Issuu on Google+

PRE-­‐Texts©:     An  Illustrated  Manual  

    Cultural  Agents  Initiative   Harvard  University  

`

1


PRE-­‐Texts©  Mission     Integrate  the  arts  into  academic  learning  in  order  to  promote  passionate  engagement   for  teachers  and  students.  To  serve  all  levels  and  socio-­‐economic environments  by   showing  that  local  development  can  follow  from  local  talents  and  recycled  materials.    

PRE-­‐Texts©  Vision     PRE-­‐Texts  is  the  most  effective  approach  to  educating  resourceful  citizens  for  the   intellectual  and  social  challenges  of  the  21st  century.      

PRE-­‐Texts©  Goals     1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

To  promote  ƐƚƵĚĞŶƚ͛ƐŽǁŶĞƌƐŚŝƉŽĨĐůĂƐƐŝĐĂůƚĞdžƚƐ,  a  cultural  capital.     To  experience  creative  thinking  as  critical  thinking.     To  recognize  that  ŝŶƚĞƌƉƌĞƚĂƚŝŽŶŝŶǀŽůǀĞƐͬǀĂůŝĚĂƚĞƐŽŶĞ͛ƐŽǁŶĞdžƉĞƌŝĞŶĐĞ͘   To  show  that  texts  need  creative  intervention  in  order  to  make  sense.   To  illustrate  that  language  is  an  art  that  can  trigger  other  artistic  processes.  

 

 

 

`

2


Contents 1. What  is  PRE-­‐Texts©?   2. PRE-­‐Texts©  Workshops   3. How  PRE-­‐Texts©  Works?   4. PRE-­‐Texts©  Goals,  Objectives,  Target  outcomes   5. PRE-­‐Texts©  Curriculum  outline   5.1. Activity  one:  Warm-­‐Ups   5.2. Activity  two:  Book  Making   5.3. After  Each  Activity:  What  did  we  do?   5.4. Activity  three:  Reading  Aloud   5.5. Activity  four:  Questioning  the  Text   5.6. Activity  five:  Inter-­‐text   5.7. Activity  six:  Literature  on  the  Clothesline   5.8. Activity  seven:  Portraits,  back-­‐to-­‐back   5.9. Activity  eight:  Poetry   5.10. Activity  nine:  Movie  Music  Score   5.11. Activity  ten:  Photography  and  Point  of  View   5.12. Activity  eleven:  Literary  Figures   5.13. Activity  twelve:  Forum  Theater   5.14. Activity  thirteen:  Grandmother  Tells  the  Story   5.15. Activity  fourteen:  Off  on  a  Tangent   5.16. EŽǁŝƚ͛ƐzŽƵƌdƵƌŶ   5.17. The  Ten  Staples  of  PRE-­‐Texts©   6. More  Info  and  Contact  Information          

`

3


What  is  PRE-­‐Texts©?     PRE-­‐Texts©  is  an  integrated  literacy  and  youth  development  program  for  multiple   learning  styles.  From  2007  on,  workshops  and  local  adaptations  have  been  implemented   in  Boston,  Cambridge,  Mexico,  Colombia,  Puerto  Rico,  Uganda,  Zimbabwe,  and  China.       Through  interactive  workshops  to  train  trainers,  our  program  ͞ƌĞĐLJĐůĞƐ͟ƉŽƉƵůĂƌ practices  that  develop  a  love  of  learning  and  offer  creative  strategies  for  teaching   literacy  and  the  skills  needed  for  active  citizenship.    PRE-­‐Texts©  interprets  literature   through  multiple  art  forms  in  order  to  develop:       1.  Reading  and  interpretive  skills,     2.  Confidence  in  speaking  and  thinking  in  the  target  language,     3.  Motivation  to  read  and  write  in  the  target  language,     4.  Critical  thinking  skills,  and     5.  Resourcefulness.   6.  Admiration  for  oneself  and  for  others.     The  PRE-­‐Texts©  curriculum  encourages  students  to  take  ownership  of  their  own  learning   process  by  making  them  co-­‐authors  of  good  literature  which  they  interpret  creatively,   using  their  own  experience  and  the  world  around  them.      

PRE-­‐Texts©  Workshops     Artistic  creativity  is  the  approach  that  keeps  children  and  youth  engaged  in  reading   through  PRE-­‐Texts©.  We  invert  the  conventional  order  of  teaching  from  lower  to  higher   order  thinking  and  begin  with  the  challenge  to  create  an  addition  to,  or  variation  on,  a   classic  text.  The  challenge  engages  students  in  art-­‐making  which  needs  to  access  data   and  basic  understanding,  whereas  beginning  with  basics  can  bore  students  and  cut  short   the  desired  progression.  Our  approach  takes  classics  as  stimuli  to  make  new  works  of   art,  not  as  sacred  objects.  Young  people  -­‐-­‐  and  older  ones  -­‐-­‐  have  fun  playing  with   literature,  which  requires  attention  to  vocabulary,  grammar,  and  analytic  skills.   Participants  re-­‐work  challenging  texts  into  various  genres  of  writing;  they  perform   variations  through  theater  games,  they  paint  visions  or  moods  inspired  by  stories,  set   stories  to  music  or  dance,  and  adapt  their  own  passions  for  art  into  new  interpretive   activities,  continuing  for  as  long  as  the  program  lasts.  The  program  guides  students  to   intervene  in  existing  literature,  and  thereby  to  develop  ownership  of  enriched  language   and  of  other  expressive  media.  We  demystify  classic  writing  and  treat  it  as  a  pretext  for   ƉůĂLJ͘ŶĚ͕ŝŶŽƌĚĞƌƚŽĚĞǀĞůŽƉďƌŽĂĚĂƐǁĞůůĂƐĚĞĞƉƌĞĂĚŝŶŐ͕ƉĂƌƚŝĐŝƉĂŶƚƐŐŽ͞ŽĨĨŽŶĂ ƚĂŶŐĞŶƚ͟ƚŽďƌŝŶŐŝŶĂƚĞdžƚʹ  from  any  field  -­‐-­‐  that  can  be  related  to  the  core  text  of  the   workshop.    

