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Investigatory Powers Bill Enters Parliament The Investigatory Powers Bill has passed its first reading in the House of Commons and entered committee stage, despite mounting criticism both inside and outside of Parliament. LINX Public Affairs executive, Sam Copy Frances, analyses the current position on page 10 of this issue of HotLINX.

Data Centre News


Data centres are increasingly being built in some unusual places such as in a decommissioned air force command centre and also a biscuit factory! We look at another potential new site in the north of England based in former 19th century swimming baths.

In the Spotlight p17

IXManchester Steering Committee Chairman, Matthew Hattersley, is the subject of our ‘In the Spotlight’ interview. We ask about what he thinks the future holds for regional peering in the North of England.

LINX AGM & Board Elections p06 & p14

The LINX93 member conference in May will see members vote in the latest round of Council elections and on other constitutional issues. HotLINX explains the processes involved and how to put yourself forward to stand for a place on the Board.

Contents Face Off

Inside Stories

LINX News p06 Kurtis Lindqvist has joined LINX as Chief Marketing Officer. Kurtis tells HotLINX about his impressive industry background and future plans in his new role.

LINX Technology p07-08 LINX Technology’s Mike Hellers provides a project update plus the background and methedology to LINX’s PoC testing, planning and monitoring of power usage.

Public Affairs p09-11 In an expanded regulatory section the LINX Public Affairs team provide detailed analysis on the recently revised and updated Investigatory Powers Bill.

Industry Events p15 In Industry Events we preview the upcoming IXManchester and UKNOF conferences as well as the 11th Global Peering Forum in California.

Welcome to HotLINX45. Here’s a brief summary of the LINX community and industry news articles featured inside this issue. As per the last edition HotLINX again features additional LINX News pages with more technical content from the Technology team, partner announcements as well an article on the re-branding of LINX’s regional exchanges. In Industry News we take a look at the Turris research project, a service helping to protect users home networks with the help of specialist routers. We also report on Ofcom’s recent report on UK broadband and Level 3 and Google’s settlement-free interconnection agreement. Our governance section has information on IXP training and international events run by the Internet Society while our associate member page has articles from the RIPE NCC, the Internet Systems Consortium, DNS Belgium and RouteViews. Finally we take our usual look at the latest LINX member and technical statistics on our back page. It’s been a fantatstic quarter for new members with 31 new connections from 13 different territories.

Internet Industry Tweets Below are just a few of the LINX and member community related updates seen on Twitter recently.

Chris Russell @kit_chrisr Travel booked for @uknof #uknof34 and @LINX_Network #ixmanchester event ... good work by both programme committees great content :) Hurricane Electric @henet .@henet is 1st Internet #Backbone to Connect 5,000 #IPv4 #Networks. … #IPv6 #bgp #peering SureVoIP ITSP @SureVoIP More info about @LINX_Network (The London Internet Exchange) and #SureVoIP - http://www. surevoip-linx-benefits-connectingmultiple-lans/ …

Net Support UK @Net_Savvy Are you a member of #IXCardiff? Take a look at some of the #benefits your #business could experience if you peer!

LINX on Twitter HotLINX Publisher: Ben Hedges Editor: Jeremy Orbell Co-ordinator: Megan Atkins Telephone: Editorial & Content: Printing: Publishing:

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HotLINX © London Internet Exchange 2016

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Building Relationships as well as a Network By John Souter, LINX Chief Executive Officer We are now already a quarter of the way into the year and so far 2016 has been anything but relaxed. February was particularly hectic - I visited the US West Coast for NANOG66, had and a crucial two day meeting with Juniper, plus a one day workshop on future IXP network architecture.

The downside to the US trip was picking up a horrible flu-like bug which caused me to miss my first ever member community meeting (LINX92). Not only that, I also missed my first LINX Board meeting in fifteen years. I leave that as an indicator of just how bad I felt at that time.

While intense, the USA trip was fantastic, with well over 1,100 attending NANOG and lots of high-level attention from Juniper, including from CEO Rami Rahim. We were particularly pleased that Bruno Rijsman, Juniper’s Vice President of Architecture, gave so much of his time for both days of our meeting, and led their approach to presenting and discussing a potential next generation IXP architecture. All very stimulating!

At the time of writing there are only a few weeks to go before the LINX AGM and Council (Board) elections. It is gratifying that several people have been in contact to say that they are considering standing for election, and Chairman Murray Steele and I have been providing one-to-one briefings and support for this. We hope that there will be a competitive field of strong candidates.

Our relationship with Juniper is approaching five years now and we recently completed a major upgrade of the London Juniper LAN. When we began working together it was just prior to 2012 Olympics, something which would concentrate the minds of any network operator, and we both passed the test with flying colours. As you might expect LINX and Juniper set very high standards for ourselves so to see this justified in testimonial form recently was very gratifying.

As you will see on page 6 of HotLINX, our long-standing Board member, Neil McRae, will not be standing this year, having reached his term limit. Neil is our longest ever serving Board member, and we’ll be saying more about his fantastic contribution over the years once he has stood down.

Charlie Boisseau, Commsworld

Editorial The ever evolving world of electronic communications

By Jeremy Orbell, HotLINX Editor Shortly before HotLINX went to press Twitter celebrated its 10th birthday. Is it really only a decade ago that a tweet was only ever associated with birds and not 140 characters on a computer screen? The mid-noughties were a watershed for the Internet. Within three years between 2003 and 2006 LinkedIn, Facebook, YouTube and then Twitter were all launched and it is now difficult to imagine life without them. It seems almost ironic that in March it was also announced that Ray Tomlinson, the man credited as the inventor of email, had died at the age of 74. The concept of email is perhaps a little older than you’d think with the idea of sending electronic messages between networks being proposed as far back as 1971. Tomlinson’s invention included the ground-breaking use of the @ symbol in email addresses, which is now standard. The ability to share information has never been easier - to the extent it makes you wonder what the next big innovation will be. Whatever it is HotLINX will endeavour to report on it when it happens!

