2009

Collect cameras, hair-tubes, pitfalls


78

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

White-bellied sea eagle (Haliaeetus leucogaster). Illustration Brett Littleton.

widespread distribution across Tasmania. Similarly, the beetle morphospecies and species identified on the islands have in general been found fairly widely across the state. The four bird species newly recorded were all common species well known from the area,

and it is quite surprising that they were not already recorded on the Natural Values Atlas. At least four species of rodent were identified by the hairtubes and on one of the video cameras. Cat hairs were found on Philips Island; hairs found on Cat Island were also suspected to be cat. A sea eagle nest was newly identified on Philips Island.

In addition to the cat records, introduced species newly recorded in Macquarie Harbour included the black rat, rabbit, four land snails, one collembolan, an amphipod and a spider. The earwigs, which were not identified to species, were also likely to be exotic. The highest numbers of fauna taxa were identified on Cat and Soldiers Islands, and the lowest on Bonnet Island. Island area could explain almost 65% of the variation in number of fauna and flora taxa identified on each island (Fig. 1a), though correlations were weaker when vertebrate and invertebrate taxa were considered independently (Fig. 1b), especially in the case of the vertebrates. No taxon was found on all of the islands, although the black currawong and forest raven were recorded on seven of them.

Setting off for Cat Island. Photo Clare Hawkins


Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Top: Sea eagle nest, Philips Island. Eagle nests should not normally be approached so closely during the breeding season; this nest was identified for the first time at the time the photograph was taken. Photo Clare Hawkins Bottom: Tree ferns Cyathea australis, Philips Island. Photo Clare Hawkins

79


80

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Table 2 Taxa recorded on the islands of Macquarie Harbour. Unless marked with a grey diamond, all taxa were recorded during the present survey. Data from â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Macquarie Hbr (pre Dec 2009)â&#x20AC;&#x2122; are taken from the Natural Values Atlas. Data from previous surveys on Sarah Island are from Phillips (2000) and Mallick (2000). Phylum Arthropoda Class Acari (mites and ticks) Macquarie Hbr (pre Dec09)

l

Soldiers

Sarah

Philips

Elizabeth

Neck

l

Magazine

l

Entrance

Elizabeth

l

Cat

Only identified to class

Bonnet

Family

Cat

Species

Bonnet

Common name

l

Tasmanian species?

Threatened status (state/ Federal lists)

-

-

Tasmanian species?

Threatened status (state/ Federal lists)

Class Malacostraca (amphipods and isopods)

Austrotroides maritimus Keratroides rex Keratroides vulgaris

Talitridae

l

Talitridae Talitridae

l l

l l

Macquarie Hbr (pre Dec09)

l

Soldiers

Styloniscidae

Sarah

l

Notoniscus spp.

Philips

Plymophiloscia spp.? Philosciidae

Neck

Family

Magazine

Species

Entrance

Common name

l

l

-

-

l

-

-

l

endemic

-/-

l l

endemic endemic

-/-/-

Class Arachnida (spiders and harvestmen) A number of morphospecies were juvenile, lacked males, or were damaged so full determination was not possible.

l

Amaurobiidae Amaurobiidae

Tasmanian species?

Threatened status (state/ Federal lists)

-

-

l

-

-

l

-

-

-

-

native

-/-

native

-/-

native native endemic

-/-/-/-

introduced

-/-

native native native

-/-/-

l

Anapidae

l

Araneidae

l

Araneidae Araneidae Clubionidae Desidae

l l l

l

l

l

Linyphiidae Linyphiidae Linyphiidae Linyphiidae Linyphiidae Linyphiidae Lycosidae Lycosidae

l l l l l l l l

Macquarie Hbr (pre Dec09)

l

Soldiers

Amaurobiidae

Sarah

Amaurobiidae MH1 Amaurobiidae MH2 Amaurobiidae MH3 Amaurobiidae MH4 Hickmanapis renison Acroaspis tuberculifera Araneus eburnus Araneus MH1 Clubiona elaphines Ommatauxesis macrops Diplocephalus cristatus Laperousea MH1 Linyphiidae MH1 Linyphiidae MH2 Linyphiidae MH3 Linyphiidae MH4 Artoriopsis expolita Tetralycosa oraria

