Page 1

Government of Albania

PAP/RAC – SOGREAH Consortium

Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan Interim Report


Government of Albania

PAP/RAC – SOGREAH Consortium

Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan Interim Report

October 2005


Table of Contents

LIST OF TABLES ................................................................................................................. IV LIST OF FIGURES ................................................................................................................ VI LIST OF MAPS .................................................................................................................... VI Introduction...........................................................................................................................vii Executive Summary.............................................................................................................xiii 1.

PHYSICAL CONTEXT AND RESOURCES OF THE SOUTHERN COASTAL REGION.............................................................................................................................1 1.1. THE BOUNDARIES OF THE STUDY AREA .........................................................................1 1.2. PHYSICAL AND NATURAL COASTAL RESOURCES ............................................................1 1.2.1. Geomorphology ..............................................................................................................1 1.2.2. Hydrogeological and hydrological conditions..................................................................4 1.2.3. Climate ............................................................................................................................6 1.2.4. Major ecosystems in the Study area.............................................................................10

1.3. LANDSCAPE AND LAND COVER ....................................................................................18 1.3.1. Landscape analysis ......................................................................................................18 1.3.2. Land cover ....................................................................................................................50

1.4. PHYSICAL CONTEXT AND RESOURCES: OPPORTUNITIES, CONSTRAINTS AND RISKS......54 2.

SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: DRIVING FORCES...........................................57 2.1. ANALYSIS OF DEMOGRAPHIC PROCESSES AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ....................57 2.1.1. Population size, distribution and dynamics...................................................................57 2.1.2. Economy of the Area ....................................................................................................59 2.1.3. Social assessment ........................................................................................................64

2.2. SETTLEMENT SYSTEM AND LAND USE ..........................................................................67 2.2.1. Settlement system ........................................................................................................67 2.2.2. Land-use patterns and trends.......................................................................................69 2.2.3. Housing and social services .........................................................................................70 2.2.4. Cultural Heritage, traditional villages and building forms..............................................71

2.3. INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS ........................................................................................75 2.3.1. Transportation network .................................................................................................76 2.3.2. Water supply .................................................................................................................82 2.3.3. Waste water ..................................................................................................................88 2.3.4. Solid wastes..................................................................................................................91 2.3.5. Electricity.......................................................................................................................92 2.3.6. Telecommunications .....................................................................................................94

2.4. COASTAL POLLUTION .................................................................................................94 2.4.1. Key aspects of coastal pollution ...................................................................................96

3.

TOURISM DEVELOPMENT..........................................................................................101 3.1. ANALYSIS OF HISTORIC TOURISM TRENDS .................................................................101 3.1.1. Tourist visits ................................................................................................................101 3.1.2. Analysis of clients .......................................................................................................105

3.2. TOURISM ASSETS OF THE SOUTHERN ALBANIAN COAST ............................................107 3.2.1. The image of the Albanian tourist product ..................................................................107 3.2.2. Analysis of current accommodation facilities ..............................................................108 3.2.3. Long season ...............................................................................................................109 3.2.4. Activities offered to tourists ........................................................................................109 3.2.5. Accessibility ................................................................................................................111 3.2.6. SWOT analysis ...........................................................................................................112

3.3. TRENDS IN TOURISM DEMAND ...................................................................................113

i


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

3.3.1. The context of the Mediterranean markets: A tremendous increase of the number of tourists and beds ...................................................................................... 113 3.3.2. Sun and sand beach tourism: The end of a model or a wave on which to surf? ........................................................................................................................... 113 3.3.3. Eco-tourism, nature-based tourism and sustainable tourism: Myth or reality? .......... 114 3.3.4. Cultural tourism: A component of sun and beach tourism? ....................................... 117 3.3.5. What makes a tourist destination sustainable?.......................................................... 118

3.4. POTENTIAL DEMAND FOR COASTAL TOURISM: WHAT MODEL OF DEVELOPMENT FOR THE SOUTHERN ALBANIAN COAST? .................................................................. 119 3.4.1. Targeted markets ....................................................................................................... 119 3.4.2. Critical mass that must be reached............................................................................ 119 3.4.3. Means for implementation.......................................................................................... 119 3.4.4. Types of tourism physical planning ............................................................................ 120 3.4.5. Strategic recommendations ....................................................................................... 120

4.

CARRYING CAPACITY OF THE TERRITORY............................................................ 123 4.1. INTRODUCTION: DEFINITION OF THE CARRYING CAPACITY ......................................... 123 4.2. ENVIRONMENTAL CARRYING CAPACITY .................................................................... 124 4.2.1. Spring water ............................................................................................................... 126 4.2.2. Groundwater............................................................................................................... 126 4.2.3. Coastal seawater ....................................................................................................... 128 4.2.4. Soil ............................................................................................................................. 147 4.2.5. Air ............................................................................................................................... 159 4.2.6. Habitats & biodiversity................................................................................................ 159 4.2.7. Coastal landscape...................................................................................................... 160 4.2.8. Carrying capacities summary..................................................................................... 160 4.2.9. Summarised findings.................................................................................................. 162

4.3. CARRYING CAPACITY AND TOURISM DEVELOPMENT POTENTIAL ANALYSIS ................. 163 4.3.1. Tourism and environmental carrying capacity ........................................................... 163 4.3.2. Tourism development potential analysis.................................................................... 166

4.4 COASTAL TRAIL....................................................................................................... 178 4.5. CARRYING CAPACITY: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................ 178 5.

COASTAL DEVELOPMENT PRESSURES: POLICY RESPONSE............................ 181 5.1. DEVELOPMENT AND LAND-USE PLANNING................................................................. 181 5.1.1. Land-use planning system ......................................................................................... 181 5.1.2. Review and evaluation of land-use plans .................................................................. 187

5.2. NATURE PROTECTION .............................................................................................. 195 5.2.1. Butrinti National Park ................................................................................................. 195 5.2.2. Karaburun area .......................................................................................................... 197

5.3. LAND OWNERSHIP AND RESTITUTION ........................................................................ 198 5.3.1. Valuation Methodology............................................................................................... 199 5.3.2. Restitution/Compensation and Tourism Development............................................... 200

5.4. COASTAL MANAGEMENT .......................................................................................... 201 5.4.1 Why does coastal management matter? .................................................................... 201 5.4.2. Some proposals for Integrated Coastal Management in Albania .............................. 202

5.5. RECOMMENDATIONS: COASTAL PLANNING URGENT MEASURES ................................ 203 6.

DEVELOPMENT VISION FOR THE SOUTHERN ALBANIAN COASTAL REGION ........................................................................................................................ 207 6.1. DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS ........................................................................................... 207 6.2. PREFERRED ECONOMIC STRUCTURE......................................................................... 208 6.3. DEVELOPMENT VISION ............................................................................................. 209 6.3.1. Principles and objectives of coastal planning and development................................ 212 6.3.2. Development on the coast: Zoning strategy .............................................................. 213

ii


Table of Contents

Annex 1 Possible Economic Benefits from Tourism – Case of Himara .....................................223 Annex 2 Possible Economic Benefits from Tourism – Case of Ksamil........................................227 Annex 3 Possible Economic Benefits from Tourism – Case of Palasa – Lukova .......................231 Annex 4 Registered Cultural Heritage in the Southern Coastal Region (Law 9048/2003) ..........235 Annex 5 Water Supply Background Information ............................................................................241 Annex 6 Liquid Waste Background Information .............................................................................251 Annex 7 Solid Wastes Background Information .............................................................................261 Annex 8 Tourism Development and Territorial Planning – Cyprus .............................................267 Annex 9 Tourism Development: Comparison of Destinations and Strategies ...........................269 Annex 10 Coastal Planning and Management Policies – Croatia and Sardinia, Italy .................277 Annex 11 Assessment of Previous Reports....................................................................................285 Annex 12 Fish Catch in Year 2004 ....................................................................................................293 Annex 13 DPSIR Analysis for Water Supply, Wastewater and Solid Waste ...............................295 Annex 14 EU Legislation and its Relevance for Infrastructure Planning .....................................297 Annex 15 Consultation and Participatory Planning Process – First Meeting..............................303 Annex 16 Consultation and Participatory Planning Process – Follow-up ...................................309 Documentation used..........................................................................................................................316

APPENDIX: A DETAILED SITE ANALYSIS

iii


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

List of Tables Table 1.1: Annual distribution of wind directions along the southern coast of Albania (%).................................... 10 Table 1.2: Environmentally Sensitive Areas ........................................................................................................... 16 Table 1.3: List of species of global conservation interest appearing in the study area........................................... 17 Table 1.4: The natural landscape – landforms ....................................................................................................... 41 Table 1.5: The natural landscape – water sources................................................................................................. 42 Table 1.6: The natural landscape – vegetation ...................................................................................................... 44 Table 1.7: The cultural landscape – planting.......................................................................................................... 46 Table 1.8: The cultural landscape – built elements ................................................................................................ 47 Table 1.9: The cultural landscape – exploitation of natural resources.................................................................... 49 Table 1.10: Land cover .......................................................................................................................................... 51 Table 1.11: Developed land outside of the “yellow lines” area (based on Ortho photos) ....................................... 53 Table 2.1: Population data ..................................................................................................................................... 58 Table 2.2: Settlements population dynamics 1926-2004........................................................................................ 58 Table 2.3: Major spatial units in the study area, from socio-economic point of view .............................................. 62 Table 2.4: Social assessment of tourism development opportunities in the study area ......................................... 66 Table 2.5: Administrative and territorial division of the Vlora Region ..................................................................... 67 Table 2.6: Types of building license, Saranda, 2001.............................................................................................. 68 Table 2.7: Households and land according to cadastral status for Saranda, Konispol, Delvina and communes within the Saranda District ............................................................................................... 69 Table 2.8: Houses according to construction period (%) ........................................................................................ 71 Table 2.9: Population occupancy rate in selected settlements............................................................................... 72 Table 2.10: Preliminary findings of infrastructure components............................................................................... 75 Table 2.11: Status of the existing road network and on-going projects .................................................................. 76 Table 2.12: SWOT analysis for road network......................................................................................................... 77 Table 2.13: SWOT analysis for port facilities.......................................................................................................... 78 Table 2.14: The sites selected for the development of new infrastructure for nautical tourism .............................. 79 Table 2.15: Expected number of passengers and flights ....................................................................................... 81 Table 2.16: SWOT analysis for airports ................................................................................................................. 81 Table 2.17: Population data ................................................................................................................................... 83 Table 2.18: Himara commune ................................................................................................................................ 85 Table 2.19: Lukova commune ................................................................................................................................ 86 Table 2.20: Saranda Municipality ........................................................................................................................... 86 Table 2.21: Aliko commune.................................................................................................................................... 87 Table 2.22: Ksamili Commune ............................................................................................................................... 87 Table 2.23: Xarra Commune .................................................................................................................................. 87 Table 2.24: Coastal water resources – summary ................................................................................................... 87 Table 2.25: Preliminary assessment of solid waste management.......................................................................... 91 Table 2.26: “Catchment” areas of future dumping sites ......................................................................................... 92 Table 2.27: SWOT analysis for the electricity sector .............................................................................................. 93 Table 2.28: Wastewater disposal impact to environment ....................................................................................... 94 Table 2.29: Solid waste disposal impact to environment........................................................................................ 95 Table 2.30: Overview of present (2004) daily sewage pollution loads in coastal settlements ............................... 96 Table 2.31: Saranda town pollution loads of effluent to Ionian Sea........................................................................ 97 Table 2.32: Saranda total pollution load generation compared with pollution load of effluent to Ionian Sea ......... 97 Table 2.33: Sea water quality in Saranda Bay (2002) ............................................................................................ 98 Table 2.34: Classification of river water qualities based on UNECE ...................................................................... 98 Table 2.35: Bacteria contents in Saranda Bay compared with EU Bathing Water Directive requirements............ 99 Table 2.36: Preliminary priority ranking of wastewater treatment projects in coastal settlements according to above cited criteria ......................................................................................................................... 99 Table 2.37: Solid waste generation estimate in coastal settlements .................................................................... 100 Table 3.1: Total arrivals of Albanians and foreign visitors through Saranda Port in 2000-2004 .......................... 103 Table 3.2: Arrivals of Albanians and foreign visitors through Vlora Port 2000-2004............................................. 104 Table 3.3: Visitor arrivals in Himara 2004 (sea and land)..................................................................................... 104 Table 3.4: Tourists (foreign and local) who stay 5-14 days and projections until 2020 ........................................ 105 Table 3.5: Foreign tourists estimated to stay overnight ........................................................................................ 107 Table 3.6: Accommodation facilities (hotels, apart-hotels and bungalows) .......................................................... 108 Table 3.7: SWOT analysis for tourism in the study area ...................................................................................... 112 Table 3.8: Tourist arrivals and hotel capacities in the Mediterranean .................................................................. 113 Table 4.1: Impact ranks........................................................................................................................................ 125 Table 4.2: Carrying capacities regarding coastal spring water resources ............................................................ 126 Table 4.3: Carrying capacities regarding additional hinterland spring water resources........................................ 126 Table 4.4: Carrying capacities regarding tapped coastal groundwater resources ................................................ 127 Table 4.5: Carrying capacities regarding coastal spring water resources and tapped groundwater.................... 127

