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The history and evolution of art and science. The end of the 14th century In Europe-especially Italy- marked a turning point in literature, art and culture. This rebirth is now referred to as the “Renaissance.”

Connect the circles What is Renaissance? It is the term given to the period between 14th and 17th century to refer to a new more modern way of thinking. This new way disconnects with the old backward way of thinking about the world and the man’s place in it. To be more precise, the Italian Renaissance began exactly in Florence which was an independent state. It was considered a cultural center of the whole Europe.

What is humanism? From this point, the name of “humanism” appeared to be considered as the intellectual principle of the Renaissance. Humanism motivated people to think scientifically. It encouraged them to be curious and to ask questions without taking answers for granted. As a way to solve these questions and problems, humanism developed the practice of experimentation in order to rely on empirical evidence

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Why especially Florence? Wealthy Florentines flaunted their money by becoming or supporters, of artists and intellectuals. Due to this, the city became the center of Renaissance.

Who are the Renaissance humanists? They are the scholars and writers who undertook intellectual Greek and Roman teachings. According to the humanists, these teachings are sources of secularism and figures of appreciation of physical beauty. In addition, they emphasize greatly on man’s own achievements and successes.

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Paintings of Artists during the Renaissance Renaissance moving in parallel in Science and technology and art and architecture.

A desigen for a flying machine. Leonardo Da Vinci

Atudy of a skull Leonardo Da Vinci

« A rchitectural Capriccio with figures» 1568 , Hans Vredeman De Vries

Birth of Jesus By Geertgen tot Sint Jans

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Renaissance Science and Technology As a result, many Renaissance intellectuals focused on trying to define and understand the laws of nature and the physical world. To illustrate this idea, see some of the Renaissance artist Leonardo Da Vinci’s arts (showed above). His arts included scientific methods. In addition to these studies, the scientist and mathematician Galileo investigated essential natural laws. These laws were based on empirical evidence when he dropped different-sized cannonballs from the top of a building; he was able to prove that all objects fall at the same rate of acceleration. Furthermore, due to the telescope he used; he was able to refute the religious authoritarian theory that assumed that Earth was the center of the galaxy and other planets revolved around it. As it is obvious a lot of essential and important discoveries were made in the Renaissance period. Last but not least, a huge invention took place in Germany; it is a technological development. In the middle of the 15th century, Johannes Gutenberg invented the mechanical movable-type printing press. This invention made books and therefore knowledge more available and accessible for everyone.

Renaissance Art and Architecture During the Italian Renaissance, art was everywhere. Many humanist principles were applied by the Renaissance artists and architects. And one of the most noteworthy elements of all Renaissance paintings was the linear perspective. The main goal in the Renaissance in Art was to have paintings that appear to be real, exactly like we see it in nature. It is like taking a shot by a camera. Thus, the artists were then able to figure out how to paint from the perspective looking at the painting. Brunelleschi was one of the most important architect and engineer during the Italian Renaissance for his new devise in drawing and painting which is: The linear perspective. What is perspective in art? Perspective is the technique used to represent a threedimensional world (what we actually see) on a two-dimensional surface (on the painting, on a paper) in a way that looks real, realistic and accurate. Another method was used by the renaissance artists other than the linear perspective; was the chiaroscuro. It helped them to create an illusion of three-dimensional space on a flat canvas. Furthermore, it used the technique of contrasts in lights to have a realistic three dimensional painting.

Test: After knowing this information, attach the paintings “Architectural Capriccio with Figures” and “Birth of Jesus” to the one of those techniques linear perspective and chiaroscuro. Also, please check the quiz at the end of the magazine. The End of the Italian Renaissance By the end of the 15th century, during to the numerous wars that happened in Italy, it was finally torn apart. In the climate of dividing Italy and scandal rising over the Catholic Church, the humanism was close to heresy and the Italian Renaissance was over.

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Critical thinking in art and science: scientists and artists both explore new concepts, techniques and materials. Also, both of art and science invlove ideas, theories and hypothesis. What links between them is their curiosity and interest in the natural world. Both of art and science are humanie, they are based on curiosity. Ex: When someone look at a painting, he becomes curios because he will be willing to know how was that invented, as it’s very difficult to identify what did the artist use to draw it, and what are the steps that he had followed to bring that result. The same happens with people when they find a device invented or conclusion resulted from an experiment. People become curious about it, they would be willing to know how did the scientist reach that result. Anita Nowinska, a popular artist, once said “what artists and scientists have in common is the ability to see what most people don’t.” Ex: Peter K. Willamson had done tests to students to mesure their logical and creative thinking. He found that their was no difference in the problem solving skills between art and science students, difference was found only in prefered learning styles. Both groups are working with their imagination, intiution and the powerful brain force of the brain which is always actice, reaching beyond normal thinking process.