`

4


How  PRE-­‐Texts©  works?     Training  Workshop  For  Educators:  20  hours  (4  hours,  5  days).  Subject  to  Variations.  

  Implementation:  Example  for  a  10-­‐week program  (Warm  ups,  Book-­‐making,  Reading   aloud,  what  did  we  do?  ĂŶĚ͞KĨĨŽŶĂdĂŶŐĞŶƚ͟ĂĐƚŝǀŝƚŝĞƐ repeat  each  session  during  the   10-­‐week  program)  

 

 

 

`

5

 


PRE-­‐Texts©  Learning  Objectives     1. To  Develop  Critical  Thinking:  To  imagine  new  relationships  and  outcomes  by   altering  pre-­‐existing  literary  texts  is  also  to  engage  critical  thinking.   2. To  Increase  Reading  Enjoyment:  Pleasure  and  play  are  central  determinants  in   ĐŚŝůĚƌĞŶ͛ƐĚĞƐŝƌĞƚŽƌĞĂĚĂŶĚͬŽƌĐŽŶƚŝŶƵĞƌĞĂĚŝŶŐŝŶƚŚĞĨƵƚƵƌĞ͘ZĞĂĚŝŶg   enjoyment  leads  to  continuing  improvement  in  reading  and  literacy  levels.   3. To  Develop  Artistic/Literacy  Skills:  Learning  through  creativity  is  central  to  the   approach  of  Pre-­‐Texts.  Artistic  engagement  with  literature  develops  skills  to   ŝŶƚĞƌǀĞŶĞƉƌŽĚƵĐƚŝǀĞůLJŝŶĂƌĂŶŐĞŽĨůŝĨĞ͛ƐĐŚĂůůĞŶŐĞƐ͘      

Pre-­‐Texts  Target  Outcomes     Short-­‐term  Outcomes:   x Increased  Awareness:  students  discover  that  a  classic  text  can  have  new  uses.  They   realize  that  reading  is  not  passive,  but  instead  an  active  component  of  authorship.   x Increased  Knowledge:  students  learn  vocabulary,  grammar  and  historical/cultural   references  by  exploring  a  classic  text  used  for  making  art.   x Increased  Skills:  students  develop  strategies  to  intervene  in  existing  material,  and  to   connect  that  material  with  their  own  experience  and  objectives.     x Increased  Motivation:  students  express  a  heightened  desire  and  interest  in  reading.   They  use  literary  texts  to  ͞ŵĞĞƚ͟ƵŶĨĂŵŝůŝĂƌǁŽƌůĚƐ  and  mine  them  for  artistic  leads.   x Improved  Attitude:  students  perceive  reading  and  writing  as  opportunities  for  play   rather  than  impositions  or  homework.  They  generate  self-­‐discipline  as  artists.       Intermediate-­‐term  Outcomes:   x Improved  Practices:  educators  will  incorporate  more  challenging  texts  and   imaginative  interpretation  strategies  to  raise  learning  expectations  and  results   among  students.   x Improved  Habits:  students  show  positive  literacy  development  and  reading  habits  in   their  regular  classes.   x Improved  Staff  Engagement:  positive  engagement  among  instructional  staff  follows   from  collaboration  between  artists/educators  and  classroom  teachers.   x Improved  Student  Behaviors:  after  using  literary  texts  as  a  precursor  for  activities,   students  develop  self-­‐authorizing  confidence  as  well  as  admiration  for  each  other,   along  with  the  necessary  skills  to  process  emotional  challenges.   x Improved  Procedures:  Educators  incorporate  arts  in  their  curriculum  as  vehicles  for   enhancing  instruction  of  the  range  of  academic  subjects.     Long-­‐term  changes  Outcomes:   x Improved  Environment:  students  discover  their  capabilities  to  analyze,  intervene  and   transform  their  own  world  in  an  innovative  and  effective  way.  

`

6


x

Improved  Social  Conditions:  communities,  parents  and  schools  benefit  from  the   positive  impact  of  more  engaged  and  participant  students  in  daily  life  activities.   x Improved  Economic  conditions:  engaged  students  with  better  literacy  skills  have   better  possibilities  for  accessing  higher  education  and  enhance  their  future  income.   x Improved  Political  Conditions:  students  develop  citizenship  and  community  through   admiration  of  creative  participation  in  workshops.  They  evaluate  their  own  world   and  notions  of  conformity;  society  is  now  perceived  as  a  work  in  progress  that   invites  them  to  make  changes  and  explore  possibilities.        

 

`

 

7


Activity  One:  Warm-­‐ups   Learning  Goals:  To  let  go  of  inhibitions;  to  acknowledge  that  making  mistakes  is  part  of   the  artistic  and  learning  process;  to  trust  other  people  as  partners  in  art-­‐making  and   learning;    See  Augusto  Boal  ͞'ĂŵĞƐĨŽƌĐƚŽƌƐĂŶĚEŽŶ-­‐ĐƚŽƌƐ͟.     Maverick  Landing  Community  Center,  East  Boston  -­‐  2009

