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SHAPING ACTIVE, HEALTHY COMMUNITIES


HEALTH AND THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT An introduction


Shaping Active, Healthy Communities Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada - Who we are •

Volunteer-based health charity working to eliminate heart disease and stroke and to reduce their impact through the advancement of research, promotion of healthy living and advocacy

Federation of 10 provincial Foundations, led and supported by a force of more than 130,000 volunteers

Working to learn more about the link between the way we plan our communities, physical activity and health


Shaping Active, Healthy Communities PRESENTATION PURPOSE •

To build awareness of the links between community design, physical activity and health

To learn how people can shape and influence their community’s design to support more active, healthier living

To introduce the Heart & Stroke Foundation’s Shaping Active, Healthy Communities Toolkit


Outline WHAT? •

The link between community design, physical activity and health

WHY? •

The health impacts – why should we be concerned?

HOW? •

Some ideas and strategies for making our built environments healthier

WHO? •

The planning process, the decision-makers and getting involved – what can we do?


What is the built environment? •

The surroundings that we have created for our activities – buildings, roads, sidewalks, street furniture…everything

Scale of surroundings or the built environment vary -- from large-scale urban areas to rural places and personal spaces

Includes indoor and outdoor places


How did you get to the workshop today…and why?


What’s the link? HOW DOES OUR BUILT ENVIRONMENT AND AFFECT OUR HEALTH? •

Research indicates a relationship between how our cities and towns are physically laid out and health

Strong links between the transportation choices we make (i.e., driving, walking, cycling, taking the bus) and health risk factors, such as the lack of physical activity and obesity

Clear links between the lack of physical activity and obesity and chronic diseases – heart disease, stroke, diabetes, etc.


The link between community design, physical activity and health

Regional, county & municipal zoning, infrastructure investment, etc.

Density, mix, transportation options, connections, etc.

Amount of walking, cycling, transit use, recreation, etc

Physical inactivity, traffic accidents, pollution exposure, etc.


Regional, county & municipal zoning, infrastructure investment, etc.


Land Use & Policy – the big picture CITIES AND TOWNS LOOK THE WAY THEY DO LARGELY BECAUSE OF LOCAL, REGIONAL AND COUNTY POLICIES •

Plans: set out the principles and broad directions for land development

Zoning: stipulates what kinds of land uses (e.g., commercial, residential, etc.) can go where

Budgets: dictate where public investments are made (e.g., roads, sidewalks, transit, tree planting, etc.)


1.

LAND USE POLICIES AND PRACTICES Regional, county & municipal zoning, infrastructure investment, etc.

Density, mix, transportation options, connections, etc.


LAND USE + DENSITY = URBAN FORM Land use: refers to the uses allowed on a specific property, block, or neighbourhood •

Typical land use types include residential, commercial, industrial, parks, and combinations of them

A

B


LAND USE + DENSITY = URBAN FORM Density: refers to the intensity of the use in a particular area •

Can be measured in many ways, including the number of housing units in an area, the amount of commercial floor space in an area, the number of jobs in an area, etc.

A

B


LAND USE AND DENSITY Policies that separated land uses, coupled with low density development has created problems •

Work, home, shopping and recreation became further separated

Development became auto-focused – the mall, office parks, etc.

Urban and rural sprawl became more common

A

B


LAND USE AND DENSITY Where are these places and what do they have in common?

A

B


LAND USE AND DENSITY Urban and rural sprawl have become major challenges •

Low density development combined with limited land use mix

•

Places to work, rest, play and education are widely scattered

A

B


TRANSPORTATION OPTIONS •

Low density development combined with limited land use mix limits transportation options

Places to work, rest, play and education end up widely scattered

Connections between them designed with the car in mind, not bike or pedestrians


TRANSPORTATION OPTIONS • •

Poor connections between places limit transportation options Bigger distances between places encourages more driving

Less than 1000 ft. (304.8 m) A to B Route distance approx 4000 ft. (1.2 km)

Less than 1000 ft. (304.8 m) A to B Route distance just over 1000 ft. (0.3 km)


TRANSPORTATION OPTIONS •

Uncomfortable and sometimes even unsafe built environments can limit options

One of the biggest barriers to physical activity in sprawling communities is perceived lack of safety

Safety Concerns keep 1 in 5 Canadians from walking or cycling


1.