Philips

Neck

Family

Magazine

Entrance

Elizabeth

Cat

Species

Amaurobioidiae

Bonnet

Common name


81

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Lycosidae MH1 Lycosidae Micropholcommatidae Micropholcomma sp.nr. bryophilum Stanwellia pexa Nemesiidae Novodamus nodatus Nicodamidae Prostheclina amplior Salticidae Ariadna sp. Segestriidae Stiphidion MH1 Stiphidiidae Achearanea MH1 Theridiidae Theridiidae MH1 Theridiidae Sidymella trapezia Thomisiidae Zodariidae MH1 Zodariidae Zodariidae MH2 Zodariidae Zoridae MH1 Zoridae Lycosoidea MH1 Unidentified Opilionida sp (harvestman)

l l l l l l

l

l l

l l l l

l l l

l l l

l

l

-

native

-/-

endemic native native native -

-/-/-/-/-

-

Class Insecta Order Coleoptera Partial distributions for some of the beetle species and morphospecies may be viewed at http://www.tfic.net.au/

l

-

-

l

l

-

-/-

l

-

-

native

-/-

-

-/-

-

-

-

-

native

-/-

l

-

-

l

-

-/-

-

-

l l

-

-

l l

-

-

l

-

-

l

-

-

l

Curculionidae Curculionidae

l l

Elateridae Elateridae

l l

Leiodidae Lycidae Salpingidae

l

Scarabaeidae

l

Scirtidae Staphylinidae Staphylinidae Staphylinidae Staphylinidae

l l

Staphylinidae

l

Staphylinidae

Macquarie Hbr (pre Dec09)

l

Cleridae

Soldiers

l

Sarah

Chrysomelidae

Philips

l

Neck

Carabidae

Magazine

Cantharidae

Entrance

Chauliognathus TFIC sp 01 Promecoderus brunnicornis Monolepta TFIC sp 01 Neoscrobiger patricius Mandalotus subterraneus Pentarthrum TFIC sp 01 Conoderus TFIC sp 09 Enischnelater specularis Zeadolopus TFIC sp 02 Porrostoma moerens Inopeplus TFIC sp 01 Heteronyx sp nr fumata Cyphon TFIC sp 06 Aleocharinae TFIC sp 10 Anotylus TFIC sp 02 Atheta TFIC sp 02 Ischnosoma TFIC sp 01 Microsilpha ANIC Thayer sp 15 Osirius TFIC sp 02

Elizabeth

Family

Cat

Species

Bonnet

Common name

Tasmanian species?

Threatened status (state/ Federal lists)


82

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Class Insecta Other orders (Blattodea, Auchenorrhyncha, Dermaptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, Heteroptera, Orthoptera, Sternorrhynca, Thysanoptera) Macquarie Hbr (pre Dec09)

l

Soldiers

Sarah

l

(Auchenorrhyncha

Philips

Neck

Magazine

Entrance

Elizabeth

Family

Cat

Species

Bonnet

Common name

Tasmanian species?

Threatened status (state/ Federal lists)

-

-

-

-

l l l

introduced? -

-

l

-

-

endemic

-/-

l

-

-

l

endemic

-/-

l

-

-

-

-

Tasmanian species?