    1. Naming  Gestures.  Stand  in  a  circle.  Each  student  speaks  her/his  name  and   simultaneously  makes  a  physical  gesture.  Everyone  in  the  circle  repeats  the  name   and  gesture  together.  Do  this  around  the  circle.  For  an  extra  challenge,  have  the   students  try  to  remember  and  repeat  all  of  the  names  that  came  before.   2. Colombian  hypnosis.  ŝǀŝĚĞƚŚĞŐƌŽƵƉƐŽƚŚĂƚĞǀĞƌLJŽŶĞĐŚŽŽƐĞƐƚŚĞůĞƚƚĞƌ͟͞Žƌ ͘͟͞  Student  A  leads  and  B  follows.  A  puts  a  palm  up  toward  the  face  of  B,  a  few   inches  away.  ĨŽůůŽǁƐ͛ƐŚĂŶĚwith  her/his  eyes  (keeping  the  few  inches  distance)   as  A  moves  around  the  room.  A  should  try  to  get  B  to  move  in  different  new  ways.   Then  partners  switch  roles  and  B  leads  A.   3.  Can  I  Trust  You?  Similar  to  activity  #2.  Students  find  a  partner.  The  leader  and  the   follower  both  hold  their  palms  up,  touching  them  together.  The  follower  closes   her/his  eyes,  and  the  ůĞĂĚĞƌůĞĂĚƐƚŚĞ͞ďůŝŶĚ͟ĨŽůůŽǁĞƌĂƌŽƵŶĚƚŚĞƌŽŽŵĂŶĚŵƵƐƚ avoid  bumping  into  other  students  and  walls.  Then  partners  switch  roles.   4. Guess  The  Personification.  All  stand  in  a  circle.  Ask  students  to  walk  about  the  room   searching  for  an  object  with  which  they  can  create  a  personification  (e.g.  hungry  

`

8


trash  can).  Then  ask  students  to  speak  the  personification  without  giving  away  the   ŽďũĞĐƚ;Ğ͘Ő͘͞/ĂŵǀĞƌLJŚƵŶŐƌLJ͘͟ͿdŚĞŽƚŚĞƌƐƚƵĚĞŶƚs  must  guess  the  object.   5. Tangles  and  Knots.  Everyone  stands  in  a  circle.  Remember  who  is  standing  to  the   right  and  the  left.  The  facilitator  asks  the  group  to  spread  out  and  begin  to  walk   freely  about  the  room.  Now  walk  close  to  those  who  have  the  same  colored  shirt  as   you,  the  same  colored  shoes,  the  same  glasses,  etc.  Further  instructions:  create  3   circles,  or  4  squares  or  2  triangles  (using  everyone  in  the  room).  Then  the  facilitator   ƐĂLJƐ͕͞ĨƌĞĞnjĞ͘͟sĞƌLJ͕ǀĞƌLJƐlowly  everyone  must  reaches  toward  the  persons  who   were  standing  on  their  right  and  left,  and  lock  hands.  This  will  be  a  tangle.  The  group   then  tries  to  untangle  itself͕ǁŝƚŚŽƵƚůĞƚƚŝŶŐŐŽŽĨƚŚĞŝƌŶĞŝŐŚďŽƌƐ͛ŚĂŶĚƐ͘   6. Quirky  Me.  Students  find  a  partner  and  tell  each  other  one  quirky  thing  about   ƚŚĞŵƐĞůǀĞƐ;Ğ͘Ő͘͞/ůŝŬĞƚŽƐŝŶŐŝŶƚŚĞƐŚŽǁĞƌ͘͟ͿdŽŐĞƚŚĞƌƚŚĞLJƉĞƌĨŽƌŵƚŚĞƋƵŝƌŬLJ actʹ  one  student  mimes  the  activity  (acting  it  out  in  silence)  while  the  other  student   makes  the  corresponding  sounds.  The  class  must  guess  what  the  quirky  thing  is.   7. Complete  the  Image.  Two  people  shake  hands  and  freeze.  The  facilitator  asks  the   spectators  what  story  they  see  in  the  image.  Then,  one  person  leaves  the  frozen   image,  leaving  it  incomplete.  A  volunteer  then  comes  to  completes  the  image  in  a   new  way  to  make  a  different  story.  Students  talk  about  what  they  see  in  each  image.   8. Two  by  Three.  WĂƌƚŶĞƌƐĂůƚĞƌŶĂƚĞĐŽƵŶƚŝŶŐ͞ϭ͟-­‐͞Ϯ͟-­‐͞ϯ͟.  Then,  they  replace  1  for  a   sound  and  physical  gesture,  counting  2  and  3  normally.  Now  replace  2  with  another   sound  and  gesture  and  count  5  normally;  now  replace  the  3.  Participants  will  laugh   at  the  errors  they  make  and  also  appreciate  the  arbitrary  nature  of  language.     9. Remember  That  Rhythm.  Everyone  sits  in  a  circle.  The  first  person  makes  a  two  beat   rhythm  using  his/her  body  and/or  the  floor  (e.g.  two  snaps,  one  with  each  hand).   Each  student  adds  a  subsequent  two  beat  rhythm,  but  must  repeat  all  of  the   rhythms  that  came  before  her/him  before  adding  their  own.  Students  can  help  each   other  remember  the  rhythms.     10. Carnival  of  Rhythm.  Everyone  sits  in  a  circle.  One  student  begins  by  making  a   ƌŚLJƚŚŵƚŚĂƚƚŚĞLJƐŚĂƌĞŽƵƚůŽƵĚ͕ĂŶĚŽŶĞďLJŽŶĞƚŚĞƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ͞ƉĂƐƐ͟ƚŚĞƌŚLJƚŚŵ around  the  group  as  if  they  are  passing  an  object  (each  repeating  the  rhythm   themselves).  Once  the  first  rhythm  is  passed,  the  next  student  creates  another   rhythm  and  begins  to  pass  it  around  the  group.  Now  there  are  two  rhythms.   Continue  by  having  the  next  student  do  the  same.     11. Rhythm  and  Chairs.  Choose  5  students.  Each  gets  a  chair  and  must  create  a  frozen   image  using  the  chair.  The  facilitator  numbers  the  images  1  to  5.  The  rest  of  the   group  then  moves  around  the  space  slowly  and  at  any  time  the  facilitator  will  call   out  one  of  the  numbers,  and  the  group  must  then  replicate  that  frozen  image.  You   can  have  each  student  replicate  the  image  individually,  or  the  group  as  a  whole  can   replicate  the  image  (using  their  bodies  to  replicate  the  role  of  the  chair).  