iv


Table of Contents Table 4.6: Carrying capacities regarding summarised coastal and hinterland water resources.......................... 127 Table 4.7: Registered and resident population in coastal communes .................................................................. 129 Table 4.8: Daily wastewater pollution loads generated by registered population (peak season 2004) ............... 129 Table 4.9: Daily wastewater pollution loads generated by resident population (low season 2004) ..................... 130 Table 4.10: Overnight tourists – peak season 2004............................................................................................. 130 Table 4.11: Pollution loads by overnight tourists (peak season 2004) ................................................................. 130 Table 4.12: Day tourists – peak season 2004 ...................................................................................................... 131 Table 4.13: Wastewater pollution loads by day tourists (peak season 2004)....................................................... 131 Table 4.14: Wastewater pollution loads by overnight tourists (low season 2004) ................................................ 131 Table 4.15: Wastewater pollution loads by day tourists (low season 2004) ......................................................... 132 Table 4.16: Himara commune wastewater pollution loads – summary 2004 ....................................................... 132 Table 4.17: Himara town wastewater pollution loads discharged into Himara Bay – summary 2004 ................. 133 Table 4.18: Wastewater pollution loads of the Himara commune settlements except for the Himara town discharged into the sea – summary 2004......................................................................................... 133 Table 4.19: Himara Town – carrying capacity data regarding sewage pollution of coastal waters ..................... 134 Table 4.20: Himara commune settlements except for the Himara town – carrying capacity data regarding sewage pollution of coastal waters................................................................................................... 135 Table 4.21: Lukova commune wastewater pollution loads – summary 2004 ....................................................... 136 Table 4.22: Lukova commune – carrying capacity data regarding sewage pollution to coastal waters............... 136 Table 4.23: Saranda commune wastewater pollution loads – summary 2004 ..................................................... 137 Table 4.24: Aliko commune wastewater pollution loads – summary 2004 ........................................................... 137 Table 4.25: Saranda and Aliko commune wastewater pollution loads – summary 2004...................................... 138 Table 4.26: Population development – Saranda municipality .............................................................................. 138 Table 4.27: Population development – Aliko commune ....................................................................................... 139 Table 4.28: Saranda + Aliko: Carrying capacity data regarding sewage pollution to coastal waters................... 139 Table 4.29: Ksamili commune wastewater pollution loads – summary 2004 ....................................................... 140 Table 4.30: Ksamili commune – carrying capacity data regarding sewage pollution of coastal waters............... 142 Table 4.31: Xarra commune wastewater pollution loads – summary 2004 .......................................................... 142 Table 4.32: Xarra commune – carrying capacity data regarding sewage pollution of coastal waters ................. 143 Table 4.33: Carrying capacities and wastewater impacts – coastal communes summary.................................. 143 Table 4.34: Wastewater treatment requirements for less sensitive areas according to EU wastewater directive 91/271, Annex I, Table 1.................................................................................................... 145 Table 4.35: Wastewater treatment requirements for sensitive areas according to EU wastewater directive 91/271, Annex I, Table 2 .................................................................................................................. 145 Table 4.36: Carrying capacity for mitigation scenario .......................................................................................... 146 Table 4.37: Population forecast of 2015 .............................................................................................................. 146 Table 4.38: Carrying capacities for mitigation scenario compared with population forecast 2015 ....................... 146 Table 4.39: Vunoi landfill: registered population 2004 (Scenario 1) ..................................................................... 149 Table 4.40: Annual quantity of solid waste dumped on the Vunoi landfill (Scenario 1) ........................................ 150 Table 4.41: Vunoi landfill operation periods depending on solid waste density (Scenario 1) ............................... 150 Table 4.42: Average annual specific solid waste generation – catchment area of Vunoi landfill (Scenario 1, Option 2) .......................................................................................................................................... 151 Table 4.43: Persons corresponding to 10 years Vunoi landfill operation (Scenario 1, Option 2) ........................ 151 Table 4.44: Vunoi landfill: registered population 2015 (Scenario 2) ..................................................................... 151 Table 4.45: Annual quantity of solid waste dumped on Vunoi landfill (Scenario 2) .............................................. 152 Table 4.46: Vunoi landfill operation periods depending on solid waste density (Scenario 2) .............................. 152 Table 4.47: Vunoi landfill: average annual specific solid waste generation (Scenario 2, Option 2)..................... 152 Table 4.48: Persons corresponding to 10 years of Vunoi landfill operation (Scenario 2, Option 2) .................... 153 Table 4.49: Bajkaj landfill catchment area population registered in 2004 (Scenario 1) ........................................ 153 Table 4.50: Annual quantity of solid waste dumped on the Bajkaj landfill (Scenario 1)........................................ 154 Table 4.51: Bajkaj landfill operation periods depending on solid waste density (Scenario 1) ............................. 154 Table 4.52: Bajkaj landfill: average annual specific solid waste generation (Scenario 1, Option 2) .................... 155 Table 4.53: Persons corresponding to 10 years of Bajkaj landfill operation (Scenario 1, Option 2) .................... 155 Table 4.54: Carrying capacity for solid waste for the catchment area of the Bajkaj landfill (Scenario 1, Option 2) .. 155 Table 4.55: Bajkaj landfill catchment area population forecast for the year 2015 (Svenario 2)........................... 156 Table 4.56: Annual quantity of solid waste dumped on the Bajkaj landfill (Scenario 2)........................................ 156 Table 4.57: Bajkaj landfill operation periods depending on solid waste density (Scenario 2) .............................. 156 Table 4.58: Average annual specific solid waste generation – catchment area of Bajkaj landfill (Scenario 2, Option 2)........................................................................................................................................... 157 Table 4.59: Persons corresponding to 10 years Bajkaj landfill operation (Scenario 2, Option 2) ........................ 157 Table 4.60: Carrying capacity – solid waste for catchment area of Bajkaj landfill (Scenario 2, Option 2) ............ 157 Table 4.61: Overview of carrying capacities for solid waste in coastal region...................................................... 158 Table 4.62: Himara municipality – carrying capacities ......................................................................................... 160 Table 4.63: Lukova commune – carrying capacities ............................................................................................ 161 Table 4.64: Saranda municipality – carrying capacities ....................................................................................... 161 Table 4.65: Aliko commune – carrying capacities ................................................................................................ 161 Table 4.66: Ksamili commune – carrying capacities ............................................................................................ 161 Table 4.67: Xarra commune – carrying capacities ............................................................................................... 161 Table 4.68: Carrying capacities according to designed landfill capacities............................................................ 162

v


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report Table 4.69: Environmental carrying capacities identified at municipality/commune level..................................... 164 Table 4.70: Tourism carrying capacities related to present coastal seawater environment (2004) ...................... 164 Table 4.71: Present tourists (peak season 2004) compared with tourism carrying capacities ............................. 165 Table 4.72: Tourism carrying capacities for coastal seawater mitigation scenario ............................................... 165 Table 4.73: Present tourists (peak season 2004) compared with tourism carrying capacities for the coastal seawater mitigation scenario ............................................................................................................ 165 Table 4.74: Palasa area ....................................................................................................................................... 169 Table 4.75: Dhermi area ...................................................................................................................................... 169 Table 4.76: Vuno area.......................................................................................................................................... 170 Table 4.77: Himara area ...................................................................................................................................... 170 Table 4.78: Porto Palermo area ........................................................................................................................... 171 Table 4.79: Qeparo area ...................................................................................................................................... 172 Table 4.80: Borsh area......................................................................................................................................... 172 Table 4.81: Lukova area ...................................................................................................................................... 173 Table 4.82: Saranda area .................................................................................................................................... 174 Table 4.83: Ksamili area....................................................................................................................................... 175 Table 4.84: Butrinti area and Cape Stillo.............................................................................................................. 176 Table 5.1: Key coastal issues DPSIR analysis..................................................................................................... 187 Table 6.1: Natural Population Growth Forecast (2004 – 2015)*........................................................................... 208 Table 6.2: Option 0............................................................................................................................................... 216 Table 6.3: Option 1............................................................................................................................................... 216 Table 6.4: Option 2............................................................................................................................................... 217 Table 6.5: Option 3............................................................................................................................................... 217 Table 6.6: Option 4............................................................................................................................................... 218 Table 6.7: Final score........................................................................................................................................... 218

List of Figures Figure 1.1: Climatic Zones of Albania ...................................................................................................................... 6 Figure 1.2: Precipitation in Southern Coastal Region by months ............................................................................. 7 Figure 1.3: Mean annual rainfall/precipitation in Saranda, Borshi, Himara and Dhermi ........................................... 7 Figure 1.4: Mean annual temperature in Saranda, Borshi, Himara and Dhermi....................................................... 8 Figure 1.5: Mean annual temperature in Vlora ......................................................................................................... 8 Figure 1.6: Wind roses for three site stations (Treport, Vlora, Saranda) .................................................................. 9 Figure 1.7: Wind roses for two characteristic months (Vlora station) ....................................................................... 9 Figure 1.8: Landscape unit zones .......................................................................................................................... 19 Figure 2.1: Examples of traditional village architecture .......................................................................................... 74 Figure 2.2: Options for Saranda Airport ................................................................................................................. 80 Figure 3.1: Foreign tourists by country of origin in Saranda ................................................................................. 102 Figure 3.2: Arrivals of Albanians and foreign visitors (overnight and daily) through Saranda Port in 2000-2004 104 Figure 3.3: Arrivals of Albanians and foreign visitors through Vlora Port 2000-2004 ........................................... 104 Figure 3.4: Forecast of local and foreign tourist arrivals in the Southern coast areas until 2020......................... 105 Figure 3.5: Day vs. overnight tourists ................................................................................................................... 106 Figure 3.6: Percentage of foreign tourists vs. all staying tourists ......................................................................... 106 Figure 4.1: Tourism development areas and sites ............................................................................................... 168

List of Maps Map 1: Topography Map 2: Environmental hazards Map 3: Shoreland classification Map 4: Marine and terrestrial environment Map 5: Land cover Map 6: Demographic indicators Map 7: Socioeconomic indicators Map 8: Settlement system Map 9: Cultural heritage Map 10: Infrastructure Map 11: Study area boundaries Map 12: Coastal development, preliminary assessment Map 13: Slope categories Map 14: Terrain aspect Map 15: Landscape analysis Map 16: Ortho photo with built up areas Map 17: Land use / land cover analysis Map 18: Coastal development, preliminary assesment

vi


Introduction Background of the project The Albanian coast belongs to the majority group of Mediterranean countries with less than 1,000 km of coastline. By its physiography the Albanian coastal area exhibits two types of, fairly different, coasts: the very active Northern and Central Adriatic coasts, characterised by long beaches which are being fed with sediments coming from numerous Albanian rivers originating deep inside the country, and a solid Southern Ionian Coast, which is typically the rocky one and largely resembling the Eastern Adriatic coasts of Croatia and Montenegro. Overall, the Albanian coast is the greatest national asset which attracts its population and activities, and not only in times of relative economic prosperity. Furthermore, the coast is considered to be the most important resource upon which the future development of the country largely depends. The interplay between opportunities, driving forces and pressures is shaping the physiognomy of the Albanian coastal area today. The Southern Coastal region exhibits most of the features that could be found in the rest of the Albanian coast at present: fast development, uncontrolled construction, employment pressures, environmental problems, but also major economic opportunities. No wonder, then, that this section of the Albanian coast has been in the centre of the efforts to revive the Albanian economy. In mid nineties, during the first “optimistic” post-communist period, there were a number of projects, supported by the international community, proposing coastal development strategies. They were either sectoral, such as EBRD’s tourism development strategy, or integrated, such as coastal management strategies developed by UNEP/MAP and METAP (coastal zone management plans have covered the entire Albanian coastal area). The World Bank/METAP Albania Coastal Zone Management Plan (1995-96) had a specific section dealing exclusively with the Southern Albanian Coastal Region. Although many of its proposals were of high quality, and might be considered as still valid, in a certain sense they were premature relative to the capacity of the Albanian institutional system at the time to implement such proposals. In addition, the Albanian counterpart authority, the Committee for Environmental Protection, was deemed to be too “weak” to carry out such a complex task and to co-ordinate actions with other, more “powerful”, institutional players. However, these projects had a positive impact on the state of institutional capacities by introducing the principles of integrated coastal zone management in a country that has been so strongly banking its future on the utilisation of coastal resources. Unfortunately, the socio-economic trends in Albania suddenly turned to the worse in the late nineties. It was prompted by the internal turbulences, as well as by the unfavourable events in the eastern Balkan region. Most of the development-oriented activities were stopped. This has had a very negative impact on the coastal area’s development, because many initiatives were interrupted or stopped, and no major international interest in tourism investment in the Southern Coastal Region was recorded for some time. At the same time, the development control has grossly deteriorated. Consequently, the international financial institutions, notably the World Bank, have lost interest in Integrated Coastal Management in Albania in the late

vii


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

nineties, something quite opposite to the relative “euphoria” of the mid nineties. Due to the above-mentioned reasons, soon after the 1997 events, the internal pressure on the coastal area has intensified. It has resulted in the excessive and uncontrolled physical development along the coastline, particularly in the northern coastal region around Durres, as well as in the South around Saranda and Ksamili. If left unchecked, these processes might have a long-lasting negative impact on the opportunities for sustainable coastal development in Albania.

New challenges With the advent of the new millennium, the interest in the Albanian coastal areas has slowly revived. The United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) prepared in 2002 the report “Environmental Performance Review for Albania”, with a special chapter on coastal zone management and tourism. A number of recommendations were made, notable among them to adopt the 1995 ICZM Plan, which was, actually, done soon after, in the same year. The World Bank, one of the most important international institutional actors in Albania, particularly in relation with its coastal area, has reaffirmed its interest to contribute to sustainable coastal development (something that was not so as late as 2001!). Multi-sectoral and multi-stakeholder Integrated Coastal Zone Management and Clean-up Program (ICZMCP) has been successfully assembled by the World Bank. Even more encouraging is the very active role that the Albanian Government has taken in this initiative, primarily through its Ministry of Territorial Adjustment and Tourism (MOTAT), with participation of other line ministries. It is not easy to find in the Mediterranean, but also elsewhere in the world, a national government that is putting relatively serious financial resources to stimulate coastal zone management. If nothing else, this is a strong indicator for long-term sustainability of this initiative. As a prelude to this project, METAP and UNEP/MAP have financed a mission in August 2004 with the objective to assess the current development situation in the Southern Coastal Region. The Mission Report contains a detailed analysis of the situation, and proposes a number of measures that should be taken in the future. The situation on the ground shows that the process towards achieving a sustainable coastal development and inaugurating ICM as a major tool to do so, will be neither short nor easy. There are too many illegally constructed buildings; too little respect for the law; too much striving to gain short-term economic profits at the expense of long-term conservation of coastal resources; too little enforcement mechanisms; too few instruments for the implementation of plans; not enough well educated and experienced coastal planners; lack of coherent coastal development strategy, etc. On top of it all, the expectation that exploitation of coastal resources will be a “panacea” for too many problems that have been accumulating in the past, is too high. This particularly refers to the implementation of the Law on Recognition, Restitution and Compensation of Property, and expectation that enough land will be found in the coastal area to satisfy most of the claims. Without benefit of having an analysis in advance, which will show how much land is realistically available, sufficient caution should be employed here in order to avoid the situation when solving one problem another one will be created.

Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan: Definition and Objectives The Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan (ICD Study and Plan) is considered to be the strategic arm of the ICZMCP. It will be based on the assessment of the socioeconomic potential of the Southern Coastal Region, and an evaluation of the sensitivity of its coastal, marine and terrestrial, ecosystems to accommodate the planned future development. The Terms of Reference for the ICD Study and Plan will focus on:

viii


Introduction

ƒ

support to policy development, regulatory framework and capacity building for sustainable coastal management;

ƒ

regional investments for improved development, land-use planning and implementation; and

ƒ

improved environmental conditions and regional infrastructure for attracting private investments in sustainable tourism.

Furthermore, the main purpose of the project is to: ƒ

take stock of the existing situation and identify the sensitive and robust areas of the territory and their development potential;

ƒ

ensure sustainable development of the coastal municipalities both from the environmental and economic perspectives through reasonable use of resources and preservation of what is left unspoiled, looking into the regeneration potential of the ecosystem;

ƒ

reconcile conflicting interests for preserving and revealing the uniqueness of the Southern Coastal Region;

ƒ

propose a strategy, policies and a programmatic plan of the planned area; and

ƒ

provide the basis for the implementation of GIS as an effective tool for development monitoring and management control.