Threatened status (state/ Federal lists)

native

-/-

-

-

-

-

l

spp)

(cockroach spp) (earwig spp) (fly spp) (ant spp) Formicidae Heteroptera spp) Hymenptera spp common Heteronympha Nymphalidae brown merope tax. salazar (Lepidoptera spp) Raspy cricket Kinemania Gryallacrididae ambulans cave cricket Micropathus sp

l

l

l

l

l l l l

l

l

l l

l

l

l

l

l

l

l l

l

l l

(Sternorrhyncha spp)

l

(thrip spp)

l

l

Class Chilopoda Macquarie Hbr (pre Dec09)

Soldiers

Sarah

l

Philips

Chileniphilidae

Neck

l

Magazine

Zelanion sp.

Entrance

Henicops maculatus Henicopidae

Elizabeth

Family

Cat

(centipede sp) (centipede sp) (Chilopoda spp)

Species

Bonnet

Common name

l

l l

l

l

l

Class Diplopoda For more information on these species and genera, some of which are in the process of being classified at the time of writing, see www.polydesmida.info/tasmanianmultipedes Macquarie Hbr (pre Dec09)

Soldiers

Sarah

Philips

Neck

Magazine

Entrance

Elizabeth

(millipede sp) Tasmaniosoma sp ‘hic’ (millipede sp) Amastigogonus sp (millipede AcuMes’ spp) (millipede sp) Amastigogonus sp

Family

Cat

Species

Bonnet

Common name

Tasmanian species?

Threatened status (state/ Federal lists)

Dalodesmidae

l

-

-/-

Iulomorphidae

l l

-

-/-

Iulomorphidae

l

-

-


83

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Dalodesmidae

l

l

Dalodesmidae(?)

-

l l

l

Neck

l

-

endemic

Magazine

(millipede Lissodesmus latus spp) (?) (millipede sp) Procophorella innupta (other Diplopoda spp)

-

-

Tasmanian species?

Threatened status (state/ Federal lists)

Class Collembola Macquarie Hbr (pre Dec09)

Soldiers

Sarah

Philips

Collembola Collembola Collembola Collembola Collembola Collembola

Entrance

Acanthocyrtus sp Acanthomurus sp Brachystomella sp Corynephoria sp Cryptopygus sp Hypogastrura purpurescens Katiannidae spp Lepidocyrtus sp Megalanura sp Odontellidae sp (1) Odontellidae? sp (2) Parakatianna (?) sp Uchidanurinae sp Dicyrtomidae sp

Elizabeth

Family

Cat

Species

Bonnet

Common name

l l l

l l

l l

Collembola Collembola Collembola Collembola Collembola Collembola Collembola Dicyrtomidae

l l

l l l l l

l l l

introduced

-

-

-

Tasmanian species?

Threatened status (state/ Federal lists)

-

-

Tasmanian species?

Threatened status (state/ Federal lists)

introduced

-/-

endemic endemic

-/-/-

native

-/-

Phylum Mollusca Class Pelecypoda (=Bivalvia)

l

Macquarie Hbr (pre Dec09)

Soldiers

Mytilidae

Sarah

Philips

Neck

Magazine

Entrance

Elizabeth

(marine mussel)

Family

Cat

Species

Bonnet

Common name

l

Class Gastropoda

l l

Charopidae

l

Charopidae Cystopeltidae Helicarionidae Helicidae Hydrobiidae

l

l

l l l

l

l

Macquarie Hbr (pre Dec09)

Soldiers

Sarah

Philips

Caryodidae Charopidae

l

Neck

Caryodes dufresnii Stenacapha hamiltoni Stenacapha vitrinaformis Thryasona diemenensis Cystopelta bicolor Helicarion cuvieri Helix aspersa Tatea rufilabris?

l

Magazine

Arionidae

Entrance

Arion intermedius

Elizabeth

Family

Cat

hedgehog arion

Species

Bonnet

Common name

endemic

-/-

native endemic introduced native

-/-/-/-/-


84

grey field slug slug

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Deroceras reticulatum Lehmannia nyctelia Laomavix collisi Magilaoma penolensis Trocholaoma parvissima

Limacidae

l

Limacidae Punctidae Punctidae

l

l

l l l

l

introduced

-/-

l

introduced native native

-/-/-/-

native

-/-

Tasmanian species?