`

9


Activity  Two:  Book-­‐Making   Learning  Goals:  To  embolden  students  to  intervene  in  existing  material;  to  experiment   with  design  options;  to  recognize  discarded  material  as  useful;  to  promote  a  culture  of   ƌĞĐLJĐůŝŶŐĂŶĚĐĂƌĞĨŽƌƚŚĞǁŽƌůĚ͛ƐůŝŵŝƚĞĚƌĞƐŽƵƌĐĞƐ͘    

    Inspired  by  Eloisa  Cartonera,  an  artist-­‐led  publishing  house  in  Argentina,  PRE-­‐Texts©   begins  by  creating  books  from  everyday  recycled  materials.  How  to  design  the  cover  is   an  exercise  in  creativity  and  resourcefulness  and  builds  anticipation  for  the  text  as   content.    As  students  make  their  books,  they  listen  to  a  story  read  aloud  and  think  of  a   question  to  ask  the  text.  This  revives  the  practice  of  children  and  trains  the  practice  of   scholars.  Research  begins  with  asking  a  question  of  texts,  other  objects,  and  events.       Materials  for  making  books:      (*optional)     Cardboard  (recycled  if  possible)   Stapler             Paint*   Scissors   Hole  Puncher       Colored  Markers           Paintbrushes*   Pens  /  Pencils   Paper  (recycled  if  possible)     Glue  /  Tape           Decorative  Materials   Newspaper  (to  protect  floors)   Yarn  /  String     Magazines*             Stencils*   Stickers*  

What  did  we  do?         After  each  artistic  activity  the  facilitator  asks  students  to  reflect  on  what   happened  during  the  activity.   `

10


After  Each  Activity:  What  did  we  do?       Learning  Objectives:  To  generalize  from  concrete  activities  to  general  principles;  to   ƉĂƵƐĞĂŶĚĐŽŶƐŝĚĞƌƚŚĞĞĨĨĞĐƚƐŽĨŽŶĞ͛ƐĂĐƚŝǀŝƚLJ͖ƚŽŝŶĨĞƌĂŶĚƚŽabstract;  to  anticipate   interesting  responses  from  everyone  in  the  group;  to  speak  cogently  and  briefly.       /ŶƐƚĞĂĚŽĨĂƐŬŝŶŐƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ͞tŚĂƚĚŝĚǁĞůĞĂƌŶ?͟ƚŚĞƌĞĨůĞĐƚŝŽŶĂĨƚĞƌĞĂĐŚĂƌƚ ĂĐƚŝǀŝƚLJƌĞƐƉŽŶĚƐƚŽƚŚĞƋƵĞƐƚŝŽŶ͞tŚĂƚĚŝĚǁĞĚŽ͍͟dŚĞƐƵďƚůĞĚŝĨĨĞƌĞŶĐĞŝƐ fundamental.  The  first,  more  conventional  question,  will  probably  fail  to  elicit  deep   reflections,  because  participants  will  sense  ʹ  correctly  -­‐-­‐  that  the  answers  are   predictable  and  that  the  facilitator  is  hoping  to  get  affirmation  for  the  lesson  and  even   thanks  for  it.    Asking  instead  about  what  participants  did  puts  the  focus  on  them.  In   response  to  the  conventional  question,  students  can  allege,  in  an  unfriendly  way,  that   they  learned  nothing.  But  they  will  be  embarrassed  to  say  that  they  did  nothing  after   they  obviously  participated  in  an  arts  activity.     ĨƚĞƌƚŚĞƉƌŽŵƉƚ͞tŚĂƚĚŝĚǁĞĚŽ͍͕ĞĂĐŚƉĂƌƚŝĐŝƉĂŶƚŽĨĨĞƌƐĂĐŽŵŵĞŶƚ͘    It  is   important  that  each  one  makes  a  contribution.    In  this  way,  participation  is  insured.  Very   active  students  gradually  learn  economy  of  expression  and  also  judgment  about  when   to  intervene.  Shy  students  learn  that  contributions  are  an  obligation  and  that  the  group   will  wait  for  them.    When  each  person  has  spoken  there  may  be  time  to  take  the  floor   again;  but  there  is  never  a  case  in  which  a  participant  should  speak  twice  before  all  have   spoken.       Several  good  citizenship  building  effects  follow  from  this  simple  procedure:  the   rule  itself  establishes  democratic  leveling  of  rights  and  responsibility;  students  come  to   expect  interesting  and  intelligent  responses  from  everyone  in  the  group;  facilitators  are   free  from  the  burden  of  getting  some  students  to  limit  their  comments  and  others  to   overcome  their  reticence.     Intellectually,  ͞tŚĂƚĚŝĚǁĞĚŽ͍͟ƐƚŝŵƵůĂƚĞƐŚŝŐŚĞƌŽƌĚĞƌƚŚŝŶŬŝŶŐ͘dŚĞƋƵĞƐƚŝŽŶ is  grounded  in  a  concrete  practice  and  it  explores  theoretical  observations.  In  fact,   participants  almost  inevitably  offer  comments  that  can  be  given  technical  names  in   literary  theory,  language  philosophy,  and  group  dynamics.  For  example,  someone  may   note  that  reading/receiving  and  writing/producing  are  not  really  opposite  activities,   since  one  cannot  read  wiƚŚŽƵƚŝŵĂŐŝŶŝŶŐǀĂƌŝĂƚŝŽŶƐŽƌĚĞƚĂŝůƐƚŚĂƚĚŽŶ͛ƚĂƉƉĞĂƌŝŶƚŚĞ text  (deconstruction);  or  that  each  reader  brings  his/her  experience  to  interpretation   (reader-­‐response);  or  that  telling  the  same  story  in  the  voice  of  a  different  character   changes  the  story  and  its  impact  (narratology).  Students  may  notice  that  words  have   ĚŝĨĨĞƌĞŶƚŵĞĂŶŝŶŐƐŝŶĚŝĨĨĞƌĞŶƚĐŽŶƚĞdžƚƐ;tŝƚƚŐĞŶƐƚĞŝŶ͛Ɛ͞ůĂŶŐƵĂŐĞŐĂŵĞƐ͟Ϳ͖ŽƌƚŚĂƚ ƚĞdžƚƐĂƌĞƉŽƌŽƵƐĂŶĚŝŶǀŝƚĞƐƉĞĐƵůĂƚŝŽŶƐ;ĐŽ͛Ɛ͞ŽƉĞŶǁŽƌŬ͟Ϳ͘&ĂĐŝůŝƚĂƚŽƌƐƚƌĂŝŶĞĚŝŶ these  theories  can  mention  them  as  tags  for  student  reflections,  but  the  tags  are   ƵŶŶĞĐĞƐƐĂƌLJĨŽƌƐƚŝŵƵůĂƚŝŶŐƚŚĞƐŽƉŚŝƐƚŝĐĂƚŝŽŶƚŚĂƚĨŽůůŽǁƐĨƌŽŵ͞tŚĂƚĚŝĚǁĞĚŽ͍͟   `