Welcome HotLINX Issue 45




Industry News Ofcom 2016 Report: Average UK Home Broadband Speeds Reach 28.9Mbps

Telecoms regulator Ofcom have published their 2016 annual report into the Internet performance of the UK’s largest fixed line home broadband suppliers. This reveals that the average home download speed increased from 22.8Mbps last year to 28.9Mbps today. Data for the Ofcom report was gathered during November 2015 using modified routers from SamKnows, installed in around 2,000 UK homes. Due to the limited sample size the Ofcom results are most likely be useful those who are looking to compare the market’s largest ISPs, primarily BT, Sky Broadband, EE, PlusNet, TalkTalk and Virgin Media. The Government’s Broadband Delivery UK programme, which is looking to roll-out superfast broadband connectivity of over 24Mbps to 95% of the UK by 2017/18, is reportedly making good progress. However, many rural areas are still to see the benefits and planned urban upgrades may only widen the speed gap. Virgin Media’s cable network expansion and their latest 200Mbps speed upgrade plus BT’s 500Mbps capable upgrade are sure to impact the urban figures in the future. The full Ofcom broadband report can be viewed here:

Turris research project aims to protect users’ home networks Project Turris is a service helping to protect its users’ home network with the help of a special router. It is a not-for-profit research project by CZ.NIC, the registry of the Czech national top level domain .CZ.

Users of the Turris service obtain specialist equipment, which in addition to serving as a traditional home router, also analyse the traffic between the Internet and the home network. It is able to identify suspicious data flows and subsequently alerts Turris HQ of a possible attack. The system’s HQ then compares data from many connected Turris routers to asses the security status of detected traffic. If required, corresponding updates are prepared and distributed to the whole Turris network, thus helping to protect all of its users. As this is a research project, the device has been made available for the nominal fee of one Czech crown. In order to participate in the scheme, users are then required to commit to using the Turris router as their main Internet gateway for a specified time period, and not to intervene in data collection. For further information on the project please visit:


HotLINX Issue 45


Industry News


Have a story you’d like to tell the LINX members? Send your ideas to the HotLINX team

In Brief Level 3 and Google Reach Settlement-Free Interconnection Agreement

Level 3 Communications and Google have announced a multi-year, settlement-free, interconnection agreement between their global backbone networks. The arrangement centres on the concept of bit mile balance, whereby both parties commit to carrying equitable amounts of bit miles taking into account the amount of traffic and distance carried by each network. A network can improve its bit mile balance by delivering traffic to the other network closer to its end users. Bit mile peering is a concept that Level 3 has been pushing for many years but while they’ve had some success with other transit backbones, operators focused on the last mile have been more resistant. Google is now firmly on board and are inviting other network operators to interconnect under similar terms.

HMRC reviews telecoms tax to combat VAT fraud The UK’s HM Revenue and Customs (HMRC) has changed how telecoms operators are taxed in a move to combat VAT fraud.

In February 2016, HMRC switched the responsibility for collecting VAT from wholesale telecoms service suppliers to their customers. The move means that it is now the customer who must account for the VAT due, rather than the supplier. In turn, the customer deducts the VAT due on the supply as an input, meaning no net tax is payable to HMRC.

What they’re saying EU judges could limit UK surveillance powers before referendum An emergency hearing on the bulk interception of communications data has been scheduled for 12 April at the European Court of Justice (ECJ) in Luxemburg. The ECJ’s rulings are binding on UK courts and its final decision could come shortly before Britons decide whether to remain in or leave the EU on 23 June. Source:

Millie Graham Wood, Privacy International “[We believe] that existing EU law rules out data retention regimes of the kind contained in Dripa and reflected in the investigatory powers bill. Blanket retention of communications data without suspicion violates the right to privacy, as well as putting the security of personal data at risk of attack by criminals and others.”

Photo source:

Koen Lenaerts, President of the European Court of Justice In granting the expedited hearing, the president of the ECJ, the Belgian judge Koen Lenaerts, said the dispute was over Home Office powers “to require public telecommunications operators to retain communications data for a maximum period of 12 months, retention of the content of the communications concerned being excluded”. Lenarts further noted that “national legislation that permits the retention of all electronic communications data and subsequent access to that data is liable to cause serious interference with the fundamental rights laid down in articles 7 and 8 of the charter of fundamental rights of the European Union.”

Submarine Cabling TeleGeography release 2016 Submarine Cable Map

Data Centre News Data centres come in all shapes and sizes and some are being built in some rather unusual settings. For example it was reported in February that Amazon’s next Irish data centre will replace a Jacob’s biscuit factory. Elsewhere, tucked away in the Swiss Alps, is the Deltalis RadixCloud data centre in what was the former command and control centre for the Swiss Air Force. Closer to home fellow exchange, IXLeeds, is based out of aql’s 18th century Salem Chapel. A likely addition to this list is the iconic, Grade II listed Ashton Old Baths building in Lancashire, east of Manchester. The former swimming pool is being developed into a digital business hub as part of a wider transformation project led by Tameside Metropolitan Borough Council. The council, along with public sector partners, has made the development of advanced digital infrastructure a priority.

It is now seeking input from interested parties to help develop and/or operate a carrier-neutral hosting facility and ‘digital exchange’ in the Ashton Old Baths building. Ashton Old Baths was built in 1870 and functioned as a swimming pool until 1975. In 2013, Tameside Council and Place First secured funding from the European Regional Development Fund and Heritage Lottery Fund to restore and renovate the building. An event at the Ashton Old Baths, was held on 23 March which included an opportunity to view the site and hear the rationale behind the project. There is still an opportunity to provide feedback on the proposals in writing until 22 April. To find out more about the Ashton Old Baths project please visit:

TeleGeography have announced the release of their 2016 Submarine Cable Map. The latest edition depicts over 300 cable systems that are currently live, under construction, or expected to be operational by the end of 2016. The new design includes a number of inset maps plus infographics packed with useful data.

Featured options include resiliency (how many international submarine cable system links are connected to a country), fibre pairs (actual size of optical fibre and number of fibre pairs available) as well as changes to capacity on major global routes from 1996 to 2014. Also shown are landing stations and country capitals. You can learn more about the changes and enhancements to the TeleGeography submarine cable map here:

HotLINX Issue 45


Industry News


LINX News Board Elections & LINX93 AGM Preview

The 2016 LINX Board elections will take place on day two of LINX93 on Tuesday 17th May. Two places are available for those looking to stand with this year’s contest looking set to be especially keenly fought. For many years there was no limit to the number of two-year terms a Board member could serve but following a review in 2007 members voted through a key change to LINX’s Memorandum and Articles of Association. From that point members of the Board have been required to retire by rotation every three years but are eligible to restand for election, subject to a limit of nine consecutive years. This is particularly relevant at LINX93 as Neil McRae, who has been on the LINX Board since 2000, has completed his nine year cycle BT’s Neil McRae since the change to the Mem & Arts and is therefore required to stand down for the final time. However, he will be eligible to put himself forward for election again from 2017 onwards if he so wished. LINX would like to thank Neil for his passionate and valued commitment to the LINX Board over the last 16 years and wish him every success for the future.

