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1


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2


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3


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4


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5


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6


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7


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8


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9


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10


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vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

11


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xdkif;edkifiHwGif avm / uarBm'D,m; ESifhjrefrmedKifiHrsm;rStvkyform; 2 oef;cef@wdk@tvkyfvma&mufvkyf udkifv#uf&Sdonf? rsm;aomtm;jzifhtm;vHk;eD;yg;onf w&m;r0if0ifa&mufvmolrsm;jzpf-uonf? xdktvkyf orm;rsm;onf vkyftm;rsm;pGmvdktyfaom pufr+vkyfief;ESifhygwfoufonfh wHigESifhyifv,fpmvkyfief;/ odk;arG;xnf&ufvkyfjcif;ESifh txnfcsKyfvkyfief;/ aqmufvkyfa&;pdkufysdk;a&;vkyfief;ESifhtdrfaz:vkyfief;rsm;wGif tvkyfvkyfae-uonf? xdkpufr+vkyfief;rsm;ESifhygwfoufaom wHigESifhyifv,fpmjyKvkyfjcif;vkyfief;rsm;&Sd aomyifv,f acsmif;0rsm;jzpfonfh prGwfpmcGef;/ ecGef;yxkef/ prGwfpkefcvrf;/ &aemif;/ pl&wfXmeD/ qkefcvm/ ygoeD ESifh pdkufysdK;a&;aps;uGuf&Sdaom ecGef;yxkef/ uef*sebl&D/ &wfbl&D/ wmhcf/ csif;rdkif/ csif;&dkif;ESifhxdkif;edKif iHawmifydkif;&Sd a&mfbmjcHrsm;wGif tvkyform;rsm;onf pka0;Iaexdkif-u&onf? aps;aygaomtdrfeD;em;csif;edKifiHrStvkyform;rsm;onfxdkif;edKifiH.pD;yGg;a&;twGufrsm;pGmvdktyfv#ufonf? txl;ojzifhedKifiH.pD;yGg;a&;pDrHudef;onfpufr+vkyfief;onft"duusaoma-umifhvkyftm;rsm;pgGvdktyf v#uf&Sd onf? aps;aygaom tvkyform;rsm;. vkyftm;rS&&SdonfhukefypPnf;rsm;onf tjcm;edKifiHrS ukefypPnf;rsm;ESifh ,SOf jydKifedKifjyD;/ xdkif;edKifiHtaeESifhvnf;aps;aygaom ukefypPnf;xkwfvkyfr+ qufvufwnf&Sdrnfjzpfonf? xdkif;edKifiHom;tvkyform;rsm;ta&twGufusqif;r+a-umifhukefxkwfvkyfr+twGuftvkyform;jywfvyfonfh jy\emonf vnf;ajz&Sif;jyD;om;jzpfoGm;onf? t&nftcsif;r&Sdaom tvkyform;rsm;vdktyfr+on fpdkufysdK; a&;vkyfief;rsm;/ a&vkyfief;ESifhyifv,fpmvkyfief;/odk;arG;xnf&ufvkyfonfhvkyfief;ESifh t0wftxnfxkwfvkyf onfhvkyfief;rsm;wGif qufvufwnf&SdaeOD;rnfjzpfonf? pufr+vkyfief;a-unmcsuft& xdkif;edKifiHpD;yGg;a&;vkyfief;wdk;wufr+ 4-5 % omwdk;wufr+&Sdonf[kqdkapumrl 2007 ckESpftxd xdkif;edKifiH aps;aygonfhtdrfeD;emcsi;f edKifiHrStvkyform;vdktyfr+ onf 4odef;xufrenf; ESpfpOfwdk; wuf aeonf? avhvmolrsm;rS 1995 =2005ckESpftxd a&$@ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;. vkyftm; a-umifh 100 wGif 0²023 edKifiHtwGuf tusd;&&SdjyD; ESpfpOf oef;aygif; 760 &&Sdonf? xdkif;edkifiHwGif&Sdaoma&$@ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;.tajcjyZ,m; Foreign Workers in Thailand, 1995-2006

rSwfyHkwif

rSwfyHkrwif

pkpkaygif;

1995 293,652 406,348 700,000 1996 293,652 424,037 717,689 1997 90,911 870,556 961,467 1998 99,974 886,915 986,889 1999 99,956 563,820 663,776 2000 568,249 281,751 850,000 2001 409,339 558,910 968,249 2002 288,780 711,220 1,000,000 2003 849,552 149,848 999,400 2004 705,293 807,294 1,512,587 2005 668,576 1,104,773 1,773,349 2006 460,014 1,339,986 1,800,000 rSDjirf;csuf=tvkyform;0ef}uD;XmerSppfaq;jyD; 2006ESpftwGif; a&$@ajymif;tvkyform; 53,202OD; trsm;pkrSmxdkif;edKifiHwGifaexdkif-uonf?

rSwfyHkwifol% 42% 41% 9% 10% 15% 67% 42% 29% 85% 47% 38% 26%

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12


a&$ @ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;Oya'.tusdK;tm;r#wpGmcHpm;edKif&efESifhtaxmuftuljyKedKif&ef twGuf a&S @aetaxmuftuljyKoifwef;vufpGJ

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vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

13


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14


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15


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16


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17


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18


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19


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20


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21


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22


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23


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24


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25


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26


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3= vlrsdK;cGJjcm;zdESdyfr+enf;rsdK;pHktm; zsufodrf;a&;oabmwlpmcsKyf 1965 (CERD) 4=trsdK;orD;rsm;tm;enf;rsdK;pHkjzifhcGJjcm;qufqHr+zsufodrf;a&;a-unmpmwrf; 1979(CEDAW) vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

27


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28


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29


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30


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31


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32


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33


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34


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u) oabmwlpmcsKyfwGifaz:jyxm;aom vGwfvyfpGmtoif;tzGJ@ zGJ@pnf;cGifh ESifhtcGifhta&;tm; umuG,fjcif; (trSwfpOf 87) 1948 OD;wnfcsuftvkyform;ESifhtvkyf&SiftcGifhta&;onf rdrd.tusdK;jrifhwifa&;/ vGwfvyfpGmumuG,f apmifha&SmufedKif&efESifhcGJjcm;r+r&Sd&eftwGuf yl;aygif;Itoif;tzGJ@ zGJ@pnf;cGifh&&Sda&;? • tvkyform;ESifhtvkyf&Sifonfrdrd.tusdK;pD;yGg;wdk;wufa&;ESifhumuG,fa&;twGuftzGJ@ tpnf;wnfaxmifcGifhESifh yl;aygif;yg0ifcGifh&Sdonf? • tpdk;&tzGJ@ tpnf;taeESifhtcGifhta&;tm;pGufzufjcif;/ uef@owfjcif;/ Oya'ESifhudkuf nDaomtcGifh ta&;rsm;tm;wm;qD;jcif;jyKvkyfIr&yg? • ToabmwlpmcsKyfwGifjyXmef;xm;onfh tcGifhta&;twdkif;vdkufemaqmif&Guf&mwGif tvkyf&SifESifhtvkyform;wdk@. tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;onfvnf; edKifiHwGif;Oya'twdkif;vdkuf emusifhoHk;&rnfjzpfjyD; oabmwlpmcsKyfwGif vlwdkif;tm;umuG,fay;xm;jcif;udkcsdK; azgufIr&yg? c) wnfaxmifcGifhESifhpkaygif;awmif;qdkedKifcGifh (trSwfpOf 98) 1949 OD;wnfcsuf rdrd.tzGJ@tpnf;wnfaxmifcGifhtcGifhta&;twdkif;vkyfaqmifaomtvkyform;.t cGifhta&;tm;umuG,f&mwGif tvkyf&SifESifhtvkyform;onf wzufESifhwzufpGufzufr+ r&Sdap&bJjrSifhwifr+ awmif;qdk r+tm;qEN&Sdonftwdkif;jyKvkyfedKifonf? • tvkyform;onf yl;aygif;Itvkyform;or*~ jzpfjcif;tm;aESmifh,Sufr+r&Sdap&ef twGufoifhawmfaomumuG,fapmifha&Smufr+udkcHpm;&rnf? tvkyform;or*~tzGJ@0if jzpfjcif;/or*~vkyfief;rsm;wGifyg0ifjcif;a-umifhtvkyfcef@xm;&efjiif;qdkjcif;/ tvkyfrSxkwf y,fjcif;/ cGJjcm;qufqHjcif;rsm;rSumuG,fay;onf? • vdktyfaomtcgudkufnDr+&Sdaomtwdkif;twmwck&dSoifhjyD;/awmif;qdkr+jyKvkyf&mwGifESifh vkyfief; tusdK;wdk;wufr+twGufqEN&Sdv#if vkyfaqmifedKif&efjzpfonf? tajctaetm; xdef;csKyf&efESifhtvkyfiSm;&rf;r+pnf;urf;wif;-uyfr+rsm;onf rSefuefap&efjzpfonf? 1=2) tvkyform; tm; twif;t-uyftvkyfcdkif;apjcif;/ enf;rsdK;pHkESifht"rRtvkyfcdkif;apr+tm; wdkufzsuf jcif;? tvkyform;tm; twif;t-uyftvkyfcdkif;apjcif;onf tpdk;&ESifhwOD;wa,mufrS trdef@ay;It vkyfcdkif;apjcif;/ 0efaqmifr+ay;apjcif;jzifh xdktpdk;&ESifhwOD;wa,mufonf jzpfapvdkonfhqENt&aomfvnf; aumif;/ tm%mESifh tvkyform;tm; jcdrf;ajcmufjcif;jzifhjyif;xefaom tjypfay;jcif;rsm;udkjyKvkyf&mrSjzpfay: vm&onf? Oyrm= tvkyfrvkyfojzifh tpma&pm/ ae&mxdkifcif;/ vkyftm;cray;jcif;/ cE<mESifhvdiftm; t -urf;zufjcif;/ oGm;vmcGifhtm;ydwfyifjcif;ESifhcsKyfaESmifxm;jcif;wdk@jzpfonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh tdrfwGif;tvkyform;rsm;onftwif;t-uyf tvkyfcdkif;aponfh yHkpHwGifyg0ifjyD;tvkyf &SifrStvkyform;.rSwfyHkwiftm;odrf;qnf;xm;jcif;/ tjyifrxGuf&ef[ef@wm;jcif;/ odk@r[kwfjcdrf;ajcmufjcif;/ &dkufESufjcif;/ tcsdK@trdef@xkwfxm;onfhtwdkif; vkyftm;cray;jcif;/ qif;&Jom;v,form;ESifhynmenf;yg;ol rsm;xHrSta-uG;&vdkr+a-umifh vkyftm;jzifhqyfapjcif;/ u,f&DESifh ajr&Siftm; tcsdeftwdkif;twmwck twGif; vkyftm;jzifhqyfapjcif;ponfwdk@jzpfonf? tvkyform;ukeful;r+a-umifhtwif;t-uyftvkyfcdkif;apjcif;ydkrdkrsm;jym;vm&onf? twif;t-uyft vkyfcdkif;apr+enf;vrf;rsm;wGiftjcm;ae&modk@tvkyfajymif;a&$@vkyfudkifol tvkyform;rsm;. rSwfyHkwiftm; odrf;xm;jcif;/ tjcm;enf;vrf;wckrSm}udKwifaiGxkwfay;jcif;/ aiGacs;iSm;pmcsKyfcsKyfqdkjcif;rsm;wdk@jzpfonf?

vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

35


a&$ @ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;Oya'.tusdK;tm;r#wpGmcHpm;edKif&efESifhtaxmuftuljyKedKif&ef twGuf a&S @aetaxmuftuljyKoifwef;vufpGJ

u) twif;t-uyftvkyfcdkif;apjcif;oabmwlpmcsKyf 1930 (trSwfpOf 29) OD;wnfcsuf twif;t-uyftvkyform;cdkif;apr+yaysmufa&;? • twif;t-uyftvkyfcdkif;apr+ESifhenf;rsdK;pHkjzifht"rRtvkyfcdkif;apjcif;tm;tcsdefwdkwdktwGif;wdkuf zsuf &rnfjzpfonf? ToabmwlpmcsKyfwGifyg0ifxnfhoGif;az:jyxm;jcif;r&Sdaomvkyfief;ESifh0efaqmifr+ (5)rsdK;rSm (1)ppfr+xrf;jcif; (2)edKifiHom;.wm0efrsm;rSwpdwfwa'ojzpfaom omrefvkyfief;aqmif &Gufjcif;ESifh0efaqmifr+ay;jcif; (3)w&m;&Hk;rStjypfay;jcif;cHxm;&ol. vkyfief;aqmif&Gufjcif;ESifh0ef aqmifr+ay;jcif;/(tpdk;&rSwm0ef,l-unfh&+v#uf&SdonfhaxmifwGif;rStvkyform;rsm;)(4) ta&;ay:t ajctaeESifhobm0ab;'%f}uHKa&muf&SdvmawmhrnfhtcsdefwGifvkyfief;(odk@)0efaqmifr+ay;jcif;(jynf rsm;tm;vHk;ESifh tcsdK@ touftEW&m,fjzpfedKifaomtajctae)ESifh (5) &yfuGuf.t zGJ@0iftjzpf &yfuGuf.taxGaxGvkyfief;rsm;vkyfaqmifjcif; ponfhvkyfief;rsm;jzpfonf? c) t"rRvkyftm;ay;cdkif;apr+zsufodrf;a&;oabmwlpmcsKyf (trSwfpOf 105) 1957 OD;wnfcsuf tvkyform;rsm;tm;twif;t-uyftvkyfcdkif;apr+ESifhenf;rsdK;pHkjzifht"rRvkyftm;ay;cdkif;apr+y aysmufa&;twGuftcsdK@aom&nf&G,fcsufrsm;tm;wmjrpfjcif;// • tvkyform;rsm;tm;twif;t-uyftvkyfcdkif;apr+ESifhenf;rsdK;pHkjzifht"rRvkyftm;ay;cdkif;apr+yaysmuf a&;twGuf (1)tpGef;a&muftwif;t-uyfcdkif;apr+ (odk@)edKifiHa&;bmomtm;oif-um;apjcif;/ (2)edKifiHa&;0g'twdkif; o&kyfaqmifjcif;/ rdrdESifh,Hk-unfcsufjcif;rwlnDaom edKifiHa&;pepf/ vlr+a&;/ pD;yGg;a&;orm;rsm;tm;tpGef;a&muftjypfay;jcif;/ (3)pD;yGg;a&;wdk;wuf&eftwGuftvkyform;rsm; tm;tusdK;jzpfxGef;&efpDpOfolESifhcdkif;apoltjzpfwm0ef,ljcif;// (4)tvkyform;rsm;vdkufem&efpnf; urf;xkwfoltjzpfaqmif&Gufjcif;/(5)tvkyform;rsm;csdef;qdkItvkyfem;aoma-umifh tjypfay;olt jzpfaqmif&Gufjcif;ESifh(6)vlrsdK;/ vlr+a&;/ edKifiHom;/ bmoma&;ponfwdk@tm;cGJjcm;Iaqmif&Gufoljzpf jcif;ponfwdk@udkwdkufzsuf&rnf? 1=3) toufarG;0rf;a-umif;ESifhtvkyf&&Sda&;twGufcJGjcm;qufqHr+tm;wdkufzsufjcif; vdifuGJjym;r+/ vlrsdK;/ tom;ta&mif/ edKifiHom;/ vlr+tqifhtwef;/ omoem/ tjcm;olrsm;ESifhedKifiHa&; tjrifuGJjym;olponfoufqdkifr+r&SdbJtusdK;xdcdkufr+jzpfaponf? cGJjcm;qufqHr+tm;wdkufzsufr+onfjy\em tcuftcJrsm;tm; &Sif;vif;jyD;vlwdkif;tm; oifwef;wufa&mufapjcif;/ todynmoif-um;ap jcif;/ ponf rsm;tjyifobm0o,HZmwrsm;tm; ydkifqdkifcGifhESifhtoHk;jyKcGifh&&Sdaponf? Oyrm=ajruGuftm; ta-uG;pepf jzifh0,f,l&&SdedKifonf? tvkyf&&Sda&;ESifhtoufarG;0rf;aumif;vkyfief;twGufcGJjcm;qufqHjcif;tm; wdkuf&dkufIaomfvnf; aumif;/ oG,f0dkufIaomfvnf;aumif;awG@jrifedKifonf? wdkuf&dkufcGJjcm;jcif;onf Oya'/ pnf;urf;/ aqmif &Gufr+vrf;pOf tajctaersm;ay:rlwnfIxif&Sm;pGmjrifawG@&onf? vdif/ vlrsdK;ponfwdk@ay:wGifrlwnfI oG,f0dkufcGJjcm;qufqHr+jzpfay:vmonf? tjyifyef;taeESifh-unfhygupnf;urf;ESifhvkyfaqmifr+vrf;pOfwdk@onf tv,fvltjzpf&yfwnfaeouJhodk@awG@&aomfvnf;/ trSefwu,faqmif&Gufr+ydkif;wGifwuGJwjym;jzpfap&ef OD;wnfv#uf&Sdaeonf? vkyfief;ydkif;qdkif&mwef;wljzpfr+wGif vlwdkif;tcGifhta&;wef;wl&Sda&;twGuftodynm/ u|rf;usifr+ESifh pGrf;&nftjynfht0&Sdap&efyHhydk;ay;jcif;tm;jzifh rdrdvkyfaqmifaeaompD;ygG;a&;ESifhudkufnDr+&Sd&efjzpfonf? u)vkyftm;cwlnDpGm&&Sda&;oabmwlpmcsKyf (trSwfpOf 100) 1951 OD;wnfcsuf wlnDaomvkyfief;twGufusm;a&mrygvkyftm;cwef;wl&&Sda&;? • TpmcsKyfonf tedrfhqHk;vkyftm;cESifhvpm&&Sd&efESiht f jcm;jznfhpGufp&dwfrsm;&&Sd&efwif;-uyfr+rsm; jyXmef;xm;onf// wdkuf&dkufjzpfapoG,f0dkufIjzpfap vkyftm;ctm;aiGodk@r[kwf tjcm;t&mrsm; ESifhay;jyD;tvkyf&SifrS tvkyform;tm;vkyftm;cay;jcif;onf tvkyfiSm;&rf;jcif;a-umifhjzpfonf? o abmwlpmcsKyfwGifwlnDaom vkyfief;rsm;wGifwlnDaom vkyftm;cay;&efESifh vdifcGJjcm;r+r&SdapbJay; tyf&rnf[kjyXmef;xm;onf? vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

36


a&$ @ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;Oya'.tusdK;tm;r#wpGmcHpm;edKif&efESifhtaxmuftuljyKedKif&ef twGuf a&S @aetaxmuftuljyKoifwef;vufpGJ