11


Activity  Three:  Reading  Out  loud     Learning  Goals:  To  enhance  in  students  the  level  of  attention  to  speech  while  they  are   engaged  in  manual  activities.  To  strengthen  listening  skills.    

      The  facilitator  or  a  volunteer  student  reads  the  chosen  text  in  a  clear  and  moving  voice   while  participants  continue  to  make  their  individual  books.    The  act  of  reading  out  loud   while  others  listen  intently  as  they  engage  in  manual  labor  has  a  long  and  distinguished   tradition  throughout  the  Caribbean  in  the  practice  of  cigar  manufacture.  Workers  would   collect  money  to  hire  a  reader;  and  they  would  choose  the  book  to  be  read:   newspapers,  novels,  history,  and  philosophy.       Students  continue  to  make  books  as  the  reader  finishes  reading  the  text.  During  the   reading,  students  are  encouraged  to  identify  missing  or  curious    information  in  the  story   that  makes  them  curious  and  to  prepare  a  question  to  ask  of  the  text.     The  facilitator  can  provide  examples  of  questions  to  encourage  students  to  think  about   their  questions.    

What  did  we  do?       At  the  end  of  every  activity  the  facilitator  encourage  students  to  reflect  by  asking:  What   did  we  just  do?  

`

12


Activity  Four:  Ask  a  Question  of  the  Text     Learning  Goals:  To  intervene  and  experience  that  texts  are  open  to  new  uses.  To   promote  critical  thinking  and  ownership  of  the  text  and  print  culture  in  general.    

 

  What  the  author  does  not  say  is  sometimes  as  important  as  what  the  author  does  say.   By  reading,  we  engage  with  the  text  and  fill  in  details  that  are  not  supplied  yet.  A   question  might  also  be  posed  to  the  author.  Then,  students  ask  their  questions  aloud,  so   that  all  can  appreciate  the  range  of  opportunities  to  intervene.       Facilitators  can  give  examples  and  ideas  about  possible  questions  to  the  text  to  break   the  ice  and  encourage  students.     Ask  students  if  they  want  to  listen  the  text  again  so  they  can  think  about  their  question   while  listening  again.    

What  did  we  do?       At  the  end  of  every  activity  the  facilitator  encourage  students  to  reflect  by  asking:  What   did  we  just  do?  

`

13


Activity  Five:  Inter-­‐text     Learning  Goals:  dŽĚĞǀĞůŽƉĂĚŵŝƌĂƚŝŽŶĨŽƌŽƚŚĞƌƐ͛ǁŽƌŬ͘do  expand  interpretation  and   promote  critical  thinking.    

 

      After  participants  formulate  a  question  and  share  the  questions  orally,  the  facilitator   invites  the  students  to  write  a  response  to  either  their  own  question  or  the  question  of   another  student.  It  can  be  a  speculation,  an  explanation  or  an  exploration.  This  makes   students  co-­‐authors  of  the  expanded  text.       Allow  enough  time  for  students  to  think  and  write  their  answers  to  the  question.  Then   ask  students  to  display  their  work  in  the  as  they  finish  writing  (see  activity  six:  literature   in  the  clothesline)    

What  did  we  do?       At  the  end  of  every  activity  the  facilitator  encourage  students  to  reflect  by  asking:  What   did  we  just  do?  

`

14


Activity  Six:  Literature  on  the  Clothesline     Learning  Goals:  To  strengthen  writing  skills,  understanding,  and  interpreting  texts;  To   enhance  communicative  skills  by  encouraging  students  to  experiment  with  language;  To   promote  admiration  for  the  range  of  speculations  and  explanations.    

    Inspired  by  a  popular  practice  in  Brazil͛ƐĞĐŽŶŽŵŝĐĂůůLJƉŽor  Northeast,  where  poets   ͞ƉƵďůŝƐŚ͟ƚŚĞŝƌǁŽƌŬŽŶa  clothesline  in  the  town  square,  PRE-­‐Texts©  displays  student   interventions  in  this  approach  to  instant  publication.  Throughout  the  program,  the   clothesline  can  be  the  space  to  hang  new  stories,  write  questions,  draw  characters,  etc.   Facilitators  can  have  students  write  their  names  on  their  work  or  remain  anonymous.  All   ǁŽƌŬŝƐŚƵŶŐƚŽŐĞƚŚĞƌƐŽƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐĐĂŶĨƌĞĞůLJǁĂůŬĂďŽƵƚƚŚĞƌŽŽŵ͕ƌĞĂĚŝŶŐĞĂĐŚŽƚŚĞƌ͛Ɛ contributions.    

What  did  we  do?       At  the  end  of  every  activity  the  facilitator  encourage  students  to  reflect  by  asking:  What   did  we  just  do?        

