Page 1

Fall 2010

Volume 1 Number 1

Welcome to the Howard H. Baker Jr. Center for Public Policy Letters from Jimmy Cheek, Howard Baker, and Carl Pierce

The Baker Center Directors and Their Objectives

Mike Fitzgerald Governance Robert Shelton Energy & Environment Howard Hall Global Nuclear Security Michael Caudle Health

1640 Cumberland Avenue A Look Inside the Baker Center Building The Eyes Have It Samples of Howard Baker’s Photography

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hen I think about the University of Tennessee’s “treasures,” one of the names at the top of the list is Senator Howard H. Baker Jr. Senator Baker’s relationship with UT Knoxville started as a student. He earned a law degree here and served as student body president in 1949. Throughout his life and work—as a lawyer, a U.S. Senator, a presidential chief of staff, and a U.S. ambassador—Senator Baker remained a Vol. Senator Baker, who turns 85 this fall, is a great example of how leadership can be achieved through thoughtful study, civil discourse, and hard work. He continues to support UT with his gifts, his presence, and his good name. In 1996, UT awarded Baker with its first UT Founders’ Medal. In accepting it, Baker said, “There is something special about attending a large, public university like this one. It helps shape young minds and spirits. UT and my experience here were a contributing part of my life. It still is.” Today, we’re privileged to have the Howard H. Baker Jr. Center for Public Policy as part of our campus. As it continues to grow and evolve, the center will help put UT Knoxville on the map as a leader in public policy thinking. By hosting and participating in conferences, by bringing national and international experts to campus to speak, and by conducting meaningful research, the Baker Center will enhance the dialogue about issues of global importance, especially global security, health policy, governance studies, and energy and environmental policy. In 2005, UT Knoxville presented Senator Baker with an honorary doctorate, the first of three we’ve now awarded. Speaking to graduates that year, he challenged them to “be more than you think you can be, whatever endeavor you may choose for your life.” That sentiment—to constantly seek to improve—is a worthy challenge for the Baker Center, for our university, and for each of us. The Baker Center already has hosted renowned speakers and been involved in many notable programs. The Baker Scholars Program and the Baker Center Learning Community offer tremendous foot-in-the-door opportunities for our UT students interested in public service careers. The center’s museum is a place where history can come alive for students, educators, and the general public, and its Modern Political Archives are a growing wealth of information about some of Tennessee’s most influential political figures. And even with all of this, we’re confident the best is yet to come. We look forward to an exciting partnership with the Howard H. Baker Jr. Center for Public Policy as it becomes an established, authoritative voice on matters of public policy.

Jimmy G. Cheek


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is all too easy in difficult times to become cynical about the possibilities of public service and the motives of those who offer themselves as public servants. But I believe—and have always believed—that tremendous good can be accomplished through the creation and implementation of sound public policy and active civic engagement. It is within our power, individually and collectively, to effect positive changes that benefit us now and for generations to come. Commitment to such service and success is the heart of the Baker Center’s mission and the reason it was established. In this magazine, we want to convey our efforts to successfully serve the university, the community, and the public at large. Through public lectures, scholarly programs, and now this magazine, the Baker Center examines public policy, the political process, the media’s role in politics, and civic engagement, among other areas. More specifically, the center focuses on four areas of scholarship: governance, global security, energy and environment, and health policy. The Baker Center’s ultimate mission is to engage members of the public—students and non-students alike—in learning about and discussing America’s system of governance and the role of its citizens. The staff is dedicated and passionate about their work, and the policy directors are experts in their respective fields. Profiles of the policy directors, featured in this issue, demonstrate their work. A profile of former and current Baker Scholars, also in this issue, provides a glimpse into the program that helps such gifted students satisfy their intellectual curiosity and achieve their career goals in the areas of public policy and service. The photographs and objects on display in the center’s museum give visitors an in-depth look at the American political system. Finally, the Baker Center archives are a rich resource for anyone interested in the careers of Tennessee’s state and national legislators. The center’s future as a public policy institute relies on these programs and the people behind them. It is critical that we think deeply about the issues confronting us today. An informed citizenry and informed public servants are necessary for the continuation of governance in this country. We must commit ourselves to understanding contemporary issues in a balanced manner, from international issues, such as terrorism and energy challenges, to more local topics, such as sustainable development and education. I hope that the Baker Center will add to our understanding and will speak to many audiences. From the classroom to Congress, I believe the work put forward at the center will be useful to citizens who want to be informed and engaged.

Howard H. Baker Jr.



