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i. Slump leaves regions open to foreign takeover in 1800s 8. Antislavery military efforts by British gave Europeans feeling they could intervene i. Set precedent that it was OK to conquer C. New Birthrate Patterns a. Life expectancy rose – population increase i. 50% growth to 190 million from 1700-1800 b. Decreased death rate i. improved medical care ii. nutrition ii. hygiene sanitation 1. gains in life expectancy in developing nations still small D. Population Revolution in the West a. Middle of 18th century – population exploded i. End of episodes of epidemic disease ii. Improved diets – increased consumption of potatoes iii. Larger number of healthy adults increased birth rates iv. Lower infant mortality rates v. Larger populations equal ready supply of labor b. After 1850 rates change again i. Majority of population resides in cities ii. Drop in death rate 1. More hygienic practices 2. Louis Pasteur – germ theory iii. Drop in birth rate 1. Families don’t need to produce large families to serve as laborers on farm E. Population Growth in the Non-West a. Population in Latin America doubled in 19th century b. China – development of sweet potato i. Growing population encouraged need for improved agricultural methods/technology c. Japan – improvements in nutrition and medical care i. Like China – strain in natural resources F. Food supply a. More food available b. Less chance for famine E. Natural Resources a. Stealing is cheaper than dealing i. Gained incredible wealth 1. Colonize, drain natural resources, don’t compensate natives ii. Finished goods then sold to colonies 1. Not allowed to buy from anyone else iii. Colonial powers became rich at expense of colonies b. Europe had coal/iron ore, but climate restricted what could be grown i. Need goods from tropical climates – rubber/cotton F. Due to colonization – world now exposed to European values G. Landscape changes a. Limited raw materials depleted faster than at any time in human history H. Increase in pollution a. Water supplies contaminated by human sewage and industrial waste b. Dark skies from caol-produced smoke i. Rickets – disease of the bones – underexposure to sunlight I. Population growth a. Causes i. Greater agricultural efficiency ii. Medical advances iii. Gradually rising prosperity b. Population of Europe i. 175 million in 1800 > 423 million by 1900 J. Urbanization a. Most jobs in or near cities b. Old cities increase in size – London passes 1 million, same with Paris, New York c. New cities start popping up – especially if near energy source d. Conditions dismal i. Overcrowded – disease can spread easily

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/unit4local  

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