c)tvkyf&&Sda&;ESifhtoufarG;0rf;a-umif;vkyfief;twGufcGJjcm;qufqHr+oabmwlpmcsKyf (trSwfpOf=111) 1958 OD;wnfcsufwlnDaomtcGifhta&;yHhydk;&efESifhtvkyf&&Sda&;ESifhtoufarG;0rf;a-umif;vkyfief; &+ axmifh t&ygwfoufr+tm;od&Sd&ef? • ToabmwlpmcsKyfonf wlnDaomtcGifhta&;.tajccHyHhydk;ulnDr+rsm;ESifhvkyfaqmifr+rsm;tm; owfrSwfay;jcif;udk a-unmcsufjzifhvnf;aumif;/ edKifiHwGif;csrSwfxm;aomrl0g't&aomfvnf; aumif; tvkyf&&Sda&;ESifh toufarG;0rf;a-umif;vkyif ef;rsdK;pHk twGuf cGJjcm;qufqHr+rsm;tm;wdkuf zsufay;&efjzpfonf? • cGJjcm;qufqHr+qdkonfrSm ysufjym;ap&efaESmifh,Sufjcif;/ vlrsdK;/ tom;ta&mif/ vdif/ bmoma&;/ edKifiHa&;0g'tjrif/ edKifiHom;/ vlr+tqifhtwef;ESifhygwfoufonf t*wdrsm;tm;xm;&Sdjcif;udkqdk vdkonf? oabmwlpmcsKyfwGifyg0ifaom jynfhpHkonfhtESpfom&rsm;onf toufarG;0rf;a-umif;y nmoif-um;&eftxdtusHK;0ifjyD; tvkyf&&Sda&;ESifhb0&yfwnfr+rsm;tjyiftvkyfiSm;&rf;r+tajct aersm;yg0ifaz:jyxm;onf? 1=4)uav;tvkyform;cdkif;apr+yaysmufa&; uav;onftouft&G,ftvdkufoifhawmfaomumuG,fapmifha&Smufr+udkcH&edKifonfh txl;tcGifh ta&;&Sdonf?xdkumuG,fapmifha&Smufr+wGifpD;yGg;a&;qdki&f macgif;yHkjzwfcH&jcif;rSuif;vGwf&ef/ uav;.usef;rm a&;ESifhtusifhpm&dwWydkif;qdkif&mtm;tEW&m,frjyKaomvkyfief;cGifjzpfap&ef/ uav;wdk;wufr+twGuft[ef@t wm; rjzpfaomvkyfief;cGifhjzpf&efumuG,fapmifha&Smufonf? uav; tvkyform; cdkif;apr+yaysmufa&; twGuf owfrSwfcsufrsm; qdkonfrSm rdef;uav; ESifh a,muFsm;av;wdkif;onf cE<mudk,fESifhpdwf"gwftm;vdktyfonf? yHhydk;r+tcGifhta&;rsm;udk tjynfht0&&SdedKif onf? uav;rsm;.ynma&;ESifhwdk;wufr+tm;xdcdkufaprnfhvkyfief;rsm;tm;cdkif;apjcif;rS&yfwef@&eftumt uG,fay;onf? uav;rsm;tm;owfrSwfxm;onfhroifrae& ynma&;tqifhtm;atmifjrifjyD; touf 15 ESpf(wdk;wufqJedKifiHrsm;wGif14ESpf)xufri,fap&efjzpfonf? rnfodk@qdkapumrl TowfrSwfcsufrsm;onf u av;rsm;tm;tvkyftrsdK;tpm;cGJjcm;owfrSwfxm;jcif;r&Sdyg? xdktvkyfrsm;onf trnftm;jzifh tqdk;&Gm;qHk;aom vkyfief;cdkif;apr+yHkpHjzpfjyD; touf18ESpfatmuf uav;rsm;twGuf roifhawmfaom vkyfief;rsm;jzpfjyD;/ tjrefqHk;zsufodrf;ypfedKif&efaqmif&Guf&rnf// vl@rqef aomtjyKtrlyHkpHjzifh u|eftjzpftwif;t-uyfowfrSwfjcif;/ vlukeful;jcif;/ ta-uG;odrf;xm;onfh tvkyfo rm;rsm;ESifhtwif;t-uyfcdkif;apjcif;/ jynfhwefqmtjzpfoGwfoGif;jcif;ESifhnpfnrf;aompmayrsm;twGuftoHk; cs jcif;/ uav;ppfom;tjzpftoHk;jyKjcif;/ Oya'ESifhrvGwfuif;aomvkyfief;rsm;cdkif;apjcif;/ Oyrm=rl;,pfaq; 0g;o,faqmifapjcif;/ tEW&m,f&Sdaomvkyfief;rsm; tm;avhusifhay;jcif;/ tcsdef-umjrifhpGm tvkyfvkyfapjcif; wdk@jzpfonf? u) tvkyfiSm;&rf;edKifaomtedrfhqHk;touftydkif;tjcm;ESifhygwfoufonfhoabmwlpmcsKyf (trSwfpOf= 138) 1973 OD;wnfcsuf uav;tvkyform;cdkif;apr+zsufodrf;a&;/tvkyfiSm;&rf;r+wGiftedrfhqHk;touft&G,fowfrSwfjcif; ESifhygwfoufI wif;-uyfxm;aomynmoif-um;jyD;touf 15 ESpftxuf(wdk;wufqJedKifiH rsm;wGif 14 ESpf) • apmifh-uyf-unfh&+&efrl0g'ESifhtwdkif;twmrsm;owfrw S fIuav;tvkyform;cdkif;apr+zsufodrf;&ef ESifh tedrfhqHk;touft&G,fowfrSwfIt&nftcsif;ESifhcE<mudk,fESifhpdwfydkif;qdkif&mwdk;wufr+ay:rl wnfI udkufnDaomtvkyfiSm;&rf;r+tqifhtm;wdk; wufap&rnfjzpfonf? • tedrfhqHk;touftydkif;tjcm;taeESifh18ESpfowfrSwfItcsdK@tajctaersm;wGif16ESpfowfrSwfonf? vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

37


a&$ @ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;Oya'.tusdK;tm;r#wpGmcHpm;edKif&efESifhtaxmuftuljyKedKif&ef twGuf a&S @aetaxmuftuljyKoifwef;vufpGJ

c)uav;tvkyform;rsm;tm;&Gm;aomyHkpHjzifhtvkyfcdkif;apr+qdkif&moabmwlpmcsKyf (trSwfpOf=138) 1999 OD;wnfcsuf tqdk;&Gm;qHk;aomyHkpHjzifh uav;tvkyform; cdkif;apr+tm; csufjcif;zsufodrf;jyD;onfESifh jynfhpHk aomvkyfaqmifcsuftjzpf ukefusp&dwfr&Sdaom ajccHynma&;tm;ta&;w,lpDpOfay;&ef? uav;tm;udk,f usifhw&m;ysufjym;apjyD;tEW&m,f&Sdaomvkyfief;cGifrSulnDac:xkwfvm&ef? • ToabmwlnDcsufpmcsKyfwGifaz:jyxm;onfhtwdkif;tzGJ@0ifedKifiHrsm;tm;vHk;twdkif;twmjzifh csuf jcif;vdkufemusifhoHk;&rnf? qdk;&Gm;aomyHkpHESifhuav;tvkyform;cdkif;apr+tm;&yfwef@&efESifhwdkufzsuf r+tm;vsifjrefpGmta&;ay:aqmif&Guf&rnf? • qdk;&Gm;aomuav;tvkyform;cdkif;apr+rsm;rSm (1)enf;rsdK;pHkjzifhu|eftjzpfoufqif;apjcif;(odk@)u|ef uJhodk@jyKrlcdkif;apjcif;?(2)jynfhwefqmtjzpfoGwfoGif;jcif;/ (odk@)npfnrf;aompmayxkwfvkyf&ef/ (odk@) npfnrf;aomtjyKtrlrsm;o&kyfaqmif&eftwGufuav;tm;cdkif;apjcif;/ &SmazGjcif;/ qGJaqmifjcif;? (3)Oya'ESifhrvGwfuif;aomtjyKtrlrsm;jyKvkyf&efuav;tm;cdkif;apjcif;/&SmazGjcif;/qGJaqmifjcif;?(4) av;.vkyfief;cGifygwf0ef;usifonfusef;rma&;twGuftEW&m,fjzpfapjcif;/ vHkjcHKa&;ESifhtusifhpm&dwW ysufjym;apjcif; ponfwdk@jzpfonf? • tzGJ@0ifedKifiHrsm;onfvkyfaqmifr+tusdK;&&Sd&eftwGufatmufygudpPrsm;vkyfaqmifedKif&eftcsdef owf rSwfcsuf&Sd&rnf?(1)uav;tm;qdk;&Gm;qHk;aomyHkpHESifhtvkyfcdkif;apr+&Sdaomae&mrsm;ESifhygwfoufr+r&Sd ap&efumuG,fjcif;?(2)vdktyfaomtcgwdkuf&dkufulnDr+ay;edKif&efpDpOf&efESifhoifhawmf aomtcsdefwGif tqdk;&Gm;qHk;aom uav;tvkyform;cdkif;apr+vkyfief;cGifrS uav;tm;ac:xkwfvmjcif;? (3)tqdk; &Gm;qHk;aom uav;tvkyform; cdkif;apr+vkyfief;cGifrSac:xkwfvmjyD;/ ukefusp&dwfr&Sdaom tajccHy nma&;oif-um;edKifa&;twGuftmrcHcsufay;jcif;? (4)uav;wGuftxl;tEW&m,f&Sdaomae&mrS u av;tm;u,fxkwf&mwGifuav;tm;twlyg&Sdvmjcif;ESifh(5)rdef;uav; rsm;twGuftxl;ae&mpDpOf ay;&efowdjyK&rnf? 2=ae&ma'oajymif;a&$@oltvkyform;rsm;ESifhygwfoufaomoabmwlpmcsKyf 2=1) ae&ma&$ @ajymif;olrsm;tvkyf&&Sda&;oabmwlpmcsKyf (trSwfpOf=97) 1949 OD;wnfcsuf ae&ma'oajymif;a&$ @oltvkyform;rsm;umuG,fapmifha&Smufjcif;ESifhcGJjcm;r+r&Sdapa&; owif;tcsuftvuftultnDay;a&;? • yxrtcsuftaeESifh ToabmwlpmcsKyfonf tvkyf&&Sda&;twGufae&ma'oajymif;a&$@jcif;ESifh ygwfoufonfhjyXmef;csufrsm;yg0ifonf?(a&$@ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;tygt0if)tjynfjynfqdkif&mt qifhowif;tcsuftvufrsm;zvS,fa&;twGufukeu f sp&dwfr&SdaomowfrSwfcsufrsm;ESifhae&ma'o ajymif;a&$@oltvkyform;rsm;tm;0efaqmifr+ay;v#uf&Sdonf? • tpdk;&onf ygwfoufaeaom edKifiHrsm;ESifhyl;aygif;Iajymif;a&$ @0ifa&mufvmjcif;ESifh ajymif;a&$ @xGuf cGGgjcif;wGifrSm;,Gif;aom,Hk-unfr+rsm;jzpfap&ef a-umfjimrsm;r&Sd&ef umuG,f[ef@wm;r+rsm;jyKvkyfay; oifhonf? • a'oajymif;a&$@oltvkyform;rsm;tm;twdkif;twmwckt&oifhawmfaomedKifiHwGif;odk@0ifxGufedKif &efpDpOfay;&rnf? • ae&ma'oajymif;a&$@oltvkyform;ESifhrdom;pk0ifrsm;tm;aq;ukor+twGufpDpOfay;&rnf? • 'kwd,tcsufaeESifh nDr#aomvkyfaqmifr+ay;&eftzGJ@0ifedKifiHrsm;ae&ma'oajymif;a&$@ r+Oya' tm; olwdk@.edKifiHwGif;edKifiHom;rsm;tay:nDr#pGmusifhoHk;jyD;vlrsdK;/ edKifiHom;/ vdiftay:cGJjcm;r+r&SdbJ(wl nDaomvkyfief;cGif/ vkyfief;oif-um;jcif;/ tvkyform;or*~tzGJ@0ifjzpfjcif;/ pkaygif;Iawmif;qdk jcif;/ tajctaetcsdK@ay:rlwnfI vlr+zlvHka&;tmrcHay;jcif;/ tvkyfvkyf&mrS&&Sdaom vkyftm;crStcGef

vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

38


a&$ @ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;Oya'.tusdK;tm;r#wpGmcHpm;edKif&efESifhtaxmuftuljyKedKif&ef twGuf a&S @aetaxmuftuljyKoifwef;vufpGJ