Do YOU want to be on the LINX Board?

If you, or another representative of your organisation, wishes to stand for election to the LINX Board now is the time to make it known. A valid nomination by a LINX member along with a formal


HotLINX Issue 45


confirmation that you are willing to stand is required, which must reach LINX no later than close of business on Monday 25th April 2016.

There will be a brief Q&A session with those standing during LINX93, the day before the election ballot itself, and this will give members the opportunity to assess the candidates in person. With this in mind, LINX will shortly be reaching out to members for questions they’d like to ask those standing. Candidate platforms will be included in voting packs and made available as public documents on the LINX website. All members’ main corporate representatives will receive voting packs in the third week before the AGM.

Standing for the Board

Full details of Board member roles, responsibilities and remuneration, plus information on how to submit your nomination, can be found on the LINX website: (members only)


A major part of the LINX calendar is the Annual General Meeting where members can vote on key resolutions affecting the company’s structure and business affairs. The only confirmed resolution as HotLINX went to press was that of the approval of the 2015 accounts but more may follow. Formal details will be circulated to LINX members by the end of April with documents referenced, but not linked from the Notice, to be published on or before 3rd May 2015. If you have further questions on the Board elections or the AGM, please contact LINX Member Relations at


Recruitment Kurtis Lindqvist appointed new LINX CMO

LINX is pleased to announce that Kurt Erik “Kurtis” Lindqvist has been appointed as Chief Marketing Officer to head up the LINX Marketing & Business Development team. This follows previous incumbant, Ben Hedges, move to the States to oversee LINX’s US operations. Kurtis has a broad background in engineering and business development of ISP and worldwide carrier networks. He has spent the past 20 years working actively in the Internet community in several varied roles and from 2002 to 2015 he was the CEO of Netnod. Chairman of Euro-IX since 2003, he is also a dedicated WG Chair for RIPE where he has served as NCCServices WG Chair since 2004. He is a regular and appreciated speaker at several International Internet conferences such as RIPE, APRICOT and Nanog. Kurtis told us, “I am excited to join LINX, and the LINX community. The interconnect market is in a very interesting period, and being able to work with the LINX membership to ensure that LINX continues to bring value to the members in the most innovative and cost effective way is a great opportunity and challenge!”. Among his early commitments are the IXManchester 7 and UKNOF34 conferences in April. You can read more about these two important UK events on page 15 of HotLINX. Kurtis will be based in London, but will spend substantial time in the Peterborough office.

Are you considering connecting at 100G? Help us to plan capacity by letting us know

LINX has seen unprecedented demand for 100G ports in recent months. If you are considering connecting at 100G it would help enormously if you could share your plans in advance to enable us to deliver your port requirements as swiftly as possible. To let us know, or to obtain further information on 100G, please email the Member Relations team:

Engineering Update

Recruitment News Mark Lloyd

Cycle of network upgrade and test work continues By Mike Hellers, LINX Network Engineering Manager

Network upgrade preparation

The Spring has traditionally been a time where the Technology team are deep into preparation work for the year’s major network upgrades, and this year is no different. After the influx of 100G member ports in 2015, a main focus was to establish plans to be able to provide more scalable edge routers to handle those ports. Our current edge routers on the Juniper LAN were well optimized for the delivery of 1G and 10G ports, but the port density and available capacity to the core did not scale enough to handle large numbers of 100G ports. Our new high density edge routers are relying on Juniper’s MPC7 linecards, providing 480Gbps capacity per slot. Moving from n x 10G to n x 40G links for the uplinks to the core routers provides the required additional capacity.

includes the migration of our Extreme LAN devices at the existing Harbour Exchange sites to our new combined suite. This work will start over the coming weeks and seeall member ports migrated from the existing sites in Hex 6/7 and Hex 8/9. While this will mean short service outages for member ports at those particular sites as we re-home the individual circuits, we will do all that we can to ensure we keep the downtime for each individual member port to a minimum.

Route server hardware upgrades

We have also kicked off a project to upgrade the server hardware of all of our route servers for both Quagga and Bird based route servers. These will be done over a period of several weeks, and at some of the sites the hardware upgrade will be combined with a re-location of the services to new sites.

Unfortunately we have come across a small number of issues during our recent PoC (proof of concept) testing, and we are continuing to work with Juniper to get these fixed.

When asked about his new role Mark told HotLINX, “LINX is an ideal organisation to work for, not only because I have a passion for peering, but because I also get to be involved in the deployment of cutting edge technology”.

Lynsey Buckingham

Marketing Executive Originally joining LINX as temporary maternity cover, Lynsey Buckingham has been given a permanent position within the marketing team. She has worked on many departmental projects already including partner marketing, events, PR and social media. Lynsey is still relatively new to the tech scene. She previously worked in marketing and events within the education sector, as well as in hospitality and media.

These issues mean that we will have to delay the initial deployment of the new routers, but we are confident that fixes will be ready in time for us to deploy them later this year. As a consequence we have to change the priority of some of the other projects and are pulling these forward. This

Senior Network Engineer Mark Lloyd has joined the LINX Technology team as a Senior Network Engineer. Mark comes from a Service Provider background, having previously worked for LINX members such as Liquid Telecom and Exponential-e. In his previous role as Network Engineer at Liquid Telecom he dealt with peering requests and other issues.

LINX’s proof of concept lab in action. You can read more about LINX’s approach to testing on page 8 of HotLINX.

Lynsey commented, “I’m really enjoying learning more about the industry and I look forward to meeting and working alongside our members and partners.”