The project will be deeply embedded in the implementation of the Law on Recognition, Restitution and Compensation of Property. In doing so, the foundations of the long-term participation process will be laid, in order to secure a higher level of transparency and provision of information. The project is composed of three parts: ƒ Development Study; ƒ Development Plan; and ƒ Policy Action Plan. The Study is concerned with the analysis of the socio-economic and environmental situation in the area; an assessment of the development potentials in the area and an early projection of the future development trends; an analysis of the institutional response to coastal pressures and problems; and a proposed set of urgent measures that need to be taken. During the preparation of the Study the most modern analytical techniques were used, notably the remote sensing images, on the basis of which an elaborate GIS database has been developed. This point is important to emphasise here because it will, probably, be for the first time that this technique was used for such a concrete planning project in Albania. The Development Plan will develop a coastal development strategy and land-use planning proposals for the entire study area. In addition, 2-3 sites will be planned in more detail, particularly those where tourism development is expected in the future. The time horizon for the development study and plan is 10 years which will start at the time of its adoption by the Government. The Policy Action Plan will develop in more detail the most critical policy actions.

Methodological approach PAP/RAC (Croatia) and SOGREAH (France), as consortium partners, have been chosen in an international bidding process to carry out this project. In their project proposal for the tender they outlined the basic methodology that has been implemented in this project. Essentially, the project is an Integrated Coastal Management initiative, with strong elements

ix


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

of development and land-use planning. The tools utilised have been a mix of techniques that are normally used in this type of projects. The first methodological step was to assemble a team of renowned international and Albanian experts, who originate from 8 countries. All of them had a significant experience in Albania. The team was well acquainted with the relevant reports prepared so far. The entire team had a lengthy mission in Albania in April, when a large number of local stakeholders was met. Their inputs were crucial for the preparation of the Interim Report. All sectors relevant for the Southern Albanian Region were analysed, and cross referencing and integration was carried out. Satellite images of the southern region, taken in April 2005, were acquired and processed, and a GIS database prepared. This database was an invaluable source of information, something that has never been done before in Albania for the purposes of land-use planning. This database has already been given to the responsible institution in Albania (National Institute for Urban Planning). It is expected that the GIS database will be used during the follow-up to this project. A detailed site survey of the 20-odd most important settlements in the region has been carried out. Every settlement was visited for a couple of days and all important aspects of its past development were recorded, as well as the opinions of the local population regarding the desired future development. A detailed landscape analysis was performed with the objective of assessing the potentials for future tourism development in the region. After the sectoral studies, a framework development strategy has been prepared. The strategy will be worked out in more detail during the next, land-use planning, stage of the project.

Objectives of the Interim Report The Terms of Reference are a bit ambiguous regarding the outputs. Although the study and plan are probably the major outputs, they are not specifically mentioned as outputs but, instead, we have inception report, interim report, and final report. However, comparing the characteristics of the deliverables, it is clear that the Study should be a constituent part of the Interim Report. Therefore, what we have in front of us here is the Integrated Development Study with all the elements that are defined by the Terms of Reference. In the text that follows, the terms Interim Report and Study will be used intermittently because, in terms of substance, they are practically the same. The Study is a forward-looking assessment in view of the integrated coastal development of the Albanian Southern Coast. It provides a synthesis of knowledge drawing an image as exhaustive as possible of the study area and the preliminary findings concerning environment and biodiversity protection; socio-economic conditions in relation with the expected tourism development; tourism development potential and impacts; coastal development policy making and institutional framework. As the Terms of Reference state, the Interim Report will give an overall assessment of the issues covered to date, present the preliminary recommendations and provide a framework development strategy which will serve as the basis for the next planning stage – the preparation of the land-use plan.

Structure of the Report Chapter 1 starts with a physical description including geomorphology, climate, fauna and flora, proceeds with a detailed analysis of the territory, concluding with the relevance of the study area as an eco-region constituted of a number of diverse land- and seascapes for which the existing or proposed protection status is described and tourism suitability assessed.

x


Introduction

Chapter 2 is dedicated to driving forces in the hitherto coastal development. It focuses, first, on the demographic aspects with special attention to the migratory phenomenon, its corollary the remittances and their consequences on the microeconomics of the coast. It goes on with an analysis of the economy and social conditions to identify the threats and weaknesses affecting the local community development and to depict the impetus effect tourism can have on growth and employment. The territory, including the settlement system, land-use patterns and housing is further analysed. Specific attention is given to depopulation, underexploitation of agricultural land, urban sprawl and spontaneous developments and their consequences on tourism attractiveness through alteration of landscapes, shrinking of available land and damage to vernacular heritage. An extensive analysis of the infrastructure system, including the transportation sector, roads, ports and airports, the water sector, drinking and waste water, solid waste management, the electricity sector (production and service), and telecommunications is provided. A SWOT analysis is provided for most of the infrastructure sectors. Finally, this chapter concludes with an integrated analysis of coastal pollution. Chapter 3 looks specifically at tourism development. The rationale for a special tourism chapter is the fact that there is so much interest for its development. Objectively, it is the most important single development triggering factor, hence its special treatment. The chapter starts with an assessment of the existing conditions on the coast, including its image, accommodation facilities, season length, offer of activities and the accessibility of the coast, with findings summarised in a SWOT analysis. The chapter then proceeds towards a market assessment and presentation of the dominant tourism trends in the Mediterranean, discussing the issues of eco-tourism vs. mass tourism, cultural tourism, and of the matching quality of the offer with expected tourism returns. The next section develops options to determine the model for Albanian tourism, including targeted markets, critical mass, social and environmental concerns. A number of potential tourism sites are identified and evaluated in terms of tourism development type and suitability. Finally, this chapter provides strategic recommendations for tourism planning on the coast. Chapter 4 is the critical one dealing with the carrying capacity of the territory. After building the case for the “carrying capacity� (which, in itself, is sometimes a controversial concept), the chapter assesses, first, the carrying capacity on the basis of environmental parameters: spring water, groundwater, coastal seawater, soil, air, habitats and biodiversity, and coastal landscape. Capacity is calculated for most of the elements, while some are provided in qualitative terms. The second part of the chapter deals with the tourism development potential based on carrying capacity. The study area is divided in 11 tourism development sites, and for each one of them a tourism potential is analysed, taking into consideration the carrying capacity calculated in the first part of the chapter. For each area, a number of sites have been identified. This is the basis for a framework development strategy. Chapter 5 is dedicated to coastal development pressure and policy responses. It focuses on the assessment of the existing and proposed projects, measures and legislation, and the prevailing planning policies and instruments. A number of existing land-use plans are then analysed and assessed against land-use and design standards. The chapter concludes with a proposal for urgent measures to be taken immediately. The rationale for these measures lies in the fact that the situation in the southern coastal area has gotten out of hand so that it requires some urgent measures which will not jeopardise the implementation of a longerterm development strategy. The measures proposed are based on a thorough assessment of the current situation, and include measures that have been successfully implemented in similar situations in other countries of the Mediterranean region.

xi


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Chapter 6 elaborates the framework development strategy. It includes the development vision and a zoning strategy. Several development options are outlined, and the option, which promotes responsible tourism development is presented. Appendix to the main body of the report contains the detailed site reports for the major settlements of the region. This material was too bulky to be included in the main text, but was deemed important enough to be placed at the disposal of whoever could be interested in more details related to the coastal settlements. The information contained in these reports was used to analyse the existing settlements, but it will also be crucial when the decision on future development is made, particularly when specific development visions are prepared. The Annexes contain information complementing the findings contained in the main body of the report.

How should the Report be read Being the first part of the ICD Study and Plan, the Interim Report/Study contains a number of conclusions and recommendations, including the framework development strategy. The Plan's recommendations and proposals should be based on that. Although the basic intention of the Team was to prepare a Study which would be comprehensive enough, it was necessarily led by the desire to emphasise certain aspects of the Southern Albanian coastal development, such as land-use problems or tourism, which need special attention at this moment. The Study is sometimes polemical, and the only reason for doing so was to make it attractive to the widest possible group of readers and to stimulate fruitful discussion that will lead to quality proposals at the next stage of the Project. The Study also represents the accumulated information and knowledge, and in some aspects, such as infrastructure, relies on the work that has thoroughly been done by others (World Bank). It will also be of particular importance to the Team in the next stages of the project. The Study is in its draft form, and it should remain so until the consultation and discussion process is over. The Interim Report/Study, which is presented here, will have to be thoroughly discussed, in particular with the coastal stakeholder groups. While the Report was being prepared, a change of Government took place in Albania. The representatives of the new authorities will be acquainted with the study at the earliest possible opportunity. Finally, the Study Team wishes to thank its Albanian Counterpart, the staff of MOTAT, and all other Albanian institutions and individuals that have provided time, information and other resources for the completion of this report. We would also like to thank the World Bank staff for their comments, particularly on the first draft of this report, which were crucial for the finalisation of this draft.

xii


Executive Summary Introduction 1.

The Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan (ICD Study and Plan) is considered to be the strategic arm of the Integrated Coastal Zone Management and Clean-up Program (ICZMCP). This Interim Report mainly contains the ICD Study, which is concerned with the analysis of the socio-economic and environmental situation in the area; an assessment of the development potentials in the area and an early projection of the future development trends; an analysis of the institutional response to coastal pressures and problems; an assessment of the carrying capacity of the territory; proposed set of urgent measures that need to be taken; and a framework strategic vision for the Southern Albanian Coastal Region.

2.

The study area stretches over 194 km (45% of the Albanian coast) starting with the Karaburuni Peninsula at the Orikumi Bay in the north, and ending at the Cape Stillo on the border between Albania and Greece. The area is a distinctive geomorphological coastal region characterised by steep mountains growing over the narrow shore, except for the Butrinti wetland area in the south. The boundaries of the study area’s physical context extend over the major ecosystems along the coastline, usually the watershed areas of the major water flows. For purposes of information gathering, in particular the information related to the socio-economic parameters, the study area's inland boundary generally corresponds to the administrative boundaries of the coastal communes and municipalities (the municipalities of Saranda and Himara; the communes of Lukova, Aliko, Ksamili and Xarra). Finally, an analysis will be made taking into consideration the study area determined by the width of the coastal strip. Three strips will be defined: 500 m, 2 km and 5 km from the coastline. This boundary serves strictly the management purposes of the study.

3.

The work is being carried out by PAP/RAC (Croatia) and SOGREAH (France), as consortium partners who have assembled a team of reputed international and Albanian experts originating from 8 countries. The entire team communicated with a large number of local stakeholders was met. Their inputs were crucial for the preparation of the Interim Report. The Albanian counterparts are the Ministry of Territorial Adjustment and Tourism, while the World Bank has offered significant financial and technical assistance.

4.

The Interim Report has six chapters, an appendix and a large number of annexes. Chapter 1 starts with a physical description including geomorphology, climate, fauna and flora, detailed analysis of the territory and its land- and seascapes, and land cover. Chapter 2 is dedicated to driving forces in hitherto coastal development, focusing on the demographic, economic, settlement and infrastructure aspects of the coast. Chapter 3 looks specifically at tourism development. Chapter 4 is the critical one dealing with the carrying capacity of the territory. Chapter 5 is dedicated to coastal development pressure and policy responses. Chapter 6 elaborates the framework development strategy. In the Appendix to the main body of the report detailed site reports for major settlements in the region are given. Annexes contain information which complements the findings contained in the main body of the report.

xiii


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Physical context 5.

The geological and geo-technical conditions of the sites in the study area with a potential for physical development (tourism and other) are generally good. On several sites, minor risks of negative physical geological phenomena exist, but they could be avoided if specific geological studies are undertaken during the construction phase. The study area is a relatively active seismic region, with the known activity in the magnitude of up to 5.8 on the Richter scale, and with an intensity of 9 on the Mercali scale. The wider region experienced a major earthquake long time ago, in the period before Christ, but minor ones have produced caves, sinkholes, and other karstic forms throughout the limestone rock.

6.

The zone from Orikum to Butrinti is rich in water sources, particularly in the southern part of the study area. At this early stage of the project, it could be concluded that water resources in the study area are sufficient to meet the water demand arising from an increased consumption in the future, such as the demand generated by the tourism development. The waters of the sources have good characteristics. A number of natural water sources are located outside of the study area. Currently, they are protected, since their locations are beyond the urban development pressure. However, in the future development planning phases, a consideration should be given to implement additional protection measures. This refers particularly to some sources that might be exposed to the negative urban impacts in the short term, such as the springs of the Cold Water near Vlora, Izvori at Triagas, and Potami at Spille (Himara). To determine the sanitary safety area around each of the above sources, a specific hydrogeological study will have to be prepared.

7.

The study area is distinguished for its diversity of habitats and its richness in flora and fauna species. Many of them have a conservation concern at international, national and regional levels. The Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan (ICZMP) of 1995 identified 5 Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESA): Karaburuni Peninsula, Vunoi Canyon, Porto Palermo, Kakome Beach and Butrinti. The Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (BSAP), adopted by the Albanian Government in 1999, define 8 Environmentally Sensitive Areas. The definition of these areas is based on the integration of the characteristics of the terrestrial and marine systems into unified environmental units. All of the ESAs proposed in the ICZMP of 1995, except Vunoi, are also included in the BSAP list.

8.

The main threats to the biodiversity of the study area are: habitat loss and fragmentation; over-harvesting and non-sustainable use of natural resources; animal disturbance and prosecution, including illegal killing; fires to manage pastures for grazing; and excessive fishing and hunting. The main root causes of such threats are the following: low environmental awareness of the local communities and general public on wildlife; lack of legal enforcement; poverty; lack of management and knowledge of the best practices in sustainable use of natural resources; and low institutional capacity in the implementation of nature and biodiversity conservation policies (inadequate staff and lack of professional training).

9.

The current length of the coastal zone study area, from the Karaburun Peninsula in the north, to the Albanian-Greek border and Cape Stillo, in the south, makes sense as an integral coastal landscape unit essentially defined by its geological and geomorphologic structure of folded limestone mountain ridges, in proximity and mostly parallel to the coast, including its system of erosion valleys, and by its concave land form defined by the Karaburun Peninsula in the north and Corfu and Cape Stillo in the south. The coastal

xiv


Executive Summary

landscape unit is divided in 8 landscape zones: Cape Stillo – Sea facing slopes; Butrint – the larger watershed area; Saranda to Cape Skales – Sea facing slopes; Kakome to Saranda – Sea facing slopes; Borsh to Kakome including Watershed of Fterra Valley; Himara – Vuno Canyon to Qeparo – Sea Facing Slopes and Watersheds; Karaburun to Dhermi – Sea Facing Slopes; and Orikum Valley Watershed to the Llogara Pass. The landscape elements are divided in two major groups, and six subgroups, three for each major group: the natural landscape (landforms, water sources, and vegetation) and the cultural landscape (planting, built elements, exploitation of natural resources. Each landscape element is judged by the opportunities it offers for coastal development (for both major groups), as well as the risks associated with the continuation of the hitherto development (in the case of cultural landscapes). In addition spatial location for each landscape element is defined. 10. The land cover is analysed inside the 5 km coastal strip. Each land-cover class is analysed within the different coastal belts (5 km, 2 km and 0.5 km) and within coastal communes and municipalities. The distribution, average size and fragmentation of the built up areas indicates largely uncontrolled development, and weak or non-existent growth management in all settlements. This process of uncontrolled urbanisation is differentiated only by its intensity in particular coastal settlements, where Saranda, Ksamili and Himara could be considered as “the leaders”. The land outside the so called “yellow” lines where buildings have been constructed could be considered as illegal because under no circumstances their owners could have obtained the building permit. Rough calculation shows that, if an estimate is made that there are 10-15 buildings per hectare, there are about 2,000-3,000 illegal buildings. 11. Any future development option should take into consideration a number of constraints that limit the availability of natural resources of the region. Landform and slopes; quality of soils; quality of vegetation cover; areas of historical land use for habitation, transportation, and agriculture with a high value for the area’s image; sensitivity of ecosystems and habitat; access to infrastructure; should all be carefully protected, which could limit the availability of areas suitable for future development, particularly the one based on tourism. Particular attention should be given to the risks that are either inherent to some of the resource systems of the region, or man-made, i.e. associated with the current or future development processes, namely: lack of respect for landform, vegetation, agriculture, historical landscape elements, ecosystems and habitat; precautionary measures should be taken to reduce the seismic risk; some areas in the central coastal zone are not fully suitable for construction; some areas are exposed to flood risk; uncontrolled physical development; lack of water in the northern part of the region; biodiversity could be exposed to the risk caused by over-fishing, over-hunting, animal disturbance, and intentional forest fires to clear up the land for construction.