aqmifjcif;/ tvkyform;tr+ay:aygufygu Oya'ESifhtnDaqmif&Gufay;jcif;) ponfhaqmif&Gufr+rsm; ay;&rnf? • tpdk;&taeESifhaiG0ifvmjcif;ESifhydk@aqmifjcif;wdk@wGiftpdk;&. Oya'pnf;urf;rsm;ESifhudkufnDaomowf rSwfcsufatmufwGif cGifhjyKcsufay;&rnfjzpfonf? 2=2ae&ma'oajymif;a&$@aomtvkyform;rsm;ESifhygwfoufonfhoabmwlpmcsKyf (jznfhpGufjyXmef;csuf trSwfpOf=143 ) 1975 OD;wnfcsuf wlnDaomtcGifhta&;/vkyfaqmifcsufESifhtcGifhta&;csdK;azgufonfhtajctaetm;zsufodrf;a&;// • tydkif; 1= ae&ma'oa&$ @ajymif;oltvkyform;rsm;tm;acgif;yHkjzwfjcif;yHkpH ESifhvl@tcGifhta&; tm; av; pm;&eftajctaersm;tm;owfrSwfjcif;// • tpdk;&taeESifhrdrdedKifiHtwGif;Ya&$@ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;tm;Oya'tm;csdK;azgufaomtvkyfiSm;&rf; r+rsm;&Sdr&SdESifh a&$@ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;edKifiHjyifyodk@xGufcGgjcif;/ jzwfoef;oGm;jcif;/ 0ifa&mufvm jcif;&Sdr&Sdudkapmifh-unfh&rnf? a&$@ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;tm; tjynfjynfqdkif&moabmwlnDcsuf ESifh edKifiHwGif;Oya'tm; qef@usifonfh uef@owfonfhyHkpHaexdkifapjcif;ponfwdk@udk-unfh&+&rnfjzpf onf? • twdkif;twmrsm;tm;vHk;tm;atmufygtcsufrsm;twGufvdktyfcsuft&aqmif&Gufoifhayonf? (u)a&$ @ajymif;tvkyftrm;rsm;tm;cdk;,lo,faqmifjcif;ESifha&@$ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;tm;Oya'csdK; azgufItvkyfiSm;&rf;jcif;tm;wdkufzsufjcif;// (c)a&$ @ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;tm; cdk;,lo,faqmifjcif;ESif hw&m;r0ifcsdK;azgufI o,faqmifjcif; tm;wdkufzsufjcif;ESifhw&m;r0if a&$@ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;tm; Oya'tm;csdK;azgufItvkyfiSm;&rf; jcif;tm;wdkufzsufjcif;// • ae&ma&$ @ajymif; oltvkyform;rsm; twGuftvkyfr&Sdjcif;tm; umuG,fonfh twdkif;twmwck ESifhukefusp&dwfrwwfedKifonfh tvkyfxkwfcH&ol/ omreftajcaewGifr&Sdaom a&$ @ajymif;tvkyfo rm;rsm;tm;umuG,fr+ay;jcif;? • tydkif; 2 cGJjcm;aqmif&Gufr+ESifhygwfoufaom (oabmwlpmcsKyf trSwf 111 wGifjyXmef;xm;aom tvkyf&&Sda&;ESifhtoufarG0rf;a-umif;cGifh) tpdk;&tm;a-unm&efESifh rl0g'twdkif;vkyfaqmif&efowf rSwfay;I tvkyf&&Sda&;ESihftoufarG;0rf;a-umif; twGufnDr#aomaqmif&Gufay;r+rsm;/ yHhydk;ay;r+ rsm;jyKvkyfay;&rnf? vlr+zlvHka&;tmrcH/ tvkyform;or*~wGifyg0ifcGifh/ ,Ofaus;r+qdkif&mtcGifht a&;/ vlwdkif;.vGwfvyfr+/ edKifiHwGif;w&m;0ifaexdkifaoa&$ @ajymif;tvkyform;ESifh rdom;pk0ifrsm;. vGwfvyfr+ponfwdk@udkwlnDaomaqmif&Gufr+rsm;ay;&rnf? • oabmwlpmcsKyfonf edKifiHtvdkuf uef@owfcsufrsm;owfrSwfItcsdK@aomtvkyfiSm;&rf;r+rsm;odk@ tusdK;jyKonf? (ae&ma'oa&$@ajymif;oltvkyform;rsm;xdkedKifiHtwGif;w&m;0ifaexdkifjyD;Oya'rS owfrSwfxm;onfhtcsdefumvtwdkif;/2ESpfrausmfvGefao;olrsm; toufarG;0rf;a-umif;r+tm; a&G; cs,fedKifonf? 2=3) tvkyf&SmazGay;aom at;*sifh rsm;ESifhygwfoufIoabmwlpmcsKyf(trSwfpOf 181 ) 1997 OD;wnfcsuf tvkyf&SmazGay;aomat;*sifh rsm;tm;uef@owfcsufrsm;owfrSwfay;jcif;ESifh xdkXme rsm;.0efaqmifr+udkcH,laomtvkyform;rsm;tm; jyXmef;csuftwdkif;umuG,fay;a&;? tvkyf&SmazGay;aom at;*sifhrsm;onf tvkyform;aps;uGuf vnfywfr+aumif;rGef&efvkyfaqmif a-umif;oabmayguf&rnf// tvkyf&SmazGa&;at;*sifh qdkonfrSmtpdk;&tzGJ@tpnf;rSpGufzufjcif;uif;onfh ynm&Sif(odk@)omreft&yfom;rS tvkyform;aps;uGuf vnfywfa&;twGufwm0ef,lxm;onf@tzGJ@jzpfonf? tzGJ@0ifedKifiHrsm;rSxdk tvkyf&SmazGa&;Xmersm; onfpepfESifhudkufnDaomtmrcHxm;onfh cGifhjyKcsufpm&Gufpm wrf;tm;}uD;-uyf-unfh&+edKif&rnf? vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

39


a&$ @ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;Oya'.tusdK;tm;r#wpGmcHpm;edKif&efESifhtaxmuftuljyKedKif&ef twGuf a&S @aetaxmuftuljyKoifwef;vufpGJ

(u)tvkyform;vdktyfcsufESifhtvkyf&&Sd&efav#mufxm;jcif;ta-umif;t&m2ckwGJI0efaqmif r+ay; onftvkyf&SmazGay;aomat;*sifhXmersm;rS tvkyfiSm;&rf;r+tajctaeESifhygwfoufIoabmwlpmcsKyfjyKvkyf ay;jcif;r&Sdyg? (c)wwd,vufodk@ydk@aqmif&eftwGuf tvkyfiSm;&rf;r+yHkpHESifh0efaqmifr+ay;jcif;? omrefvl(odk@)y nm&Sif ( ukr`%D.tvkyfiSm;&rf;ol ) rSwm0efrsm;tm;owfrSwfjcif; ESifh wm0efxrf;aqmifr+rsm;udk}uD;-uyf onf? (*)tvkyf&SmazGa&;ESifhygwfoufItjcm;0efaqmifr+rsm;? ygwfoufr+&SdaeaomtzGJ@tpnf;rsm; onf tvkyf&Sif/ tvkyform;rsm;.tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;rSwm0ef&Sdolrsm;ESifhaqG;aEG;jcif;? Oyrm=owif;tcsuftvuf ay;jcif; vdktyfcsufrsm;tm;txl;tusdK;jyKap&efESifh tvkyf&SmazGa&;twGuf tusdK;jyKap&efr[kwfaom0ef aqmifr+ay;jcif;rsm;udkowfrSwfay;onf? oabmwlpmcsKyfwGifaz: jyxm;aom&nf&G,fcsuft& tvkyform;qdkonfrSm tvkyf&SmazGoljzpf onf? tzGJ@0ifedKifiHrsm;tvkyf&SmazGay;aomat;*sifhrsm;tm; vlrsdK;/ tom;ta&mif/ vdif/ bmom/ edKifiHa&;t,ltq/edKifiHom;/ tqifhtwef; ¶+axmifht&cGJjcm;aqmif&Gufr+&Sdr&Sd / xdkif;edKifiHwGif;jyXmef;xm; aomOya'enf;vrf;twdkif;aqmif&Gufjcif; (Oyrm=touf/ 'kuQdwjzpfjcif;)&Sdr&Sdapmifh-uyf-unfh&+&rnf? • tvkyform;rsm;.tcsuftvufrsm;tm;pDpOfjcif;ESifhygwfoufItvkyf&SmazGay;aomat;*sifh rsm;rS tvkyform;rsm;.tcsuftvufrsm;tm; umuG,fay;jcif;ESifh tvkyform;tcGifhta&;rsm;udkav; pm;r+&Sd&rnf? • tvkyf&SmazGay;onf@at;*sifhrsm; onf 0efaqmifctm;vHk;(odk@) tcsdK@w0uftm; wdkuf&dkufIaomf vnf;aumif;/ oG,f0dkufIaomfvnf;aumif;tvkyform;xHrSawmif;,ljcif;r&Sdap&? rnfodk@yifjzpfap tvkyform;rsm;.tusdK;twGuf ygwfoufr+&SdaomtzGJ@tpnf;onf0efaqmifcawmif;qdk &efowf rSwfjcif;udk at;*sifh. tvkyfiSm;&rf;r+ wGifyg0ifaom tcsdK@aomtvkyform;rsm;ESifhvkyfief;rsm;t wGuf yvSyfay;&rnf? • tzGJ@0ifedKifiHrsm;twdkif;twmt& aqmif&Guf&efvdktyfr+/ oihfawmfvHkavmufaom apmifha&Smuffr+ ESifh tvkyf&SmazGa&;at;*sifhrsm;rS rdrdedKifiHwGif;Y owfrSwfxm;aomtcsufrsm; jynfhpHkola&$ @ajymif; tvkyform;tcGifhta&;csdK;azgufr+tm;umuG,fay; &rnf? • tzGJ@0ifedKifiHrsm;taeESifhoifhawmfIvdktyfaom twdkif;twmrsm;ESifhtvkyf&SmazGa&;at;*sifhrsm;. iSm;&rf;xm;aom tvkyform;rsm;tm;vHkavmufaom apmifha&Smufr+udkay;&rnf? vGwfvyfpGmzJG@ pnf;cGifh/ tedrfhqHk;vkyftm;c/tvkyfcsdefowfrSwfjcif;/ tjcm;vkyfief;cGifyHkpHrsm;ESifhygwfoufI pkaygif; awmif;qdkcGifh/ Oya'rSowfrSwfxm;onfhvlr+zlvHka&;pepf/ toufarG;0rf;a-umif;ynmoif-um;edKif a&;/ usef;rma&;ESifhvkyfief;cGiftEW&m,fuif;a&;/ vkyfief;cGifwGif;xdcdkuf'%f&m&r+a&m*g jzpfyGg;r+t wGufavsmfa-u;&&Sda&;/ ukr`%DysufpD;oGm;jcif;a-umif;epfema-u;&&Sda&;ponfrsm;ESifhtvkyform;t cGifhta&;tm;apmifha&Smufjcif;/ rdcifjzpfol rStvkyform;.cHpm;xdkufaomtusdK;tm;&&SdcHpm;jcif;/ rdbjzpfolrStvkyform;.cHpm;xdkufaomtusdK;tm;&&SdcHpm;jcif;wdk@udkaqmif&Gufay;&rnf? 2=4) xddcdkuf'%f&m&r+ESifhygwfoufIuef@owfxm;aomedKifiHom;tvkyform;ESifha&$@ajymif;tvkyform;rsm; tm;wlnDpGmaqmif&Gufr+ay;jcif;qdkif&moabmwlpmcsKyf( trSwfpOf 19) 1925 OD;wnfcsuf xddcdkuf'%f&m&r+ESifhygwfoufIuef@owfxm;aomedKifiHom;tvkyform;ESifha&$@ ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;tm;wlnDpGmaqmif&Gufr+ay;jcif;rsm;ay:aygufvmapa&;? • tzGJ@0ifedKifiHrsm;onfa&$ @ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;tm;aom oabmwlvufrSwfa&;xdk;aom edKifiH. edKifiHom;jzpfaoma-umifh xdktvkyform;rsm;. rdom;pk0ifrsm;onfvnf; rdrdedKifiHwGif;YtvkyfcGif wGif;xdcdkuf'%f&m&r+wGifavsmfa-u;ay;jcif;ESifhygwfoufIwlnDaomtusdK;udkcHpm;edKifonf? • TwlnDaomtusdK;aqmifr+rsm;onfa&$@ ajymif;tvkyform;ESifhrdom;pk0ifrsm;onfa&muf&Sdaeaom edKifiHwGif;rSuef@owfcsufr&Sd rSDcdkoltcGifhta&;tm;&&SdedKifonf? vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