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or the past year I have had the privilege of serving as interim director of the University of Tennessee’s Howard H. Baker Jr. Center for Public Policy. I’m now pleased that I will continue to serve as the center’s director during the next phase of a wonderful collective effort—through the work of the center—to honor Senator Baker’s long and distinguished public service career. Last October, we celebrated the grand opening of the Baker

H H H The University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Jimmy G. Cheek Chancellor, UT Knoxville





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Volume 1 • Number 1 • Fall 2010

The Baker Center Directors and Programs .........................


Center’s wonderful new building. What I have known since even before my first visit, however, is that the Baker Center is much more than a building; it is a collection of great people who work hard to fulfill the Baker Center’s mission. These people include the visionaries who first conceived the notion of a Baker Center at the University of Tennessee and those who have worked to make it a reality, including friends of Senator Baker, the Baker Center


H H H The Howard H. Baker JR. Center for Public Policy

1640 Cumberland Avenue ...........

Board of Directors, UT administrators and faculty, elected officials, generous contributors, the Baker Center University Advisory Committee, the program directors and fellows, and other policy experts from UT Knoxville, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Y-12 National Security Complex, and the Tennessee Valley Authority. They also include the seven dedicated, competent, and hardworking members

Carl Pierce Director

The Eyes Have It ..............


The Statesman .......................................


The Baker Scholars ................................


An Academic Community .........................


Leah Adinolfi Director of Student Engagement

of the Baker Center staff with whom I have the pleasure of working on a daily basis and without whom the Baker Center could not function. Finally, no listing of the people of the Baker Center would be complete without inclusion of

Matthew Brown Interim Director of the Modern Political Archives

the person in whose honor the center was established: Senator Howard H. Baker Jr. We are not an institution that just bears his name, but one that also reflects his interests and career as a leader and a statesman in public service. His work provides inspiration for what the center does and how we do it. This magazine highlights programs and policy areas that follow that inspiration.

Nissa Dahlin-Brown Associate Director and Director of Civic Engagement

In this inaugural issue, you will be introduced to our Modern Political Archives and its Archival Studies Program, which currently focuses on Baker Studies; the Governance Studies Program, which aims to enhance our understanding of our unique system of government; and policy areas in energy and the environment, global security, and health. You will also become acquainted with

Amy Gibson Director of Communications and Public Programming

our education initiatives and how we engage students in our Baker Center Learning Community and Baker Scholars Program to become the next generation of citizens, public servants, and policy experts. In my new capacity as director, it is my pleasure to welcome you to our first issue of In the

Betsy Harrell Administrative Coordinator and Assistant to the Director

Public Interest. It is my hope that the magazine will provide you with interesting and informative glimpses of the programs and activities at the Baker Center and that you will be inspired to attend our public workshops and conferences. Through these initiatives you will be able to participate in the discussion of public policy issues that are shaping our lives and the lives of those in the world around us.

Carl Pierce 4

Inside Back Cover

Missy Jenkins Facility Manager and Event Coordinator Patti Rebholz Business Manager

­­ Closing ................................

The University of Tennessee does not discriminate on the basis of race, sex, color, religion, national origin, age, disability or veteran status in provision of educational programs and services or employment opportunities and benefits. This policy extends to both employment by and admission to the university. The university does not discriminate on the basis of race, sex, or disability in its education programs and activities pursuant to the requirements of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973,and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990. Inquiries and charges of violation concerning Title VI, Title IX, Section 504, ADA or the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) or any of the other above referenced policies should be directed to the Office of Equity and Diversity (OED), 1840 Melrose Avenue, Knoxville, TN 37996 3560, telephone (865) 974 2498 (V/TTY available) or 974-2440. Requests for accommodation of a disability should be directed to the ADA Coordinator at the UTK Office of Human Resources, 600 Henley Street, Knoxville, TN 37996 4125. The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, in its efforts to ensure a welcoming environment for all persons, does not discriminate on the basis of sexual orientation in its campus-based programs, services, and activities. Inquiries and complaints should be directed to the Office of Equity and Diversity. PAN R01-0130-077-004-11 • A project of the Howard H. Baker Jr. Center for Public Policy with the assistance of UT Creative Communications; 91 Communications Bldg.; Knoxville, TN 37996; 865-974-0765. Revisions: 9616





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Directors The Program

... and Their Objectives

he mission of the Baker Center is to develop programs and promote research to further the public’s knowledge of our system of governance while highlighting the critical importance of public service. Meet the leaders who are working to fulfill the center’s mission in its four key policy areas.