Threatened status (state/ Federal lists)

Punctidae

l

Phylum Platyhelminthes (flatworms) Class Turbellaria

Species

Family

Artioposthia diemenensis Artioposthia mortoni Australoplana alba Tasmanoplana tasmaniana var. flavicincta

Geoplanidae

u

endemic

-/-

Geoplanidae Geoplanidae Geoplanidae

u u u

endemic endemic

-/-/-/-

-

-

Tasmanian species?

Threatened status (state/ Federal lists)

-

-

Macquarie Hbr (pre Dec09)

Tasmanian species?

Threatened status (state/ Federal lists)

u

introduced

-/-

Macquarie Hbr (pre Dec09)

Macquarie Hbr (pre Dec09)

Soldiers

Sarah (pre Dec09)

Philips

Neck

Magazine

Entrance

Elizabeth

Cat

Bonnet

Common name

Tasmanian species?

Threatened status (state/ Federal lists)

u

endemic

-/-

l

(unidentified turbellarian sp) Phylum Annelida Class Clitellata

Macquarie Hbr (pre Dec09)

Magazine

Soldiers

Entrance

Sarah (pre Dec09)

l

Philips

l

Neck

Magazine

l

Elizabeth

l

Entrance

Oligochaeta sp

Elizabeth

Family

Cat

Species

Bonnet

Common name

Phylum Chordata Class Actinopterygii Soldiers

Sarah (pre Dec09)

Salmonidae

Philips

Salmo salar

Neck

Family

Cat

Atlantic salmon

Species

Bonnet

Common name

Class Amphibia Soldiers

Sarah (pre Dec09)

Philips

Neck

Magazine

Myobatrachidae

Entrance

Crinia tasmaniensis

Elizabeth

Family

Cat

Tasmanian froglet

Species

Bonnet

Common name


85

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Class Reptilia Macquarie Hbr (pre Dec09)

Soldiers

Sarah

Philips

Scincidae

Neck

Niveoscincus metallicus Tiliqua nigrolutea

Elapidae Elapidae

Magazine

Elapidae

Entrance

Drysdalia coronoides Notechis scutatus

Elizabeth

blotched bluetongue (skink sp)

Family

Cat

White-lipped snake Tiger snake snake (copperhead or tiger) metallic skink

Species

Bonnet

Common name

Tasmanian species?

Threatened status (state/ Federal lists)

u

native

-/-

u

native -

-/-

u

native

-/-

native

-/-

-

-

Threatened status (state/ Federal lists) -/-

u

native

-/-

u

u u

endemic native

-/-/-

u

u

endemic

-/-

u

native

-/-

l

l

l

Scincidae

u

Scincidae

l

Class Aves Soldiers

Macquarie Hbr (pre Dec09)

Tasmanian species?

l

u

l

u

endemic

l

l

l

l

Accipiter cirrocephalus Accipiter fasciatus

Accipitridae Accipitridae

u

u

native

-/-

Accipiter novaehollandiae Aquila audax

Accipitridae

u

u

native

e/-

Accipitridae

u

u

native

Accipitridae

u

u

native

e / EN (TAS subspecies) -/-

l u nest

u

native

v/-

u

introduced

-/-

endemic

swamp Circus approximans harrier white-bellied Haliaeetus sea-eagle leucogaster eurasian Alauda arvensis skylark azure Ceyx azureus kingfisher chestnut teal grey teal northern mallard pacific black duck musk duck

Sarah

Acanthornis magnus Acanthizidae Calamanthus Acanthizidae fuliginosus Sericornis humilis Acanthizidae

l

Philips

Acanthizidae

Neck

Acanthiza pusilla

l

Magazine

Acanthizidae

Entrance

Acanthiza ewingii

Elizabeth

wedge-tailed eagle

Family

Cat

tasmanian thornbill brown thornbill scrubtit striated fieldwren tasmanian scrubwren collared sparrowhawk brown goshawk grey goshawk