Driving forces 12. The registered population doubled between 1989 and 2004. The highest growth is shown to be in the Saranda Municipality and Ksamili Commune, both predominantly urban areas. However, the permanent resident population (only 45% of the registered population) could be the readily available labour force. Assuming that the temporary migrant population (which could be as much as 55% of the total population) will be potentially participating in the area’s labour force when future employment is generated, the labour pool will be close to 40,000 (60% of the population) posing no problem, from the point of view of numbers, for supporting tourism development. If half of the labour force is available for employment in the tourism sector (both direct employment in the

xv


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

accommodation sector and the indirectly generated broad service sector) the number of tourist beds that may be supported could by far exceed the planned level of development for the foreseeable future. Himara Municipality and Lukova Commune are shown to lag behind in terms of population growth. This is a constraint but also a policy challenge to create development opportunities in the Northern Section of the study area, as it is obvious that population growth follows job opportunities. 13. The economy of the study area may be described as ‘dual’, urban economy with a large construction and service sector in and around Saranda in the southern part of the region, and predominantly rural economy in the Northern Section. In the latter part, economic activities are limited and the communities are characterised by population loss and lack of development. The local population is too small to generate sufficient demand to secure sustained income and employment growth. Local population and its likely growth will be inadequate to provide the additional purchasing power to employ the presently idle resources in the area. Thus, it is evident that the economy of the study area needs a strong ‘export sector’ to achieve this goal. Tourism is the obvious sector which should be relied upon to create market demand for labour force and agriculture. 14. The future development of the study area should secure three important interrelated long-term objectives: income and employment generation (economic growth); sound management of environmental resources (integrated environmental management); and social regeneration and poverty alleviation (‘inclusion’ of the local communities in development). The achievement of these objectives implies significant changes to the existing economic, environmental and social conditions. Generally, the study area lacks sustained sources of employment and adequate linkages across sectors of the economy (agriculture, tourism, services, etc.) to generate income growth remaining in the area. Hence the high percentage of the local labour force employed abroad. 15. The development choices available to the study area may be summarised as follows: continuation of the existing situation with dependency on remittances from abroad being the main source of income and employment growth; adopting a supply side / economic growth-driven strategy with emphasis on mass construction and increase in tourism numbers; adopting an integrated development strategy based on tourism focused on the area’s environmental comparative advantage and environmental carrying capacity, and as a prime-mover in generating demand-driven development across sectors (agriculture, services, construction, small scale manufacturing, etc.). 16. Albania is now beyond the stage of transition and on to the verge of sustainable growth. Nevertheless, despite impressive performance in many sectors of the economy, society continues to suffer from the presence of poverty and relative deprivation affecting primarily the most vulnerable groups of unemployed women, the elderly and those rural regions with inadequate access to education and health services. The southern coastal area is among the more developed parts of Albania with lower unemployment rates and higher income levels. Given that tourism development presents itself as the most important driving force for economic development in the study area, the task of social assessment is to consider: the combination of development options comprising the strategy to be pursued; the main actors likely to be involved in tourism development; and the opportunities for community participation as actors in the development process. The rural village-based tourism development component seems to possess significant social advantages, not only as a contributor to tourism itself but also to social policy objectives concerning poverty eradication, agricultural development and rural regeneration issues. The component of the tourism development strategy modelled on the self-contained and all-inclusive tourism complex facilities, addressing the mass tourism market, planned for

xvi


Executive Summary

the wider Saranda urbanised area, is most likely to create local wage jobs and generate spending in the Saranda urban economy. 17. Both settlement system and land use are undergoing drastic changes. Both were severely constrained under the communist rule, both are evolving rather disorderly nowadays. The existing settlements feature high interest vernacular architecture considered as a prime asset for tourism development; recent and on-going developments on the other hand show a real local investment capacity but represent a threat for the attractiveness of the coast where land availability is in effect limited. Settlements in this 836 km2 mostly rural region are predominantly in the form of perched villages, with Himara and Saranda being the two main coastal towns of the study area. The villages could be divided in three groups: (i) the villages of Dhermi, Vuno, old Himara, old Qeparo, are traditional settlements with most buildings dating back before 1945; (ii) other main villages, such as Borsh, Piqeras and Lukova, feature mainly postwar and post-1990 buildings; and (iii) spontaneous squatter settlement such as Cuka and Ksamili. 18. Land use patterns in the study area are undergoing profound changes typical of a country in transition, namely: agricultural land is under-exploited compared to the situation before 1990; in-land, agriculture-dependant settlements are faced with depopulation and residential use is decreasing in parallel with agriculture use; the shoreline population density fuelled by tourism-related income expectations and financed in a large part by remittances brings about mixed and unruly land use in formerly open and vacant land on the coast; the absence of designated land-use zones – except for the Butrinti Park – accentuates the competition among uses: tourism, residential, heritage protection, environment protection, at the detriment of all uses. This evolution is hardly framed by any performing legal framework, and is not accompanied either by the necessary provision of infrastructure or social facilities. 19. The roads are at present the only possible access to the settlements in the study area (with the notable exception of boats coming from Corfu to Saranda). In spite of works recently carried out or under progress, the condition (carriageway and curves) of the main road between Palase and Saranda is generally bad. At present, the road situation could be to a certain extent satisfactory for the purpose of regional tourism (tourists coming by car), given an improvement of its condition (which is under progress) takes place; any delay of this improvement will represent a constraint for this regional development. On the other hand, the road situation, even in the future after the rehabilitation and improvement of the present roads, will remain a severe constraint for foreign visitors coming by plane to Tirana. Thus, for example, the time needed to access the northernmost tourist zone from the Tirana airport will never be less than 2 hours, which is more than the criterion of 1 hour generally considered as maximum time for transfer from the airport to recreation areas. 20. The airport looks to be a key issue to achieve many objectives in tourist development, namely to accommodate the foreign visitors not willing to spend many hours on the roads from Tirana, should they come either along the coast or via Girokaster. From the point of view of the tourist development, the site of Saranda, representing the central attractive point of the area, is to be preferred to that of Vlora. It is generally considered that an airport becomes viable only when it serves around 10,000 beds, a target which should probably not be reached before 8 to 10 years. 21. The study of springs and groundwater confirms that water resources available for the supply of the coastal settlements are largely sufficient for future village and tourism

xvii


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

development. The total available water resources correspond to a water supply for about 1,068,000 persons. Regarding the estimated population and tourism trends it is obvious that the water resources will not represent a limiting factor for developments by far. Leaving aside the physical resource capacities (quality and quantity), and required the financial resources to mobilise them, one of the key issues regards the present poor management capacities of water utilities. 22. At present, there is only one treatment plant in the study area (in Himara, and only with mechanical treatment), and only few and partial waste collection networks (Saranda and Himara). Therefore, the waste water disposal is mainly based on individual installations, when existing. Simple pits and septic tanks are the most common type of installation in the region. This is generating diffused pollution in the karstic underground or into the sea. Polluting hotspots are identified in the places where networks have already been built (Saranda and Himara), either without treatment or with inadequate treatment facilities. 23. In spite of recent efforts materialised in the construction of the first dumping site in Saranda, the situation with solid waste remains an important concern, with a large number of illegal dumping sites, lack of collection and dumping facilities in most areas, increasing degradation of landscape and, last but not least, growing volumes of construction wastes along main roads. The two sites of Vunoi and Bajkaj have been assessed and analysed for future dumping of solid wastes. These sites look appropriate as regards the waste generation localities (city of Saranda as well as foreseen potential tourist zones), and the access facilities (roads), and seem to have an adequate institutional situation (public ownership and agreement of the relevant authorities), if this is confirmed. In the mid and long terms additional sites will have to be identified; one probably very soon, in the vicinity of Ksamil, and 1 or 2 others around Borsch and Qeparo (too big distances from Vunoi and Saranda) or Dhermiu and Palasa.

Tourism development 24. The Southern Coastal Region has not really developed its tourism sector. Its neighbouring countries, namely Croatia, Greece and Italy, are very much advanced in terms of the quantity of international tourists it brings in and the quality of tourism offered. The current market for the Southern Coast is based almost exclusively on Albanian visitors. Saranda’s proximity to the World Heritage Sites of Butrinti and Corfu makes it the main attraction point for foreign tourists to the site, the majority of who are daily trippers. Therefore, Saranda has the highest percentage of foreign visitor entries compared to the rest of the Southern Coast (30%), with Vlora estimated to be around 2% and Himara 1%. 25. The tourism industry varies significantly across the region – in and around Saranda tourism (mainly foreign day tourists) is mainly heritage-cultural and beach tourism related (mainly local overnight), while in and around Vlora it is eco-tourism (Llogara National Park) and beach tourism. In all other settlements between Vlora and Saranda it is mainly beach tourism. The forecasts up to the year 2020 are, however, more dramatic. Steady growth is envisaged, with more than 250,000 tourist arrivals expected in 2020. The share of foreign tourists will grow in the total, but Albanians will still make almost 70% of incoming tourists. 26. The major goal is to build a new tourism destination. To do that, the following tourism assets are needed: an image to attract the tourists (marketing positioning has to be chosen by the decision makers); stock of accommodation facilities to attract the

xviii


Executive Summary

operators (good quality accommodation to cater for various types of tourists as well as enough quantity to achieve the critical mass); long season to get a good return for the investors (keep the season reasonably long); choice of activities to make the visitors spend their money in the Albanian Riviera; and good accessibility at a low price. 27. Tourism development should be concentrated close to the regional entry points and attractions, as well as pools of potential labour (such as Saranda and Butrinti). This “opportunistic” strategy will be in line with the major tourist market expectations including big tour operators and international investors which are to be the major driving forces behind the Albanian tourist development in the near future. However, other criteria, such as more equitable distribution of future development benefits, rising expectations of the population throughout the entire region, and natural advantages for development of complementary types of tourism along the southern coast, point towards the recommendation that, in addition to a concentrated type of tourism, this development should also be spread to other locations along the coast. 28. Eco-tourism as the solution is definitely a legitimate and qualitative trend of tourism. This is a goal to be achieved, but the elementary building rules are already so difficult to enforce in Albania that it is not realistic to speak only of eco-tourism. Eco-tourism in the Albanian case could only be a complement to more traditional types of tourism development. Therefore, part of the tourism strategy should support several pilot projects that could become the “window” for private developers. 29. Seven key aspects must be given specific attention, and decisive actions should be taken for each of them: security of land property; easy accessibility; competitive financing opportunities; clear product policy including positioning, price, promotion; friendly legal and tax environment; upgrading professional training; and good phasing.

Environmental carrying capacity assessment 30. Setting capacity limits for sustainable tourism and other development activities along the Ionian Coast involves in particular a vision of regional development and specific decisions on tourism planning and management. In order to facilitate this visioning and inform the decision-making process, the concepts of territorial, environmental and tourism carrying capacity will be applied. Territorial Carrying Capacity is the widest in meaning and involves the level of population and development that can be sustained in an area without social, cultural, environmental and economic adverse impacts beyond an acceptable level. The territory in this definition is the reception space for all human activities and it reacts ‘negatively’ or ‘positively’ to them, according to its carrying capacity. Environmental Carrying Capacity is one of the components of the territorial carrying capacity and it involves the level of population or development that can be sustained in an area without environmental impacts beyond acceptable levels. Tourism Carrying Capacity can be defined as the level of tourism development (not necessarily always measured in the number of tourists) that can be sustained in an area without social, cultural, environmental and other adverse impacts beyond an acceptable level. 31. A detailed investigation of coastal spring and ground water resources has resulted in assured capacities. It amounts to more than 1 million people that could be sustained with negligible impacts on the environment. 32. Carrying capacity of coastal seawater is sufficient for the registered population. Only in

Saranda and Aliko communes the situation is precarious since already the present registered population exceeds the carrying capacity by 150%. However, in some other

xix


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

communes, several spots of local increased pollution (e.g. Himara Bay and Ksamili Bay) already show moderate negative impacts. It is necessary to take measures for mitigation of wastewater impact on the coastal seawaters, especially in the Saranda commune. The analysis made for the mitigation scenario shows that carrying capacities in most communes exceed the future estimated population (2015) by an at least threefold (Xarra) and up to twenty fold (Himara). Only for the Saranda – Aliko area the carrying capacity for mitigation scenario figure is closer to the future population (ratio 1.6). Thus, the free margin for future village and tourism development in that area appears limited. Accordingly, for the area Saranda – Aliko, special attention shall be paid to wastewater impacts on the Saranda Bay in the framework of future tourism development in the Saranda commune. In contrast, the carrying capacities for mitigation scenario in all other communes but Saranda provide a sufficiently wide range for future village and tourism development. 33. The detailed examination of present (2004) and future (2015) solid waste generation in the coastal communes, and the comparison with capacities of both designed landfills at the sites of Vunoi and Bajkaj point out that the present envisaged investments are largely insufficient to enable a reliable protection of the coastal environment. In addition, the examination indicates that the limited and unsatisfactory carrying capacity for solid waste represents a crucial constraint for a sustainable future village and tourism development. In addition to the designed landfills close to the settlements of Vunoi and Bajkaj, further investments for the extension of solid waste disposal capacities have to be undertaken in order to enhance the carrying capacity for solid waste to a dimension which will enable a sustainable protection of soils and underground water resources, as well as of the landscape. With regard to the population forecast for 2015, a duplication of the total landfill capacities of Vunoi and Bajkaj has to be provided in order to cover only the predicted village development. The necessity of further landfill capacities to cover solid waste generation by tourism will be assessed on the basis of tourism development estimate in particular coastal communes. 34. For the environmental subsystems air, habitats and biodiversity and coastal landscapes no specific numeric data of carrying capacities have been estimated at this stage. Following the gradual procedure of SEA the identification of precise data will be subject of site-specific land-use planning and investigations during the detailed-planning stage. 35. The analysis of land development constraints for tourism has been undertaken

applying the methodology of land suitability analysis combined with the use of GIS technology. The Study identified and mapped all important physical and environmental constraints including steep slopes, flood-prone areas and stream buffers, areas of geological hazard, environmentally sensitive areas and important resource lands such as agricultural and forest lands. Potentially developable lands are those undeveloped lands that were free of the mentioned “constraints”. The described analysis, together with the additional criteria based on the findings from the landscape assessment (Chapter 1), has been used for the selection and delineation of a number of potential sites for tourism development. The total of 62 sites has been selected as potential sites for tourism development in the Southern Albanian region. All 62 sites have been further analysed based on the detailed natural and landscape features, resources (natural and cultural) in need of protection, availability of access and infrastructure and tourism development potential in terms of type and quantity of tourism development.