Robert Shelton, Ph.D. Educating the public about Energy Policy and Economic Effects

Robert Shelton laments the missed opportunities the government has had to inform the public about energy policies, and he wants to help demystify the interplay of energy, economics, and government. Educating students and the general public about energy policies and their economic effects is Shelton’s goal as the director of the Energy and Environmental Policy Program. An economist by training, Shelton earned a bachelor’s degree at Texas Christian University, a master’s degree at the University of California, Berkeley, and a doctoral degree at Southern Illinois University. He previously served as the director of the Energy Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and as the executive director of the Joint Institute for Energy and the Environment at UT Knoxville. As the director of the Energy and Environmental Policy Program, Shelton works to continue Senator Baker’s legacy of work on environmental and energy issues. The program emphasizes both multidisciplinary approaches to policy formation and the establishment of multiple institutional partnerships with private, nonprofit, and governmental entities. The Baker Center coordinates seminars, lectures, workshops, and conferences on energy and environmental topics, with a particular focus on the center’s main policy initiatives. Areas of focus include scientific research and development, energy consumption and production, climate change,

nuclear energy and nuclear waste, energy conservation, transportation, and renewable energy. In addition to studying the immediate effects of certain policies, the program looks at the long-term impact such policies have on the economy and future generations. For example, the calculation of an intergenerational discount rate “involves both economic and ethical considerations,” Shelton says. “Should a person five generations from now be given the same weight as a person alive today? Philosophers and economists sometimes arrive at different conclusions.” Working in the area of energy policy requires an objective view of the benefits and potential consequences that policies may have on everything from the country’s economy to the environment. “People need to understand that there are many forces at play,” he says. “You cannot just go out and protest an oil company for creating an environmental problem, as that likely will not resolve the underlying cause. In order to solve these problems, one has to have a certain detachment. To be an analyst requires detachment in order to create options, because often there is no one right answer.” Although there may be no easy answer, Shelton says the government must try harder to make people aware of the process of developing energy policy. If people are left uneducated, then implementing any policy will be difficult. “Public policy is about public understanding,” Shelton says. “An uninformed public can prevent a good policy in the same way that it can support a bad one that it does not understand.”

Global Security

Howard Hall, Ph.D. pursuing nuclear security solutions

“I remember the day clearly. My girlfriend, Lisa—she’s now my wife—had flipped on the TV early in the morning and had seen smoke billowing from the Twin Towers. She called me up and asked if it would affect my job. ‘No,’ I said unthinkingly. Boy, was I wrong!” Howard Hall, the director of the Baker Center’s Global Security Program, was living in California on September 11, 2001, working at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as a senior manager overseeing work in nuclear chemistry. In retrospect, the September 11 terrorist attack was one of the defining moments of his career. Hall saw the threat to national defense as a personal affront, and

before long he was spending most of his time on national security issues. “Nine-eleven hit the nation in the gut,” Hall says. “It fractured our illusion that it couldn’t happen here. Before 9/11 there was no Department of Homeland Security, no research funding in this area. Today, we’re on national alert 24/7, and we’ll remain so from now on.” Hall is a world-renowned expert in the intervention of nuclear terrorism. Besides heading up the Baker Center’s Global Security Program, Hall holds joint appointments as a Governor’s Chair in the UT Knoxville Department of Nuclear Engineering and the Division of Global Nuclear Security Technology at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). “National security is about science and policy: We want to keep bad things away, protect our liberties, and promote freedom,” Hall says. “The Baker Center is an ideal vehicle for seeking solutions through civil discourse.” Hall says a key factor in global security is a growing focus on nuclear technology. “Nuclear infrastructure is increasing across the globe,” he says. “We want to make sure this happens in a safe and secure way. We have appropriate expertise here in East Tennessee. It would be the height of hubris, of course, to think we know it all, but we can embark on a mutual learning journey. “As nuclear technology spreads throughout the world, it can be used for both peaceful and military purposes.” Baker Center partners will be examining national and international policies and looking for ways to detect and divert nuclear technology that might otherwise be used for military purposes. During the next few years, Hall will develop a comprehensive nuclear security strategy with colleagues at the Baker Center, the university, ORNL, and the Y-12 National Security Complex in Oak Ridge. Their strategy will focus on policy, law, and diplomacy; education; science and technology; intelligence capabilities of the United States government; and the execution of real-world missions. “We can’t do everything out of one institution,” Hall says, “so part of this strategy is to work with other institutions to build as strong a team as possible. In five years we expect to see our strategy coming to fruition, with greater impact on the global security field, a greater research footprint at UT Knoxville and ORNL, and some real-world contributions that we probably won’t be able to talk about.”