Species

Bonnet

Common name

Accipitridae

l

Alaudidae Alcedinidae

u

Anas castanea Anas gracilis Anas platyrhynchos

Anatidae Anatidae Anatidae

u u

Anas superciliosa

Anatidae

Biziura lobata

Anatidae

u u

native native introduced

e /EN (TAS subspecies) -/-/-/-

u

native

-/-

u

native

-/-

l l

l

u

l


86

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

l feathers

black swan

Cygnus atratus

Anatidae

u

Australian shelduck whitethroated needletail cattle egret great egret white-faced heron dusky woodswallow black currawong sulphurcrested cockatoo yellowtailed black cockatoo black-faced cuckooshrike doublebanded plover red-capped plover lesser golden plover hooded plover masked lapwing brush bronzewing forest raven

Tadorna tadornoides Anatidae

fan-tailed cuckoo pallid cuckoo horsfields bronzecuckoo shining bronzecuckoo beautiful firetail brown falcon or brown falcon (tasmanian) european goldfinch common greenfinch sooty oystercatcher

Cacomantis Cuculidae flabelliformis Cacomantis pallidus Cuculidae Chalcites basalis Cuculidae

u

Cuculidae

l

u

u

native

-/-

native

-/-

Hirundapus caudacutus

Apodidae

u

native

-/-

Ardea ibis Ardea modesta Egretta novaehollandiae Artamus cyanopterus Strepera fuliginosa

Ardeidae Ardeidae Ardeidae

u u u

native native native

-/-/-/-

u

native

-/-

u

endemic

-/-

Cacatua galerita

Cacatuidae

u

u

native

-/-

Calyptorhynchus funereus

Cacatuidae

u

u

native

-/-

Coracina novaehollandiae

Campephagidae

u

u

native

-/-

Charadrius bicinctus Charadriidae

u

native

-/-

Charadrius ruficapillus Pluvialis fulva

Charadriidae

u

native

-/-

Charadriidae

u

native

-/-

Thinornis rubricollis

Charadriidae

u

native

-/-

Vanellus miles

Charadriidae

u

native

-/-

Phaps elegans

Columbidae

u

native

-/-

Corvus tasmanicus

Corvidae

u

native

-/-

u

native

-/-

u u

native native

-/-/-

u

u

native

-/-

u

u

native

-/-

Chrysococcyx lucidus

l

u

Artamidae Artamidae

Stagonopleura bella Estrilidae

l

l

l

l

l

l

l

u

l

u l

l nest

l

l

l

u

l

Falco berigora

Falconidae

u

u

native

-/-

Carduelis carduelis

Fringillidae

u

u

introduced

-/-

Carduelis chloris

Fringillidae

u

introduced

-/-

Haematopus fuliginosus

Haematopodidae

u

native

-/-


87

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

pied oystercatcher welcome swallow tree martin kelp gull silver gull pacific gull crested tern caspian tern fairy tern superb fairywren southern emu-wren eastern spinebill little wattlebird white-fronted chat yellowthroated honeyeater strong-billed honeyeater tawnycrowned honeyeater new holland honeyeater crescent honeyeater richards pipit

Haematopus longirostris Hirundo neoxena

u

native

-/-

u

native

-/-

native

-/-

u

native native

-/-/-

u u u u u

native native native native native

-/-/-/v/-/-

u

native

-/-

u

native

-/-

Meliphagidae

u

native

-/-

Meliphagidae

u

native

-/-

u

endemic

-/-

u

native

-/-

u

native

-/-

u

native

-/-

u

native

-/-

u

native

-/-

u

native

-/-

u

u

native

-/-

Pachycephalidae

u

u

native

-/-

Pardalotidae

u

u

native

-/-

Pardalotidae

u

native

-/-

Passeridae

u

exotic

-/-

u u u u

endemic native native native

-/-/-/-/-

u

native

-/-

Haematopodidae

Hirundinidae

Petrochelidon nigricans Larus dominicanus Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae Larus pacificus Thalasseus bergii Hydroprogne caspia Sterna nereis Malurus cyaneus