40


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41


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42


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43


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44


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45


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46


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47


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48


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49


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=tjcm;tzGJ@0ifedKifiHrsm; =tjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;udk,f pm;vS,frsm;-ILC -tkyfcsKyfr+aumfrwD (vuf&Sdtm%m&Sd aom)

=tvkyf&Sifrsm;tzGJ@ =tvkyform;tzGJ@(odk@) =tjcm;tzGJ@0ifedKifiHrsm;

ay;ydk@edKifjcif;

uef@uGufjcif; ILO.zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya' yk'fr 24=25

wdkif-um;jcif; ILO.zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya' yk'fr 26=34

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aumfrwDtzGJ@rSwdkif-um;csuf(odk@)pGyfpGJcsufrsm;tm;vufcH-um;emygu

tkyfcsKyfr+aumfrwDtzGJ@ rSaumf rwDtjzpfESifhjy\emtm;ppf aq;&efESifht}uHjyKedKif&efrSoHk; yGiq hf ikd ftzG@J twGif;rStzG@J 0if 3 OD; tm;a&G;cs,fjcif;

tkyfcsKyfr+aumfrwDrSppfaq;&ef aumfrwD w&yfzGJ@pnf;edKifjyD;xdk tzGJ@wGif(vGwfvyfaomtzG@ J 0if 3 OD;)wdkif-um;csufrsm;tm; -um;emtjynfht0aqmif&Guf edKif&efEiS hftpD&ifcHpmjyKvkyf&ef pDpOfjcif;ESifhjy\emajz&Sif;&ef t}uHjyKcsufrsm;tm;

tpD&ifcHpmxkwfa0jcif;

pGyfpGJcsufrsm;ESifht}uHjyKcsuf rsm;udkxkwfa0jcif;&Sdr&Sd udktkyf csKyfr+aumfrwDrSqHk;jzwfcGifh&SdjyD; jy\emtm;u|rf;usifolaumf rwDrsm;xHodk@tm;Oya'& axmifht&-um;emppfaq;r+ jyKedKif&efudkvnf;wifjyay;edKif onf?

(1)tpdk;&r+t}uHjyKcsufrsm; tm;vufcHedKifjcif;(odk@)tr+ tm;urBmhw&m;&Hk;odk@ydkaqmif edKifjcif;? (2)tpdk;&rStkyfcsKyfr+aumfrwD .t}uHjyKcsuftwdkif;vdkufem jcif;r&Sdygutpnf;ta0;wGif vdkufemedKif&efoifhawmfaom tusdK;&Sdaomt}uHjyKcsufrsm; ay;jcif;?

vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

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50


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uef@uGufjcif; qdkif&myk'fr=24t&w&m;0ifwdkif-um;jcif;yHkpHonf oabmwlpmcsKyftm;vuf rSwfa&;xdk;xm;jcif;tm;rvdkufemr+ESifhygwfoufItedrfhqHk;tmrcHcsufrsm;onf? uef@uGufr+ay;ydk@olonf t vkyf&Sif odk@r[kwf tvkyform;tzGJ@tpnf;rSomjzpf&rnf? tpdk;&tm; uef@uGufjcif;wGif oabmwlpmcsKyf wGifvufrSwfa&;xdk;xm;r+tm; oifhawmfavsmfnDaomvdkufemr+ r&Sda-umif;olwdk@tzGJ@rS,Hk-unfaoma-umifh jzpfonf? vlwdkif;ESifhtifef*sDtdk rsm;taeESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyfodk@wdkuf&dkufuef@uGufjcif; tm;jyKvkyfIr&yg? odk@aomftvkyf&SifESifh tvkyform;tzGJ@tpnf;rS wqifh tcsuftvufrsm;ay;ydk@edKifonf? ILO.t"duta&;}uD;aomtcsufrSm zDvm',fzD,m a-unmpmwrf; ( The Declaration of Philadelphia-1944 ) 1944ckESpf tjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;nDvmcH rSa-unmcsufjzpfaom tvkyform;onf ukefypPnf;r [kwf/ vGwfvyfpGmxkwfaz:ajymqdkcGifhESifh tzGJ@zGJ@pnf;jcif;onf wnfjrJaomwdk;wufr+twGufta&;}uD;onf? qif;&JrGJawr+onf ta-umif;t&mwckjzpfaomfvnf; / tzufzufrSwdk;wufr+twGuf tEW&m,fjzpfaponf? &nf&G,fcsuftwdkif;&&SdedKif&ef/ tzGJ@csKyf.jyXmef;owfrSwfcsufrsm;twdkif;jzpf&ef/ ILOtaeESifhrl0g'ESifhvkyfaqmif csufrsm;&Sdonf? vlaer+pepfjyKjyif&ef/ vkyfief;cGifwGif;tcGifhtvrf;jznfhqnf;ay;&ef/ tzGJ@0ifedKifiHrsm;vdkufem usifhoHk;edKif&eftvkyform;rsm;tm;apmifha&Smufr+enf;pepfrsm;owfrSwfjcif;/tzufzufESifhqufEG,fvkyfaqmif r+tm; ulnDyHhydk;ay;jcif;udk tvkyf&Sif/ tvkyform;rsm;ESifh ygwfouftzGJ@tpnf;rsm;tm; oifwef; ydk@cs jcif;/ tcsuftvufESifhpm&Gufpmwrf;jzef@a0jcif;jzifhvkyfaqmifr+tm;tpydkif;rSulnyD Hhydk;ay;&efjzpfonf? xdkif;edKifiHtaeESifh ILO.yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr+onf tpdk;&ESifhtvkyform;0ef}uD;Xme/ tvkyform;tzGJ@ 4zGJ@ jzpfaom=Thai Trade Union Congress / Labor Congress of Thai / National Congress of Thai Labor / State Enterpriess Wokers’ Relations Confederation wdk@ESifhyl;aygif;aqmif&GufjyD; / tvkyf&SiftzGJ@tpnf; 2zGJ@jzpfaom Employers’ Confederstion of Thailand / Employers’ Confederation of Thai Tread and Industrywdk@ESifhyl;aygif;aqmif&Gufonf? 5= xdkif;edKifiHrSyg0ifvufrSwfa&;xdk;xm;aom ILO ESifhoabmwlpmcsKyf 14 ckrSm - C.80 oabmwlpmcsKyf.tydkif;tcsdK@tm;jyKjyifjcif;? 5 =12 =1947 - C.11 oabmwlpmcsKyf.tydkif;tcsdK@tm;jyKjyifjcif;?24 =9 = 1962 - C.104 tvkyfiSm;&rf;r+oabmwlpmcsKyftm;azgufzsufola'ocHtvkyform;rsm;tm;&mZ

-

0wfr+ESifhtjypfay;jcif;tm;&yfqdkif;jcif;? 29=1= 1964 C.105 t"rRcdkif;apr+tm;&yfqdkif;jcif;? 2=12=1967 C.127 tvkyform;wOD;o,faqmifedKifaomtav;csdefowfrSwfjcif;? 26=2=1968 C.14 pufr+vkyfief;rStvkyform;rsm;tm;tywfpOftvkyfem;cGifh? 5=4=1968 C.19 edKifiHwGif;tvkyform;ESifha&$@ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;cGJjcm;r+r&SdbJ rawmfwqxdcdkuf r+twGufepfema-u;&&Sd&ef? 5=4=1968 C.123ajratmufv+dif*lxJwGiftvkyfvkyfcGifhjyKxm;aomtedrfhqHk;touft&G,fowfrSwf jcif;? 5=4=1968 C.29 twif;t-uyfcdkif;apr+ESifht"rRcdkif;apr+ ? 26=2=1969 C.88 tvkyf&SmazGa&;Xmewnfaxmifjcif; ?26=2=1969 C.122 vkyfief;cGifrl0g'? 26=2=1969 C.100 wlnDaomvkyfief;wGifvkyfaqmifaomtrsdK;om;ESifhtrsdK;orD;tm;wlnDaomvkyf tm;c&&Sda&;? 8=2=1999 C.182 uav;tvkyform;tm;&ufpuf-urf;wrf;aomvkyfief;yHkpHjzifhcdkif;apr+tm;csufjcif; vufiif;wm;qD; jcif;ESifhwdkufzsufjcif; ? 16=2=2001 C.138 tvkyfvkyfedKifaomtedrfhqHk;touft&G,fowfrSwfjcif;? 11=11=2004

vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

51


a&$ @ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;Oya'.tusdK;tm;r#wpGmcHpm;edKif&efESifhtaxmuftuljyKedKif&ef twGuf a&S @aetaxmuftuljyKoifwef;vufpGJ

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vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

52


a&$ @ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;Oya'.tusdK;tm;r#wpGmcHpm;edKif&efESifhtaxmuftuljyKedKif&ef twGuf a&S @aetaxmuftuljyKoifwef;vufpGJ

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1=Oya'enf;pepfrsm; 1=1 )w&m;rr+ESifhygwfoufaomOya' 5quf ajrmuf xdkif;bk&ifrif;jrwfvufxufwGifa&S;a[mif;Oya'rsm;rStaemufwdkif;Oya'. &dkrefOy a'rSjyKjyifcJhaomOa&mywGiftoHk;jyKv#uf&Sdaomw&m;rr+Oya'/ t*FvefedKifiHESifhuGJjym;jcm;em;aom"avhxHk; wrf;qdkif&mOya'rsm;tm; w&m;rOya'rsm;ESifhta&;}uD;aom Oya'rsm;tm; &mZ0wfr+ Oya'tjzpfvnf; aumif;/w&m;rr+Oya'tjzpfvnf;aumif; Oya'jyKtzGJ@zGJ@IowfrSwfumvdkufemusifh oHk;cJhonf? rnfodk@qdkap w&m;rr+Oya'wGifjyXmef;xm;onfhtwdkif;oufqdkifr+r&Sdyguw&m;rr+ESifhpGJqdkjcif;r&Sdap&bJ "av@xHk;wrf;qdkif &mOya'twdkif;vdkufem&rnfjzpfonf?