Michael R. Fitzgerald, Ph.D. Rebuilding a Civil Society

Paradoxically, being stationed overseas during the Vietnam War brought politics home for Michael Fitzgerald. Growing up in a union family, Fitzgerald was exposed to politics from a young age. After graduating from the Honors College at Western Michigan University, he served two years in the army, including a tour of duty in Vietnam. In Vietnam, Fitzgerald began considering a political career. “I was really concerned about our country because of the way the war was turning out,” he says. “I wanted to be a part of the solution—to help improve the system.” Fitzgerald earned master’s and doctoral degrees in political science from the University of Oklahoma and joined the UT faculty in 1978. From 1984 to 2004, he served as a consultant and adjunct faculty member at the U.S. Office of Personnel Management’s Executive and Management programs in the United States and Europe. Fitzgerald is currently a fellow for governance studies and director of the Baker Center’s Governance Studies Program, which advances research, teaching, and public service about the institutions and practices of governance and society. The program integrates the study of the arts, sciences, humanities, and the law, bringing together students and faculty from diverse backgrounds and academic disciplines. Reflecting the distinguished public service career of Howard Baker, the Governance Studies Program is focused on improving the processes and institutions of self-government in the United States and around the world. Fitzgerald is also chair of the American Studies Program and a political science professor at UT Knoxville, where he teaches American government and politics, public administration, pub-


lic policy, and mass media. His interest in teaching about governance and public service sprang from his unhappiness with what he perceived as the detrimental social and cultural effects of the Vietnam War. The war, he says, created deep divisions in American society, particularly between those who fought and those who didn’t. “We fell into a silence about Vietnam and the Vietnam Era,” Fitzgerald says. “There was bitterness and partisanship and shouting and division. Part of that division never healed. It brought about the decline of civility. Recovery is fragile, which makes the Baker Center work all the more pressing to help the next generation restore civility, honesty, integrity, and love of country.” Fitzgerald’s work to promote such values has not gone unnoticed. For his outstanding commitment to public service and teaching, the UT Institute of Public Service in 2004 presented him with its inaugural Faculty Excellence Award. “The Baker Center helps me fulfill a promise I made in Vietnam: that everything that I had gone through with the people I had served with and everything that they went through would not have been wasted,” Fitzgerald says. “I became a small part of rebuilding civil society, of putting back together what Vietnam tore apart. I could be part of something that matters.”

Health Policy

Mike Caudle, M.D. working to improve Tennesseans’ health

When he was a practicing physician, Mike Caudle’s main healthimprovement tools were checkups, surgeries, and medicines. Now, Caudle is working to solve Tennessee’s health problems by creating guidelines and directives that can help stop medical conditions before they require the intervention of a scalpel or the use of expensive prescription medications. Caudle is currently the head of the Baker Center’s Health Policy Program. Through the program, health experts—physicians, nurses, legal experts, sociologists, economists, and allied health faculty—from across the UT system generate policy recommendations for policymakers and the public about difficult health problems affecting the region, the state, and the nation. Being a part of the university system also allows the Health Policy Program to help students seeking careers in health fields. In combination with the stu-

dents’ course curricula, the Baker Center’s initiatives on health policy provide an opportunity for students to better understand national health policy issues. “What is so exciting about being at the Baker Center is that I can work on policies and programs that can lead to significant improvements in the health of our people,” Caudle says. “When you deal with policy, you can actually change the world.” Before joining the Baker Center team, Caudle served as chair of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of Tennessee Medical Center in Knoxville from 1986 to 1995. He was dean of the UT Graduate School of Medicine from 1995 to 2005 and served as vice chancellor for health affairs and governmental relations at the UT Health Science Center from 2005 to 2009. Given the health care landscape in Tennessee, the Health Policy Program is an important focus for the Baker Center. Although Tennessee has been a national leader in such health care innovations as TennCare, the state has serious weaknesses in its health care system. The health of residents ranks near the bottom nationally in most health ratings, many regions are underserved by providers, and the incidence of such conditions as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension is high. With a background in rural medical practice and academic medicine, Caudle can view the health care field from multiple angles, particularly that of underserved populations. He knows that Tennessee’s more pressing health problems are also among the most difficult to solve. Obesity and diabetes, for instance, are so entwined with economic, geographic, and cultural factors that a quick fix is impossible. “The economically disadvantaged have poor access, less health literacy, and little way to deal with problems,” Caudle says. “Many people don’t want to know they have diabetes because they can’t do anything about it. They have to eat, and the most available food choices are often bad.” Caudle cites school lunch programs and U.S. Department of Agriculture guidelines as just two examples of programs that could be easily amended to promote more healthy behaviors. “We know the science,” he says. “We’re just not making changes in policy consistent with that science.”