HotLINX Issue 45




LINX News In Brief VIRTUS LONDON2 becomes LINX Transmission PoP

Proof of Concept (PoC) Testing for Large Scale Networks With the ever-growing capacity requirements, LINX are in a constant race to deploy ever-higher capacity equipment. This normally means we’re very early adopters of new generations of equipment from our vendors. Doing full and complete testing ahead of deploying any new equipment is important for any network, but it is even more important if your use case, as it is in our case, is slightly different to the majority of other customers of the same equipment. LINX deploys standard service provider routers, but its network is far away from most networks. LINX provides a mainly Layer 2 service, with a low degree of entropy but in a very dense and high capacity environment. This means that in most cases, the tests LINX undertakes during any hardware validation are different to the tests done by most suppliers during their standard testing and development process. As a consequence, it is also very likely that LINX will end up coming across corner cases and identify issues which have not been seen during the vendor’s previous testing. Our test plans, and the resulting physical and logical setups, are designed to provide a set up which is as close as possible to our actual production environment. This provides vendors and LINX with interesting challenges with regard to the required equipment,


HotLINX Issue 45


number of physical links between each device and the amount of traffic having to be generated and analysed during the week long tests. To put some numbers behind this, LINX’s recent PoC lab with Juniper required as a minimum two network testers with one providing 480Gbps of traffic and the second one 960Gbps of traffic to be generated during the testing, As a general principle, each series of tests starts with the creation of baseline results which are based on currently deployed hardware and software versions. Over the course of several steps new software and hardware is introduced into the test setup. The migration plan is tested, while allowing LINX to produce data which can be compared to the established baseline results. At the conclusion of the process will be a complete set of results data and unfortunately normally also a list of bug reports for the vendors’ hardware and software engineering teams. One final output is also always a set of recommendation for our vendors of further tests they should start to include within their standard testing. LINX understands the importance of its members’ networks which is why so much time and effort is taken to make sure we get things right with our network architecture testing.


In February it was announced that the VIRTUS LONDON2 data centre had become a LINX Transmission Point of Presence (PoP).

A Transmission PoP is physically based at a neutral data centre giving customers direct access to LINX infrastructure from within the data centre, thus improving the performance of its peering connectivity. VIRTUS established an official LINX vPoP in 2014 with LONDON1 (Enfield) and this latest agreement means its customers in LONDON2 (Hayes) also benefit. Find out more about LINX vPoPs here:

LINX Staff Running for Cancer Research UK

On Saturday 4th of June nine LINX staff members are taking part in Cancer Research UK’s “Pretty Muddy 5k” at Burghley Park in Stamford. The Race for Life series of events attracts thousands of competitors nationally every year all aiming to raise valuable funds for the charity. LINX Sales Administrator Chelsea Willis said, “Many of us have family and friends who have been touched by Cancer, and we want to raise as much money as possible to help prevent, diagnose and treat the disease. “ If you’d like to help towards the team’s target of £450 then please donate via their ‘Just Giving’ page:

ISOC Update:

IXP Toolkit Update

IXP and Peering News IXP Best Practices – IGF 2015 and 2016 Community Efforts Last year some of the community got together to work on IXP Best Practices for IGF 2015. These Best Practices (BPs) were for start-up IXP development and focused more on developing countries/emerging markets. The BPs were very well received at IGF 2015 where a workshop was held to discuss aspects of “getting started”. 2016 efforts are underway to form an online group to continue work on IXP Best Practices with a focus on developing and developed country issues. If you would like to be part of the mailing-list, contact Jane Coffin ( ISOC will help manage the list and support the team, but the substance will be a team effort led by IX-F and IX experts from around the world.

Hold the Dates!:

ISOC will be rebooting the IXP Toolkit chapter by chapter and are looking for people interested in editing and adding to it. Please contact Jane Coffin ( if you are interested in being involved. Further information about the IXP Toolkit can be found here: Havana! Latin American and Caribbean Peering meet-up. You know you want to go!

The Africa Peering and Interconnection Forum (AfPIF) 2016 will be held in Dar-esSalaam, Tanzania from 30 August-1 September. ISOC’s web-site has been updated! Hold the date for AfPIF as this is the best peering, interconnection, IXP, and business meet-up on the continent. Check out our recent video about AfPIF to find out why: For further details on AfPIF 2016 please contact Michuki Mwangi:

LACNIC/LACNOG will hold their Spring meeting in Havana, Cuba this year from 2-6 May. There is a LAC Peering component and this event grows year by year. Christian O’Flaherty is the person to ask if you want more data - please email

A full-on Caribbean Peering Forum (CarPIF) will held in June in Curacao. This is a great joint effort with Packet Clearing House (PCH). Visit in a few weeks to find out more.

Alternatively you can visit the website here:

CJEU Advocate General argues for McFadden in open wi-fi case

Internet, could be a disadvantage for society as a whole and one that could outweigh the potential benefits for rightholders.

The owner of a shop, café or other business which offers free, passwordless wi-fi to the public should not be held liable for copyright infringement by users of that network. That’s the recommendation made by Professor Maciej Szpunar, Advocate General of the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), to the judges deciding the case of McFadden v Sony Music. The case concerns Tobias McFadden, who operates a hi-fi shop in Munich, and provides a password-free wi-fi hotspot to his customers. In 2010, someone used this wi-fi connection to download music in infringement of copyright. Sony Music brought proceedings against McFadden, and the case eventually made its way to the CJEU.

The key issue in the case is whether the e-Commerce Directive provides “mere conduit” protections to providers of open wi-fi hotspots, or whether they should be required to password protect these services in order to enjoy protection from

liability for the copyright infringing actions of their users. In his Opinion to the CJEU, Professor Szpunar argues that businesses which provide open wi-fi to their customers ought not to be required to passwordprotect their connections. The Advocate General considers that the imposition of an obligation to make access to a Wi-Fi network secure, as a means of protecting copyright on the Internet, would not be consistent with the requirement for a fair balance to be struck between, on the one hand, the protection of the intellectual property rights enjoyed by copyright holders and, on the other, that of the freedom to conduct business enjoyed by providers of the services in question. By restricting access to lawful communications, the measure would also entail a restriction on freedom of expression and information. More generally, any general obligation to make access to a Wi-Fi network secure, as a means of protecting copyright on the

The Advocate General does add that “whilst the Directive does so limit the liability of a provider of mere conduit services, it does not shield him from injunctions”. However, these injunctions have to meet some fairly stringent conditions. In particular: The Directive precludes the issuing of an injunction against a person who operates a Wi-Fi network with Internet access that is accessible to the public, as an adjunct to his principal economic activity, where the addressee of the injunction is able to comply with it only by: (i) terminating the Internet connection; or (ii) password-protecting the Internet connection; or (iii) examining all communications transmitted through it in order to ascertain whether the copyrightprotected work in question is unlawfully transmitted again. The CJEU does not have to follow the Advocate General’s Opinion. However, if the court does follow Professor Szpunar’s advice, it could pave the way for a boom in free, open wi-fi provision throughout Europe.

HotLINX Issue 45


Internet Governance


Investigatory Powers Bill defies critics to reach committee stage

By Sam Frances, LINX Public Affairs Executive

The Investigatory Powers Bill, the successor to the ill-fated Communications Data Bill, has passed its first reading in the House of Commons and entered committee stage, despite mounting criticism both inside and outside of Parliament.

