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b.

Became landowners of agriculture as well i. Farmers rented, poor laborers employed 3. Social status began to be determined more by wealth than family position vi. Reform movements 1. Number of people with influence (aristorcrats/middle class) see inhumanity 2. Capitalism a positive, but need laws to keep abuses in check 3. Government needs to act on behalf of the workers 4. Some want to get rid of system, some want to merely reform it a. Some nations do both – capitalist and socialist 5. Reform more possible in Great Britain/United States a. Has democracy, middle class, impact of Enlightenment b. Not so in Russia with autocracy i. Marxism more attractive here 6. Parliaments started passing laws that limited hours, child labor, safer working conditions 7. Labor unions formed to bargain for the big 3 – or threaten to strike a. Factory owners realized happy, healthy, well-paid force productive vii. Eventually led to communication revolution 1. Telegraph 2. Telephone 3. Radio viii. Major consequences 1. countries with industrial technology had advanced military weapons a. Able to conquer people who did not have this technology 2. countries needed access to raw materials to make finished products and markets a. colonies would fit both of these roles quite well ix. Because started in Britain – Britain becomes dominant global nation of 19th century x. Need for communication improvements to facilitate organizing expanding businesses 1. Telegraph – 1837 – communicate great distances in seconds 2. Telephone – 1876 – Bell 3. Radio – 1890s 4. Lightbulb – 1879 – hey, we can work into the night xi. Role of the individual changes 1. Man not just working with machines, he becomes part of machine a. Working to the noise of machines b. Pace of work more rapid than at home 2. Consistency of function more important than independent thought xii. Abuse of labor 1. Initially overworked, underpaid, unsafe working conditions a. 16 hour workdays, children as young as 6 xiii. Living conditions change 1. No longer fresh air and sunshine – air pollution and hazardous machinery 2. No longer seasonal adjustments to work pattern – same product day after day 3. Leads to despair and hopelessness 4. Minimal police protection at first xiv. Literature created to reflect times 1. Charles Dickens writes of social ills of industrialization xv. Philosophical – Karl Marx – Communist Manifesto 1. working class eventually revolt and take control of means of production 2. Instruments of power – government, courts, police, Church on side of the rich a. uprising would make these instruments of power unnecessary 3. saw flaw in capitalist system xvi. Conservative backlash – don’t like the changes 1. Luddites – destroyed factory equipment, protested working conditions/wages a. Government exacts harsh punishments to prevent this type of protest i. Sides with the wealthy…surprise xvii. Changes urban life 1. bus service, sidewalks, street lights, steam heating of homes, icebox refrigeration, indoor plumbing, sewing machines, canned food, urban sewage systems, medicine xviii. Affected navies and armies of all countries 1. Steam powered battleships, modern rifles, modern artillery, machine gun 2. United States Civil War – first industrial war – 1861-1865 a. Franco-Prussian – 1870-1871

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/unit4local  

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