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The Value of Nature Everyone has a different perspective of the word “nature”. Some think it is only limited to our surrounding of plants, flowers and beauty. Others view it that it is every seen and unseen things that daily surrounds us as atoms, air, forces and the components of universe. Not only this, but also some see nature as their living source as it supplies them with air for breezing and beautiful natural views for relaxation. However, scientists and artists view nature as an influential aspect in their life; it is the source of information as they go through the process of observation.

Observation in art may seem mysterious when thought of. Why should an artist observe the nature since most of us believe that their creativity and imagination is what encourages their brain to draw? Of course this isn’t absolutely true as the simplest evidence that we know is that the Davinci Monaliza’s painting was perfectly drawn through observing the human’s face. One of the artists that his paintings showed that he was influenced by nature is

Chad Pappleton

Observation in Science is what fuels a scientific research. For example, Newton’s gravitational force first starts from the apple that fell on Newton’s head and then extends to observing the behavior of objects due to gravity. Astrology is also a field that requires observing the universe. This field became more popular when Hubble explored the history of 300 billion years with pointing his telescope to see that the universe contains millions of galaxies. Since then astronomers became interested in studying the actions of the galaxies and the expansions of the universe. More than that many studies are carried to see if life exists on other planets. These studies mainly depend on observing the planets surface which is part of nature. Also observing nature is very vivid in descriptive science as studying the behavior of animals in biology is all built on observation, a well known scientist who has spend her entire life observing nature is

Jane Goodall.

Therefore, this implies that artists and science consider nature as their main source of information.

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Pappleton is an artist. He was born in 1976 in Uttah Valley. His father is a farmer and artists and from him he learned how to see nature from an artistic point of view. He studied in the University of Utah and graduated with a Bachelor degree in Fine Arts. He continues through workshops as his work showed in the Legacy Gallery, Ceout d’Alene Galleries, the Sportsman Gallery and many other Galleries. As a young boy his father taught him how to closely observe nature. He taught him not only to see the animal shapes, daily action or the beautiful snow or grass but to see the animals behavior , to feel their inner emotions and thoughts and also to see the colors of snow above a grey rock and “ the multiple hues in clouds” . From what he learned from his father he started to daily explore nature in this way, to view that it is a story of a painting where every colour and emotion is meaningful. Here he comes to say that his action “probably drove my friends crazy, always asking them to stop the car and point things out. Now his wife and kids have to tolerate that”.

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Goodall is known for her remarkable

research done on the Chimpanzees. She was able to change humans perceptive to chimpanzees as when “one of the Chimpanzees –old Flo- died in 1972, the London times printed an obituary”. She is a British ethnologist, primatologist and anthropologist born on the 3rd of April in 1934. She studied Chimpanzees in great details and viewed how their actions are similar to humans as they also manifested their own tools which is a behavior believed to be unique to humans. Goodall received awards as the Benjamin Franklin Medal in Life Science and others. She is the founder of the Jane Goodall Institute which was created in 1977.

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Imagination in Art & Science What do artist reveal?

Art represents the same reality but from the artist point of view. Therefore, it can be inferred that art mainly depends on imagination in order to represent how the artist views the world.

What do scientists reveal?

Science aims to represent the reality of the world as accurately as possible. BUT WHAT ABOUT SCIENCE, DOES IT ALSO INCLUDE IMAGINATION?

If it didn’t include imagination, would

Newton ever think

that the moon rotates around the earth with the same speed of the

horizon?

Planck ever think

about comparing “the radiation of heat to a hail of quanta”?