In other areas, the Home Office has sought to extend controversial powers. For example, rather than heeding the Intelligence Services Committee’s recommendation to remove bulk equipment interference warrants, the revised Bill extends equipment interference warrants, including bulk warrants, to bring private networks into scope.

The so-called “Snooper’s Charter 2.0” was introduced on Tuesday 1st March, less than three weeks after three parliamentary reports made a total of 123 recommendations for changes - a move which Lord Strasburger called “a massive insult to Parliament”. The revised Bill does address a number of the three committees’ recommendations. For example, the Home Office presented an “operational case” for each new power, meeting a key demand from the Joint Committee. However, many of the recommendations appear not to have been addressed, while others, such as greater clarity on cost recovery for network operators, were dealt with in supporting documents rather than on the face of the Bill itself.

Malcolm Hutty

LINX Head of Public Affairs Malcolm’s role involves liaising with government and regulatory authorities on behalf of the LINX membership and briefing members on regulatory developments. He acts as Regulatory Affairs spokesman for Euro-IX, the European association of IXPs, and has testified to Select Committee hearings of both the UK House of Commons and the House of Lords.


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The Bill has faced mounting opposition since its publication. Although it passed its first reading by a vote of 281 to 15, both Labour and the SNP chose to abstain from the vote.

Graham Smith

Bird & Bird Graham is renowned as a leader in the IT market, with unparalleled knowledge of internet law. He advises all kinds of internet actors on liability, including copyright, defamation and cross-border issues. His internet work includes interception and lawful access issues under the Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act.

Inside Story: Investigatory Powers Bill

Prof. Peter Sommer

Expert in Cybersecurity Peter Sommer has been providing computer-related expert witness and digital forensic services since 1985. He teaches information system security, digital investigations and digital forensics, and his law degree enables him to provide focused services to lawyers and investigators. Peter was also a Specialist Adviser to the Joint Committee on the Draft Investigatory Powers Bill.

IPB Specialist Workshop Tuesday 23rd February 2016

In February, LINX, Bird & Bird and Open Rights Group held a joint workshop on the then recently published Draft Investigatory Powers Bill. The event took place at London House, Goodenough College and the in-depth agenda explored how the Bill will affect network operators, and what opportunities were available to influence the legislative process. The Investigatory Powers Bill, the successor to the Draft Communications Data Bill, could determine the surveillance and interception powers available to UK authorities, and the related obligations on network operators, for years to come.

Labour Shadow Home Secretary, Andy Burnham cited “deeply-held concerns that, in our country’s past, investigatory powers have been misused against trade unionists and ordinary people campaigning for justice”, and said that the government “will have to work hard” to earn Labour’s support. In the days before the first reading vote, a report by the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Privacy in the Digital Age raised concerns about “disproportionate, privacy-intrusive measures such as bulk surveillance and bulk hacking”. Praising the work of the three Parliamentary committees that examined the draft Bill, he invited them to “continue, with renewed vigour and determination, to exert their influence” so that these measures could be “outlawed rather than legitimised”. Meanwhile, more than 200 legal experts signed an open letter to The Guardian newspaper, condemning the law as “unfit for purpose”, requiring “significant revisions …to meet international standards for surveillance powers”. Barring a backbench rebellion, the government’s majority in Parliament means it will be able to force through the new surveillance legislation if it wishes. Nevertheless, it is becoming clear that the Investigatory Powers Bill will not enjoy a smooth ride to royal assent.

Martin Hoskins

Privacy Consulting With 25 years experience, Martin Hoskins provides a strategic and practical consultancy service on data protection, child safety, law enforcement, and lawful interception issues. Martin has excellent working relationships with data protection regulators at national and international level and was also a Specialist Adviser to the Joint Committee on the draft Communications Data Bill.

The Goodenough College was a familiar venue for LINX members having been used for LINX community meetings for many years

The workshop, held under the Chatham House Rule, featured an opening address made by LINX Head of Public Affairs, Malcolm Hutty, covering the four main power groups in the IPB: interception, data retention, access to communications data and equipment interference (hacking). This was followed by Graham Smith of Bird & Bird who addressed the legal aspects while Professor Peter Sommer covered the Joint Committee view. A perspective on implementation issues was given by Martin Hoskins before Jim Killock raised potential civil liberties and privacy concerns of the new Bill. In the final session, Caroline Palow asked the question whether this Bill will ever be in force due to the challenges it may face. Overall it was fascinating debate and the 70 plus attendees came away with plenty of valuable information. Further details on the event speakers can be found in the panel at the bottom of this page. If you were unable to attend in person the presentations are now available to view on the LINX website:

Jim Killock

Open Rights Group Since joining Open Rights Group in January 2009, Jim has led campaigns against three strikes and the Digital Economy Act, the company Phorm and its plans to snoop on UK users, and against pervasive government Internet surveillance. He is working on data protection and privacy issues, as well as helping ORG to grow in size and breadth. HotLINX Issue 45


Caroline Palow

Privacy International Caroline Wilson Palow is Privacy International’s General Counsel. Caroline leads the legal team and counsels PI’s programmes on legal strategy and risk. She is a US-qualified lawyer who previously specialised in privacy and intellectual property litigation at a prominent US law firm. Caroline received her law degree from Yale Law School.

Inside Story: Investigatory Powers Bill



HotLINX Issue 44


Meeting Sponsor: Alternative Networks

Alternative Networks By Yaseen Patel, Internal Carrier Account Manager, Alternative Networks

After another record year for DDoS attacks, how should the service provider community respond to increased customer expectation for ‘clean’ services A quick thumb through Volume XI of the Worldwide Infrastructure Security Report from Arbor networks yields some pretty frightening insights into what last year looked like from a DDoS perspective. Alongside a significant year-on-year increase in the number of DDoS attacks against customers, 2015 also saw the scale of DDoS attacks growing steadily with the largest reported peaking at 500Gbps and 25% of all reported attacks coming close to, if not exceeding 100Gbps. Although it is still the customer rather than the service provider who finds themselves the target, the associated increase in attacks on cloud-based services, a 19% increase in the last 2 years, shows the significance of the service provider in being part of the solution. Effectively mitigating the threat of DDoS attacks is a tough challenge for any organisation. Alongside more familiar high-volume attacks, application-layer (DNS proved particularly popular in 2015) and multi-vector attacks where DDoS is used as a distraction for either malware infiltration or data exfiltration, both grew significantly. The response therefore needs to be layered and go beyond iACLs and traditional IDMS. Whilst no one device can ever claim the role of panacea against DDoS, it is good to see the convergence of layered mitigation technologies into single, scalable next-generation devices. These offer a unified solution across the Network, Session and Application layers, delivering features like the following;

