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Cristian Lascu

Ghidul Pe¿terilor din România ROMANIAN CAVES GUIDE


Ghid realizat cu sprijinul Federa¡ei Române de Speologie This touristic guide has been edited with the assistance of the Romanian Spelaeologic Federation

Traducere în limba englezå: Redactor carte: Corector:

Pia-Maria Luttman Mådålin Foc¿a Daniel Voicea

Art director: Tehnoredactor: Credit foto:

Daniela Nae Bogdan Coscaru Cristian Lascu

Foto coperta I – Pe¿tera Polovragi Front cover photo – Polovragi Cave

Editurå specializatå în ghiduri tematice ¿i autoeducative, într-o ¡inutå graficå deosebitå.Toate titlurile beneficiazå de consiliere de specialitate. Colec¡ii reprezentative: Ghidul României, Familia, Gastronomica, Starea de bine, Casa ¿i grådina, Interven¡ii.

© 2008 House of Guides Tel: (0040)21-317 91 31, Fax: 224 31 86 E-mail: office@houseofguides.ro www.houseofguides.ro

© Toate drepturile apar¡in în exclusivitate Editurii House of Guides. Este interziså reproducerea integralå sau par¡ialå a lucrårii sub orice formå, fårå permisiunea scriså a Editurii House of Guides. © All rights reserved. Copyright by House of Guides. This book may not be reproduced in whole or in part without written permission of House of Guides.

Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Na¡ionale a României LASCU, CRISTIAN Ghidul pe¿terilor din România Bucure¿ti: House of Guides, 2008 Edi¡ia a II-a ISBN 978-606-513-048-7


Cuprins/Summary Modul de folosire a ghidului/How to use the guide . . . . . . . . . .

5

Introducere/Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6

Pe¿teri turistice în Mun¡ii Apuseni/ Touristic Caves in Apuseni Mountains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

12

Harta/Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

28

Unitå¡i de cazare/Accomodations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

30

Pe¿teri turistice în Banat ¿i Oltenia/ Touristic Caves in Banat and Oltenia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

43

Harta/Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

66

Unitå¡i de cazare/Accomodations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

69

Pe¿teri turistice în Carpa¡ii Orientali ¿i Dobrogea/ Touristic Caves in the Eastern Carpathians and Dobrudja . . . .

79

Harta/Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

86

Unitå¡i de cazare/Accomodations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88

Rezerva¡ii speologice/Spelaeologic Reservations . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Sfaturi practice pentru vizitatorii pe¿terilor/ Practical Advice for Cave Visitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Adrese utile/Useful addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Lista pe¿terilor protejate/Protected caves in Romania . . . 128

3


MODUL DE FOLOSIRE A GHIDULUI HOW TO USE THE GUIDE SHORTCUTS

ABREVIERI Hotel

H

Hotel

Hostel

Hs

Hostel

Vilå

V

Villa

Motel

M

Motel

Pensiune

P

Guest House

Cabanå

C

Chalet

Bungalow

Bw

Bungalow

Restaurant

R

Restaurant

Teraså sezonierå

T

Summer Restaurant

Pizzerie

Pz

Pizzeria

Braserie

Bs

Brasserie

Bistro

B

Bistro

Pub

Pb

Pub

Bar

Bar

Bar

Bar de zi

BZ

Bar

Bar de noapte

BN

Night Club

Club

CL

Club

Casino

Cs

Casino

Cabaret

Cb

Cabaret

Discotecå

D

Disco

Cafenea

Cf

Coffee Bar

Cofetårie

Co

Sweet-Shop

Cramå

Cr

Wine Cellar

Centru wellness

SPA

Wellness center

Comunå

com.