xx


Executive Summary

Policy Response 36. The Albanian authorities at central, regional and local levels have employed considerable efforts to control coastal development. These efforts were certainly commensurate with the means they had at their disposal. However, the situation in the coastal area of the Southern Region still looks critical. What is worse, the things seem somehow to be getting out of hand recently, at least judging by the growth of the illegal housing in some “hot spot� areas, where it is becoming definitely unsustainable. This is certainly jeopardising the opportunities for sustainable development of the Southern Albanian Region. 37. The current state of coastal development and land-use planning and management are the most critical among the issues identified so far in the Southern Albanian Coastal Region. It is further complicated by the fact that major expectations of the population in the future to find the way out of the difficult situation they are in today, seem to be largely related to the land issues. Namely, in the absence of a coherent development strategy, the issue of land property and solutions offered by land compensation and restitution looks to them like the only viable option at the moment. 38. Main issues related to land development in Albania, which already have or may have important consequences for coastal resources and their future sustainable use, include: loss of coastal natural resources and valuable landscapes including the accompanying biological resources; inadequate urbanisation includes sprawl development, speculative and illegal building; and lack of infrastructure and poor sanitation standards. An underlying issue is reaffirmation and full protection of private land ownership rights that have not yet been balanced with the introduction of appropriate land policies and impact fees (usually as part of the land-use planning system) to protect public interests in settlements (public spaces: streets, parking, greenery, open and recreation spaces). Another important issue is a notorious lack of rule of law. This is why, at the moment, the development of new laws is much less a problem than their implementation and enforcement. This, in turn, is the result of lack of institutional and administrative capacity, weak enforcement procedures and, more than anything else, lack of political will to tackle this issue (as reported, the votes of illegal builders are often more important than of those who are advocating ordered development and protection of resources). Driving Force Demand for coastal real estate development, planning system enforcement problems, migration towards the coast

Pressure

State

Coastal urbanization without or against plans, growing consumption and waste generation

High rate of haphazard and illegal building, illegal dumping of material excavated during construction, illegal filling of the sea Unplanned or poorly planned development with limited public spaces (roads, greenery), parking and infrastructure, occupied seashore (ribbon development), encroachment to high quality coastal landscapes (natural and cultural), Buildings of inappropriate size, improper infill development, building against intensity regulation

Impact Loss of resources (natural, land, scenic landscape), mid and long term loss of property value, loss of tourism potential

Response Measures for balanced regional, in particular rural development in the coastal hinterland, agricultural policies Regional and local land use plans, planning hierarchy, infrastructure development, Planning and environmental management capacity building Law amendments on public infrastructure cost recovery, designation of coastal protected area,

xxi


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

39. The nature protection is based on the 1999 Biodiversity Strategy Action Plan (BSAP), which proposes an increase of the areas with some level of protection, from today’s 5.8% to 14% within the next short-term period, with 25% as the long-term objective for the year 2020. As regards the level of biodiversity / landscape conservation awareness, BSAP is rather ambiguous. The need for conservation is strongly supported in theory, but, when it comes to practice, there is a lack of implementation and recognition of conservation needs from other sectors. Inadequate information and inappropriate communication flow (if there is one, it is top-down), a lack of co-operation with both government and the other authorities, and a very limited involvement of local authorities and citizens in the decision-making process are important conservation and protection issues. Although the need to protect valuable natural and cultural assets is generally recognised by local authorities and the general public, when it comes to practice, landowners and other users often have a negative attitude towards protection (examples of Karaburun and Butrinti). This can be, at least partly, attributed to the strictly regulative approach, which imposes only constraints on property or use. Neither incentives nor other easement mechanisms are presently used to secure protection of natural, scenic or cultural values. Two by far largest protected areas in the southern coast are the Butrinti National Park and Karaburun area (presently including the Llogara National Park but proposed to be extended). 40. The principle of restitution and compensation to former owners, whose property was confiscated in the Communist era, was added to the Albanian legislation in 1993 after the programmes of farmland distribution and housing privatisation had already been underway. Thus, the laws had to deal with the problem of resolving conflicting claims between new owners (those who gained rights under the post-1991 privatisation legislation) and former owners. The initial restitution compensation laws provided for the grant of alternative land or financial compensation, rather than restitution of the actual property, for several categories of land. The Law 9235 aims at regulating the restitution/compensation of immovable property expropriated, nationalised, or confiscated with legal, sub-legal acts, criminal decisions of courts, or taken in any other unjust manner after 29 November 1944. It sets forth the procedures based on which the restitution and compensation of property will be done. 41. Land ownership along the coastal strip is still disputed with the Government, and is proving to be a critical constraint to development. The unresolved issues of restitution and compensation are particularly problematic along the Vlora - Saranda coastline. Restitution/compensation is of particular relevance to the development of the tourism sector and will have an impact on this Project as well as the whole World Bank Integrated Coastal Zone Management and Clean-up Project (ICZMCP). The policy of the Government to avoid restitution of forests and pastures along the coastline has resulted in local opposition to much of the development in those zones. It is clear that restitution / compensation issues must be resolved in the area, and the local government and population must be active in the development plans, otherwise opposition to the ICZMCP and other development initiatives will persist. 42. Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) should not be confused with the spatial planning, although the latter is still one of the most powerful instruments to regulate coastal development in many countries, Albania included. Unfortunately, in many countries the use of spatial planning extends only to the coastline, while the coastal waters usually remain outside its realm, and are being either non-regulated or regulated by many un-coordinated stakeholders. As a first step towards establishing a system of ICM in Albania, two sets of measures should be considered: the legal and institutional

xxii


Executive Summary

ones. If actions are taken soon, this could help create the basis for a more sustainable coastal management leading towards more efficient protection and rational use of coastal resources. Two legal measures could be proposed, one short-term, the other longer-term: a decree on coastal areas, and a coastal law. The decree on the protection of coastal areas is a temporary measure, which could immediately stop the negative coastal development. Being a decree, it could be adopted by the Government, and doesn’t have to pass through the Parliament, where it could raise an unnecessary debate. The decree has to be very clearly written and lead to no misinterpretations. The decree has to lead soon after to the coastal law, which regulates precisely the conditions for coastal development, including: definition of the setback area; identification and delimitation, outside the specially protected areas, of natural areas in which urban development and other activities are prohibited; limiting linear extension of urban development along the coast; avoiding creation of new roads along the coast; securing free access to the coastline; etc. 43. The institutional arrangement for ICM is a crucial element in its implementation. The coastal authority is the most solid type of institutional arrangement. It has strong executive power for decision making, means to enforce the law (it could even have a sort of police), a judicial role for enacting regulations and directives, standards and procedure enforcement and arbitration, and a high position in the government hierarchy, securing that coastal issues come to the government agenda. The coastal agency is a “softer” solution than an authority. Although it is usually within the jurisdiction of a certain ministry, its role should be to facilitate bringing together various agencies (partners) involved in ICM and stimulating a dialogue among them. It is not a regulatory body, but could heave means at its disposal to monitor the situation on the coast, such as an inspection service. Finally, the coastal management committee is a really “soft” solution. It should involve all the stakeholders participating in coastal management, including the national and local governments, NGOs, private sectors and professional associations. The Coastal Stakeholders Committee (CSC), that has been proposed in this project, as a form of the local ICM forum, could be taken as a seed for such institutional solution. 44. The following most important (however, not exhaustive) urgent measures are recommended: ƒ Coastal belt of 1,000 m should be proclaimed as protected coastal area (PCA) of particular significance and interest for the State. ƒ Immediate measures to improve effectiveness of construction police. ƒ Any construction of residential or tourist buildings within the PCA can take place only after adoption of a detailed regulatory plan. ƒ Construction of residential or tourist buildings within the PCA can take place only after the open public spaces including the road/street corridors with communal infrastructure and greenery areas are subdivided. ƒ Within the residential and tourist development land uses outside urban areas no residential development or development of tourist accommodation facilities should be allowed in the 100 m coastal belt. ƒ Measures to limit or stop real estate development within the tourist development zones. ƒ Any future illegal building within the PCA should be proclaimed criminal act.

xxiii


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Development vision 45. The key demographic trend of the Ionian Coast is geographical mobility of labour as one of the important responses to the lack of employment. If the population annual natural growth rate (population forecast made for the Study) between 1.5-2.0% (slowly decreasing) is adopted then the population of the Study Area in 2015 (excluding Orikum) will be around 105,000 (Table 6.1). Future economic growth in the Study Area can only be achieved by creating an economic structure with a strong production sector and consumption demand. The limited size of the local market clearly implies that the future economic structure with an increased production and consumption capacity cannot be built up by domestic (endogenous) demand sources but by stimulating external demand, such as tourism which is capable of generating demand for construction, services, local manufacturing and agriculture. Tourism, being a composite economic activity, can provide the missing element and act as the focus (prime mover) in building up an integrated ‘coastal economic structure’ in the study area. The main characteristics of the coastal economy will include the following: 46. The main challenge of the Regional Government is to improve the quality of life of all citizens, to ensure sufficient economic growth and particularly to create opportunities for people who have previously been excluded from participating in the economy, most of them emigrating for this reason to neighbouring countries. In order to succeed it needs to develop infrastructure, attract investors, manage population and encourage local businesses. The Ionian Coast, framed with two national parks, is one of the jewels in Albania’s network of natural areas. The natural beauty of the area, its relatively mild climate, intriguing cultural heritage and the range of recreational activities that can be undertaken there, if accompanied with an easy access and the choice of accommodation facilities, may make it a magnet for international and domestic tourists. Accordingly, tourism has been identified as one of the sectors with the best potential for economic growth. One of the key issues in reaching development and zoning strategy consensus is in managing the tensions between: the expectations for quick growth, mostly based on tourism development, along the whole coast; the need for preservation of large coastal 'stretches including numerous valuable environments and landscapes; and the need for gradual development of costly infrastructure which obviously defers development of certain localities. 47. The analysis so far has indicated that there are a number of critical issues that should be taken care of in developing strategies for Ionian Coast, namely: (1) conservation of natural and cultural values; (2) improving inadequate infrastructure and related environmental issues; (3) sustaining small and medium size communities; (4) development of tourism within diversified economy; (5) supporting tourism development; (6) controlled development; and (7) quality development and rehabilitation of areas of uncontrolled development. Consequently, the development vision should be: The Ionian Coast becomes an important Mediterranean tourist destination, known for the protection of its environments, natural and cultural heritage and identity, with tourism sector well integrated into diversified regional economy which will ensure prosperity and wellbeing for all its population. 48. Key principles and objectives for coastal planning and development are proposed: (i) protection of significant environmental features; (ii) sustainable use of natural coastal resources; and (iii) suitable development on the coast. Key means in applying above principles and objectives is ICM including, in particular, statutory land use planning system, environmental management system and sectoral regulation accompanied with

xxiv


Executive Summary

the strict enforcement and effective monitoring and evaluation. ICM should be implemented through an improved institutional and legal system at national and particularly regional and local levels. 49. Zoning strategy is the next step in the plan making process in which above principles and objectives for land development and conservation should be further developed and translated into regional spatial structure of activities and land and marine uses as well as areas excluded from development. In other words, zoning strategy helps to translate the verbal development principles into a geographically specific representation. Practical purpose of the zoning strategy options is to help the Client and decision makers to make their choice according to the impacts, positive or negative, of each option. 50. The settlement structure will have Saranda on top. It is bound to acquire a major importance within the settlement hierarchy and the spatial organization of the region. Its functions can be described as follows: transport and traffic hub; service center; and urban center. Saranda is a virtual competitor to Vlora and lack of spatial and functional planning at the national scale may lead to sterile and costly competition between the two cities with risks of wasteful redundancies. Saranda must be clearly designated as the main tourism port of entry – the gate to the Ionian Riviera – and as a tourism-geared tertiary activity and service center whilst Vlora should develop primary and secondary activities as well its fishing and cargo port activities. The city must emphasize and develop its cultural offer and encourage the creation of cultural events and of a high quality lodging and dining offer. Himara is second in importance. The city of Himara has an important role to play as "capital" of the Porto Palermo-Palasa sub-region. Only other coastal city, Himara and its region offer a different experience than the southern half of the coast, this identity being marked by traditional way of life, mix of sea and country activities and an exceptional architectural heritage. Dhermi, Old Himara, Qeparo, Borsh, Lukova are five traditional villages. They are architectural treasure and should be considered as such by the relevant national and local authorities: they are to be used as anchors for tourism development. Vrina, Shendelli, Xarra villages concentrate most social issues from health conditions to illiteracy, substandard housing and unemployment, to environmental degradation. No clear benefit stems from the vicinity with Butrint Park. Ksamil is about to become the example of a missed opportunity within the settlement scheme of the coast: endowed with some of the most valuable coastal sites and landscapes of the southern section of the Ionian Coast. Unfortunately, the area has been seriously damaged by chaotic and illegal developments to the point that a number of spots are almost irreparably lost for high return tourism development. A number of immediate measures should be implemented, namely: provision of adequate infrastructure, demolition of all new illegal buildings, freezing of all on-going and planned developments. 51. Tourism is the single most important development sector for the Ionian Coast. Scenario of its potential development pattern and spatial distribution for the ten or twenty year future is the key question the zoning strategy should provide answer on. Tourism development zoning strategy requires analysis of different zoning options or models through a multi-criteria analysis. The inputs for the analysis are provided in previous chapters, primarily through environmental and tourism carrying capacity assessment and land suitability analysis. The building blocks of the analysis are 11 Tourism Development Areas (TDAs), comprising 62 development sites. In each option, every one of the 11 sites is given an estimated capacity (new beds on the top of the existing ones) and one of the following qualifiers (types of tourism development):