Hirundinidae

Stipiturus malachurus Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris Anthochaera chrysoptera Epthianura albifrons

Maluridae

Lichenostomus flavicollis

Meliphagidae

l

l l

l l

l

l

l

u u u

l

l

u

Meliphagidae

u

l

l

Melithreptus Meliphagidae validirostris Glyciphila melanops Meliphagidae

Phylidonyris novaehollandiae Phylidonyris pyrrhoptera Anthus novaeseelandiae grey shrike- Colluricincla thrush harmonica olive whistler Pachycephala olivacea golden Pachycephala whistler pectoralis spotted Pardalotus pardalote punctatus striated Pardalotus striatus pardalote house Passer domesticus sparrow dusky robin Melanodryas vittata scarlet robin Petroica boodang flame robin Petroica phoenicea pink robin Petroica rodinogaster black-faced Phalacrocorax shag fuscescens great Phalacrocorax carbo cormorant little pied Phalacrocorax cormorant melanoleucos

u u

Laridae Laridae Laridae Laridae Laridae Laridae Maluridae

l

l

l

l

Meliphagidae Meliphagidae

u

u l

l nest

l

l

u

l

Motacillidae Pachycephalidae Pachycephalidae

Petroicidae Petroicidae Petroicidae Petroicidae

l

u l

u

u

Phalacrocoracidae

l

Phalacrocoracidae

u

u

native

-/-

Phalacrocoracidae

u

u

native

-/-


88

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

little black cormorant brown quail or swamp quail (ssp. of brown quail) hoaryheaded grebe southern fulmar blue petrel southern giant-petrel slender-billed prion fairy prion

Phalacrocoracidae Phalacrocorax sulcirostris Coturnix ypsilophora Phasianidae

l

l

l

l

u

native

-/-

u

native

-/-

Poliocephalus poliocephalus Fulmarus glacialoides Halobaena caerulea Macronectes giganteus Pachyptila belcheri

Podicepididae

u

native

-/-

Procellariidae

u

native

-/-

Procellariidae Procellariidae

u u

native native

v / VU v / EN

Procellariidae

u

native

-/-

Pachyptila turtur

Procellariidae

u

native

common diving-petrel white-headed petrel great-winged petrel (blank) short-tailed shearwater

Pelecanoides urinatrix Pterodroma lessonii

Procellariidae

u

native

e / VU (southern subspecies) -/-

Procellariidae

u

native

v/-

Pterodroma Procellariidae macroptera Ardenna sp. Procellariidae Ardenna tenuirostris Procellariidae

u

native

-/-

u

native

-/-

swift parrot

Lathamus discolor

Psittacidae

e / EN

ground parrot green rosella

Pezoporus wallicus

Psittacidae

u

migratory breeding endemic native

u

endemic

-/-

u u u

native native native native

-/-/-/-/-

u u

native native

-/-/-

u

native

-/-

u u

native native

-/-/-

u

native

-/-

Platycercus Psittacidae caledonicus eurasian coot Fulica atra Rallidae Lewinâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rail Lewinia pectoralis Rallidae grey fantail Rhipidura albiscapa Rhipiduridae ruddy Arenaria interpres Scolopacidae turnstone sanderling Calidris alba Scolopacidae curlew Calidris ferruginea Scolopacidae sandpiper red-necked Calidris ruficollis Scolopacidae stint lathams snipe Gallinago hardwickii Scolopacidae bar-tailed Limosa lapponica Scolopacidae godwit Terek Xenus cinereus Scolopacidae sandpiper little penguin Eudyptula minor Spheniscidae southern Ninox Strigidae boobook novaeseelandiae common Sturnus vulgaris Sturnidae starling australasian Morus serrator Sulidae gannet silvereye Zosterops lateralis Timaliidae common Turdus merula Turdidae blackbird bassian Zoothera lunulata Turdidae thrush