Commune

Ora¿ Municipiu

or. mun. 4

Town City


1

2

3

4

5

3 **** (+R, T, BZ, BN, D) Str. Octavian Goga 4; ; 0244-31 20 51 www.palacero.com

H – Palace

1 – Tip unitate / Accomodation type 2 – Nume unitate / Accomodation name 3 – Clådire monument istoric / Historical building 4 – Clasifica¡ie / Classification 5 – Dotåri / Facilities

Abrevieri de unitå¡i în sec¡iunea Hoteluri/Units abbreviations in Hotels section Cabanå/Chalet Hotel/Hotel Motel/Motel Pensiune/Board and lodging Vilå/Villa Hostel/ Hostel

C H M P V Hs

Legenda hår¡ilor/Map symbols

5


Introducere Introduction Cristale de pe¿terå/Cave crystals

România, ¡ara pe¿terilor ¿i a speologiei

Romania, the country of caves and spelaeology

Din crestele cele mai înalte ale Fågåra¿ului ¿i pânå la malul Mårii Negre, pe¿terile stau ascunse, tåcute ¿i miraculoase, adåugând peisajului nostru o componentå verticalå secretå. Cadastrul completat anual de Institutul de Speologie Emil Racovi¡å consemneazå mii de numere de înregistrare, tot atâtea cavitå¡i mai mari sau mai mici, unele abia depå¿ind 5 m lungime, altele, de zeci de kilometri. Dar aceste cifre, de¿i impunåtoare, nu spun nimic în compara¡ie cu ce ne spun pe¿terile însele. Cåci ele alcåtuiesc o adevåratå geografie subpåmânteanå complexå ¿i originalå: canioane, såli uria¿e, labirinturi complicate, lacuri ¿i râuri subterane, grådini de stalagmite ¿i cristale. Pe¿terile noastre au fost înså ¿i arhive care au påstrat vestigiile preistoriei ¿i istoriei. Såpând în sedimentul lor, cercetåtorii pot citi ca într-o carte, filå cu filå, evolu¡ia climei, a faunei, a civiliza¡iilor care s-au perindat pe la noi.

From the highest peaks of the Fågåra¿ Mountains to the Black Sea shores, caves lie hidden, silent and fabulous, adding a secret vertical component to the Romanian landscape. The yearly reviewed survey produced by the Emil Racovi¡å Spelaeology Institute records several thousand caves and holes large or small, some of them hardly longer than 5 m, other ones dozens of kilometers long. But the figures, although quite impressing, are insignificant when compared to the stories told by the very caves. Because, in fact, they make up a parallel underground geography, complex and uncommon: canyons, huge rooms, entangled mazes, underground lakes and rivers, gradens of stalagmites and crystals. Our caves also acted as relic preservers, from prehistoric and historic times. Digging in such sediments, scientists can read the tale of the climate, of the evolution of animal life.

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Aparent sterile din pricina beznei ¿i a frigului, pe¿terile adåpostesc, în realitate, comunitå¡i uneori destul de bogate de vie¡uitoare. ªi pot fi întâlni¡i nu numai vampirii cei cumsecade, liliecii, ci foarte mul¡i dintre reprezentan¡ii zoologiei nevertebratelor. Fiin¡e oarbe, depigmentate, tråind ritmuri biologice dictate de alte legi decât cele de la lumina soarelui. Primul savant din lume care a intuit importan¡a studiului acestor adevårate fosile vii a fost Emil Racovi¡å, care a pus bazele unei noi discipline ¿tiin¡ifice, biospeologia, ¿i a fondat la Cluj, în 1920, primul institut din lume dedicat exclusiv cercetårii pe¿terilor. Urma¿ii lui Racovi¡å au purtat mai departe fåclia cunoa¿terii prin bezna subteranelor. Numårul pe¿terilor a crescut spectaculos: 980 erau în 1967, 10.000 în 1990, peste 12.500 în prezent. În ultimii ani, pe¿terile au devenit ¿i un bun ambasador al României. Faima unor descoperiri ¿tiin¡ifice, cum ar fi cele din Pe¿tera Movile, Piatra Altarului, Pe¿tera cu Oase au fost larg mediatizate în presa interna¡ionalå ¿i au devenit subiectul unor documentare difuzate pe National Geographic, Discovery Channel, ZDF, BBC.