xxv


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

ƒ Strategic TDA – S, where the development is a trigger for the whole Ionian Riviera development and must be exemplary. Most of the development sites within such an area should remain tools in the hands of the public bodies to show the example and drive a virtuous development. ƒ Major TDA – M, where a quick major development can be achieved because it has already begun and the development potential is high. ƒ Dominantly ecotourism development area – E, is an exclusive low capacity site like an old village, or an exceptional scenic site that bears the image of the region, is fragile and must be very carefully developed. ƒ Deferred TDA – D, is an area to be possibly built in the future (due to present limited accessibility and lack of infrastructure) and has to be protected against speculation and wild construction (keep it out of accessibility, build campgrounds, …) ƒ Area excluded from development or preservation area - P is protected from all construction (natural reserve, national park, cultural site, remote undeveloped areas…). The impact of each option has been assessed on the basis of 6 criteria: C1 - Economic long term impact (LT); C2 - Economic short-term impact (ST); C3 - Impact on environment (E); C4 – Costs for infrastr0ucture (I); C5 - Impact on visibility on the markets (IM); and C6 – Social and political acceptability (S/P) i.e.: balance between the areas, land ownership. Five options have been identified: 0 – No action option; 1 – One Anchor option; 2 – Two anchors option; 3 – Three anchors option; 4 – Ribbon development. After scoring the Anchor option was selected as the most appropriate. 52. The Anchors option means “conservation by concentration” where the most suitable areas are developed at somewhat higher densities while remaining coastal areas are left mostly in natural state or with very low impact, ecotourism type of development. Given the concentrated nature of development, the provision of infrastructure is more efficient and less costly per bed, although the initial overall investment may be high. These options ensure better quality of environment and easier control of the entire development process. Short term economic impacts are good due to critical mass of tourism supply which will also benefit the marketing image of the area. On the long term economic impacts are supposed to be sustainable given the good prospects for maintained environmental quality. 53. The most likely implementation of the anchors option entails the first stage in which one anchor, Saranda and Ksamili tourist development areas, is developed (initial Option 1). The advantage of this concept is that, at least in first stage, the risk of spoiling environment is diminished while the whole development control system may be established and tested on an area which already experienced strong development pressure and where quite large stretches of coast have been spoiled by improper development in the past. It consolidates the existing already on-going development with lower public investments in infrastructure, with an additional advantage of proximity to the region main entry points (Saranda airport and ferry port). Another benefit of this option is proximity of the urban area with its amenities and available labour force. The initial Options 1, 2 and 3 are, as a matter of fact, a way of phasing the anchors development more than contrasted scenarios (Options 0 and 4). If tourism develops, it will begin with zoning Option 1 to continue with Option 2 and finish, hopefully if resources will be available, with option 3 after some years.

xxvi


Executive Summary

Appendix 54. A detailed site analysis was carried out for all the major settlements in the area. Extensive reports were prepared and they have been used to analyse a number of issues in this report. Each settlement report contains and overview of the situation, analysis of major infrastructure, problems and challenges, and potentials of the settlement. During the preparation of the reports a field trip was organised in every settlement, during which extensive interviews were held with village elders. This exercise proved to be a highly participatory one, because the information gathered will be used during the implementation of the participatory planning process. The appendix contains the reports for all the settlements analysed.

xxvii


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

xxviii


1

Physical Context and Resources of the Southern Coastal Region

1.1. The boundaries of the study area The study area stretches over 194 km (45% of the Albanian coast) starting with the Karaburuni Peninsula at the Orikumi Bay in the north, and ending at the Cape Stillo on the border between Albania and Greece. The area is a distinctive geomorphological coastal region characterised by steep mountains growing over the narrow shore, except for the Butrinti wetland area in the south. The boundaries of the study area’s physical context extend over the major ecosystems along the coastline, usually the watershed areas of the major water flows. The area’s boundary starts south of the city of Vlora, in the bay of Orikumi, and ends at the Albanian border with Greece at the Cape Stillo. However, where an upstream area beyond these boundaries has a significant impact on the quality of the environment downstream, it could be included in the project boundaries. The purpose of defining this boundary is to analyse the South Coastal Region’s natural resources in order to determine the environmental carrying capacity of the territory. Once defined, the environmental carrying capacity serves as the base for its future development. For purposes of information gathering, in particular the information related to the socioeconomic parameters, the study area's inland boundary generally corresponds to the administrative boundaries of the coastal communes and municipalities (the municipalities of Saranda and Himara; the communes of Lukova, Aliko, Ksamili and Xarra). The area defined by this boundary will serve the purpose of creating a development vision and the zoning strategy for the entire area, as well as for each southern coastal commune and municipality. In addition, the environmental carrying capacity will be defined for each of the study area’s constituent elements (communes and municipalities). Finally, an analysis will be made taking into consideration the study area determined by the width of the coastal strip. Three strips will be defined: 500 m, 2 km and 5 km from the coastline. These boundaries serve strictly the planning and management purposes of the study. It is the area where most of the potential tourist zones and sites will be located and where development pressures are expected to be at their highest. This is why the definition of strict planninga and management zones, based on the distance from the coastline, is of vital importance for the future of the region. Map 11 shows the boundaries according to each parameter outlined above: ecosystems, socio-economic, functional and planning/management (coastal strips).

1.2. Physical and natural coastal resources 1.2.1. Geomorphology The Ionian Sea coasts are mainly rocky. They are characterised by steep hill slopes, which in several cases fall directly into the sea. The topography of the study area is presented in Map

1


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

1. The slopes are composed of limestone rocks. Soft rock cases have a weak slant slope. Gravel deposits are present in the stream delta areas of the seashore. These formations have created the most beautiful beaches of the study area. The deltas formed the marine terraces covered by the deposits of the Quaternary. This phenomenon could be found in Orikum, Gjipe, Qeparo, Borsh, Kakome, Saranda and Butrinti. In the northern part of the study area, along the seaside between Orikum and Saranda, there is a difference of 600-1000 m in altitude from the sea level until the highest summit of the mountains. However, from Saranda up to the border with Greece, the seaside relief is more moderate, and the slopes have a soft slant, while the difference in altitude from the sea level until the summits of the hills is 200-300 m. The field of Vurgu (Delvine) close to the marine zone is one of the typical southern coastal fields. Coastal geomorphological features could be divided in three distinctive areas, as presented in the ICZM Plan of 1995: ƒ

rocky wave-cut cliffs with severely inclined slopes at the base in the Karaburuni Peninsula up to north of Dhermiu;

ƒ

narrower plain coastal profile from Dhermiu to Butrinti; and

ƒ

the area characterised by the low-lying gravel beaches between Butrinti and the border with Greece.

The analysis of the shoreland shows that there are 5 shore categories in the study area. Dominant are rocky (42.4%) and rocky with cliffs (37.3%) shores. Additional categories are beaches and low coasts (14.6%), cliffs (4.2%) and artificial beaches (1.6%). The shoreland classification is shown in Map 3. The shoreline structure, i.e. the types of beaches in the southern region, shows significant potential for the development of tourism. The slopes along the Ionian Sea are covered in short vegetation. The colour of the limestone rocks dominates the area. The slopes composed of limestone are steady. Negative geological and physical phenomena are not noticed in this part of the study area. The slopes composed of mudstone and sandstone have a green colour when they are planted with citrus fruit and other types of maquis vegetation. These slopes are covered by colluvium deposits that, in some sectors, slide in the direction of the relief fall. There is an important development of negative physical and geological phenomena in this type of slopes. A qualitative geological survey will be necessary to avoid/eliminate the negative influence of these phenomena during the next stage of the project when detailed proposals will be formulated.

1.2.1.1. Geological Structure The geological structure of the Southern Coastal Region consists of deposits of the Jurassic period until the periods of the Quaternary age. Each element of the structure is described below: ƒ

Deposits of Jurassic. They are represented by limestone of white to grey colour, with fissures. They are generally strong and very good to be used as building material.

ƒ

Deposits of Cretaceous. They are represented by massive limestone of white to grey colour, strong, with a few of fissures at the hill slopes. Generally, they are deforested, but in particular cases, they are covered by a thin alluvial coverage. These rocks are also good building material, as well as for the production of asphalt concrete.

ƒ

Deposits of Paleogene. They are represented by limestone and clay-stone limestone, white to grey in colour, with fissures. These deposits form stable slopes.

2


Physical Context and Resources of the Southern Coastal Region

ƒ

Deposits of Neogene. They are half rocky deposits, composed of clay stone, siltstone, sandstone, conglomerate and rarely limestone strata between sandstone strata. Generally these rocks form unstable slopes, because of the colluvium deposits that cover these rocks. They slide in the relief fall direction. The thickness of colluvium deposits is 2-3 m, but in some cases, it can reach 8-9 meters.

ƒ

Deposits of Quaternary. These deposits are divided into several types according to their formation origin: ƒ Colluvium deposits composed of silt clay, silt sand and gravel silt clay are brownbeige to grey in colour, little to medium compacted and are encountered principally at the bottom of the hill slopes. They are found mainly over the flysch formations, more rarely at carbonic formations. The existing roads are not built on these formations, and it is recommended that new access roads should not be constructed on these formations, because they are not stable at slopes. ƒ Proluvial deposits are composed of gravel silt clay and gravel silt sand with beige to brown colour. They are found at the torrent beds with a thickness of 3-5 m. ƒ The marine deposits are represented by sand and silt sand. The gravel of fine size, with grey colour, is rarely found. They are mostly medium compacted and usually found at the seaside. The most beautiful beaches of the study area are developed on the marine deposits that are mixed with the fluvial deposits. It needs to be stressed that the Ionian Sea shoreline has several bays, caused by an abrasive rocky seaside with an active eroding activity. The marine deposits are not recommended to be used as building material.

1.2.1.2. Geological Risks Considering the geological structure that is composed mainly of limestone and less of flysch deposits, the Southern Coastal Region has two types of macro zones with regard to the geological risks. They have completely different features: the first is represented by the strong formations (limestone), and the other by soft formations (mudstone, sandstone and conglomerate). The respective zones are described below. ƒ

The strong formations (limestone). These stable formations consist of relatively strong limestone rocks. These rocks are very resistant to atmospheric agents. In general, they are covered by colluvium deposits at the areas with soft slant as well in the areas of streams and torrents. The slopes composed of these formations are steady. These structures sometimes immerse under the sea level. It needs to be underlined that from the geo-technical point of view, minor problems have to be anticipated and mitigation strategies will have to be developed in the next phase of the project.

ƒ

The soft formations (mudstone, sandstone and conglomerate). According to the structural composition and their position in space, after observations made on site, it resulted that the features of these rocks have direct influence on the slope stability. The necessary priorities to assure the geo-technical stability in the building construction site are to respect the excavation methods and the slope slant in addition to the engineering measures that must be taken to protect these slopes rigorously. Based on the observations made on the site, massive slides that would threaten the stability of the possible future construction were not found. In general, the slopes are steady, but sometimes falling of earth and small-size blocks was noted in some cases in the slopes composed of these formations. These rocks are found (see Map 2) mostly in the zone between Borsh and Perparim (Shen Vasil). This falling is caused by the activity of sea wave erosion, by the erosion caused by the waters of the mountain torrents in the area, and by the uncontrolled excavations made repeatedly by the local population. It is

3


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

recommended that building constructions on the slopes be at the rate 2:3 and, if the slope height is above 8 meters, the buildings should be of a cascade type, following the slope and always in accordance with the mechanical physical characteristics of the flysch. Retaining walls must be built along the new excavations, and the surface waters must be preserved if the excavation rules are applied. The danger of the slope stability destruction does not exist if all these measures are applied. The study area is a relatively active seismic region, with the known activity in the magnitude of up to 5.8 on the Richter scale, and with an intensity of 9 on the Mercali scale. The wider region experienced a major earthquake long time ago, in the period before Christ, but minor ones have produced caves, sinkholes, and other karstic forms throughout the limestone rock. To sum up, the geological and geo-technical conditions of the sites with a potential for physical development (tourism and other) are generally good. On several sites, minor risks of negative physical geological phenomena exist, but they could be avoided if specific geological studies are undertaken during the construction phase.

1.2.2. Hydrogeological and hydrological conditions The main features of the hydrogeology and hydrogeography of the study area are presented below: the hydrographic network of the area, the description of the underground water sources, and the assessment of their capacities and the opportunities they provide for future development, notably tourism. The assessments are based on the existing studies, as well as on some recent site investigations.

1.2.2.1. The hydrographic network The coastal area is traversed by a number of rivers, streams and torrents of which most important are the streams of Dukati, Kudhesi and Borshi in the northern section of the study area, and the rivers of Bistrica, Kalasa and Pavllo in the southern section. The Butrinti lagoon is an important hydrographic body on its own. In addition to the above-mentioned, there are few other small torrents that traverse this area. The northern part of the study area is considered to be the poorest surface hydrology network of Albania. Its network of major flows exhibits the following characteristics ƒ

The Dukati stream takes its source from the mountains of Dukati and flows into the sea in the Orikum/Vlora bay. It has water during the periods of winter showers, while it is nearly dry in summer.

ƒ

The Kudhesi stream takes its source from the mountains in the East of the coastline and flows into the sea. At the mouth it creates alluvial deposits under a delta shape. This stream has water during the winter showers period when it transports solid materials as well.

ƒ

The Borshi stream takes its source in the East of the village of Borshi and flows into the Ionian Sea. During the rainy periods of the year, this stream transports solid materials and its influxes created the plain of Borshi and the beach of Borshi. This stream has a lot of water in winter, whereas in summer, the water quantity is very small.

The southern section of the study area has a completely opposite hydrological network, which counts among the Albania’s most abundant water resource areas: ƒ

4

The Bistrica river has its source at Syri i Kalter (the Blue Eye Spring). It is a natural source with constant quantity of water. The Vrisi stream joins this river and both flow into the Cuka Canal (together with the Kalasa river). The water quantity of this river is


Physical Context and Resources of the Southern Coastal Region

constant both in winter and summer, and it is the river with the highest annual flow in the Southern Coastal Region (19 m3/s). ƒ

The Kalasa river has its source at the foot of the Mali i Gjere (karstic sources) composed of limestone. It has a constant quantity of water both in winter and summer, and joins the Bistrica river before flowing through the Cuka Canal into the Ionian Sea.

ƒ

The Pavllo river takes its source from the nearby coastline mountains at the Greek territory. It enters into the Albanian side and flows into the sea in the southern side of the Butrinti bay. This river has constant influxes, with few changes between the winter and summer seasons.

ƒ

The Butrinti Lagoon represents a lagoon that communicates with the sea, resulting in brackish waters. It is special, because of the biodiversity of flora and fauna, as well as of the cultivated mussel acquaculture activities.

1.2.2.2. The underground water reserves Hydrogeological conditions depend on the geological and morphological structure of the coastal area. The following hydrogeological reserves of underground water could be distinguished: ƒ

The hydrogeological reserves from natural sources. There are a lot of natural water sources with considerable water quantity all along the study area. The waters are of very good quality, too. These springs have a karstic origin and emerge at different hypsometric levels. The main springs are: the spring of the Cold Water in Vlora, under the sea level, Izvori at Tragjas, spring at the village of Dhermi, Potami Spille, Mulliri i Janit at Qeparo, Hoston Qeparo, Borsh, Ftere, Sasaj Piqeras, Syri i Kalter, Kardhikaqi, Vrisi, Tatzatit, Mezalake, Shkalla, Ajtoi and, Çuka.

