Page 1

Native American Resistance The Culture War The Indian Wars

Native American Resistance  The Treaty of Fort Laramie  Promises Native American control of the

Plains.  Tales of wealth in the west cause the government to change its mind.  Promise of land is changed to life on the Reservation

The Reservations  Promised:   

Land Money Supplies

The Indian Bureau  Part of the War Department  The implied threat  Bureau Agents and dishonesty  The cultural problem – Americans

believe in the idea of individual ownership of property. The Native Americans do not.

Treaties ď Ż The government constantly renegotiate

the Indian treaties. ď Ż The Native Americans learn to distrust the U.S. Government.

The Second Brunot Treaty of 1873.

Otto Mears and Ute Chiefs

The Indian Wars  Came about as a result of the

government’s unfair treatment.  Difficult odds  20,000 soldiers   

Civil War veterans Buffalo Soldiers Native American rivals

The Massacres  The Colorado Gold Rush of 1858  Sand Creek Massacre  Black Kettle grew tired of fighting. The

Cheyenne plan to surrender.  Colonel John Chivington slaughters 200 Native Americans including women and children.  Prompts other raids by Native Americans.

Geronimo ď Ż The famous Apache

warrior. Embittered by the murder of his family by Mexican troops in 1858, Geronimo and his guerilla force terrorized and fought any settler or intruder entering the Apache lands in the Southwest. Captured in 1886, Geronimo was exiled to Florida and then Oklahoma where he died in 1909.

Treaty of Medicine Lodge  Neither side can win.  Signed in 1867 to stop the fighting.

Plains Indians again forced to move.  Does not stop the fighting.

Sitting Bull and Custer  U.S. Army wanted to open up the

Dakota’s to gold prospectors.  Sitting Bull defied orders for the Sioux to move. He hated reservation life.  Victorious at the Battle of Rosebud in the spring of 1876.  2,000 men ready to fight afterwards.

The Battle of Little Bighorn  Custer faces off against Crazy Horse.  Fatally divides his forces and attacks a

superior force.  Custer and his troops are killed to a man.  Indian victory is only temporary.  Divide into small groups to evade the U.S. Army’s wrath. Forced to surrender.

Wounded Knee  In 1889 the Ghost Dance religion is

started by Wovoka.  Young Sioux turn the religion into a violent one.  Unfortunate practice of Ghost Shirts.  Sitting Bull is killed.  Sioux groups gather at Wounded Knee to be taken to Indian Agency headquarters.

The Massacre  Tensions run high.  Shot fired.  Army has new Hotchkiss machine guns.  300 Sioux killed.  30 soldiers killed.  Plains wars are over.

Assimilation  The government views absorption of

Native Americans into American culture as the only acceptable solution to ensure Native American survival.  Laws passed to end Native American culture.  

Cutting of hair. Banning of religion.

Assimilation  Carlisle Indian School  “Kill the Indian and save the man.”  Forced to adopt white culture.  Forced to speak English.  Forced to adopt European concept of

individual ownership of land instead of tribal ownership of land.

Dawes General Allotment Act  Passed in 1887.  Indian land must now be privately

owned.  Divided into 160 acre tracts for farming.  Remaining land was to be sold.  It was a disaster.  Native Americans lost their land and their culture.

Dawes General Allotment Act  Native Americans were cheated.  Given poor land.  Good land was sold to white farmers or

land speculators.  The Native Americans did not want to be farmers. Some sold their land and others were cheated out of their allotment.

The Navajo  The government wanted to force the

Navajos to stop being sheep herders.  In 1863 and 1864 the military was ordered to carry out attacks.  Homes and herds were destroyed.

The Long Walk  The Navajo are forced to walk from their

land to Bosque Redondo to become farmers.  The plan fails.  In 1868 the Navajo are given new and better land.  The Navajo rebuild their way of life.