Pe¿tera Limanu/Limanu Cave

Seemingly barren because of darkness and cold, the caves actually harbour sometimes quite big communities of living creatures. Among them there are not only the nice vampires – the bats, but also very many members of the invertebrate family; blind, discoloured, they live following biological cycles imposed by other laws than those reigning in the sunlight. Emil Racovi¡å was the first scientist in the world who was aware of the importance of investigating these living relics, and he set the foundation of a new science branch, the biospeleology; in 1920, in Cluj, he established the first world institute dedicated to the investigation of caves. The disciples of Racovi¡å carried further on the flame of knowledge through the underground darkness. The number of recorded caves has grown impressively: in 1967 their number had reached 980, then 10,000 in 1990, and more than 12,500 nowadays. In the more recent years, our caves have become a good ambassador for Romania. The reputation of certain scientific discoveries, such as the ones made in Pe¿tera Movile, Piatra Altarului, or Pe¿tera cu Oase enjoyed extensive


Introducere Introduction Farmecul adâncurilor

worldwide media coverage and have made up topics of documentaries broadcast on TV by channels such as National Geographic, Discovery Channel, ZDF or BBC.

Peisajul subpåmântean poate pårea unora ostil ¿i monoton. Ni¿te stânci acolo, argilå ro¿ie, frig, umezealå, beznå. Dar privind cu aten¡ie, într-o luminå potrivitå, peisajul subteran î¿i dezvåluie atrac¡iile. Ce putem admira, a¿adar, într-o pe¿terå? Existå în primul rînd o arhitecturå specificå spa¡iului subteran. Straturile orizontale sau oblice ¿i fracturile verticale despicå roca dupå direc¡ii precise. Apele modeleazå apoi golul carstic urmårind planul trasat de structura geologicå ini¡ialå. Dacå straturile de calcar sunt orizontale, vom avea bol¡i de temple egiptene, grinzi masive, tavane plate. Asemenea construc¡ii se pot vedea la pe¿tera Limanu de lângå Mangalia sau în pe¿tera Huda lui Paparå de pe Valea Arie¿ului, în Mun¡ii Apuseni. Dacå straturile de rocå sunt oblice, tavanul va avea forma acoperi¿ului ¡uguiat al unei case de mo¡i. Diedrul bol¡ii preia bine greutatea tonelor de rocå de deasupra, iar galeria rezistå sute de mii de ani. Pe¿tera Ialomi¡ei, la Sala Ur¿ilor, sau marele portal al Cetå¡ilor Ponorului sunt exemple elocvente în acest sens. Când apa ¿i timpul î¿i unesc for¡ele, bol¡ile pot evolua spre forma maturå, în

The spell of the deep

Some people may fiind the underground view hostile and tedious: some rocks, red clay, cold, dampness, deep darkness. But, at a closer look, this underground scenery reveals its attractive features. Well, what can we behold in a cave? First of all, an architecture typical for this subterranean space. The horizontal or slanted strata and the vertical cracks split the rock along precise lines. Then, water comes to mould the karstic hollow, following the outlines sketched by the original geological structure. When the limestone strata are horizontal, we will see vaults as in Egyptian temples, bulky beams, flat ceilings. Such constructions can be seen in the cave Limanu near Mangalia or in the cave Huda lui Paparå on the Arie¿ River Valley in the Apuseni Mountains. When the strata run along slanted lines, the cave ceiling will take the shape of a tapering roof of a typical house from the Apuseni Mountains. The dihedron of the vault supports easily the towering weight of the many tons of rock from above, and the gallery will keep on existing for hundreds of thousands of years. The cave Pe¿tera Ialomi¡ei, Sala Ur¿ilor (Room of Bears), or the huge portal of Cetå¡ile Ponorului are graphic examples in this respect. When water and time join forces, the vaults can evolve in mature forms, as archs or a domes. They are the most majestic and lasting and also the most elegant solutions. From its very entrance, the cave Pe¿tera Meziad receives us with its portal that seems to have been plotted by an arhitect. The entrance to the cave Pe¿tera Zgurå¿ti or the Sala Biserica (Church Room) in the Scåri¿oara cave are equalPe¿tera Meziad/Meziad Cave ly impressive.

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