Baker Center Senior Fellow

Rita Sanders Geier Rita Geier is an associate to the chancellor and a senior fellow at the Baker Center, helping with UT Knoxville’s intercultural and diversity goals and, within the Baker Center’s Health Policy Program, with health disparity issues. In partnership with the UT Health Sciences Center, the Baker Center facilitates interdisciplinary research and programming on the causes of disparities and the impacts of current health policy on disparities among various income, geographic, and other demographic groups. Geier is especially interested in policy interventions that promote health. Before joining the university, Geier, who has a law degree from Vanderbilt University, had an extensive career with the Social Security Administration, the U.S. Department of Justice, the Appalachian Regional Commission, and the Seattle-based Legal Services Corporation. She received the Presidential Rank Meritorious Executive Award from President Bill Clinton.

To learn more about the directors and their programs, please visit


17th Street Cumberland Avenue Melrose Avenue

UT Campus

Cumberland Avenue The Grounds of The Howard H. Baker Jr. Center for Public Policy he Baker Center is an education and research

facility that serves the university and the public. Located on the campus of UT Knoxville, the building is a 51,527-square-foot, three-level structure clad in brick and Tennessee marble. It houses a museum, an auditorium, archives, classrooms, a public reading room, and offices for staff, including an executive office for Senator Baker and a boardroom.



Jim Gray, Howard Baker, Natalie Haslam, Nancy Kassenbaum Baker, and Jim Haslam  Baker Center museum displays

 Posters of Baker Center sponsored program events



Senior policy analyst, Executive office of the president’s office of Science and Technology policy Using the example of nuclear detonation response preparedness, Taylor will discuss the mission and goals of the office of Science and Technology policy (oSTp) at the Executive office of the president and provide information on how the office accomplishes its mission though interagency coordination.

Monday april 19, 2010




side the university use its resources for research in public policy, politics, the media, and other topics. Because the Baker Center is at its heart a learning facility, it hosts classes, lectures, and other events for students and the public. Students at UT Knoxville, particularly those enrolled in the Baker Scholars Program and the Baker Center Learning Community, often take courses that meet in the building’s classrooms. The center’s public events have included discussions about the Cold War arms race, the recession, election reform, and global security. I


JANUARY 31 2010 4:30 p.m.


FEBRUARY 2 2010 12:00 – 1:30 p.m.

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3/31/10 12:14 PM















Blue Covenant: The Global Water Crisis and the Coming Battle for the Right to Water



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Connecting Water Issues to Regional Policy

Students, faculty and regional experts will discuss issues presented in the January 31–February 3 programs and their implications for water policy in the region. Toyota Auditorium, Baker Center

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Canadian author and activist, speaking on the growing national and international water crisis. Toyota Auditorium, Baker Center

FEBRUARY 3 2010 7:00 p.m.


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For additional information visit


Blue Gold: World Water Wars

by Maude Barlow

7 p.M. ToyoTa aUdiToriUM

Funds for this program were developed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Education. However, contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the U.S. Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government. The University of Tennessee is an EEO/AA/Title VI/Title IX/Section 504/ADA/ ADEA institution in the provision of its education and employment programs and services. A project of the Howard H. Baker Jr. Center for Public Policy with the assistance of



Award-winning documentary explores global loss of fresh water supplies, the politics behind water ownership, and potential consequences of fresh water scarcity. Toyota Auditorium, Baker Center Light refreshments served.

Renee Hoyos from the Tennessee Clean Water Network, Joanne Logan from the Department of Biosystems Engineering and Soil Science at the University of Tennessee, and Tiffany Foster from the Tennessee Valley Authority will lead the book discussion. East Tennessee History Center Auditorium, 601 S Gay Street



The Howard H. Baker Jr. Center for public policy at the University of Tennessee presents

