Page 10

Psychology, Health & Medicine

251

Downloaded By: [Betancourt, Theresa Stichick] At: 12:58 1 June 2010

depletion of family resources, which are often used to respond to morbidity and mortality in the family due to HIV/AIDS (Masanjala, 2007). Hunger and malnutrition Hunger and malnutrition are intrinsically linked to children’s security. Nutritional deficiencies significantly compromise a child’s ability to fight off disease. Childhood hunger and malnutrition are fundamental threats to the security of children as they undermine the conditions necessary for children to survive and attain maximum development and succeed in many areas of social and personal development from school attendance to cognitive development (Shonkoff & Phillips, 2000). The HIV/ AIDS pandemic has been linked to growing food insecurity in sub-Saharan Africa (DeWaal & Whiteside, 2003). AIDS alters the distribution of age and sex in a population demographic. High mortality rates among individuals in their most productive years have been shown to have a negative effect on the economic situation in high HIV prevalence areas resulting in greater food insecurity (Perez-Escamilla et al., 2007). UNICEF’s 1998 State of the World’s Children report termed hunger a ‘‘silent emergency’’ citing evidence from WHO that child malnutrition was implicated in over half of deaths to children in developing countries in 1995 (UNICEF, 1998). Although over the last three decades the rate of severe malnutrition has fallen globally, some areas of the world, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, has felt an increase in chronic food insecurity (Costello & White, 2001). This region also carries a disproportionate amount of the populations affected by HIV/AIDS. Access to health care In many regions affected by HIV/AIDS, health services systems are underdeveloped (Veenstra & Oyier, 2006). In fact, the HIV/AIDS pandemic presents a window of opportunity to strengthen sustainable health services systems as a component of a strategy to respond to the support and care of children affected by HIV/AIDS. Access to basic childhood immunizations, nutritional and growth monitoring and primary health care are fundamental to promoting health and reducing children’s susceptibility to disease. However, access to timely immunizations and primary care in many resource-limited settings is significantly limited (Partners in Health, 2006). For HIV-positive children, access to ART is lower than that for adults in developing countries. Finally limited PMTCT access globally has failed to prevent thousands of infants from acquiring HIV infection. It has been estimated that anywhere from 9 to 25% of HIV-positive pregnant women have access to PMTCT services (Bajunirwe & Muzoora, 2005; UNAIDS & World Health Organization, 2005); a grave situation that calls for immediate action.

Dimension 3: Family and connection to others The caregiving environment Children grow and develop in the context of relationships with others (National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2004). Recent scientific advances have detailed how early childhood experiences, including the quality of nurturing and attachment relationships, shape the developing architecture of the human brain

Profile for HPCR Research

Children affected by HIV/AIDS: SAFE, a model ...  

Children affected by HIV/AIDS: SAFE, a model for promoting their security, health, and development Authors: Theresa S. Betancourt, Mary K.S...

Children affected by HIV/AIDS: SAFE, a model ...  

Children affected by HIV/AIDS: SAFE, a model for promoting their security, health, and development Authors: Theresa S. Betancourt, Mary K.S...

Profile for hpcr
Advertisement