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ii. Even arrested nephew/killed reformers when they tried “Hundred Days Reform” c. Outlying possessions slipped away – Tibet, Gobi Desert, Mongolia 2. Chinese Revolution of 1911 a. Provincial secessions b. Declaration of republic 3. Empire under Yuan shih-K’ai 4. Years of civil war and chaos 5. Establishment of republic in 1927 under Nationalist/Kuomintang Party iii. Outcome/effects 1. Abdication of Qing (Manchu) emperor in 1912 2. Yuan declares self emperor – dies in 1916 3. Warlords in power across China 4. Unification of much of China begun under Sun Yat-sen a. Sun Yat-sen – father of modern China i. United a number of opposition groups – Revolutionary Alliance ii. Military takeover that would become constitutional democracy iii. People’s Principles 1. Nationalism – opposition to Manchu Rule 2. Democracy 3. People’s Livelihood iv. Actually in America when revolt started b. Chinese Republic – 1912 – Sun as president i. Nationalist Party – Kuomintang ii. 1st time in history ruled not by imperial dynasty/foreign conqueror 1. Politician brought to power by popular action iii. Sun eventually forced to step down iv. Civil war results b. Aided by Soviets 5. Chiang Kai-shek successor to Sun a. Leads nationalist republic 6. Fight for control of China with Communists under Mao Zedong i. Latin America i. Venezuela 1. Cause a. Disputed authority – Napoleon appoints brother Joseph Bonaparte to Spanish throne i. Who to follow – Spanish or French? 2. Events a. Simon Bolivar – Venezuelan leader i. Enlightened educated – traveled to Europe/United States ii. Establishes national congress iii. Royalists – defenders of crown – declare war b. Bolivar wins – envisions United States like South America i. Gran Colombia results – Columbia, Ecuador, Venezuela ii. Other nations become independendent ii. Argentina 1. Cause a. Disputed authority – see French/Spanish issue above 2. Events a. Jose de San Martin – American-born Spaniard (Creole) i. Officer in Spanish army defects and leads rebels b. Joins with Bernardo O’Higgins of Chile c. Take revolution through Argentina, Chile, Peru d. By 1820s, huge chunk of South America freed from Spanish rule iii. Brazil 1. Cause a. Napoleon invaded – Portuguese king – John VI flees to Brazil i. Sets up Portuguese government from Brazil ii. 1821 – Napoleon defeated, so John returns to Portugal iii. But…leaves behind his son Pedro to rule 2. Events a. Pedro was 23, spend entire life in Brazil

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