LAND USE POLICIES AND PRACTICES Regional, county & municipal zoning, infrastructure investment, etc.

2.

URBAN AND RURAL FORM Density, mix, transportation options, connections, etc.

Amount of walking, cycling, transit use, recreation, etc


INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR What choices are Canadians making now? • • • • •

91% of Canadian children and youth are not getting recommended levels of physical activity Almost ½ of Canadians are physically inactive 41% spend less than one hour a week walking to school, to work or to do errands Walking and cycling rates are especially low in rural and suburban areas Residents are 65%more likely to walk in a neighborhood with sidewalks


INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR Walking and bicycle share of urban travel


INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR Walking and bicycle share of urban travel by age group

USA

Germany

The Netherlands


1.

LAND USE POLICIES AND PRACTICES Regional, county & municipal zoning, infrastructure investment, etc.

2.

URBAN AND RURAL FORM Density, mix, transportation options, connections, etc.

3.

INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR Amount of walking, cycling, transit use, recreation, etc


HEALTH IMPACTS Body Mass Index BMI in BC – “Canada’s healthiest province” 2001

BMI ≥ 30

< 10.0%

2003

10.0% - 14.9%

2005

15.0% - 19.9%

≥ 20%


HEALTH IMPACTS Obesity Percentages

8.90 - 15.14 15.15 - 18.91 18.92 - 22.59 22.60 - 26.42 26.43 - 32.24 No Data


HEALTH IMPACTS •

Lack of physical activity is a key contributor to Canada‟s high overweight and obesity rates

Nearly 60% of adults and 26% cent of our children are currently overweight or obese.

Rate of overweight Canadian kids has nearly tripled since 1981

National “inactivity level” in youth averages 58%

Obesity is also associated with certain cancers, osteoarthritis, depression, and other diseases


HEALTH IMPACTS •

Risk of obesity goes up 6% for every hour spent in a car each day

Risk of obesity goes down by almost 5% for every kilometre walked a day

US study in Washington State indicated that average residents of “pedestrian-friendly” places weigh 7lb less than average resident in sprawling neighbourhood


HEALTH IMPACTS •

Obesity and physical inactivity is considered a “conveyor belt” to heart disease and stroke and other health concerns

1 in 3 obese children will be diabetic

Obesity is strongly related to the development of chronic conditions, such as cardiovascular disease, Type 2 diabetes, and various cancers

Low physical activity rates result in an estimated $5.3 billion per year in direct and indirect costs


OTHER HEALTH IMPACTS •

Many pedestrian and cyclist injuries due to poor and unsafe walking and riding conditions (i.e., poor built environment)

Road design - wide arterials most dangerous

Seniors and school kids most vulnerable

More compact, mixed-use communities have lower traffic fatality rates than sprawling ones

A

B


OTHER HEALTH IMPACTS •

Asthma is the most common chronic childhood disease

7% more asthma among kids living in neighbourhoods with high traffic pollution

Most vulnerable populations: elderly, young, people with asthma or other respiratory conditions, people with heart disease

A

B


“Land-use decisions are just as much public health decisions as are decisions about food preparation. …We must measure the impact of environmental decisions on real people, and we must begin… to frame those decisions in light of the well being of children, not only in this country but across the globe.”

Richard Jackson Director, National Center for Environmental Health Centre for Disease Control (USA)


SHAPING ACTIVE, HEALTHY COMMUNITIES Part 2


Reimaging the link between community design, physical activity and health Progressive regional, county & municipal zoning, infrastructure investment, etc.

Higher density, mixed-use walkable communities with good transportation options, connections, etc.

Increased walking, cycling, transit use, recreation, etc.