`

15


Activity  Seven:  Portraits  back-­‐to-­‐back     Learning  Goals:  To  ůŝƐƚĞŶĂƚƚĞŶƚŝǀĞůLJƚŽĂƉĂƌƚŶĞƌ͛ƐŝŶƐƚƌƵĐƚŝŽŶƐ͖ƚŽstimulate  reflection   on  the  relationship  between  reading  and  interpretation,  also  between  shared   experiences  and  personal  differences.      

    Participants  sit  back  to  back  while  one  describes  a  character  from  the  text  that  all  had   heard  in  the  oral  reading  and  the  partner  draws  from  the  description.  After  10  minutes,   they  change  roles.  When  each  participant  has  drawn  a  portrait,  we  create  a  gallery   organized  by  characters  and  invite  participants  to  the  opening  ͞'ĂůůĞƌLJdalk.͟  Several   participants  get  a  turn  to  comment  on  how  well  his  or  her  description  was  executed  by   the  partner.  The  results  are  always  a  combination  of  convergence  and  divergence,   because  each  participant  is  actively  interpreting  while  describing  and  while  drawing.    

What  did  we  do?       At  the  end  of  every  activity  the  facilitator  encourage  students  to  reflect  by  asking:  What   did  we  just  do?

`

16


Activity  Eight:  Poetry     Learning  Goals:  To  appropriate  and  manipulate  the  words,  grammar  and  themes  of  a   ͞ĐůĂƐƐŝĐ͟ǁŽƌŬ͘By  turning  an  iconic  medium  into  a  popular  genre,  students  learn  that   classic  writers  have  done  the  same  thing,  borrowing  and  stealŝŶŐŽƚŚĞƌƉĞŽƉůĞ͛Ɛ  words.    

 

  Students  will  be  asked  to  break  the  text  down  into  five  sections  and  then  each  different   section  will  be  assigned  to  individuals.    Second  instruction  is  to  cut  the  number  of  words   in  half  (the  words  could  be  completely  changed  or  condensed).    The  goal  is  to  keep  the   powerful  meaning  of  the  text  in  as  few  words  as  possible,  focusing  on  the  senses.   Through  this  exercise,  participants  create  different  styles  of  poetry  by  rearranging  the   text  in  different  ways.    By  editing  the  text,  the  readers  are  required  to  understand  the   meaning  of  each  sentence.  This  exercise  makes  the  writing  process  more  accessible  for   new  writers.    When  everyone  shares  his  or  her  poem,  they  can  appreciate  that  everyone   writes  in  a  different  style.    Some  people  use  only  words  from  the  text,  while  others  find   new  rhymes  and  yet  others  will  update  the  text  into  a  contemporary  situation.    There   are  many  variations  for  this  activity,  including  a  challenging  exercise  devised  by  a  fifteen   year  old  facilitator:  assign  a  different  genre  of  poetry  (haiku,  sonnet,  epic,  couplet,  etc)   to  each  participant.      

What  did  we  do?       At  the  end  of  every  activity  the  facilitator  encourage  students  to  reflect  by  asking:  What   did  we  just  do?

`

17


Activity  Nine:  Movie  Music  Score     Learning  Goals:  To  help  students  understand  and  interpret  how  sound  resonates  with   meaning.  To  develop  oral  skills  as  they  relate  non-­‐verbal  communication  to  verbal   expression.  To  expand  the  range  of  music  and  cultures  students  will  hear  attentively.    

 

 

Choose  5-­‐6  recorded  music  clips  of  one  minute  each.  Ask  students  to  mark  on   their  copy  of  the  text  where  each  clip  would  appear  in  the  musical  background  of  the   story.  Students  then  explain  their  choices  and  find  convergence  and  divergence.  This  is   an  opportunity  to  expand  the  range  of  music  students  listen  to.     A  variation:  Arrange  students  into  groups  of  3,  4  or  5  depending  on  class  size.   Using  a  passage  or  character  of  your  choice,  have  each  group  compose  a  musical   accompaniment.  Students  perform  their  lŝǀĞ͞ƐŽƵŶĚƚƌĂĐŬ͟ǁŚŝůĞƚŚĞfacilitator  or   another  student  reads  the  chosen  passage  aloud.    Because  students  have  varying   musical  abilities,  focus  on  percussion  and  sound  effects.  Use  some  instruments  if   available.  But  even  a  desk  and  a  pen  can  be  used  to  make  sound.  While  listening,  ask  the   students  who  are  not  performing  to  jot  down  something  about  the  soundtrack  that  they   noticed,  to  share  during  discussion.      

What  did  we  do?       At  the  end  of  every  activity  the  facilitator  encourage  students  to  reflect  by  asking:  What   did  we  just  do?

`

18


Activity  Ten:  Photography       Learning  Goals:  To  make  concrete  the  abstract  concepts  of  theme,  perspective,  and   composition;  to  appreciate  the  particular  skill  set  of  each  art  form;  to  develop  stamina   for  observation  and  attention  to  detail.    