Features Network Layer

A range of embedded defences against low-level (SYN-ACK) type attacks, protocol validation to stem malformed packet propagation, rate-limiting based on configurable thresholds and ‘default-deny’ policy enforcement

Session Layer

Intelligent memory handling to mitigate flood-attacks during connection negotiation, extensive DNS protections to block UDP floods, query-based floods and other tricks and full proxy architectures to support inbound session termination and other mitigation techniques

Application Layer

Application protocol validation to eliminate any attacks based on malformed requests and illegal behaviours, Surge protection and priority queuing to protect legitimate traffic under attack conditions, HTTP flood protection to mitigate HTTP GET floods by exposing DDoS bots and HTTP low-bandwidth attack protection that defeats slowloris and slow POST attacks.

Customers increasingly expect communication services that are free from contaminants and highly available rather than just simple connections at the mercy of network conditions. Frost and Sullivan made a good observation in their ‘The Expanding Role of Service Providers in DDoS Mitigation’ paper from last March – Comparing clean pipes to public transportation they reason that access to an underground subway system is adequate but not very useful if unsafe. To attract and maintain regular custom the managers for the underground service are therefore required to install surveillance systems or deploy security patrols to improve safety. The expectations customers have of their service provider is increasingly much the same. Furthermore, with many of us looking towards cloud-based services as a logical, sometimes essential, augmentation to our existing base communication services portfolios, the provision of mitigation services for DDoS attacks is set to become an important, if not vital differentiator. HotLINX Issue 45


Meeting Sponsor: Alternative Networks


LINX Conferences LINX93 & LINX94 Preview

The next LINX member conference will be held at the Congress Centre in London on the 16th and 17th of May. It is one of the most important dates on the LINX calendar with the AGM plus voting for places on the LINX Board. These particular aspects of the event are covered in detail on page 6 but as a reminder members may vote in one of three ways: in person on the day, online in advance and by submitting a written proxy form by post. All members’ main corporate representatives will receive voting packs around three weeks before the event. The agenda for LINX93 is set to include a mixture of content including a pre-event tutorial session, an update on the Investigatory Powers Bill, technical discussions on fibre infrastructure and content delivery plus much more besides. We will reveal more about what’s planned, including speakers, in the run up to the event on our social media platforms. Registration for LINX93 is open now. You can sign up and view the draft agenda here:


The LINX94 conference will take place at the ICC in Birmingham on Monday 15th and Tuesday 16th August 2016. Registration will open at the beginning of July. To find out more about the venue please visit:

Meet with LINX Here’s a list of industry events where you can meet with LINX representatives over the next few months. GPF11 11-14 April 2015 Hollywood, California, USA IXManchester 7 20 April 2016 Manchester, UK UKNOF34 21 April 2016 Manchester, UK ITW 2016 10-13 May 2015 Chicago, Illinois, USA LINX93 & AGM 16-17 May 2016 Congress Centre, London, UK RIPE72 23-27 May 2016 Copenhagen, Denmark

LINX92 Round Up

Tim Creswick (Vorboss), Ondrej Filip (NIX.CZ) and Tim Preston (LINX) took part in a routeserver panel at LINX92 in February. LINX CTO Richard Petrie chaired proceedings

February saw an amazing 218 people register for LINX92, a figure only bettered once before for a member meeting when over 220 signed up for LINX’s 20th anniversary gala dinner in 2014. Sponsored by NSFocus, Telehouse, ExtraHop and ProLabs, LINX92 featured a diverse agenda of technical and regulatory content from members and partners alike. There were two guest IXP slots with Franck Simon speaking on behalf of France-IX on day one with Ondrej Filip of Czech exchange NIX.CZ taking to the stand on day two. Ondrej also took part in a specialist route server panel. Among the other topics discussed was the draft Investigatory Powers Bill, HTTP/2,


HotLINX Issue 45


IXManchester 4th Birthday inc.BGP Training and Karting Event 7 June 2015

Manchester, UK ENOG 11 / RIPE Regional Meeting 7-8 June 2016

Moscow, Russia 4K broadcasting, and VoIP Fraud. There were also interesting discussions on Fibre installation wayleaves and a peering update from Vodafone. Video and presentation PDFs from the full meeting can be viewed by the membership on the LINX website: (log-in required)

LINX Meetings

NANOG 67 13-15 June 2016 Chicago, Illinois, USA home ICANN56 27-30 June 2015 Helsinki, Finland

Industry Events IXManchester 7 and UKNOF34 meetings to be held in Manchester in April IXManchester is staging another regional meeting in the Palace Suite at the DoubleTree by Hilton Hotel - Piccadilly on Wednesday 20th April. A comprehensive agenda has been prepared which will be introduced by LINX’s new Chief Marketing Officer, Kutis Lindqvist.

Presentation topics will cover developments at IXManchester, the local data centre scene, in-depth technical talks plus a public affairs update which will seek to address the potential issues associated with the proposed Investigatory Powers Bill. A panel and Q&A session on the subject of regional networking and peering has also been arranged. The panel will feature Tom Hill (Bytemark), Steve Axon (Metronet), James Blessing (Keycom) and David Freeman (Claranet). Registration will close promptly at midday on Monday 18th April 2015. To sign up please visit:


The day after IXManchester 7 is another important industry event in the same city, UKNOF34. This is being held at the Manchester Central Convention Complex and LINX would encourage members to sign up for this also. Please visit the UKNOF website for information on how to register:

LINX NoVA marks second birthday with a celebratory luncheon

To celebrate the second birthday of LINX NoVA in March, LINX and US datacentre partner EvoSwitch organised a birthday luncheon in Reston, West Virginia. The event was free to attend and open to both LINX members and non-members. There were plenty of networking opportunities available and therefore it was a great chance to learn more about what’s happening with LINX’s first overseas Internet exchange. Representing LINX was Chief Commercial Officer, Ben Hedges, who was joined by Martin Von Dopp, CEO of EvoSwitch who both made short presentations to those in attendance. Ben commented: “LINX NoVA is now well established and it was great to welcome our local members and prospects to discuss our respective plans for peering in North America. We will definitely be looking to stage similar get togethers in the near future. “