The building itself was designed with care. Reflecting Senator Baker’s work in the field of environmental protection, the center was designed to achieve a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Silver Certification. The building was designed by the Baker Center Associated Architects and Engineers, a joint venture of McCarty Holsaple McCarty Architects & Interior Designers and West, Welch, Reed Engineers. Construction was performed by Rentenbach Constructors Incorporated. The political process and the life of Senator Baker are shown in “The System Works,” an interactive museum located on the first floor of the center. The museum, which is free and open to the public, contains photographs, documents, and other items pertaining to governance and civic engagement. There are presentations on the history of politics in Tennessee, the role of the media in the political process, and the United States’ systems of governance. Visitors can read up on their rights under U.S. law, as well as how to get involved in local or national government. A number of interactive stations cover political events and issues in which Baker has played a prominent role, such as the Watergate investigation, the shaping of environmental policy, and the Panama Canal treaty negotiations. Other temporary exhibits are rotated throughout the year. Most of the primary documents found in the museum come from the center’s Modern Political Archives, housed on the second floor. Adding a personal touch to the museum are numerous photographs taken by Senator Baker himself, a skilled photographer who was called the “senator with a camera.” Baker chronicles his life, his career in the United States and abroad, and many of the political events of his time through photography. On the second floor of the Baker Center are several classrooms and the center’s Modern Political Archives (MPA). The archives contain a wealth of materials from and about many political leaders of Tennessee, major associates of those leaders, and other individuals or groups who have had a major impact on Tennessee during the modern era. The holdings include the papers of U.S. Senators Howard H. Baker Jr., Estes Kefauver, and Fred Dalton Thompson, Governor Donald Sundquist, and U.S. Representative Howard H. Baker Sr. The MPA was built to the presidential library standards exemplified by the National Archives. Scholars from within and out-


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To learn more, please visit


The Eyes Have It

Miyajima Torii, Japan

Uyghur elder, western China

Elizabeth Taylor

lt h o u g h most people might be content with lifelong success

in public service, Howard Baker Jr. is not “most peo-

Frog, Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, Tennessee

ple.” Beyond his noted career in politics and public service, Senator Baker has enjoyed a passion for photography that goes beyond mere hobby.

L-R: President Reagan, President Nixon, and Frank Carlucci preparing for Moscow summit

Senator Baker’s talent for seeing something unique and special through his camera lens is evident in his work, and he can capture moments in seemingly any realm. Photos of everyday people around the world share space in his collection with photos of national and world leaders. Still life, wildlife, and natural landscapes are also among his diverse array of subjects.

Children in rural east Tennessee, 1970s

His work has been published in printed collections and magazines and has been exhibited in the United States and Japan. The images on the follow-

Woman in window, Rome, Italy

ing pages are but a small sample of Senator Baker’s talented photography and unique vision.


President George H.W. Bush attending memorial ceremony for fallen WWll comrades


North African Desert

Gare de Lyon railway terminal clock, Paris, France

St. Basil Cathedral, Moscow, Russia Bald eagles, Alaska

Angkor Wat, Cambodia

Watches at shrine sale, Japan

Great Pyramids, Egypt

Egret mother and chicks, Florida



Sen. Sam Ervin Chairman, Watergate Investigative Committee Uyghur child, western China

Mementos at shrine sale, Japan

Terracotta warriors, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, China

Woman and dog, Andes, Peru

Locks at shrine sale, Japan

African Leopard Young ocelot, Central America

’51 Hudson, Huntsville, Tennessee


To see more of the senator’s photos, please visit


The Modern Political Archives Among the papers housed in the Modern Political Archives are those of the following jurists and political leaders. U.S. Senate Howard H. Baker Jr. William E. Brock III James B. Frazier Sr. Estes Kefauver John K. Shields Fred D. Thompson U.S. Congress Howard H. Baker Sr. Irene Bailey Baker Bob Clement John J. Duncan Sr. Harold Ford Jr. James B. Frazier Jr. John Jennings


U.S. Supreme Court Edward T. Sanford U.S. District Court

former congressional and White House correspondent for The New York Times observed recently that throughout Senator Baker’s public career, the senator “reflected certain values—bipartisanship, a respect for the Congress as an institution, a sense of civility, and a belief in the value of compromise—values that are far less visible today in Washington than when he was there.” Those values are at the heart of the Baker Studies Program’s mission, which is essentially twofold. First, the program encourages and facilitates the maximum use of the Modern Political Archives housed at the Baker Center. These archives, which include the papers of Senator Baker and many of Tennessee’s recent political leaders and jurists, are a significant resource for scholars, journalists, and students interested in regional and national history. The archives’ Oral History Program, for instance, includes the transcripts of some 300 interviews of Senator Baker and others. Second, the program provides a forum for exploring the values Senator Baker epitomized in his career in public service. Hopefully, public policy decision