1=2 )Oya'.tcGifhtm%mESifhtqifhtwef; zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya' onfedKifiHawmf.tjrifhqHk;Oya' (Supermacy of the Constitution)tjzpfowf rSwfonf? rnfonfhOya'udkr# zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'rScJGxkwfoGm;Ir&? zGJ@pnf;yHkt&owfrSwfxm;jcif;/ Oya' jyKtzGJ@/w&m;ol}uD;rsm;tzGJ@ESifhn$ef-um;a&;tzGJ@rSqufpyfr+rsm;owfrSwfxm;jcif;/ vGwfvyfcGifh ESifhygwfoufI tmrcHcsufrsm;(Bill of Rights)udk zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'wGiftydkif;wcktjzpfcGJjcm;az:jyxm;&rnf? tufOya'/ bk&ifESifhqdkifaomowfrSwfcsuftkyfcsKyfa&;qdkif&mrsm;tm;jyKjyifonfhtzGJ@/ tm%modrf; r+wckjzpfay:aomtcgwGif a-unmcsufxkwfjyefjcif;udkqdkvdkonf? 0ef}uD;Xmersm;.pnf;rsOf;urf;rsm;/ a-unmcsufrsm;ESifhygwfoufaomtufOya'rsm; tpdk;&Xmersm; ESifh a'oqdkif&m pDrHcef@cGJa&;tzGJ@rsm;jzpfaomjrdK@e,fpDrHcef@cGJa&;tzGJ@/ c&dkifpDrHcef@cGJa&;tzGJ@/ wdk@.xkwfjyefa-u nmaom Oya'rsm;onf jyKjyifxm;aom Oya'wGifowfrSwfxm;csufudkrSDjirf;&rnfjzpfjyD; Oya'.'kwd,t qifhtjzpfowfrSwfonf? 'kwd,tqifhrScGJxGufjcif;rjyK&yg? tvSnfhusaqmif&Gufr+vrf;pOf tpdk;&Xmersm;wGif tvSnfhusaqmif&Gufr+ vrf;pOftm; Oya'wif; -uyfr+rsm;&Sdonf? wm0ef&Sdolrsm;onf xdkvrf;pOftwdkif; vdkufemusifhoHk;&rnf? xdkvrf;pOfonf Oya'r[kwf aoma}umifh zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'ESifhOya'rScGJxkwfIr&yg? rl0g'onf Oya'r[kwf? edKifiHtwGif;pDrHr+w&yfomjzpfonf? tpdk;&rSrl0g'csrSwfjyD; xdkrl0g'tm; vdkufemusifhoHk;&eftwGuf Oya'udkvufudkifxm;&rnfjzpfonf? rl0g'twdkif;vdkufem&ef r[kwfbJOya't wdkif;aqmif&Guf&rnf? c|if;csuftjzpf rl0g'ESpfcktwGufOya'ajymif;vJr+&Sd&rnf? t}uHjyKcsuf jynfolrsm;Oya'ajymif;vJvdkyguv$wfawmfw&m;&Hk;odk@&kwfodrf;ay;&efwifjy&rnf? zGJ@pnf;yHktajccHOya'ESifhudkufnDr+r&dSjcif;/ tufOya'tm;ajymif;vJvdkjcif;udkvnf;tjrifhqHk;w&m;&Hk;odk@wifjy& rnf? vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

53


a&$ @ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;Oya'.tusdK;tm;r#wpGmcHpm;edKif&efESifhtaxmuftuljyKedKif&ef twGuf a&S @aetaxmuftuljyKoifwef;vufpGJ

1=3)tjynfjynfqdkif&mOya'ESifhedKifiHwGif;Oya' xdkif;edKifiHonf ESpfOD;ESpfzufvufcHedKifaomt,ltqudkusifh oHk;onf? tjcm;tzGJ@0ifedKifiHrsm;ESifh oabmwlpmcsKyfrsm;twdkif;vdkufemusifhoHk;onf? tjynfjynfqdkif&mOy a' twdkif;om vdkufemusifhoHk;onf? (tao;pdyftm; tydkif; 5 wGif-unfh&ef)

2=xdkif;edKifiHOya'ESifh edKifiHjcm;tvkyform; edKifiHjcm;tvkyform;rsm; xdkif;edKifiHwGif;aexdkifaomtcg xdkif;edKifiH.jyXmef;xm;aomOya'twdkif; xdkif;edKifiH om;rsm;ESifh tjcm;olrsm;uJhodk@vdkufemusifhoHk;&rnfjzpfonf? Oya'.tusdK;tm;wef;wlcHpm;&rnf jzpfjyD; c|if;csuftaeESifh jynfolvGwfawmfudk,fpm;vS,frsm;a&G;aumuf&efrJay;ydkifcGifhtm;xdkif;edKifiHom; omcHpm; cGifh&Sdonf?

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vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

54


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vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

55


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vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

56


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vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

57


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vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

58


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vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

59


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60


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61


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txnfaumuform;rsm;twGuf OrRmonf ykwfjywftvkyform;jzpfonf?wxnfv#if 10bwf&onf? omreftvkyfcdsefreuf8em&DrS nae 5 em&Dtxdjzpfonf? OrRmonf 5 em&Daemufydkif; wem&DtdkwDqif;ojzifh txnf 5xnf& onf? xdk@a}umifhOrRmonf tdkwDa}u; 1²5 q &&Sdaoma-umifh wxnfv#if 10 bwf»1²5 q] 15bwf&rnf? xdk@a-umifhtdkwDa-u; 15 bwf»5xnf] 75bwf&&Sdrnf? vpm;tvkyform;rsm;twGufOyrm aX;aX;onf vpm;tvkyform;jzpfonf? wvvkyftm;c 5000&&Sdojzifh wem&Dv#if 5000bwf÷30 &uf ÷ 8em&D] 20²83bwf tu,fIaX;aX;onftdkwD2 em&DvkyfyguaX;aX;taeESifhtdkwDa-u; 20²83 bwf»2 em&D]41²66bwf tvkyfydwf&uftdkwDa-u; tvkyfydwf&uf twGif;tvkyf&SifrScdkif;apIaomfvnf;aumif;/ tvkyform;tm;vkyfapjcif;jzifhvnf;aumif;/ tdkwDa-u;onf wem&Dvkyftm;c. 3 q&&Sdrnfjzpfonf? 2=7tvkyfem;&uf tvkyfem;&uftwGif;tvkyfqif;&ygutvkyfydwf&uf vkyftm;cESifhtvkyfydwf&uftdkwD aa-u;tm;wGufcsufedKif&efjzpfonf?

vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

62


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(1)tvkyfydwf&uftrsdK;tpm;rsm; tvkyf&SifrStvkyform;rsm;tm;tvkyfem;&ufrsm;udkatmufygt wdkif;pDpOfay;&rnf? =tygwfpOftvkyfydwf&uf tvkyf&SifrStvkyfem;&uffudkowfrSwfIa-unmay;&rnfjzpfonf//wygwf twGif;w&ufxufreJaomtvkyfem;&uf&Sd&rnf? (yk'fr=28)tvkyform;onftvkyf 6 &ufqufwdkufqif; jyD;w&ufudktvkyfem;cGifh&Sdonf? =&dk;&m"avhxHk;wrf;pOfvm&ufrsm;twGuftvkyfem;jcif; tvkyf&SiftaeESifhtvkyform;rsm; tm;&dk;&m"avhxHk;wrf;pOfvmtvkyfydwf&ufrsm;udkowfrSwfay;&rnf? Oyrm=ESpfopful;&uf/o}uFef&uf/ t vkyform;ae@/ oDwif;u|wf/ bk&ifarG;ae@ponfae@rsm; twGuf tvkyfydwf&ufwESpfv#if 13 &ufxufrenf; owfrSwfay;&rnf? (yk'fr=29) =tpm;xdk;tvkyfydwf&uf"avhxHk;wrf;pOfvmtvkyfydwf&ufrsm;onf tygwfpOftvkyfydwf&ufESifh wdkufqdkifr+&Sdygutvkyform;tm;tpm;xdk;tvkyfydwf&ufudkaemufw&ufwGifpDpOfay;&rnf?(yk'fr=29) =ESpfpOfa&SmifwcifcGifh&uftvkyform;onfvkyfouf wESpfjynfhaomtcg 6&ufxufreJaom a&SmifwcifcGifh,l cGifh&Sdonf?(yk'fr=30) (2)tvkyfydwf&uftwGufvkyftm;c tvkyform;rsm;tm;vHk;trsdk;tpm;rcJGjcm;bJ&dk;&m"avhxHk; wrf;pOfvmtvkyfydwf&ufESifha&SmifwcifcGifh&ufrsm;wGiftvkyf&Sifonftvkyform;tm;omreftvkyf&ufrsm; uJhodk@vkyftm;cay;&rnfjzpfonf? (2=8)tvkyfydwf&uftwGif;tvkyfcdkif;apjcif;a-umifhvkyftm;c rnfonfhtvkyfydwf&ufrsm;rqdk tvkyf&SifrScdkif;apIaomfvnf;aumif;/ tvkyform;tm;tvkyfvkyfcGifhay;I aomfvnf;aumif;tvkyf&SiftaeESifhtvkyfydwf&uftwGif;vkyftm;cudkatmufygtwdkif;ay;&rnf? =ae@pm;tvkyform; tvkyfydwf&uftwGif;tvkyfqif;aoma-umifhtvkyf&Sifonftvkyform;tm;omrefvkyftm;c.2q& cGifh&Sdonf? Oyrm=tvkyform;taeESifhomrefvkyftm;confwae@200bwf&ygu tvkyfydwf&ufwGif8em&Dtvkyfqif;aoma-umifhvkyftm;c 200» 2 q]400bwf&cGifh&Sdonf? =txnfaumuf(odk@)ykwfjywftvkyform; txnfaumuf(odk@)ykwfjywftvkyform;rsm;onftvkyfydwf&ufwGiftvkyfqif;&jcif;a-umifhomref vkyftm;c. 2qudk&&SdcGifh&Sdonf? Oyrm=omreftaeESifh tvkyform;onf w'gZifv#if 20 bwf&&Sdygutvkyfydwf&ufwGiftvkyfqif;yg uvkyftm;conf 20bwf»2q] 40bwf&&SdrnfjzpfjyD; xdkae@wGif 8em&Dtvkyfqif;I 10 'gZif&&Sdygu 10 'gZif»40 bwf] 400 bwf&&SdcGifh&Sdonf? =vpm;tvkyform; vpm;tvkyform;rsm;onf rnfjzpfonf?

tvkyfydwf&ufwGiftvkyfqif;&aoma-umifh

w&ufpmaomvkyftm;c&&Sd

Oyrm=tu,fItvkyform;onfvpm 5100bwf&&Sdygu 5100bwf÷30&uf] 170bwf udkvpmxkwfaomtcgrygwnf;ay;&rnfjzpfonf? xdk@a-umifhtvkyform;tm;tvkyfydwf&ufwGif tvkyfqif;apygu tvkyform;onf vpmESifh wae@pmvkyftm;cudk&&Sdrnf?

vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

63


a&$ @ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;Oya'.tusdK;tm;r#wpGmcHpm;edKif&efESifhtaxmuftuljyKedKif&ef twGuf a&S @aetaxmuftuljyKoifwef;vufpGJ