Improved physical fitness and activity levels, reduced traffic accidents, decreased air pollution emissions, etc.


Outline WHAT? •

The link between community design, physical activity and health

WHY? •

The health impacts – why should we be concerned?

HOW? •

Some ideas and strategies for making our built environments healthier

WHO? •

The planning process, the decision-makers and getting involved – what can we do?


Community Design Strategies for Active, Healthy Living 1. 2. 3. 4.

5.

INCREASE DENSITY AND MIX LAND USES – diversity! EXPAND CONNECTIONS – bikes, people and transit IMPROVE STREETS AND INFRASTRUCTURE – the public realm IMPROVE PUBLIC TRANSIT – connections to, through & between RECREATIONAL FACILITIES – link, expand, diversify


INCREASE DENSITY AND MIX LAND USES

A

B

C

Density is a misunderstood concept

Not always supported (or understood)

So….what is density? What does it look like?


INCREASE DENSITY AND MIX LAND USES •

Increased density can create more compact, walkable communities

Density without mixed use or walkable services and shopping can adversely impact neighbourhoods

=

Same density of 11.7 units per acre (Images: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy)


INCREASE DENSITY AND MIX LAND USES Mixed-use development â&#x20AC;˘

Mixing housing with other uses (places to learn, shop, work and play) increases the likelihood of people walking or biking to destinations

â&#x20AC;˘

Increasing the density of an area is an integral component to mixing land uses

A

B


INCREASE DENSITY AND MIX LAND USES

A

B

C

Infill: new homes (e.g., lane houses, cottages, etc.) built on existing lots

Clustering: homes built closer together with shared gardens and green spaces


INCREASE DENSITY AND MIX LAND USES Infill Infill development opportunities on unused and underused sites (e.g., old industrial land, surface parking lots, etc.) â&#x20AC;˘

â&#x20AC;˘

Opportunities in urban and rural areas

A

B


INCREASE DENSITY AND MIX LAND USES Higher density can also save public dollars Per capita service cost

Residential density


INCREASE DENSITY AND MIX LAND USES Increasing density slide show in Hercules, California •

Existing conditions – strip development with no destinations to walk or ride to


INCREASE DENSITY AND MIX LAND USES Increasing density slide show in Hercules, California â&#x20AC;˘

Mixed-use development hides parking lot; building added to corner; pedestrian crosswalks and improved bike lane


INCREASE DENSITY AND MIX LAND USES Increasing density slide show in Hercules, California â&#x20AC;˘

More storefronts added at sidewalk


Community Design Strategies for Active, Healthy Living 1. 2. 3. 4.

5.

INCREASE DENSITY AND MIX LAND USES – diversity! EXPAND CONNECTIONS – bikes, people and transit IMPROVE STREETS AND INFRASTRUCTURE – the public realm IMPROVE PUBLIC TRANSIT – connections to, through & between RECREATIONAL FACILITIES – link, expand, diversify


EXPAND CONNECTIONS Remember - poor connections between places limit transportation options Less than 1000 ft. (304.8 m) A to B Route distance approx 4000 ft. (1.2 km)

Less than 1000 ft. (304.8 m) A to B Route distance just over 1000 ft. (0.3 km)


EXPAND CONNECTIONS A formal bike network with signage, dedicated bike lanes (painted on roads, or separated lanes) improves safety and connections

A

B


EXPAND CONNECTIONS â&#x20AC;˘ â&#x20AC;˘

Bike lanes can often be used by other wheeled transport Well-designed and maintained sidewalks and bike lanes can be used in all seasons

A

B


EXPAND CONNECTIONS Improving pedestrian and bicycle connections in Alpine, California •

Existing conditions – no sidewalk or crosswalk, poorly marked bike lane


EXPAND CONNECTIONS Improving pedestrian and bicycle connections in Alpine, California â&#x20AC;˘

New sidewalks with corner bulges to shorten crossing distance and improve pedestrian visibility, crosswalks, medians (pedestrian refuge), street trees, street lamps, and street furniture


EXPAND CONNECTIONS Improving pedestrian and bicycle connections in Alpine, California â&#x20AC;˘

Building renovation and sidewalk-oriented infill development. Note awning on store â&#x20AC;&#x201C; weather protection for pedestrians


EXPAND CONNECTIONS Improving pedestrian and bicycle connections in Alpine, California â&#x20AC;˘

Further infill facing sidewalk


EXPAND CONNECTIONS Improving pedestrian and bicycle connections in Alpine, California •

Existing conditions – no sidewalk or crosswalk, poorly marked bike lane


Community Design Strategies for Active, Healthy Living 1. 2. 3. 4.