    Students  take  photographs,  using  digital  cameras  provided  by  facilitators  or  the  cameras   on  their  cell  phones.  They  take  each  photo  from  the  point  of  view  of  a  particular   character  in  the  text.  Another  approach  is  to  capture  an  object  that  represents  a  theme   or  a  mood  of  the  text.   Give  students  approximately  15-­‐20  minutes  to  collect  photos  both  inside  and  outside,  if   possible.  Using  a  projector,  project  the  images  on  a  screen  for  all  students  to  see.  Ask   each  photographer  to  descƌŝďĞƚŚĞŝŵĂŐĞĂŶĚŚŽǁŝƚƌĞƉƌĞƐĞŶƚƐƚŚĞŝƌĐŚĂƌĂĐƚĞƌ͛Ɛ perspective.  Then  ask  for  comments  and  challenges  from  the  other  students.     dŚŝƐĂĐƚŝǀŝƚLJŝůůƵƐƚƌĂƚĞƐ͞ĚŝǀĞƌŐĞŶƚ͟ƉĞĚĂŐŽŐLJ;ǁŚĞƌĞĂůůƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐŚĂǀĞĂĚŝĨĨĞƌĞŶƚ interpretation  to  share  that  benefits  the  ĚŝƐĐƵƐƐŝŽŶͿĂƐŽƉƉŽƐĞĚƚŽ͞ĐŽŶǀĞƌŐĞŶƚ͟ pedagogy  (where  all  students  must  find  one  correct  answer).  It  also  introduces  abstract   concepts  (such  as  perspective,  composition  and  filters)  used  for  interpretation  in  ways   that  are  practical  and  easily  understood.   The  facilitator  will  continually  ask  and  encourage  more  questions  (more  puzzles)  to   engage  students  in  thought  and  expression.  If  discussion  about  topics  that  are  powerful   and  relevant  to  their  own  lives,  will  engage  students  completely.  T        

What  did  we  do?       At  the  end  of  every  activity  the  facilitator  encourage  students  to  reflect  by  asking:  What   did  we  just  do?   `

19


Activity  Eleven:  Literary  Figures     Learning  Goals:  To  demonstrate  the  power  of  creative  language;  to  strengthen   collaboration;  To  sharpen  interpretive  skills;  To  help  students  understand  rhetorical   terms  such  as  metaphor  and  simile,  as  well  as  other  literary  devices.      

    dŚŝƐŝƐĂŬŝŶĚŽĨůŝƚĞƌĂƌLJ͞ĐŚĂƌĂĚĞƐ͘͟In  small  groups,  students  identify  a  literary  figure  in   the  text  (metaphor,  simile,  metonymy,  etc).  Students  then  create  a  group  ͞ŚƵŵĂŶ ƐĐƵůƉƚƵƌĞ͟ƚŽrepresent  the  literary  figure.  Give  them  about  10-­‐15  minutes  to  design   their  sculpture.  Then  each  group  demonstrates  their  sculpture.  The  other  students   attempt  to  ͞ƌĞĂĚ͟the  figure  by  finding  the  quote  in  the  text  and  reading  it  aloud  to  the   group.   Ask  students  to  write  new  metaphors,  similes  and  personifications  (giving  them  prompts   if  you  wish)  and  write  them  in  their  handmade  books.  Students  will  learn  to  value  their   own  ideas  and  to  see  language  as  a  powerful  tool  for  self-­‐expression  and  community   building.    

What  did  we  do?       At  the  end  of  every  activity  the  facilitator  encourage  students  to  reflect  by  asking:  What   did  we  just  do?  

`

20


Activity  Twelve:  Forum  Theater     Learning  Goals:  To  develop  conflict  resolution  skills;  To  imagine  creative  solutions  to   real  life  conflicts  suggested  by  the  text.  To  develop  citizenship  by  creating  interventions   in  crisis  situations  that  had  seemed  unsolvable.    

    FORUM-­‐THEATER  ͞ĂƌĞŚĞĂƌƐĂůĨŽƌůŝĨĞ͟presents  a  one-­‐act  tragedy  that  opens  up  to   interventions  from  the  audience.  Read  Theater  of  the  Oppressed,  by  Augusto  Boal.   Participants  identify  different  conflicts  in  the  text;  they  form  small  groups  that  relate  to   a  particular  conflict.  Then  they  meet  to  discuss  what  the  conflict  means  to  them,   personally.  After  this  session  for  creating  connections  in  the  group,  they  prepare,   rehearse,  and  act  out  skits  that  dramatize  the  selected  conflict.     After  a  group  presents  their  skit,  participants  from  the  other  groups  become  spect-­‐ actors  who  are  invited  to  intervene  by  replacing  the  protagonist  or  any  other  character,   and  act  out  -­‐  on  stage  and  not  from  the  audience  -­‐  a  possible  way  out  of  the  tragedy.   The  other  students  on  stage  improvise  based  on  each  new  intervention.  All  spect-­‐actors   have  the  right  to  intervene  and  play  out  their  ideas.  Collectively,  they  discover  that   conflicts  can  open  up  to  a  range  of  productive  interventions.          

What  did  we  do?       At  the  end  of  every  activity  the  facilitator  encourage  students  to  reflect  by  asking:  What   did  we  just  do?

`

21


Activity  Thirteen:  Grandmother  Tells  the  Story     Learning  Goals:  To  link  texts  in  the  target  language  with  heritage  languages  and   cultures;  to  ƐƵƉƉŽƌƚƌĞƐƉĞĐƚĂŶĚĂĚŵŝƌĂƚŝŽŶĨŽƌŽŶĞ͛ƐŽǁŶŚĞƌŝƚĂŐĞĂŶĚƚŚŽƐĞŽĨŽƚŚĞƌƐ͖ to  demonstrate  storytelling  as  an  art  form.     Participants  re-­‐tell  the  story  from  the  point  of  view  and  language  of  a  non-­‐English   speaker.  This  expands  the  range  of  interpretations  and  validates  home  languages.   Bilinguals  recognize  their  advantage  as  interpreters.  

  (Allow  30  minutes  for  this  activity)     Students  re-­‐write  the  story  or  part  of  the  story  from  the  point  of  view  of  someone     in  their  family  or  group  of  friends  whose  first  language  is  not  English.  Have  students   start  by  writing  their  work  on  scrap  paper,  and  then  have  them  transfer  what  they  write   to  their  handmade  books  after  you  have  had  a  chance  to  correct  their  grammar  and   vocabulary.  This  way  they  are  always  proud  of  what  is  written  in  their  books.  Then,  have   students  tell  and  describe  their  new  story  or  synopsis  to  the  class.       You  can  also  have  the  students  write  the  story  in  a  home  language,  to  be  shared  with  a   native  speaker.  Students  will  gain  a  deeper  appreciation  for  the  value  of  being  bilingual   and  will  be  more  motivated  to  attain  this  goal  for  themselves.  Students  who  are  in  the   process  of  becoming  bilingual  will  have  the  chance  to  recognize  their  advantage  as   interpreters.  They  will  recognize  the  power  of  language  as  a  tool  to  connect  with  others.    