So, it is imagination that led these two scientists to think of new ideas that then led them to come up with the scientific theories. This imagination and its effect is described nicely by Francois Jacob a Nobel prize winner in Medicine in 1965 saying that “ it is often the idea of a new metaphor that guides the scientists. An object is suddenly perceived in an unusual and revealing light as if someone abruptly tore off a veil that till then had covered our eyes”. Francois Tracey who is a poet and a novelist explained the role of imagination in Jacques Monod’s life, a biologist who won a Nobel Prize in medicine in 1905 sharing it with Francois Jacobs & Andre Lwoff. Monod for months was investigating protein properties known as allosteric. In 1963 he burst in laughter and when asked why, he said that an idea finally came to him after years of research. He said that “one could explain most of these properties by supposing that these proteins were specifically algometric”. By using cubes he was able to show those around him the qualities of such structures, which could alternate with ease between two states, one with enzymatic activity and the one without”. He explained that he has been trying for weeks to represent the protein properties using allosteric protein and suddenly he felt the potential of using such symmetry in the protein as his body is symmetric. Therefore, imagination in the scientist life leads then to solutions of scientific problems. To sum up imagination plays a vivid role in the life of both scientists and artists.

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A Mathematician causes an Evloution in Art & Science Can Art and science be inspired from the same field?

Yes and we will explain how.

Henry Poincare was a French mathematician, engineer,

physicist and a science philosopher. He was born in 1854 and died in 1912 in France. He wrote a famous book called “Science & Hypothesis” published in 1902. In his book he moved from analysis of the scientific theory to give a better understanding of the theory of knowledge.

Picasso and Einstein co-existed with each other, but they never met. They were both inspired by Poincare’s book “Science & Hypothesis” .

Picasso

drew the first art work of the cubism movement as a result of this inspiration. Cubism is a style of drawing from which you view the thing from different perspective all at the same time. First, Picasso was at cross ends with Poincare’s limited representation of the 4 dimensions. Poincare believed that if anyone is willing to represent different perspectives on canvas, this should be done once at a time. However, Picasso violated this and represented all his views on one canvas. This appears in a painting called “Dora Maar”.

Einstein also came across this book when he was a “patent clerk” in Berlin. He viewed Poinceer’s work as very dependent of the life experience and data results. He started to think out of the box and was able to develop on Poincare’s findings to reach what we know today as the theory of relativity in 1905.

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Einstein’s theory was not only a remarkable discovery in

science but also in art and through it a lot of art work could be described.

Rene Magritte & Silvador Dali also benefitted from this theory.

Rene Magritte is a surrealist painter who was born in 1898 and died in 1967. His paintings were explained by the theory of relativity as when the traveller is moving at a speed of light, his face is thin to the extent that you can see it from the back of his skull.

Silvador Dali’s was a Spanish surrealist painter born in 1904 and died in 1989. One of his paintings called “The persistence of memory” was also a reflection of the relativity as the stretchiness and softness of the watches reflect the extended time of infinity when the watches move at the speed of light.

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Visualizing the Non-understandable concepts Science: in its traditional sense is a continuous process of investigation that helps in better understanding the natural world around us and how everything works. This is done through discoveries and experiments that explore our universe.

Art: is a way through which human beings can express their creativity and emotions, through using different forms as paintings, sculptures, poems, etc.

Now can these two different disciplines be brought together? Is it possible to represent scientific matters in art work?

YES Art is seen as a communication mean that extends scientific information and influences or rather educates people about nature and scientific discoveries. From the history of art we can see that it is an effective medium of representing a lot of issues as social justice, debates and events in life as musical concerts and others. Its message is easily conveyed to the public because the product is very appealing and attractive having a lot of creativity that catches your attention. Moreover, a lot of artists were concerned with observing and presenting nature and environment. This is very beneficial, because many environmental problems need the consideration of the public and this consideration is impossible if the public does not understand the difficulties. So the problem will only be solved if the community is willing and prepared to change their actions and invest in resolving the problem.

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Herman Fredrik For example, Herman Fredrik a Dutch artist in the 17th century who has been concerned with presenting human action and real life events.He was born in 1822 in Netherlands and died in 1891. One of his paintings is called “A Difference of

Opinion as a Treaty”, which is a representation of how disputes and discussions are handled in previous times. Another one is called “The royal Musical Party” which gives the viewer an idea about how concerts were held in the 17th centuries.

Madeline Von Foerster Madeline V. Foerster born in 1973, is an example of an artist who is concerned with environmentalism. She is born from German and Australian parents and is a master of oil mixed techniques. Most of her themes were concerned with modern issues as the endangered species and deforestation. Also her art works are good examples for representing the collapse of the ecosystem which is a concept brought to our attention nowdays due to the endangered and extinct species. In such situations, the communities’ recognition is quite demanded and her drawings are considered an effective and understandable representation of this idea.