(2=9)tvkyfydwf&uftwGif;tcsdefydkvkyftm;c tvkyfydwf&ufwGif tvkyf&Sifonftvkyform;tm;tcsdefydktvkyfcdkif;apjcif;/ tvkyform;tm;tcsdefydktvkyf vkyfcGifhay;v#if tvkyform;onf tdkwDa-u; 3q&ydkifcGifh&Sdonf? ae@pm;tvkyform;twGufOyrm 0if;atmifonfae@pm;tvkyform;jzpfjyD; wae@wm 8em&D twGufvkyftm;c 150 bwf&&Sdonf? wem&Dv#if 150bwf÷8em&D] 18²75bwf tvkyf&SifrScdkif;apIaomfvnf;aumif;/ tvkyform;tm;tvkyfvkyf&efcGifhjyKaoma-umifhvnf;aumif; tvkyfydwf&ufwGiftvkyf 12 em&Dvkyfygu 0if;atmifonf= tvkyfydwf&uftwGif;vkyftm;c(8 em&DtwGuf) 150 bwf» 2q ] 300 bwf tvkyfydwf&uftwGif;tdkwDcsdef 12 em&D = 8 em&D ] 4em&D tvkyfydwf&uftwGif;tdkwda}u; 4 em&D » 18²75 bwf »3q ] 225 bwf pkpkaygif;&&Sdonfhvkyftm;c 300 (tvkyfydwf&ufvkyftm;c)š225(tvkyfydwf&uf tdkwDa-u;)]525 bwf

ykwfjywftvkyform;twGufOyrm atmifaZmfonf 'gZifpm;tvkyform;jzpfjyD; omrefvkyftm;conf w'gZifv#if 20 bwf&&Sdonf? tu,fI tvkyfydwf&uftwGif;tvkyfqif;&ygu= vkyftm;c jyD;pD;aom'gZifta&twGuf 8 em&DtwGif;»20bwf »2q tdkwDa-u; jyD;pD;aom'gZifta&twGuf 8 em&Daemufydkif; »20bwf »3q

vpm;tvkyform;twGufOyrm ae0if;onf wvv#ifvkyftm;c 15000 bwf&onf? wem&D vkyftm;cwGufcsufygu = 15000 bwf÷ 30 &uf ÷ 8em&D ]62²50 bwf tu,fIae0if; onf ESpfqef; &uf(tvkyfydwfonfh&uf)wGiftvkyf 10 em&Dqif;ygu tvkyfydwf&uf twGufvkyftm;c 8em&DtwGuf aiG 500 bwf&&SdrnfjzpfjyD;/ ydkaom 2 em&DtwGuf tdkwDa-u; 3q&&Sd ojzifh 62.50bwf× 2 em&D × 3q = 475 bwf pkpkaygif; 500 š475 ] 975bwf &&Sdrnfjzpfonf? (2=10)tvkyfydwf&uftwGif;vkyftm;cESifhtdkwDa-u;wGufcsuf&mwGif-uHKawG@&aomjy\em rsm; tdkwDa-u; puf&Hktawmfrsm;rsm;onf tvkyform;onf tvkyfqif;csdef / tvkyfem;csdefod-uaomfvnf;/ tdkwDcsdeftm;tvkyform;rsm;od&Sdap&efa-unmjcif;r&Sdyg? tvkyform;wOD;onftvkyf8em&Dqif;jyD;aomt cg 9em&Dajrmuftvkyfcsdefonf tdkwDcsdef .yxrqHk;em&Djzpfonf// Oyrm=tvkyform;onftvkyfcsdef(10)em&Djynfhatmifvkyfaomae@onftdkwD2 em&Dqif;onf[k,lq &rnfjzpfonf? wem&Dv#if 1²5q(omreftvkyfqif;&uf) 3q (tvkyfydwf&uf)ponfjzifh&&SdcGifh&Sdonf? tvkyfydwf&ufwGifvkyfc tvkyf&SifonftvkyfcGifpnf;urf;rsm;owfrSwfjcif;/ tvkyfydwf&ufrsm;wGiftvkyfydwfa-umif;tvkyform;rSr od&Sdygutvkyf(6)&ufqif;jyD;(7)&ufae@wGiftywfpOftvkyfydwf&ufjzpfaoma-umifh vpm; tvkyform;rsm; twGuftvkyfydwf&ufvkyftm;cwqESifhae@pm;tvkyform;rsm;/ ykwfjywftvkyform;rsm;twGuftvkyfydwf &ufvkyftm;c 2 q& &&Sdrnf? vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

64


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65


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66


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67


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68


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69


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70


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71


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72


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73


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74


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75


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76


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77


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78


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82


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83


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84


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85


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86


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87


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88


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89


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90


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91


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vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

92


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93


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94


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95


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96


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97


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98


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99


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100


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101


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102


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103


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104


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105

:


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vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

106


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qufoG,fedKifaomzkef;eHygwf vufudkifzkef;....................................................... tdrfzkef;.............................................................. qufoG,f&rnfhol....................................................................... ygwfoufr.+ .................................................... wdkif-um;r+ESifhygwfoufaomjzpf&yfrSefrsm; Ftvkyform;umuG,fa&;Oya' bDtD; 2541 F taxmuftxm;vufrSwf F avsmfa-u;Oya' bDtD; 2537 F&mZ0wf Ftjcm;az:jy&ef............................................................ ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........ ................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........ ................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........ 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................................................................................................................................................................................... vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

107


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epfemol.vdktyfcsuf 1......................................................................................................................................................................... 2......................................................................................................................................................................... 3........................................................................................................................................................................ 4......................................................................................................................................................................... t}uHay;jcif;ESifhulnDjcif; 1......................................................................................................................................................................... 2......................................................................................................................................................................... 3........................................................................................................................................................................ 4......................................................................................................................................................................... 5......................................................................................................................................................................... epfemolrScsdK;azgufcH&aomtcsuftvufrsm; tusOf;csKyf 1......................................................................................................................................................................... 2......................................................................................................................................................................... 3........................................................................................................................................................................ 4......................................................................................................................................................................... vloufao/ pm&Gufpmwrf;/ wdkif-um;csuf : 1......................................................................................................................................................................... 2......................................................................................................................................................................... 3........................................................................................................................................................................ 4......................................................................................................................................................................... jy\emESifhtcuftcJ 1......................................................................................................................................................................... 2......................................................................................................................................................................... 3........................................................................................................................................................................ 4......................................................................................................................................................................... a&S @ae.xifjrifcsuf ................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........ ...................................................................................................................................................................................

vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

108


a&$ @ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;Oya'.tusdK;tm;r#wpGmcHpm;edKif&efESifhtaxmuftuljyKedKif&ef twGuf a&S @aetaxmuftuljyKoifwef;vufpGJ

................................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........ ................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... aemufqufwGJrSwfwrf; (1) ................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........ ................................................................................................................................................................................... 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................................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........ ................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

109


a&$ @ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;Oya'.tusdK;tm;r#wpGmcHpm;edKif&efESifhtaxmuftuljyKedKif&ef twGuf a&S @aetaxmuftuljyKoifwef;vufpGJ

................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........ ................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........ ................................................................................................................................................................................... aemufqufwGJrSwrf; (2) ................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........ ................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........ ................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........ ................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........ ................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................... ........ vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

110


a&$ @ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;Oya'.tusdK;tm;r#wpGmcHpm;edKif&efESifhtaxmuftuljyKedKif&ef twGuf a&S @aetaxmuftuljyKoifwef;vufpGJ

awmif;qdkcsufyHkpHคร.7

tvkyform;ppfaq;a&;t&m&SdxHodk@awmif;qdkv$m tvkyform;umuG,fa&;Oya' bDtD; 2541t&awmif;qdkjcif; trSwfpOf................................................. &ufpGJ ............ v...................... ckESpf................. 1? u|Ekfyf armif/ r........................................................................................................................ rSwfyHkwiftrSwf ......................................................................................................................................... xkwfay;onfhae&m ................................... xkwfay;onfh&ufpGJ ............................................................. ukefqHk;onfh&ufpGJ.................................... edKifiHom; .................................. tvkyfvkyfcGifhvufrSwfeHygwf(&Sdygu) .................................................... touf................ ESpf/ vuf&Sdae&yfvdyfpm ................. &yfuGuf .........................vrf; .............................. e,f/ c&dkifcGJ .......................................................... jrdK@e,f.......................................................................... c&dkif............................... pmwdkuftrSwf.....................................zkef;eHygwf................................................ tvkyform;ppfaq;a&;t&m&SdxHodk@wdkif-um;jcif; ( )tvkyform; ( )tvkyform;.w&m;0ifaqGrsdK; armif/ r............................................................................. rSwfyHkwiftrSwf ...................................................................................................................................... aoqHk;vufrSwftrSwf.............................................. xkwfay;onfae&m................................................. edKifiHom;......................................... tvkyfvkyfcGifhvufrSwf ..................................................................... awmfpyfyHk.......................................................

2?tvkyform;tvkyfvkyfaomtvkyf&Hktrnf......................................................................................... ydkif&Sif/ refae*sm armif/ r ............................................. vkyfief;trsdK;tpm; ......................................... ae&yfvdyfpm ................ &yfuGuf ............ vrf;............................... e,f/ jrdK@e,fcGJ .................................... jrdK@e,f ..................................... c&dkif ............................... pmwdkuftrSwf.................................................. zkefg;eHygwf............................................................. teD;w0dkuf&Sd ............................................................... tvkyform;tvkyfvkyfonfhae&m .......... &yfuGuf........ . vrf;........................ jrdK@e,fcGJ............................ jrdK@e,f............................. c&dkif .................................... pmwdkuftrSwf ........................................................ zkef;eHygwf ................................................... eD;pyfr+&Sdaomae&m ...................................................................

vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

111


a&$ @ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;Oya'.tusdK;tm;r#wpGmcHpm;edKif&efESifhtaxmuftuljyKedKif&ef twGuf a&S @aetaxmuftuljyKoifwef;vufpGJ