ƒ

The hydrogeological reserves of limestone rocks. As mentioned before, the Ionian coastline has a lot of limestone rocks. The phenomenon of karst has been developed in these rocks. There are many reserves of underground waters, like the springs noted earlier. Waters found in these rocks have very good quality indicators.

ƒ

The hydrogeological reserves of flysch formations. These formations are composed of mudstone and sandstone. They have a weak permeability and the reserves of underground water are small. Some sources of temporary supply are found in these rocks.

ƒ

The hydrogeological reserves of the Quaternary deposits. The Quaternary deposits are composed of clay, silty clay sand and gravel. The sand and gravel layers are aquaferous. These deposits are encountered at the plains, like at the plains of Dukati, Borshi, and that of Vurgu (Delvina). In these plains, there are hydrogeological borings and sufficient quantities of water. Sometimes artesian fountains are present, but in other cases it is necessary to pump the water.

1.2.2.3. Water resources use constraints The zone from Orikum to Butrinti is rich in water sources, particularly in the southern part of the study area. At this early stage of the project, it could be concluded that water resources in the study area are sufficient to meet the water demand arising from an increased consumption in the future, such as the demand generated by the tourism development. The waters of the sources have good characteristics. A number of natural water sources are located outside of the study area. Currently, they are protected, since their locations are beyond the urban development pressure. However, in the future development planning phases, a consideration should be given to implement

5


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

additional protection measures. This refers particularly to some sources that might be exposed to the negative urban impacts in the short term, such as the springs of the Cold Water near Vlora, Izvori at Triagas, and Potami at Spille (Himara). To determine the sanitary safety area around each of the above sources, a specific hydrogeological study will have to be prepared.

1.2.3. Climate The climate of Albania is very diverse. This is due to its geographic position, high altitudinal amplitude and mostly to the hilly and mountainous relief, characterised by deep valleys and profound gorges. The country could be divided into four distinguished climatic zones (Figure 1.1), which are further divided into 13 climatic sub-zones. Each sub-zone strongly contributes to the country’s rich biological diversity. Overall, the study area is characterised by the Mediterranean climate, but due to its geographical position and verticality it lays in three main climatic zones: ƒ Southern Coastal Plain; ƒ Hilly Zone; and ƒ Mountainous Zone. Mean annual precipitations in the Study area are estimated between 1,000-1,200 mm (Figure 1.2). Precipitations are mainly in the form of rain, while snow is a much rarer phenomenon in the coastal region, occurring only in the mountainous part of the area (Mali Cikes, Llogora – Vuno). Figure 1.1: Climatic Zones of Albania

Climatic zones Central Coastal Plain Southern Coastal plain Hilly zone Mountainous zone

6


Physical Context and Resources of the Southern Coastal Region

Precipitation (cm)

Figure 1.2: Precipitation in Southern Coastal Region by months

150 100 50 0 I

II

III

IV

V

VI

VII

VIII

IX

X

XI

XII

Months Source: Hydrology of Albania, 1984

Most of the rainfall is concentrated during winter, from November to April; 70-80% of the yearly precipitations are recorded during this season (Figure 1.3, Figure 1.4). During the spring season only 20% of the annual precipitations is registered.

Figure 1.3: Mean annual rainfall/precipitation in Saranda, Borshi, Himara and Dhermi

Source: Kabo M. et al, 1998

The mean annual air temperature in the study area is between 16.1 and 17.7째C. In January air temperature is between 8 and 10째C, while in July it oscillates between 24 and 26째C (Figure 1.4, Figure 1.5). The bathing season along the Southern coast of Albania is estimated between 150 and 180 days (based on the number of days with air temperature above 20째C).

7


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Figure 1.4: Mean annual temperature in Saranda, Borshi, Himara and Dhermi

Source: Kabo M. et al, 1998

0

Temp. C

Figure 1.5: Mean annual temperature in Vlora

30 25 20 15 10 5 0

I

II

III

IV

V

VI

V II

V III

IX

X

XI

X II

M onths

Source: Hydrology of Albania, 1984

Being a coastal area, the sea breeze influences directly the climatic conditions, especially in the summer time. From October to March the predominant wind direction is East, while in spring the wind directions are South and Northwest. From June to September the dominant wind directions are Northwest and West. The mean wind velocity is estimated at 2.5 m/s in the Vlora region. During winter the predominant directions are Northeast (30%), and South (35%). These winds have a mean velocity of 7.2 m/s. In special synoptic situations, high wind velocities of up to 40 m/s are observed. These winds have southern direction (Figure 1.6, Figure 1.7).

8


Physical Context and Resources of the Southern Coastal Region

Figure 1.6: Wind roses for three site stations (Treport, Vlora, Saranda)

Source: Hydrology of Albania, 1984

Figure 1.7: Wind roses for two characteristic months (Vlora station) 30

NW

N NE

20

NW

10

W

E

0

SW

SE

W

20 15 10 5 0

N NE

E

SW

SE

S

S

January

July

Source: Hydrology of Albania, 1984

Annual distribution of wind directions (Table 1.1) along the southern coast, as registered in the meteorological stations of Vlora, Borshi and Saranda, shows that the predominant wind direction for Vlora is East (17.1%), for Borshi Northwest (23%) and for Saranda Southwest (12.4%).

9


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Table 1.1: Annual distribution of wind directions along the southern coast of Albania (%) Station Vlora Borshi Saranda

No winds 40.2 14.7 12.9

Wind direction N

NE

E

3.5 22.3 7.6

6.7 10.3 3.5

17.1 0.5 8.1

SE

3.2 4.6 8.2

S

SW

W

NW

7.6 8.7 10.1

5.3 12.4 12.4

6.5 3.6 6.9

9.8 23.0 2.5

Source: Hydrology of Albania, 1984

The climatic situation in the Southern Coastal Region of Albania allows for a relatively long tourism season, with an average of more than 100 bathing days per year, relatively modest winds and a satisfactory annual precipitation rate. It is not expected that the wind direction will negatively affect the wastewater discharge into the sea. No other critical risk factors have been observed.

1.2.4. Major ecosystems in the Study area 1.2.4.1. Terrestrial environment Historical data and those collected from the recent research in the study area (Southern Albanian Coastal Region) show quite a rich and diverse flora, high diversity of habitats and plant associations of a particular national importance, from scientific, ecological and socioeconomic points of view. A number of plant species of the study area belong to the national list of rare species, a considerable number of plants are distinguished for their specific scientific interest, while many of them are of particular economic values as medicinal plants, oil-bearing plants, industrial plants, decorative plants, and so on. The flora of study area is very rich with almost 1,400 vascular plant species (representing 42.4% of the total flora of Albania). This great figure is explained by the geographical position of the study area, the very broken orography and diverse geological formations, as well as various types of microclimates found in the southern coast of Albania. Many endemic and Tertiar relict plant species are met inside the study area, such as Hypericum haplophyloides, Leucojum valentinum subsp. vlorense, Taxus baccata, Aesculus hippocastanum, Quercus ithaburensis subsp. macrolepsis, etc. The first two species, Hypericum haplophyloides, Leucojum valentinum subsp. vlorense, are strictly endemic of the study area. The southern coast represents an important cross of migration routes of the flora of the Balkan region. A number of species meet here with their most northern limit of their distribution area, such as Quercus ithaburensis subsp. macrolepsis, Abies borisii – regis etc. Other species have here their most southern limit of their area, such as Petteria ramentacea. Some species, such as Aesculus hippocastanum, have their most western area limit, while some others (Teucrium fruticans, Brassica incana) their most eastern area limit. About 68 plant species, or 21.3% of the total rare and endangered species of Albania (330 species), are found in the study area. Research shows that flora of the study area has a strong floristic affiliation with most southern Balkan countries; more than 24 species distributed in Greece have the northernmost part of their area in the study area. The main types of vegetation occurring in the terrestrial part of the study area are briefly described below: ƒ

10

Vegetation of lowlands or evergreen forests and shrubs. It ranges from coastal plains up to the altitude of 900 m. The hill slopes of Karaburuni peninsula, Sazani island, mountain range of Rrëza e Kanalit, valleys of Dukati, Palasa-Himara, Kakome, Ksamili


Physical Context and Resources of the Southern Coastal Region

islets and Butrinti are characterised by a great diversity of vegetation types. Two main vegetation types in this region are broad-leaved evergreen forests (Assoc. Orno – Quercetum ilicis) found on Karaburuni Peninsula, mountain range of Rrëza e Kanalit, the coast from Palasa to Kakome bay, and Ksamili-Butrinti; and Maquis vegetation, found mainly at Sazani Island, Karaburuni peninsula, mountain range of Rrëza e Kanalit and Valleys of Dukati, Vuno, Himara, Qeparo, Kakome, and Ksamili. ƒ

Mediterranean pine forests (Assoc. Pistacio- Pinetum halepensis). These forests occupy most of the hill slopes of Dukati Valley (Llogora NP area). The main constituents of these forests are Pinus halepensis and rarely Pinus pinea. They occur from the sea level up to 400-500 m in Dukati Valley. These forests are not indigenous for the area. There has been a reforestation project planting Pinus halepensis some 30-35 years ago in Dukati Valley.

ƒ

Plant communities dominated by Euphorbia dendroides, Pistacia lentiscus – Allianca Oleo – Ceratonion (Assoc. Pistacxio – Euphorbietum dendroides). This type of vegetation is met in patches along the inner parts of Karaburun Peninsula, mountain range of Rreza e Kanalit, Porto Palermo, and Ksamili area. It is exposed to the sea, at low altitudes (c. 50-100 m).

ƒ

Phrygana vegetation (Assoc. Chrysopogono – Phlometum fruticosae, Assoc. Ericetum manipuliflorae). It is low shrub-type vegetation, usually lower than 100 cm, with often cushion – shaped shrubs being well spaced. This vegetation, widespread in the Karaburun Peninsula, appears on dry shallow soil over limestone at altitudes 0-900 m.

ƒ

Pseudo–steppe vegetation dominated by Brachypodium ramosum (Assoc. Brachypodium ramosi). The degradation caused by overgrazing has converted the garigue into a pseudo-steppe vegetation type dominated by grasses mostly Brachypodium ramosum. Patches of meadows are common at altitudes 0-900 m all along the southern coast of Albania. Flat grounds and much of the hill slopes (Dukati Valley, Dhermi, Vuno, Ilias, Himara, Qeparo, Borshi, Piqeras, Lukove) are now largely cultivated in cereals, olives, oranges, etc.

ƒ

Oak deciduous woodlands (Assoc. Quercetum frainetto). The western slopes of mountain range Rrëza e Kanalit, Vuno-Himara, Kakome, and Stillo cape, between 500 and 300 m is mostly a zone of deciduous oaks.

ƒ

Quercus ithaburensis subsp. macrolepsis (known as Valona oak) is the dominant species of Oak forests: tree layer covers 60-70%, height 7 m; shrub layer cover 50-60%, height 1-2 m; herb layer cover approximately 30%, height 0,3 m; maximum trunk diameter 30-40 cm. This type of forests is met here and there all over the Karaburun peninsula, Himara-Porto Palermo, Lukove-Kakome, Butrinti area and Stillo cape, at altitudes 0-800 m.

ƒ

Mountain Coniferous forests (Assoc. Pineto – Abietetum borissi-regis). Tree layer covers 80-90%, shrub layer covers 50-60%, herb layer covers 20%. At an altitude of c. 750-1,300 m, deciduous oak woodlands are replaced by Mountain Coniferous forests (mostly in the National Park of Llogara ). At an altitude of 1,000 m (Qafa e Llogarasë, National Park of Llogara) an individual of “Flag pine” is found, a rare natural monument (height 13 m, with all branches in the north-western direction).

ƒ

The forests dominated by Pinus leucodermis (Assoc. Pinetum leucodermis typicum). These forests are widespread in Qore and Çika mountains (western slopes) at altitudes of c. 1,300-1,700 m.

11


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Among the fauna species, the following could be emphasised: ƒ

Invertebrates. Incomplete data on invertebrates reported for the study area show the evidence of a very rich fauna of insects (some 151 species of the order Coleoptera, and 93 species of Lepidoptera).

ƒ

Amphibians and Reptiles. Some 11 species of Amphibians (out of the 15 species known in the country) and 30 species of Reptiles (out of 37 species known in the country) are reported in the study area. The quite rich and diverse herpetofauna of the site is explained by the site position, favourable climate conditions, and diverse types of habitats. Sea turtles (Caretta caretta) visit the southern coast, where several attempts for breeding have been recorded. At least two species of herps, Testuto marginata and Rana epeirotica are only reported here in Albania.

ƒ

Birds. Some 250 bird species are reported for the study area, out of 330 species known in the country. Aquatic birds (mostly those of the Butrinti lake and Orikumi lagoon) and sea birds are important elements of the biota of wetland habitats. The Butrinti lake has recently been designated as a Ramsar site, owing to its richness in water birds, both for winter and summer (breeding) birds. The area offers suitable habitats for a number of birds of prey, including vultures. Forest birds linked with old-growing stands, such as woodpeckers and passerines are abundantly found inside the area, especially in the Llogora national park. All this makes the study area very attractive for birdwatchers.

ƒ

Mammals. In spite of incomplete data, it could be concluded that the study area is quite rich in mammals. Some 55 species out of 71 species known in Albania so far are expected to appear along the southern coast of Albania, of which 42 species have been recorded. Cave-dwelling bats, large mammals and carnivores, as well as aquatic and marine mammals (Lutra lutra, Monachus monachus and dolphins) are some of the most interesting mammals of the site. Some 17 mammal species belong to the Red List of Globally Threatened Mammals.