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ESA 2003 Description of the Event

Motives

Results

To first encourage the scientist to represent their work to the society through alternative media. To show the scientists how to use art for decreasing the complexity of a scientific matter. It is meant as a kind of entertainment.

Activities

Activities

There were a lot of activities in this event, ranging from tours around Arimdale Art Gallery that represents ecological art and dancing performance all inspired by Australia’s ecosystem.

Results

Motives

At the event ending ceremony, a questionnaire was handed out to participants to test its success. Most of the responses reveal that the ESA 2003 event has achieved most of the goals set prior the opening. About 50% of the respondents had agreed that the art is a very effective tool to decrease the complexity of scientific information and easily convey the message to the society.

Therefore, through these results art programs should be introduced in scientists’ future work to increase the interaction between science and society. So after this, what do you think? Is art still a different discipline from science? Or do you now consider it as an interesting way to convey scientific issues?

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Art in the medical field Art is not only for artists to express their views of nature or

emotions, but also for young children to narrate a story. That is why we can say that children’s scribbling is meaningful.

Daniel, the child who drew this picture narrates that there was a man and a storm that occurred

with

very

fearful

thunder. This storm has blown the man away to Mexico. Picture was drawn on 24/ 1 / 2011

Noah, drewn a picture on 24/ 1/ 2011. What she meant to tell is that there was a big monster eating broccoli, he then fell and broke his leg and arm. Another monster came to rescue him by putting his legs and arms “back together”.

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And there are other really mysteries pictures drawn by children that narrate stories that older ones can never imagine. This conveys that children can not only explain stories they want to tell through scribbling but can also express their embedded emotions. This expression of emotions through art is what art therapist use to heal emotionally disturbed children. Emotionally disturbed children are haunted by fear, frustration and loneliness and due to their minimal skill in verbal communication they face a lot of difficulties in expressing themselves verbally. Therefore, art can be a mean for these children to free themselves from these inner monsters.

Art therapy also helps these children with the aid of a therapist to solve their problems without much talk.

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An example

of this is a seven year old boy who s u f f e re d f ro m personal loss and was unable to talk a word. He expressed his feelings through drawing tears streaming down a face and then scribbled over it as if to delete it from existence.

Jennifer

is a 16 year old girl who suffered from severe emotional breakdown. In one of her beginning art therapy session she drew a girl sinking in mud, then in the consequence sessions her drawings did not follow a certain pattern, they were all unorganized. However, from drawing to drawing, it started to appear as a bright star in the center of the image. And then it enlarges in the following drawings till the end was a paint of a big star. This art work shows the development that occurs in her emotional state. Therefore art plays a critical role in psychological medicine which is a part of

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Music in Medical Field Not only art has an effective impact in the medical field but also music. This is termed music therapy. Music has been discovered to have positive effects on the human body. The part of the body that responds to the music is the brain and brain cells. It was discovered that music therapy led to high improvements with cancer patients.

Kweder Therapy Group is the name of a music therapy private practice that provides services and treatment plans. The music therapists are highly trained, passionate about music and try to raise the awareness about the importance and the credibility of music therapy. http://georgekweder.net/the-benefits-of-cbmt/ The practice is designed to help people improve communication skills, behavior modification, sensory or motor skills as well as social and emotional abilities. Furthermore, it helps patients with chronic pain and those who are suffering from Parkinson’s – it is a disorder of the central nervous system and the most obvious early symptoms are shaking and slowness of movement- and other diseases. The process of treatment is accomplished through singing solutions, instruments, song writing or general music interaction. Finally, we can see in the video whose link is http://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=YbobMwZJ9lA ; the music therapist Lisa Nagtegaal who is passionate about her job. She informs us in the video that what motivated her to do this job is the fact that children with special needs or elder people who can’t talk anymore could actually sing to express their emotions. If you are interested, please watch the video; it is going to change your perception of music. However, we must limit our thinking in this field to good science only. There was myth of science that thought in an absolute manner that plant growth was enhanced by music…cow’s milk increase by music…all this is non-sense, nonempirical and have no inductive or deductive reasoning.

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Art and Music

Unscramble each of the clue words. Copy the letters in the numbered cells to other cells with the same number. If you find it very difficult that is the hint: “THERAPY.”

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As a t raditio n clear that s al thought, oc it art be cause iety influen is creati ve kin mostly art ces do is a of th e sur f represent atio rou and en vironm nding act n io believ e is cal ents. This u ns led the s “mim ual esis�.