makers will be inspired by that career and will espouse those values that were Senator Baker’s hallmark. Toward that end, the center sponsors academic conferences on topics ranging from Senator Baker’s role in the Senate Watergate Committee’s investigation to the service he rendered as Senate minority and majority leader, President Richard Nixon’s overtures to Senator Baker to succeed U.S. Supreme Court Justice John Marshall Harlan, and Senator Baker’s tenure as White House Chief of Staff to President Ronald Reagan. The director of the Baker Studies Program is Theodore Brown Jr., a University of Tennessee alumnus and Vanderbilt Law School graduate who practiced law in Atlanta for 25 years before returning to Knoxville to begin his teaching career. Brown is a lecturer in the Department of Political Science, teaching constitutional law, judicial process, and law in American society. He is also an adjunct professor in the College of Law, teaching American legal history. Brown is co-editor of Legal Papers of Andrew Jackson, published by the University of Tennessee Press, and is working on a book about the late Senator Estes Kefauver.

To learn more about the senator’s career, please visit

Thomas G. Hull James H. Jarvis Charles G. Neese Robert L. Taylor Frank W. Wilson Tennessee Governor Lamar Alexander Frank G. Clement Winfield Dunn Donald Sundquist Tennessee Supreme Court E. Riley Anderson


Insp i r i ng

P u b l i c

P o l i c y

s t u d e n t s

longer a student, was a respected state government employee. “I was thoroughly impressed with his concern for government and society,” Fitzgerald says. “I was so proud of that young man.”

Domestic Policy

ric Harkness may have inherited his love of

history and political science from his grandfather, but it was the Baker Scholars Program that helped parlay those interests into a promising career in government. n “Getting to interact with Senator Baker was always special,” says Harkness, a resident of Franklin, Tennessee. “Being able to talk with him was really inspiring and made me want to pursue a career in public service.” n Harkness is currently the project manager for the Office of e-Health Initiatives in the Tennessee Department of Finance and Administration. While attending UT Knoxville, Harkness was a member of both the Baker Scholars and the College Scholars programs. He graduated from the College of Arts and Sciences in 2006 with a major in public policy and sustainability studies. Since its inception in 2004, the Baker Scholars Program has consistently attracted UT Knoxville’s most academically gifted, politically curious students, offering them instruction, guidance, and experiences that go far beyond those normally offered to undergraduates. Applicants to the program are typically juniors and seniors; sophomores with a strong faculty recommendation also are invited to apply. Scholars are selected in the spring and enter the program the following fall. The core element of the program is a research project, which the student completes with the guidance of a faculty, staff, or professional mentor. Projects address an aspect within the Baker Center mission or program areas, including issues related to the career of Howard Baker. For his project, Harkness prepared a report on the economic and environmental effects of a carbon di-


oxide cap in the trade market. The project, he says, helped give him technical skills crucial for a career in public policy. Beside completing a research project, scholars also interact with public officials, academics, and others involved in politics and policy, and they participate in discussions and roundtable events addressing policy-related topics. “Getting exposure to public officials as a college student is a terrific benefit. It prepared me for a job with the state legislature, meeting with various officials across the state,” Harkness says, noting that in addition to Howard Baker, he met former Senator Fred Thompson and Knoxville Mayor Bill Haslam. Watching Harkness progress from a 17-year-old prospective student to a state official was a delightful experience for Mike Fitzgerald, director of the Baker Center’s Governance Studies Program and Harkness’s mentor throughout college. Fitzgerald was especially rewarded during a 2008 meeting of the Task Force on Civility in Tennessee Politics and Government when Harkness took his place among the scholars, professors, and state officials in attendance. The former Baker Scholar, no

2007, the Baker Center introduced a new program, the Baker Center Learning Community (BCLC), for first-year students interested in studying topics related to the Baker Center’s mission. The students share housing and take a special course together in the fall and spring. The fall course addresses public policy topics, whereas the spring course covers issues related to applied public policy and civic engagement. The shared classes and housing give the freshmen a sense of camaraderie, says Elizabeth Williams, a Norris, Tennessee, native who lived in the BCLC in 2008-2009 and is now a Baker Scholar. “The aspect of the BCLC which I enjoyed most was the connection and interaction with those who shared my interests,” Williams says. “At times, the experience seemed like something out of those stereotypical college brochures where students sit in the halls and talk politics and philosophy until 2 a.m. It fed me intellectually and socially in a way that I don’t know I would have had in a traditional dorm.” The students can opt to continue to live in the dorm their sophomore year and serve as mentors to the incoming freshmen. The aim of the program is to introduce the Baker Center and its areas of study to incoming students, with an eye toward these students later applying for the Baker Scholars Program. “After my experience in the BCLC, I wanted to continue my involvement with the Baker Center. I saw it as an incredible resource for knowledge and engagement on campus,” Williams says. “I wanted to work more in-depth on a project that examined engagement and policy, and being a Baker Scholar allowed me the opportunity.” Williams says the classes she took as part of the BCLC program helped her turn her desire to work in government into a more focused goal of working in education policy. She hopes to work for Teach for America and go to graduate school, concentrating on

education and civic engagement. “My experience in the LC was crucial in shaping and refining my future goals. I’ve always had an interest in policy and engagement but was unsure of the right way to incorporate this in a career path,” Williams says. “Becoming a part of organizations like this gives students the opportunity to discover early in their college careers whether a certain path is right for them.”