5.

INCREASE DENSITY AND MIX LAND USES – diversity! EXPAND CONNECTIONS – bikes, people and transit IMPROVE STREETS AND INFRASTRUCTURE – the public realm IMPROVE PUBLIC TRANSIT – connections to, through & between RECREATIONAL FACILITIES – link, expand, diversify


IMPROVE STREETS AND INFRASTRUCTURE Pedestrian infrastructure includes crosswalks and pedestrian-controlled traffic signals, pedestrian and bike friendly street lighting, benches (i.e., places to rest, relax, etc.), pedestrian bridges, weather protection (e.g., awnings), etc.

A

B


IMPROVE STREETS AND INFRASTRUCTURE Pedestrian infrastructure also includes traffic calming features like traffic circles, curb bulges, raised crosswalks and narrowed streets that slow traffic speeds

A

B


IMPROVE STREETS AND INFRASTRUCTURE Cycling infrastructure, includes bike racks, covered parking, etc. A

B

C


IMPROVE STREETS AND INFRASTRUCTURE • •

Cycling infrastructure also includes signage and signals New rental bike programs are also helping encourage more people to ride (Montreal pictured)

A

B


IMPROVE STREETS AND INFRASTRUCTURE Improving streets and infrastructure in Cotati, California â&#x20AC;˘

Existing conditions


IMPROVE STREETS AND INFRASTRUCTURE Improving streets and infrastructure in Cotati, California â&#x20AC;˘

Street improvements with signalized intersection, crosswalk, new street lighting, street planters and trees


IMPROVE STREETS AND INFRASTRUCTURE Improving streets and infrastructure in Cotati, California â&#x20AC;˘

Street improvements with traffic calming roundabout and pedestrian median refuges


Community Design Strategies for Active, Healthy Living 1. 2. 3. 4.

5.

INCREASE DENSITY AND MIX LAND USES – diversity! EXPAND CONNECTIONS – bikes, people and transit IMPROVE STREETS AND INFRASTRUCTURE – the public realm IMPROVE PUBLIC TRANSIT – connections to, through & between RECREATIONAL FACILITIES – link, expand, diversify


IMPROVE PUBLIC TRANSIT â&#x20AC;˘

Transit users often accumulate some or all of their needed 30minutes of daily physical activity walking to and from transit stops

â&#x20AC;˘

More people will use transit if it provides convenient links to, between and through major destinations


IMPROVE PUBLIC TRANSIT Mixed-use development â&#x20AC;˘

â&#x20AC;˘

Transit that supports bicycle use can also help support and increase cycling and extend the reach of transit Bike friendly amenities include bus bike racks, bike storage lockers at transit stations, the ability to take bikes on board, etc.


Community Design Strategies for Active, Healthy Living 1. 2. 3. 4.

5.

INCREASE DENSITY AND MIX LAND USES – diversity! EXPAND CONNECTIONS – bikes, people and transit IMPROVE STREETS AND INFRASTRUCTURE – the public realm IMPROVE PUBLIC TRANSIT – connections to, through & between RECREATIONAL FACILITIES – link, expand, diversify


RECREATIONAL FACILITIES Mixed-use development •

The availability of recreational facilities affects levels of physical activity

People are more likely to meet the recommended levels of physical activity living within a 10 minute walking distance of a park, trail or other open recreational space

Trail use decreases by almost 50% with every half-kilometer distance increase

A

B


Outline WHAT? •

The link between community design, physical activity and health

WHY? •

The health impacts – why should we be concerned?