Officials fear art:

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On the art is th other hand, e behind a main cause l and con ot of actions siderati ons.

The effe ct of ar t on ou socie r ty:

as ader Stalin who wthe In Russia, the leso made sure that born in 1879 al presented. A lot of truth was not reis age represented the drawings from thdren as being satisfied workers and chil h is against the truth. and content whichad the courage to Anyone who posite and explore the represent the op that happens in the continuous death sentenced to death. country side was

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Art’s Effect o n Society

Imagi have bne what th represeeen like withe world w usually ntation of out the beau ould throug paint the w artists? A tiful the broh represent orld differ rtists creates wn fogs aning scenes ently As a r on the stre d the shado like we are esult of th ets and ho w it beauty now able tis represent uses. ati o around us. appreciate thon e

(An intresting fact about art )

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eE

Now we can imagine how art was very effective to the extent that popular public figures feared artists. As a result a lot of actions during the reign of the dictators was taken against any figure who was freely expressing things to the society and therefore sending public awareness.

Th

Let us also check the history of the 20thcentury. You will see that the power of art changed a lot of things in the society. One of the examples is the censorship. If art didn’t exist, why would there be censorship on art works and books?

nd

an dictator who Also, Hitler the Germ ntury, always ce existed in the 18th ing is published made sure that noth e permission th to the public without paganda”. By ro of the “Ministry of P reflection of no doing this there was d the people’s an the real life situation presented in re suffering were not any kind of art.

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Art and science in operative dentistry An illustrative example of the continuous change in the dental profession is the emergence of a new esthetic dentistry. The operative dentistry is the use of art and science in the diagnosis treatment and prognosis of defects in teeth. The aim of the doctor isn’t only concerned about maintaining the physiological function of the teeth in relation with the surrounding soft and hard tissues; he focuses also about having in the end a restored proper and esthetic tooth form. To enhance the general health and look of the patient, art and science work then as contributors and counterparts. Which let us return back to our title “Art and Science as a whole pack”.

Art

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Works Cited «The Benefits of CBMT.» Online posting. George Kweder. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2013. Brooks, Christopher. «Richard Feynman on Flowers, Artists and Scientists.» BBC News. BBC, 16 May 2013. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. «Chad Poppleton.» Online posting. Chad Poppleton Fine Art. Fine Art Studio Online, n.d. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. «Communicating Ecology Through Art: What Scientists Think.» Online posting. Ecology and Society:. The Resilience Alliance, n.d. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. Hall Robinson, Adrienne. «ART THERAPY: RELEASING INNER MONSTERS.» N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. «Henri Poincaré: The Unlikely Link between Einstein and Picasso.» Online posting. The Guardian. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. «Italian Renaissance.» Online posting. History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 27 Nov. 2013. J. SWIFT, EDWARD. Sturdevant›s Art & Science of Operative Dentistry. Ed. THEODORE M. ROBERSON and HARALD 0. HEYMANN. N.p.: John Schrefer, n.d. Print. L. McKinney, Stephanie. «Joseph Stalin.» Online posting. About.com 20th Century History. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. «Madeline Von Foerster.» Online posting. Fantastic Visions. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Nov. 2013.

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Michele, and Robert Root-bernstein. «Einstein On Creative Thinking: Music and the Intuitive Art of Scientific Imagination.» Online posting. Psychology Today. Michele and Robert Root-Bernstein, 31 Mar. 2010. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. Music Therapy. Prod. Dan Clovles. YouTube. YouTube, 04 Apr. 2013. Web. 30 Nov. 2013. Popova, Maria. «The Art of Ofey: Richard Feynman’s Little-Known Sketches & Drawings.» Online posting. Brain Pickings RSS. Maria Popova, 27 Nov. 2013. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. «Scientists Facts.» Online posting. Science Kids. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Nov. 2013. Tamir, Abraham, Ben-Gurion, and Beer-Sheva. «Einstein›s Universe via Art.» Online posting. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. «Top 10 Leonardo Da Vinci Inventions.» Rev. of Leonardo Da Vici by Christopher Lampton. Weblog post. Stuff of Genius. Christopher Lampton, 21 June 2013. Web. 29 Nov. 2013. «What Is the Relationship between Art and Society?» Online posting. Theory of Knowledge.net. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Nov. 2013.

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