l l burrows

u

l

l

l

u

u u

l

l

-/-

l

l

u u

u

native native

-/-/-

l

l

u

u

introduced

-/-

u

native

-/-

u u

native introduced

-/-/-

u

native

-/-

l l

l

l

u u u

l


89

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Class Mammalia

Leporidae

l

Macropodidae

l

tasmanian pademelon macropod sp water-rat long-tailed mouse / broadtoothed mouse Swamp rat/ long-tailed mouse black rat rat unidentified rodent brushtail possum

l

hair

Rattus rattus

Muridae

Rattus sp.

Muridae Muridae

Trichosurus vulpecula

Phalangeridae

Initial exploratory analyses did not find clearly higher numbers of shared taxa between geologically similar islands than for between geologically dissimilar ones. Among geologically similar pairs, Elizabeth and Bonnet Islands shared only 11% of the 44 taxa found on at least one of them, while Philips and Soldiers Island shared 14% out of 87 taxa. Conversely the geologically dissimilar pair Philips and Elizabeth shared 16% out of 58 taxa. Ninety-two taxa recorded previously in the Natural Values Atlas or other records as found in Macquarie Harbour were not identified during the present study. Almost all of these (82 taxa) were birds.

Threatened status (state/ Federal lists)

introduced l

u

l

scat

Hydromys Muridae chrysogaster Pseudomys higginsi / Muridae Mastacomys fuscus

Muridae

Tasmanian species?

introduced

hair

Macropodidae

Rattus lutreolus / Pseudomys higginsi

Macquarie Hbr (pre Dec09)

Oryctolagus cuniculus Thylogale billardierii

Soldiers

rabbit

?

Sarah

Felidae

Philips

Felis catus

Neck

feral cat

Magazine

Family

Entrance

Species

Elizabeth

Cat

Bonnet

Common name

l

hair

l

hair

l

video

l

l

l

introduced

l

introduced

hair

hair

l

scat

hair

signs

l

Brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). Illustration Brett Littleton.


90

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Black currawong (Strepera fuliginosa). Illustration Brett Littleton.

Figure 1. Numbers of taxa recorded on each island during the present survey, by island area (a) Number of plant and animal taxa recorded on each island surveyed (b) Number of invertebrate and vertebrate taxa identified on each island surveyed.


91

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Discussion The Hamish Saunders Memorial Trust survey has provided a substantial body of new, precisely located information, especially with regard to invertebrate records. Prior to the present study, fauna records in Macquarie Harbour comprised almost exclusively information on birds, and, apart from those recorded on Sarah Island, were not located to a specific island. Notable extensions to recorded species ranges included that for the land snail Stenacapha vitrinaformis. This species has been recorded only twice on the central west coast, being much more common in southern forests and the adjacent southwest, and has not previously been recorded from an island (K. Bonham pers. comm.;). Additionally, specimens of the weevil Mandalotus subterraneus have only previously been collected from the far north-east of the State.

Top: Ommatauxesis macrops (Desidae) 8mm - an endemic littoral spider found on Cat Island. a: dorsal view; b: male palps have an extremely elongate cymbium. Photos by Lynne Forster Bottom: Metallic skink Niveoscincus metallicus, Philips Island Photo Clare Hawkins

A number of questions which naturally emerge cannot be answered within the confines of this relatively brief survey effort. Firstly, a number of bird species previously recorded were not recorded during the present study. This might be explained, at least in part, by the lack of precision for the previous records - the birds may have been observed on the mainland rather than on any of the islands. However, it is quite possible that these species were present but simply missed due to

the lack of time available for the survey. Species number increased, as expected, with island area. The well-established theory of island biogeography (MacArthur & Wilson 1967) argues that the number of species found on an undisturbed island is reduced by distance of an island from the mainland, and is increased by island size. It might be expected that islands closer to the coast would lie above the regression