HOW? •

Some ideas and strategies for making our built environments healthier

WHO? •

The planning process, the decision-makers and getting involved – what can we do?


How Local Planning Shapes Community Environments 1. 2. 3.

How planning works Who does it How it happens


How Local Planning Shapes Community Environments â&#x20AC;˘

Planning happens at three different scales

â&#x20AC;˘

Healthy built environment opportunities at each level


PLANNING AT THE REGIONAL LEVEL Major planning projects include: •

Transportation plans – transit, roads, cycling

Growth Management – where new development happens at the regional level

Opportunity for input and engagement with these plans


PLANNING AT THE CITY AND TOWN LEVEL Major planning projects include: Official Community Plans/Town Plans – land use and zoning, establish a community‟s vision for the future • Transportation Plans – cycling, pedestrian, local roads • Parks and Recreation – connections, facilities, greenways • Opportunity for input and engagement with these plans •


PLANNING AT THE NEIGHBOURHOOD/SITE LEVEL Major planning projects include: •

Neighbourhood Plans – land use, cycling & pedestrian connections

Park Plans – plans for individual parks and local greenways

Opportunity for input and engagement with these plans


Planning at all levels More “traditional” communities and holistic planning on the rise •

Smart Growth: „Healthy Community‟ land use principles

New Urbanism: A return to “small town” mixed land uses

Sustainability Planning: Big picture planning that recognizes the importance healthy built environments to quality of life

A

B

C


Taking Action in Your Community: Tips and Tools 1.

GET STARTED – lay the groundwork

2.

GET TO KNOW WHAT‟S GOING ON – analyze conditions

3.

GET ENGAGED – informally, formally or something in between


GET STARTED •

Spread the word

Identify & reach out to partners

Organize a presentation

Form a group or coalition


GET STARTED Get to know key people to know at “The Hall”: • • •

• •

Mayor and council Chief Administrative Officer (CAO)/City Manager Directors of Planning, Parks (CAO)/City Manager Directors of Planning, Parks and Recreation, Development Services, Engineering Advisory Committees Planning Technician Public Health Staff


Taking Action in Your Community: Tips and Tools 1.

GET STARTED – lay the groundwork

2.

GET TO KNOW WHAT’S GOING ON – analyze conditions

3.

GET ENGAGED – informally, formally or something in between


GET TO KNOW WHAT’S GOING ON Are there any healthy built environment programs underway? •

Is there a long-term active, healthy community vision for the community?

What are the opportunities for involvement in planning (e.g., in current processes, on committees, etc.)?


GET TO KNOW WHAT’S GOING ON •

Conduct an healthy built environment audit or assessment

Collect local health statistics – how does your community compare?


Taking Action in Your Community: Tips and Tools 1.

GET STARTED – lay the groundwork

2.

GET TO KNOW WHAT‟S GOING ON – analyze conditions

3.

GET ENGAGED – informally, formally or something in between


GET ENGAGED At the city or town level: •

Planning advisory committees, planning task force member, Council presentations, etc.

At the local community level: •

Shaping Active, Healthy Communities presentations

Form a Healthy Communities group

Write a letter


Reimaging the link between community design, physical activity and health Progressive regional, county & municipal zoning, infrastructure investment, etc.

Higher density, mixed-use walkable communities with good transportation options, connections, etc.

Increased walking, cycling, transit use, recreation, etc.

Improved physical fitness and activity levels, reduced traffic accidents, decreased air pollution emissions, etc.


ITâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S A FACT Physical activity is one of the most significant modifiable behaviours that can influence the likelihood of becoming overweight or obese.


ITâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S A FACT The built environment is one of the strongest drivers of physically active lifestyles - both where it is located and how it is built.


IT’S A FACT Awareness of the links between walkability, physical activity and health is growing and – with your help – our built environment will get healthier.


For more information, visit www.heartandstroke.ca/HealthyCommunities


/BETK_PowerPoint_Pres  

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