The Letters of the Law fter learning of the Baker Scholars Pro-

gram through the university honors programs, Amit Patel of Lafollette, Tennessee, attended several Baker Center events, which sparked his interest in the center and its initiatives. “I was excited that the university had a nonpartisan center focused on public policy and civic engagement,” says Patel, who graduated from the College of Law in May 2010. Patel had been a Baker Scholar since his junior year as an undergrad, and the program has led to a multitude of professional and educational opportunities for him, before and after graduation. Graduate student Baker Scholars like Patel typically work on the Baker Journal for Applied Public Policy, a semiannual academic publication that publishes articles, essays, and book reviews on public policy issues. The journal provides graduate students with valuable experience in academic publishing. Patel worked as a staff editor for the journal, where he led a team of research editors in reviewing and editing articles for publication. In addition to working on the journal, Patel has helped organize Baker Center events. “More than anything, I’ve enjoyed working with the people at the Baker Center,” Patel says. “Through helping to coordinate events to working on voter registration during the election cycles, each moment has been a pleasure.” Patel hopes to become a trial attorney and perhaps have a career in policy or politics down the road. “Being a Baker Scholar profoundly helped me in law school, where I had to understand and analyze varied viewpoints,” Patel says. “The skills I developed during my time as a Baker Scholar have helped me become successful inside and outside of law school.”

To learn more about the Baker Scholars Program, please visit


Working Together closing

Baker Center Faculty Associates Program

“If we do our job well and in good conscience as Republicans and Democrats working together for the best for America, we will find that this new age, this new technological era will, in fact, be the promise for a better life for all mankind.” —Howard H. Baker Jr.

from Howard Baker’s photography portfolio

the Baker Center aims to provide policy makers, citizens, scholars, and students with information and skills to work effectively within our political system, “working together” becomes central to that goal. It is also at the core of the Baker Center Faculty Associates Program. Begun in 2006, the Faculty Associates Program is a vehicle for integrating the members of the University of Tennessee community into the life of the Baker Center by identifying individuals who will undertake intercollegiate and cross-disciplinary research and teaching, program development, and university and public service in support of the center’s mission. Today, there are 56 faculty associates from eight colleges within the university and two associates from other universities. Activities of faculty associates vary depending on the needs of the Baker Center and the expertise and interests of faculty members. Faculty associates develop proposals; conduct research; mentor Baker Scholars in policy research, public affairs internships, and community service activities; participate in conferences, programs, and special events; and recommend program direction. Faculty associates have completed research on government structure, voting processes, and energy policy and published their findings in academic journals. During the 2009-2010 academic year, faculty associates worked on Baker Center conferences, symposia, and panels, including

• Tent City Celebration and Voting Rights Symposium • “The Cold War and Its Legacy” • “Election Reform and Voting Rights” • “Environmental Policy’s New Horizon: From the Clean Air Act to Greenhouse Gas Regulations” • “Rawlsian Liberalism in Context(s)—A Symposium: Engaging the Philosophical Foundations of Politics and Public Policy” • “Understanding the Recession” Faculty associates also develop undergraduate and graduate courses on such topics as education policy, global security, and energy and the environment. Course content integrates material reflected in major Baker Center conferences and exposes students to critical policy questions discussed by conference participants and leaders in the field.


To learn more about this program, please visit

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The Howard H. Baker Jr. Center for Public Policy 1640 Cumberland Avenue Knoxville, TN 37996


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Visit the Baker Center website for the latest news about programs and events. Read blogs and essays featuring discourse about the center and public policy issues. Participate in the conversation and interact with faculty, staff, and students by offering your own comments. Discover expanded magazine content, including photos and videos. Follow us on Facebook and Twitter for other updates from the Baker Center.

Join the conversation. Browse the Baker Center online.

In the Public Interest, Vol. 1 Issue 1  

The first magazine and image piece from the Howard H. Baker Jr. Center for Public Policy.

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