3? tvkyform;tvkyfpwif0ifa&mufaomae@ ................................ ae@xd ................................ ,l&onfhwm0ef .......................................... Xme...................................................................... tvkyf}uD;-uyfoltrnf OD;/ a': ................................. &&Sdaomvkyftm;c. ..................... bwf /em&D /&uf /v tvkyfjyD;ajrmufr+twdkif;w'gZif ........... wvv#if&&Sdaomvkyftm;c........................ bwf / em&D / &uf / v 4?tvkyform;onfwvv#iftvkyf..................... &uf/ w&ufv#if....................... em&D/ tvkyfpcsdef ................ em&DrS............... em&Dxd tem;,lcsdef............ em&DrS .................. em&Dxd 5?vkyftm;cay;jcif;ESifhygwfoufIowfrSwfcsufrsm; 5=1? vkyftm;c xkwfay;onfh&ufpGJ..................................................... 5=2?tcdsefydkvkyftm;c xkwfay;onfh&ufpGJ ................................................... 5=3?tvkyfydwf&uftvkyfqif; onfhvkyftm;c xkwfay;onfh&ufpGJ ..................................................... 5=4?tvkyfydwf&uftcsdefydkvkyf tm;c xkwfay;onfh&ufpGJ ...................................................... 6? wdkif-um;&jcif;ta-umif;&if;......................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................. 7?tvkyf&SifrSu|Efkyftm;atmufygaiGrsm;tm;ay;yg&efawmif;qdktyfygonf? 7=1?vkyftm;c ................................. &ufrS....................................................... &ufxd pkpkaygif;aiG................................................................bwf(........................................................................) 1=2?tcsdefydkvkyftm;c............................... &ufrS.................................................... &ufxd pkpkaygif;aiG ........................................... bwf (.......................................................................) 1=3?tvkyfydwf&uftvkyfqif;onfhvkyftm;c .......................&ufrS ................. &ufxd pkpkaygif;aiG ..................... ..................... bwf (....................................................................) 1=4?tvkyfydwf&uftcsdefydkvkyftm;c..............................&ufrS ...........................&ufxd pkpkaygif;aiG.......................................... bwf (......................................................................) 1=5? tvkyfxkwfjcif;twGufepfema-u;........................ &ufrS.......................... &ufxd pkpkaygif;aiG......................................... bwf (.....................................................................) 1=6? tvkyf&Hkajymif;a&$@jcif;tm;}udKwifta-umif;r-um;bJtvkyfrSxkwfjcif;a-umifh txl;epfema-u; .................................... &ufrS.......................................................... &ufxd pkpkaygif;aiG .......................................bwf (.................................................................. ) 1=7? tvkyfxkwfjcif;twGuftxl;epfema-u;........................&ufrS....................&ufxd pkpkaygif;aiG......................................... bwf (.....................................................................) 1=8? -udKwifta-umif;r-um;ojzifhtxl;avsmfa-u;tm;vkyftm;cESifhudkufnDaom .......... &uftwGufpkpkaygif;aiG ...............bwf (...................................................................................... ) 1=9?tmrcHa-u;........................... bwf (....................................................................) 1=10? tedrfhqHk;vkyftm;cpkpkaygif;aiG .................... bwf.(...........................................) vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

112


a&$ @ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;Oya'.tusdK;tm;r#wpGmcHpm;edKif&efESifhtaxmuftuljyKedKif&ef twGuf a&S @aetaxmuftuljyKoifwef;vufpGJ

1=11?}udKwifta-umif;r-um;jcif;twGuftpm;xdk;vkyftm;c............................. bwf (............................................................................ ) 1=12?tjcm;aiGrsm;(az:jy&ef).......................................... pkpkaygif;aiG.................................. bwf(....................................................................... ) 1=13? twdk; / tydkaqmif;aiG ............................ bwf (............................................. ) 2?tvkyf&SifrSu|Efkyfawmif;qdkonfhaiGtm;atmufygae&mrsm;wGifay;apvdkygonf? ( )trSwfpOf 2 wGifaz:jyxm;aomtvkyform;tvkyfvkyfaomae&m ( )tvkyform;ppfaq;a&;wm0ef&Sdol.tvkyform;Oya'tumtuG,fay;a&;&Hk;wGif a'o ........../ tvkyform;Oya'tumtuG,fay;a&;&Hk;................................................................ ( )tjcm; (az:jy&ef)............................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................................ .

awmif;qdkcsufrsm;tm;vHk;onfrSefuefaomtcsuftvufrsm;jzpfa-umif;tmrcHygonf? vufrSwf ........................................... awmif;qdkol ( .......................................... )

rSwfcsuf= oifwifjyaomvlwOD;.owif;tcsuftvufrsm;t&awmif;qdkcsuftm;-um;emrnfjzpfjyD; tvkyform;umuG,fa&;Oya'bDtD; 2541 yk'fr=124 t&trdef@xkwfrnfjzpfonf? vlr+zlvHka&;&Hk;odk@ vnf;awmif;qdkcsufrsm;rStvkyfr&Sdaomjy\emtm;taxmuftuljyKedKif&eftwGufwifjyvdrfhrnfjzpfonf?

vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

113


a&$ @ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;Oya'.tusdK;tm;r#wpGmcHpm;edKif&efESifhtaxmuftuljyKedKif&ef twGuf a&S @aetaxmuftuljyKoifwef;vufpGJ

tm%may;tyfjcif;yHkpH trSwfpOf ........................ .... &ufp.GJ .......... v ....... ................... ckESp.f .............. u|Efkyf (armif/ r/ OD;/ a':)............................................... rSwfyHkwiftrSw.f ..................................... touf........... ESpf..............vlrsdK; ................ edKifiHom;/ ae&yfvdyfpmtdrftrSwf......................................... &yfuGuf................... /. ................ vrf;oG,f....................................... vrf;.................................................... e,f..................................jrdK@e,f................................... c&dkifwGifaexdkifolonfTtm%mv$Jajymif;pmtm; (armif/ r/ OD;/ a':) ....................................................... rSwfyHkwiftrSwf....................................... touf........... ESpf ..................... vlrsdK; .................. edKifiHom;/ ae&yfvdyfpmtdrftrSwf .................................. &yfuGuf.................. /............................ vrf;oG,f ...................................... vrf;......................................... e,f............................... jrdK@e,f..................................... c&dkifwGifaexdkifoltm;.......................................... tm%m&Sdoltjzpf.................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................... u|Efkyf.udk,fpm;jyD;qHk;onftxdaqmif&GufrnfjzpfjyD;/ tm%may;tyfcH&olrSrSm;,Gif;aom vkyfaqmif csufrsm;tm;u|Efkyfudk,fwdkifvkyfaqmifouJhodk@wm0ef,lygrnf? oufaotjzpftoHk;jyKedKif&efatmufyg oufaorsm;a&S @wGifvufrSwfa&;xdk;ygonf? vufrSwf ...............................................tm%mv$Jajymif;ol (..............................................) vufrSwf ...............................................tm%mv$Jajymif;ol (..............................................)

vufrSwf ...............................................tm%mv$Jajymif;vufcHol (..............................................) vufrSwf ...............................................oufao (..............................................) rSwfcsuf : ( 10bwf (odk@) 30 bwf wefwHqdyfacgif;toHk;jyK&ef)

vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

114


a&$ @ajymif;tvkyform;rsm;Oya'.tusdK;tm;r#wpGmcHpm;edKif&efESifhtaxmuftuljyKedKif&ef twGuf a&S @aetaxmuftuljyKoifwef;vufpGJ

tm%may;tyfjcif;

tr+pzGifhonfhtrSwf________/25_____ tr+jyD;qHk;onfhtrSwf _______/ 25____ w&m;&Hk;________________________________ &ufpGJ ____ v ______________ ckESp_f _____ tr+___________________________________ _______________________________________________________________w&m;vdk t-um; _______________________________________________________________ w&m;cH u|Efkyf________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________tm; tdrftrSw_f _______/ ___________&yfuGuf________________________vrf;__________________ vrf;oG,f__________________ESifhteD;wGif&Sdaom_________________e,f____________________ jrdK@e,f__________________ c&dkif / zkef;eHygwf ______________________ u|Efkyfudk,fpm;atmufygtr+udpPrsm;tm;aqmif&GufedKif&eftm%may;tyfygonf? ay:aygufvmaomjy \emrsm; tm;wm0ef,lygrnf? ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ vufrSwf ______________________________tm%may;tyfol vufrSwf ______________________________tm%may;tyfol vufrSwf________________________________ oufao vufrSwf ________________________________oufao

vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

115


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a&S @aecef@tyfjcif;

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vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

116


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vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

117


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vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

118


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{ (รง.๑) tvkyform;tr+wdkif-um;jcif;

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vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

119


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vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

120


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{

(รง.๑) tvkyform;tr+aemufqufwGJwdkif-um;csufrsm; w&m;&Hk;rSw&m;cHtm;0&rf;xkwfIac:,lppfaq;IpD&ifcsufcsedKif&ef atmufygtwdkif;aqmif&GufedKifonf? … w&m;cHtm;tvkyfiSm;&rf;r+pmcsKyftwdkif;aqmif&Guf&ef(odk@)vkyf ief;ydkif;qdkif&mpnf;urf;csufowfrSwf&ef(odk@)tvkyfiSm;&rf;r+tajctaeoabmwlnDcsuf jyKvkyf&ef .................................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................... … w&m;cHonftvkyform;umuG,fa&;Oya't&ay;tyf&ef vkyftm;cpkpkaygif;................................................................................................ bwf tcsdefydkvkyftm;cpkpkaygif;......................................................................................bwf tvkyfydwf&ufwGiftvkyfqif;&aomvkyftm;cpkpkaygif;...................................... bwf ESpfpOftvkyfydwf&ufwGiftvkyfqif;&aomvkyftm;cpkpkaygif;...............................bwf tvkyfydwf&uftcsdefydkvkyftm;cpkpkaygif;..............................................................bwf epfema-u;pkpkaygif;.............................................................................................. bwf avsmfa-u;aiGpkpkaygif;.......................................................................................... bwf ..................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................... … w&m;cHtm;tvkyform;qufpyfa&;Oya'twdkif;vdkufemaqmif&Guf&ef ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................... . … w&m;cH.qHk;jzwfcsuftm;&kwfodrf;apI ..................................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................................... … w&m;cHtm;vlr+zlvHka&;tmrcHOya'twdkif;vdkufem&ef ..................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................

vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

121


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vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

122


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vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

123


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vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

124


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vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

125


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_______________________________________

vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

126


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vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

127


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vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

128


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vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

129


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t}uD;tuJtm;wifjyIwm0ef,lrnfholtm;wm0efay;tyfjcif; (1&uf)

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130


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vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

131


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2 -um;emaaqmif&Gufjcif;

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3

132


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3 trdef@xkwfjcif;

tvkyform;tcGifhta&;r&Sd

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133


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สชง.1/01

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vl@tcGifhta&;wdk;wufr+jrSifhwifa&;azgifa';&Sif;( armapmfazm )ESifhtjynfjynfqdkif&mtvkyform;tzGJ@csKyf ( ILO )

134


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140


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Burmese Labor Solidarity Organization (BLSO) Burmese Labor Solidarity Organization (BLSO) Joint Action Committee (JAC) Karen Youth Organization (KYO) Karen Youth Organization (KYO) Burma Lawyers’ Council (BLC) Burma Lawyers’ Council (BLC) Social Action for Woman (SAW) Social Action for Woman (SAW) Federation of Trade Unions Burma (FTUB) Federation of Trade Unions Burma (FTUB) Federation of Trade Unions Burma (FTUB) Federation of Trade Unions Burma (FTUB)

Labor Law Clinic (LLC) Labor Law Clinic (LLC) Labor Law Clinic (LLC)

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Manual for Paralegal in Burmese Language