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A rights-based approach would address the basic needs street children have for protection, loving relationships, physiological needs/health care and livelihoods by presenting positive and healthier alternatives for so many young people engaged in this risky survival strategy. Dimension 4: Education, livelihoods, and hope for the future

Downloaded By: [Betancourt, Theresa Stichick] At: 12:58 1 June 2010

The fourth dimension of children’s security concerns their future and the opportunities available to them to reach their maximum potential. This last dimension links children’s security to their place and potential within the social environment. Early childhood intervention Scientific gains in neurobiology, the behavioral and social sciences and accumulated experiences from early intervention programs such as Head Start/Early Head Start Programs in US were captured in the IOM report From Neurons to Neighborhoods: The Science of Early Childhood Development (Shonkoff & Phillips, 2000). Most recently, the efforts of the National Scientific Council on the Developing Child have highlighted the vulnerability posed by early childhood exposures to toxic stress, alcohol and drugs and poor nutrition in negatively influencing long term developmental trajectories. Similarly, compromised caregiving relationships and toxic stress have been demonstrated to actually disrupt the architecture of the developing brain – limiting the developmental potential of many disadvantaged children (National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2004; Shonkoff & Phillips, 2000). In many countries afflicted by the AIDS pandemic, the problems of extreme poverty, insecurity and high HIV prevalence are compounded to create extreme conditions of risk for the growth, emotional, and cognitive development of children. In response, services characterized by multi-component early childhood interventions hold great promise for altering the developmental potential of children in even the poorest environments. Interventions that enrich early childhood environments and improve attachment and parenting relationships between child and caregivers (defined broadly) have been attributed to improved health, social, and economic outcomes in adulthood, particularly among disadvantaged children (Hawkins, Kosterman, Catalano, Hill, & Abbott, 2005). Experimental early childhood interventions have produced a range of positive health and social outcomes including improved school achievement, reduced risk of emotional and behavioral problems, fewer high risk behaviors (drug and alcohol abuse, sexual decision making, early pregnancy), reduced incidence of smoking, reduced antisocial behavior (less violent delinquency, fewer arrests), and positive economic outcomes such as less use of public assistance, higher earnings, greater effort at savings and increased home ownership (Hawkins et al., 2005; Reynolds & Temple, 1998; Schweinhart, Barnes, & Weikart, 1993). Recently, a number of early childhood intervention programs have been adapted and evaluated in developing countries (Engle et al., 2007). Building educational, health, child protection, and social services for children affected by HIV/ AIDS has the potential to strengthen service systems for all children in low resource settings, yet much of the service response remains fragmented and piecemeal. Despite new scientific advances and the development of important interventions for supporting healthy early childhood development in disadvantaged

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Children affected by HIV/AIDS: SAFE, a model ...  

Children affected by HIV/AIDS: SAFE, a model for promoting their security, health, and development Authors: Theresa S. Betancourt, Mary K.S...

Children affected by HIV/AIDS: SAFE, a model ...  

Children affected by HIV/AIDS: SAFE, a model for promoting their security, health, and development Authors: Theresa S. Betancourt, Mary K.S...

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