Ben Hedges LINX America

Events Round Up Global Peering Forum

As HotLINX went to press the 11th annual Global Peering Forum was about to get underway in Hollywood, California. Co-hosted by LINX, GPF11.0 will welcome decision makers from global ISPs, CDNs, cloud and interconnection service providers, for specialist technical meetings, conference presentations and panel sessions plus networking and social events. Among the topics being discussed will be the Internet in China, Bitmiles and the real cost of Public IXPs. To find out more please visit:

2016 Summer Member Engagement Programme

LINX will again be hosting a number of sport-themed member engagement events this summer. Last year a total of £1,360 was donated to LINX’s chosen cause, Macmillan Cancer Support. While this year’s programme is still to be finalised we can announce that A LINX karting event will be held at Daytona Milton Keynes on Wednesday 6th of July. To find out how can take part please visit: events/linx-karting-event

SAVE THE DATE! UK & Ireland Peering Forum

HotLINX can reveal that the second UK & Ireland Peering Forum will take place in the Irish capital, Dublin, on Monday June 20th 2016.

2.0 HotLINX Issue 45


LINX Industry Events


LINX News Extra LINX updates branding for peering LANs outside of London LINX has released new logos for its UK regional exchanges IXManchester, IXScotland and IXCardiff plus LINX NoVA in the USA. The official launch on the 11th March was particularly timely for LINX NoVA as it coincided with the exchange’s second birthday. The revised branding follows on from the recently updated LINX website where all peering LANs were given their own colour schemes to help differentiate between them. Members of individual exchanges will therefore be able to more easily find

information relevant to them. In addition it will also help establish a sense of community which is so important in helping build the successful peering and business relationships of its participants.

Brand Consistency

The branding change will also create a stronger brand presence across future LINX operational activities. The new styling is to be developed further to include variations for reseller products and services with members also being able to more easily identify themselves as being a member or partner of LINX.

The revised logos are currently being rolled out and will be used in both online and printed media. Product and service branding will follow later in the year. To view the individual regional IXP web pages please visit and use the ‘Choose IX’ option.

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Start your network story by contacting Axians: Rich Harris, Account Manager: 07825 982387 | Sales Desk: 01256 312951 |

In the Spotlight

has a great community behind it. Early on they said it’s not about the exchange being commercially successful, at least initially, it’s purely about doing things for the good of the Internet. It’s really good that it’s not always about chasing money.

with Matthew Hattersley, IXManchester Steering Committee Chairman

IXManchester is based in some Telecity data centres. How do you see the Equinix Telecity merger affecting the exchange, if at all? I do see it affecting things, because obviously the European Commission has said that they can’t keep all of their facilities because they would be too big. It could be seen as a negative thing but I actually think it’s good because one of the problems we have in Manchester is a lack of diversity. Now that that acquisition is going ahead I think we are going to get diversity again which is the opposite of what you would expect, but if you are going to be forced to let go of a couple of data centres and sell them on, that’s going to give opportunity for new guys to come in and treat those data centres a little differently, take care of them. There is room for more facilities in and around Manchester. Anything that gives us the opportunity to grow, organically off the back of demand, purely through the ConneXions Partner programme. As a whole though, the Equinix merger isn’t too much to worry about but it needs watching closely and then exploiting any opportunities that may arise.

HotLINX Editor, Jeremy Orbell, speaks with Matthew Hattersley of Talk Straight Group on his role as IXManchester Steering Committee Chairman and the development of regional peering in the North of England Matthew, please tell us about your industry background and career to date. I’ve been in this industry in one form or another since 2000. It started when I took my role at Vaoni as a Senior Engineer and worked my way up to Director level. We were founding members of IXLeeds and about a year after that, the conversation started about a new exchange in Manchester involving myself and a small group of local connections. We decided it needed to happen but we didn’t have a clue how at that point. Then LINX got involved. After leaving Vaoni I joined Talk Straight Group and have been the Chair of IXManchester too. We’ve got to the stage where we’ve superceded previous Manchester exchange Manap and are a stand alone exchange in it’s own right. As regards going forwards in the future, obviously it’s about making Manchester the main alternative to the LINX Juniper LAN, because that’s the main competition in the nicest way. That’s what drives me anyway as we can’t have that sole dependency on London. London is great, but

in this country we do need more than that, that’s what has driven me hence why I was involved in IXLeeds and IXManchester. This proves my commitment to regional peering. How important do you feel IXManchester and IXLeeds have been in kickstarting regional peering in this country? In my mind the whole Leeds initiative, and IXManchester shortly afterwards, was the best thing that could have happened at that time. It really showed the industry that it could be done and it was a really important step for the UK. What I’m hoping is for IXManchester to bond so much more with greater datacentre density in Manchester where there’s more of the bigger players. Organically, I think it’s already bigger than IXLeeds but that’s not to take away what they did. I have a lot of respect for the guys over there and I think everyone that was involved was doing it for the right reasons. LINX has also shown a big progressive plan on regional peering which is great and it

How important is it to have local involvement and a steering committee to drive IXManchester forward? LINX’s CEO, John Souter, made it very clear early on that there would always be a sense of direction for this exchange from the local community. While it has taken time to appreciate the level involvement we all understand our roles better now. We’re applying pressure, in the nicest way possible, with the kind of people we want on the exchange and feeding back to LINX. We are giving LINX as much information as we can of what we think is suitable to the north. That sounds really insular but it’s true to say on a regional, northern exchange there are some activities that would work differently due to the demographics and size of the exchange. My job as steering committee chair is to make sure that the committee has an opinion. They might not all agree on the outcome but they understand enough and why a decision has to be made. We are all learning and the exchange itself has benefited from putting a lot of trust in a small group of people to be sensible. I feel we’ve earnt that trust now and we have a really healthy relationship with LINX as a whole. It’s been hard but a lot of fun and we on the committee have enjoyed it.

IXManchester 4th Birthday Week Specialist BGP Training and Karting Member Engagement Events arranged for IXManchester’s 4th Birthday week in June This June is the fourth anniversary of IXManchester passing traffic for the first time. To mark the occasion LINX is staging a joint training and member engagement event in the city on Thursday 9th June to bring together the local networking community to celebrate what has been achieved to date.