What  did  we  do?       At  the  end  of  every  activity  the  facilitator  encourage  students  to  reflect  by  asking:  What   did  we  just  do?

`

22


Activity  Fourteen:  Off  on  a  Tangent  

  (Homework  activity)     Learning  Goals:  To  expand  the  range  of  reading;  to  foster  curiosity  and  research  skills;  to   develop  taste,  judgment,  and  the  capacity  to  relate  one  kind  of  text  or  field  to  others.       Ask  students  to  bring  a  literary,  scientific,  historical  or  artistic  page  that  they  can   somehow  relate  to  the  common  text.  It  can  be  from  a  book,  a  newspaper,  a  magazine,   the  internet,  or  a  journal.     The  found  text  should  contain  at  least  one  vocabulary  word  that  the  rest  of  the  class   most  likely  does  not  know.  The  student  teaches  this  new  word  to  the  class  during  their   presentation.       Student  presentations  should  be  brief  ʹ  they  should  read  their  text  and  teach  the  new   vocabulary  word  to  the  class.  Then  other  students  will  guess  the  connection  to  the  text   and  play  with  the  new  vocabulary  word.     TŚŝƐĂĐƚŝǀŝƚLJďƌŽĂĚĞŶƐƚŚĞƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ͛ƌĂŶŐĞŽĨƌĞĂĚŝŶŐŝŶŶŐůŝƐŚ͘dŚĞLJǁŝůůŵŽƐƚůŝŬĞůLJ read  through  multiple  texts  before  choosing  one,  since  they  will  want  to  be  proud  of   their  choice.  It  also  gives  students  a  chance  to  take  on  the  facilitator  role  and  teach  the   class  themselves.       When  students  displaying  their  choices  of  text  to  classmates  and  also  teach  them  new   words  and  fields,  they  become  truly  motivated  about  learning.    

What  did  we  do?       At  the  end  of  every  activity  the  facilitator  encourage  students  to  reflect  by  asking:  What   did  we  just  do?  

 

`

23


Activity  Fifteen:  EŽǁŝƚ͛ƐzŽƵƌdƵƌŶ     Learning  Goals:  To  appropriate  the  program.  To  experience  that  using  a  program  means   adapting  it  to  create  new  variations  that  develop  individual  objectives  and  skills.    

 

  Facilitators  who  have  used  our  program  are  teaching  all  over  the  world.  New  activities   range  from  creating  skits,  mask  making,  miming,  set  building,  chalkboard  playgrounds,   doll  making,  jewelry  making,  architectural  models,  collages,  and  many  more.       Facilitators  are  the  best  resources  our  students  have.  When  facilitators  become  creators   and  designers  of  new  activities,  they  inspire  creativity  and  risk-­‐taking  among  students  so   that  teaching  and  learning  become  more  engaging  and  effective.       As  teachers  become  more  familiar  with  PRE-­‐Texts©  and  its  philosophy,  they  create  their   own  activities  based  on  our  models.  Facilitators  always  know  best  what  works  for  their   students,  and  you  will  alter  our  activities  to  suit  ƐƚƵĚĞŶƚƐ͛  unique  needs      

`

24


The  Ten  Staples  of  PRE-­‐Texts         1.  -­‐  Base  each  activity  on  a  literary  work  of  high  quality,  that  is,  literature  that  displays   rhetorical  figures  and  uses  of  grammar  that  give  pause  and  stimulate  the  imagination.       2.  -­‐  Recycle/  change/  rearrange  existing  materials  (literature,  cardboard,  gestures).     3.  -­‐  Model  the  lesson.  Maestro,  meaning  teacher  or  artist,  comes  from  the  same  root  as   to  show  (to  give  an  example)  without  imposing  or  explaining  too  much.       4.  -­‐  Encourage  artistic  and  interpretive  independence,  always  with  reference  to  the   original  text  being  used  and  mined.  Originality  and  creativity  will  then  develop  alongside   critical  faculties  for  interpretation.       5.  -­‐  Take  advantage  of  the  particular  technical  contributions  of  each  art  form  and   activity.       6.  -­‐  Prepare  collaborations  between  teachers  and  artists  by  including  both  in  the  same   training  sessions.       7.  -­‐  Create  safe  spaces  for  participants  (ǁŝƚŚ͚ǁĂƌŵ-­‐ups,  laughter,  and  mutual   admiration)  where  students  can  take  risks.       8.  -­‐  Allow  (gently  insist)  that  all  participants  respond  to  invitations  to  think  and  to   ĐƌĞĂƚĞ͘ŽŶ͛ƚďĞƐĂƚŝƐĨŝĞĚǁŝƚŚŽŶĞŽƌƚǁŽ͞ĐŽƌƌĞĐƚ͟ĂŶƐǁĞƌƐ͘     9.  -­‐  Keep  expectations  high;  assume  that  they  will  be  achieved  and  provide  the   necessary  support.       10.  -­‐  Celebrate  the  range  of  activities  with  exhibitions,  performance  events  and/or  art   galleries  at  the  end  of  the  implementation  cycle  for  PRE-­‐Texts.          

`

25


For  more  information:     Text  for  Workshops:     http://culturalagents.org/int/texts.html    

Contact  Info:   Website:  http://culturalagents.org   Email:  cultagen@fas.harvard.edu   or  contact  directly:   Marcela  Mahecha  at  mahecha@fas.harvard.edu   Facebook:  http://www.facebook.com/pages/Cultural-­‐Agents-­‐Initiative/   Twitter:  @CulturalAgents          

`

26


Pre-Texts Manual