92

lines shown in Figure 1, while those further from the coast would lie below them, but this was not clearly the case. Relatively high or low levels of disturbance are also associated with reduced species number, but this does not explain why the number of species found on Neck Island was so low given its size, proximity to the coast and moderate level of disturbance. If a more exhaustive survey were possible, it would be interesting to analyse species number and composition in terms of these factors and the contribution of geology, habitat and history of disturbance - however, given the period available for survey and various sources of variation in search effort across islands and taxa (eg pitfall traps on some islands and not others), this would be of rather limited value with the presently available data. While invertebrate diversity was relatively high given the small sample sizes, the number of invertebrate taxa recorded by the survey was only about two and half times that for the vertebrates. Given typical ratios of vertebrate to invertebrate species, and typical invertebrate species numbers in Tasmania, more thorough survey work would be expected to reveal almost an order of magnitude more invertebrate species.

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009

Management recommendations The most notable find relating to management requirements was the record of cat hair on Philips Island and potentially on Cat Island. The small size of these islands means that confirmation of these observations and, if present, subsequent eradication would be a relatively achievable action. Given that these islands are protected areas, it would be particularly appropriate to remove this exotic predator. Eight species listed as threatened at least at State level (four being listed also at National level) had already been recorded on the islands. A sea eagle nest was found during the present study on Philips Island, and proposed activities on this island should avoid the breeding season, which takes place between July and February.

References MacArthur, R.H. & Wilson, E.O. (1967). The theory of island biogeography. Princeton, NJ. Princeton University Press. Mallick, S.A. (2000). Preliminary survey of the impacts of helicopter flights on the bird-life of Sarah Island. Report to Fauna Section, Department of Primary Industries, Water & Environment, Hobart. Phillips, A. (1992). Sarah Island Historic Site Visitor Services Site Fauna Survey. Unpublished report, Department of Parks, Wildlife and Heritage, Hobart.


CITATION: Pemberton, M., Hawkins, C. (2011). THE ISLANDS OF MACQUARIE HARBOUR. Hamish Saunders Memorial Trust, New Zealand and Resource Management and Conservation Division, DPIPWE, Hobart, Nature Conservation Report Series 11/01 ISBN (Book): 978-0-7246-6567-9 ISBN (Web): 978-0-7246-6568-6

A partnership program between the Hamish Saunders Memorial Trust, New Zealand and Resource Management and Conservation Division, DPIPWE, Tasmania. DESIGN AND LAYOUT: ILS Design Unit, DPIPWE ILLUSTRATIONS: Brett Littleton OBJECTS PHOTOGRAPHY: Graeme Harrington, Tasphoto Services, DPIPWE COVER: Narrow cobble beach on the east coast of Neck Island. Photo Paul Donaldson. INSIDE COVER: Cape Sorell Lighthouse. Photo Brett Littleton. Š Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment, 2011. This publication is printed on recycled paper. COPYRIGHT This work is copyright. It may be reproduced for study, research or training purposes subject to an acknowledgement of the sources and no commercial use or sale. Requests and enquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to the Resource Management and Conservation Division, DPIPWE or the Hamish Saunders Memorial Trust, Auckland, New Zealand.


THE ISLANDS OF MACQUARIE HARBOUR

Resource, Management and Conservation Division Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment GPO Box 44 Hobart, Tasmania, 7001

THE ISLANDS OF MACQUARIE HARBOUR

Hamish Saunders Memorial Island Sur vey Program 2009 HAMISH SAUNDERS MEMORIAL T R U S T, N E W Z E A L A N D Editors

Michael Pember ton and Clare Hawkins

Depar tment of Pr imar y Industr ies, Par ks, Water and Environment


MacQuarie Harbour Survey 2009