The training session is being run by Systems & Network Training who also oversee LINX’s Accredited Internet Technician (LAIT) courses. Lasting two hours, the session on BGP will cover the basic steps to set up a peering session and peer with the LINX route server. The less formal side of the day is a karting event which has proved popular with members in previous years. Registration for this event will open shortly. If you are interested in taking part in either the training or karting (or both!) look out for announcements on our social media platforms or visit the events section on the LINX website: HotLINX Issue 45


In the Spotlight: Matthew Hattersley


LINX Associates

Internet Systems Consortium

ISC joins Open Source Initiative

ISC has developed and supported open source systems for many years and have announced that they are to join forces with other open source advocates and developers to help bring a unified voice to this growing movement. “There are only a few organisations that can truly be credited for building the networked society we live in today. ISC is one of those organisations,” said Patrick Masson, General Manager of the OSI. “ISC has been cultivating the ideals of the Open Source Initiative from even before the OSI existed, and we are honored that they have joined us in our work to promote and protect open source software.” In other ISC news it has been reported that the new version of ISC DHCP, version 4.3.4 has been released. This edition includes an experimental implementation of a new Internet standard, DHCPv4 over DHCPv6, also known as RFC 7341. This is a transition strategy that allows a set of co-operating programs to encapsulate a DHCPv4 request into a DHCPv6 request and transmit it over an IPv6 network, thus allowing a “v4 island” to get DHCP service. Further information can be found at:


CAIDA BGPStream Toolkit

BGPStream, an open-source software framework for live and historical BGP data analysis, have added a new (experimental) Data Provider. The CAIDA OpenBMP provider is a collaboration with Route Views and Cisco to provide access to a low-latency (~1min) stream of BGP measurement data using the OpenBMP stack. This data is available for immediate use with existing BGPStream installations by using the caida-bmp provider (e.g., bgpreader -p caida-bmp -w 1453912260). Further information about current peers is available here:!caida-bmp

What are LINX Associate Members? Like LINX, associate members are usually ‘not-for-profit’ organisations. They are members in all respects but they have no voting rights and LINX does not charge them for membership.


RIPE NCC Survey 2016

At RIPE 72 in Copenhagen, the RIPE NCC will be launching a survey of its membership and stakeholders. The previous survey was completed in 2013 and gathered responses from more than 3,600 members and other interested parties. These responses were then used to identify 44 key findings that were acted upon over the course of 2014. In preparation for the 2016 survey, the RIPE NCC has been carrying out focus groups with members across its service region, including the UK. The RIPE NCC hopes to get a good response rate from LINX members, which will be used to determine the future direction of the organisation. The results and analysis of the previous survey are available on the RIPE NCC’s website: member-support/surveys/ripe-nccsurvey-2013

DNS Belgium

Social media and domain names: no love-hate relationship

Social media AND domain names, two communication tools that can go together easily. That is what DNS Belgium thinks and it has long been convinced of the benefits of having both. For the non-believers, they go over the advantages as well as the disadvantages, without making the case for domain names.

Social media:

+ Wide coverage + engagement + Costs: non-existent or limited + No maintenance + Self-segmentation - Little control - Everyone has an opinion - Basic reporting


HotLINX Issue 45


Domain names:

+ Credibility and confidence + You decide + Extensive reporting + Cost efficient + Unlimited content - Maintenance and complexity

LINX Associates

This list is not drawn up to make you choose either a domain name or social media. DNS Belgium is strongly convinced that social media AND domain names can be used perfectly well together. A proprietary e-mail address and website are self-evident and must continue to form the basis of your online existence as a company or organisation. Combining such a website with a presence on social networks is smart. You can “chat” with customers or your target group at ease on social media, or engage customers and lead them to your website.


Connect to the LINX core node from Interxion London n

Over 80 connectivity providers in our Interxion London Campus




Top 5 Global IP Transit providers all on site

Home to a LINX core node (the only LINX core node located outside of the Docklands)


BT’s IP Network (AS2856) located on site

8 leading Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) present on campus


Over 10 unique, dual entry fibre providers into the campus

Visit for more information or give us a call at +44 20 7375 7000 Amsterdam / Brussels / Copenhagen / Dublin / DĂźsseldorf / Frankfurt / London / Madrid / Marseille / Paris / Stockholm / Vienna / Zurich

Stats Update

705 Member ASNs 67 Countries

Over 5.000 Tbs


Peak Traffic inc. PI Terrabits of connected


New LINX capacity applications in 2016

63 Member-facing 100GigE ports

Connected 10GigE Ports member ports 1675 893 Member-facing


Our LINX stats page includes information regarding our local exchanges, plus other notable figures. The above graphic shows the headline numbers for the exchange as a whole but we felt that readers would be interested to see more detail such as available routes and also breakdowns of figures from the UK regional exchanges in England, Scotland and Wales plus LINX NoVA in the USA.

Routes Peered at LINX in London Global routing table routes

% of global routes available via LINX

471117 578930


Here’s a list of LINX members who have connected since the beginning of January 2016. In all, there have been 31 new connections from 13 different territories. These include 11 from the UK including the Channel Islands, four from Russia, three from Australia, Bulgaria and Iceland plus one each from France, Italy, Latvia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Thailand and the USA. Academia


ANS Group


Call Flow Solutions Call27



Campaign Monitor Completel CSD Ltd




Dexterity Networks


Digital Telecom Services Evolink AD


Farice ehf.


Fastnet LLC



Future Publishing AS20596 Global Communication Net AS12615 I.T Communications AS203416 Micron21 Datacentre AS38880 Networx-BG AS34569 Novso AS25358 PIN AS44050 Powerhouse Management AS22363

IXManchester peak traffic LINX NoVA ports*

including orders awaiting provisioning

Low Speed Port Upgrades since January 2016


27 24

New Member Applications by UK LAN since January 2016 Juniper LAN


Extreme LAN


Connected ASNs

IXManchester 76 IXScotland 18 IXCardiff 30 Please note: LAN applications may contain ports on multiple LANs (Juniper, Extreme, IXManchester, IXScotland, IXCardiff and LINX NoVA.) These figures show applications only, not physically connected ports.


New LINX Members

HotLINX Issue 45


Stats Update

Runtime Collective Ltd T/A Brandwatch AS60868 Saudi Telecom Company (STC) AS39386 SIA HomeTV Pro AS9029 Sure (Guernsey) AS8680 Symphony AS132876 SystemHOST AS198313 TF Global Markets (AUST) Pty AS134145 Ufanet JSC AS24955 Vodacom Pty AS36994 Vodafone Iceland Fjarskipti AS12969 You can view a complete list of members on the LINX website:


HotLINX is the member magazine of the London Internet Exchange. The feature article in this issue is news that the Investigatory Powers Bill...