1.2.4.2. Marine environment The marine fauna and flora of the southern Albanian coast are of special interest since the study area is located at the border of three sub-regions: the western and eastern Mediterranean Sea, and the Adriatic Sea. Therefore, the fauna and flora include species from mixed origins: strictly Mediterranean species, remnant fauna and flora from the Atlantic and migrant fauna from the Indian Ocean through Suez Canal. The marine flora already recorded includes 131 macrophyt algae. Marine fauna encompasses a total of 251 fish, 46 echinoderm, 104 decapods and 84 mollusc species. The benthic population of the Albanian coast has a typical Mediterranean physiognomy characterized by abundance of Mediterranean-Atlantic species. So far, the Albanian ichtiofauna has registered 251 fish species. The Ionian coast is considered a rich habitat for its diversity of fish species and other marine organisms. The presence in Albanian coastal waters of rare fish species such are Luvarus imperialis, Ranzania laevis, Coelorhinchus coelorhinchus, Lebistes reticulatus, completes their known spread in the Mediterranean. Important fishing grounds are considered to be the Posidonia meadows along the coast (5-45 m depth). These meadows are the habitat, feeding and nursery areas for numerous other species (fish, crustacean and other invertebrates). The Supralittoral stage is located above the higher tide level which is dyed in dark Cyanobacteria that are grazed by Littorina shells. This stage extends vertically from less than 1 m in the calmer areas to more than 6 m along the very exposed coast of Karaburuni. On

12


Physical Context and Resources of the Southern Coastal Region

this rocky coast the characteristic species are Cyanophycea sp., Gastropods Littorina sp., and Cirripeds Chtamalus depresus. The Mediolittoral stage concerns the intertidal area (vertically about 1 m). The main characteristic of the quality of the waters is the presence of the Coralligenous algae building a rim typically composed of Lithophyllium sp., which can extend locally to more than 1 m in width. This biogenic formation has been found along the western coast of Karaburuni, and Rreza e Kanalit. They are good biological indicators of superficial pollution and fluctuant sea levels (Lithophyllium sp needs protection measures as a natural monument). Other interesting species of this stage are considered the red incrusted algae Lithophyllum lichenoides forming a platform more than 1 m large, grazed by Patella sp. The Infralittoral stage extends locally up to 45 m of depth. The Infralittoral is mainly composed of Cystoseira sp. with Padina sp., Acetabularia sp., Cymadocea sp. in beaten areas grazed by sea urchins and fish such as Sarpa salpa; other algae, such as Peyssonnelia sp., Halimeda sp. and Udotea sp. appear in calmer and deeper areas. The most important biocenosis of the infralitoral stage is the Posidonia oceanica seagrass meadows. The primary production of Posidonia oceanica has been estimated at 21 t of dry matter/ha/year. In addition to its biological interest, Posidonia oceanica plays an important role in marine soil preservation against erosion and protection of the coastline. On suitable substrates, the presence or absence of Posidonia oceanica reflects the quality of the whole area. Due to its importance, this species is protected in numerous countries, and any development concerning the marine environment and Posidonia oceanica is subject to strict environmental impact assessment. Posidonia oceanica meadows or patches of it are present in numerous sites along the southern shores, mainly in proximity of rocky shores, but valid assessment of the health of this species can only be achieved by permanent monitoring. Typical inhabitants of this stage are also the echinoderms and crustaceans decapods. The thermophile starfish Ophidiaster ophidianus and the sea cucumber Holothuria helleri have been located in the area. The canyons and caves, often inaccessible, represent an ideal habitat for monk seals (Monachus monachus) which were reported in the area already in 1982. Some of these caves are monumental (up to 50 m high) with stalactites along the walls and hosting freshwater fauna (kingfishers, mosquitoes, bats) such as the one known as Haxhi Aliu cave. It is important to note that the Albania Coastal Zone Management Plan of 1995 identifies 7 marine bio-geographic units in the Southern Coastal Region, whose coastline roughly coincides with this Study Area. These units were defined according to coastal marine geomorphology, orientation, geology, substrate, and exposure to wind and sea swell. This classification could still be considered as valid today since it has been used as one of the bases for the preparation of the Biodiversity Strategy Action Plan (BSAP) of Albania, prepared by the Ministry of Environment in 1999. Reference is also made to the map S3 of that plan. The Units were the following: ƒ

Unit 1 (Vlora Bay, including the Orikumi Lagoon): Vlora Bay reaches from the City of Vlora (east) to Cape Galloveci (west). The coast is mainly rocky, with small gravel beaches, except for the eastern part which is sandy, and the central area of the bay is filled with sand and mud. The shallow water areas are filled with seagrass meadows, which are ecologically very important. The BSAP proposes the Orikumi lagoon as a protected site (see Map 4). Fishing is an important activity in the Bay.

ƒ

Unit 2 (Sazani Island): This unit is not included in the study area.

13


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

ƒ

Unit 3 (Karaburuni Peninsula): The area extends from the Cape Galloveci to the Cape of Gjuheza in the northern and western coasts, and to the Bristani Bay in the northnorthwest and south-southeast direction. The slopes are very steep, characterised by high vertical cliffs diving underwater to great depths. The underwater coastal environment is very diversified. The area is ecologically very important with the Llogara National Park and the Karaburuni – Rreza e Kanalit Managed Nature Reserve (see Map 4). Commercial fishing is an important economic activity.

ƒ

Unit 4 (Rreza e Kanalit Area): The unit extends from the Bristani Bay to Dhermiu. It contains impressive landscapes, with canyons cascading into the sea. The sea floor shows incidence of erosive actions along the shoreline. Marine flora and fauna are similar to those found in the Karaburuni Peninsula. The Canyon of Gjipese is proposed in BSAP as a protected area (see Map 4).

ƒ

Unit 5 (Dhermiu to Porto Palermo): The coastal relief is gentler. Seagrass meadows dominate the shallow water areas. Marine environment is quite diversified. The unit is the most productive fishery area along the entire Albanian coast. BSAP proposes Porto Palermo as a protected site (see Map 4).

ƒ

Unit 6 (Cape Qeparoi to Cape Qefali): The coastline is characterised by a succession of different landscapes. The white sandy beaches are prominent throughout the unit, extending up to 20 m in depth where populations of Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea spp. are common. BSAP proposes two areas to be protected: Borshi Stream and Kakome Bay (see Map 4).

ƒ

Unit 7 (Cape Qefali to Cape Stillo): The coastal profile is not as spectacular as in the other units, although it is divided into a number of specific sections. The Butrinti National Park is a Ramsar site. BSAP proposes the extended area of the Park to be protected, including Cape Stillo (see Map 4 ).

1.1.4.3. Environmentally Sensitive Areas The study area is distinguished for its diversity of habitats and its richness in flora and fauna species. Many of them have a conservation concern at international, national and regional levels. A wide range of habitats are found in the study area, such as: high mountain ecosystems (up to 2,000 m); alpine and sub-alpine grasslands; different types of forests (mixed conifers and broadleaved, mixed broadleaved dominated by deciduous trees, broadleaved dominated by evergreen trees, shrubs and maquis, alluvial forests); lowland pastures; sandy and rocky coastal habitats; coastal wetlands such as Butrinti lake, Bufi (Rreza) lake and Orikumi lagoon; streams, torrents and karstic springs; caves, etc. From the ecological point of view, the presence of a high diversity of habitats establishes a high number of ecological niches and therefore a high level of biodiversity in the area, hardly to be found in comparable surface areas in Albania or the neighbouring countries. The flora and fauna of the southern coast are very rich and interesting. As mentioned above, some 1,400 vascular plant species (equal to 42.4% of the flora of Albania) are known for the study area. This is explained (i) by the old history of the flora in this region (such as presence of Tertiar species or relicts), (ii) by the influence of other floras such as that of Ege, (iii) by geographical isolation of the region (high mountains and sea barrier), and (iv) by the natureman relationship established here over centuries, creating very complex and mosaic habitats (natural, seminatural, modified, artificial) and landscape. All these plant species make up a great national asset of economic and scientific value. Some of them are extremely rare, some have scientific value, most of them make up widely used economic groups such as the medicinal, aromatic, industrial, alimentary and decorative plants.

14


Physical Context and Resources of the Southern Coastal Region

Due to its geographic and flora characteristics, the southern coast represents interesting habitats for enthomofauna. The diversity of this group is significant compared to the size of the study area. Referring to butterflies of the order Rhopalocera, 93 species are observed in the area, of which some are of international conservation importance. A relatively large number of species is observed from the order Coleoptera: 152 species belonging to 21 families. The southern coast is also rich in vertebrate groups. Some 252 fish species, 11 species of amphibians (out of 15 species known to Albania), 30 species of reptiles (out of 37 species), 250 species of birds (out of 330 species) and 55 species of mammals (out of 71 species) are known to the study area. The Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan (ICZMP) of 1995 was very much biodiversity conservation oriented. It has identified 5 Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESA): ƒ Karaburuni Peninsula; ƒ Vunoi Canyon; ƒ Porto Palermo; ƒ Kakome Beach; and ƒ Butrinti. The ESAs were identified according to the following criteria: (1) the quality or “naturalness” of the marine and terrestrial coastal environments; (2) scenic beauty; (3) existence of cultural and archaeological remains; (4) potential for recreational and educational purposes; (5) existence of traditional uses; (6) high ecosystem complexity; (7) rich biodiversity; (8) important natural resources for human uses; and (9) need for integrated and environmentally sound development. These criteria seem to be valid today as they were 10 years ago, and should be kept in mind in the future phases of this project. It is very important to stress that the1995 plan, while considering the conservation of habitats in ESAs as its overriding objective, doesn’t exclude tourist, agricultural and/or urban developments in their surroundings, as long as they are carefully planned in an integrated manner. The “surrounding areas” are not very clearly defined in spatial terms, while development activities inside ESAs seem to be very restricted. However, the overall conclusion is that the plan attributes great importance to biodiversity conservation, and its proposals in and around ESAs allow only limited development opportunities. The Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (BSAP), adopted by the Albanian Government in 1999, defines 8 Environmentally Sensitive Areas. The definition of these areas is based on the integration of the characteristics of the terrestrial and marine systems into unified environmental units. The ESAs are presented in the Table 1.2, and shown in Map 4. All of the ESAs proposed in the ICZMP of 1995, except Vunoi, are also included in the BSAP list.

15


Canyon of Gjipese

Porto Palermo

Borshi Stream 2 km Kakome bay and 2,200 ha Cape Qefali

Çuka ChannelKsamili Bay and Islands

Butrinti Lake and 4,000 ha its surroundings

Pagane – Cape 500 ha Stillo and Islands

2.

3.

4. 5.

6.

7.

8.

Source: BSAP, 1999

1,000 ha

600 ha

1,200 ha

Llogora- Orikum, 35,000 ha KaraburunSazan-RadhimëTragjas-Dukat

1.

Name of Size Protected Area

Saranda

Saranda Saranda

Vlora

Vlora

Vlora

District

Proposed status: Saranda Strict Nature Marine and Terrestrial Reserve (Category I), as part of the enlarged Butrinti National Park

Existing status: Archaeological Saranda National Park and Ramsar site and Proposed status: Delvina Enlarged National Park

Proposed status: Protected Landscape and Seascape Area (Category V)

Existing status: Llogora national park (1010 ha) (category II); Karaburun-Rreza e Kanalit Managed Nature Reserve (20000 ha) (category IV) Proposed status: National Park (Marine/Terrestrial) (Category II) Proposed status: Landscape Protected Area (Category V) Proposed status: Strict Nature Reserve (Marine/Terrestrial) (Category I) Scientific Reserve (Category I) Proposed status: Protected Landscape and Seascape Area (Category V)

Existing and Proposed Status

16

The best-preserved marine and coastal area of high scientific value in the country. A very well developed littoral, with a number of threatened taxa protected by international treaties (Barcelona convention). Of no less importance is its terrestrial part with very extended beds of Euphorbia dendroides and Salvia triloba. The presence of the Ali Pasha castle adds some historical values to the area, too. A stream with well developed and preserved sites of Nerium oleander along its downstream. An area of very attractive landscape and seascape, of scientific, tourist and recreational values. As a military area it is well preserved and provides resting sites for the sea turtle Caretta caretta, a very threatened species in the Mediterranean. The appearance of this species in this area gives a unique value and importance to the area in national context; some 400 ha of this area to be designated as Scientific Reserve (Category I). The area, in particular Ksamili’s small islands very close to the seashore, form a unique and wonderful landscape/seascape. The islands are covered by a very typical and developed Mediterranean evergreen vegetation, while in the sea water there is a very rich flora and fauna – most notably Halophyla stipulacea and Pinna nobilis which are both protected species by conventions to which Albania is a Party. Some 400 ha out of 1,000 ha of the area should be designated as Strict Nature Reserve (Category I). In spite of its ecological problems, Butrinti lake is an important area for its ichthyofauna / aquaculture and avifauna. In the lake Mytilus sp. is cultivated – providing the area with important economical values. Bufi (Rrëza) lake in the Southeast of Butrinti adds other natural and biological values to the area. Typical Mediterranean forest of Quercus ilicis, Q. robur, Alnus glutinosa, Ulmus campestris, Fraxinus angustifolia and others with rich fauna in insects and reptiles covers most of the ancient city of Butrinti which has been designated as a UNESCO Site. The ancient city, along with nearby castles, brings both historical and cultural values to the area and makes it very attractive for visitors and tourists. For its ecological and cultural values the Butrinti lake has been recently designated as Ramsar site. Transboundary Protected Area. One of the best preserved marine and coastal areas of the country with high scientific value for its very well developed littoral zone. Possible breeding ground for Carretta caretta. Of no less importance appears to be its terrestrial part with typical Mediterranean forest and shrubs. The appearance of Testudo marginata in the area is of a very high scientific value.

The area of the highest biodiversity value in the country, and one of the most important in the Mediterranean basin: alpine and sub-alpine pastures and meadows; Macedonian fir (Abies borissi-regis) forest mixed with pine forests of Pinus nigra, Pinus leucodermis; mixed deciduous woodland with Quercus coccifera, Q. macrolepis; typical Mediterranean maquis; typical rocky coastal vegetation; wetlands with residues of alluvial forests; a well developed littoral and benthos; Posidonia meadows (Posidonia oceanica); dolphins (Delphinus delphi and Tursiops truncatus); the monk seal (Monachus monachus) visit the caves and shores of the western slopes of Karaburun peninsula; north limit of alliance Oleo-Ceratinion. Endemic, sub-endemic, and many rare and threatened taxa appear inside the area, such as Taxus bacata, Ceratonia siliqua, Pitymys felteni, Pitymys thomasi, and others. High potential for ecotourism development. Very attractive landscape of quite particular and interesting geomorphologic formations where caves are not missing.

Comments

Table 1.2: Environmentally Sensitive Areas


Physical Context and Resources of the Southern Coastal Region

Table 1.3: List of species of global conservation interest appearing in the study area (based on IUCN threat categories, 2001) No.

Taxon

Mammals 1. Rhinolophus euryale

Threat Key Sites cat.

Threats

VU

Misuse of caves and animal disturbance and prosecution Misuse of caves and animal disturbance and prosecution Misuse of caves and animal disturbance and prosecution Misuse of caves and animal disturbance and prosecution Misuse of caves and animal disturbance and prosecution Misuse of caves and animal disturbance and prosecution Misuse of caves and animal disturbance and prosecution Habitat loss, Forest fires Habitat loss, Forest fires Habitat loss Overgrazing, Forest fires

2. Rhinolophus hipposideros

VU

3. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum

LRcd

4. Rhinolophus blasii

LRnt

5. Myotis capaccinii

VU

6. Myotis myotis

LRnt

7. Miniopterus schreibersi

LRnt

8. 9. 10. 11.

Sciurus vulgaris Myoxus (Glis) glis Dryomys nitedula Muscardinus avellanarius

LRnt LRnt LRnt LRnt

12. 13. 14. 15.

Microtus felteni Microtus thomasi Mus spicilegus (abbotti) Lutra lutra

LRnt LRnt LRnt VU

16. Monachus monachus 17. Stenella coeruleoalba Birds 18. Falco naumanni 19. Haliaeetus albicilla 20. Circus macrourus 21. Crex crex 22. Numenius tennuirostris 23. Gallinago media Reptiles 24. Dermochelys coriacea 25. Caretta caretta 26. Emys orbicularis 27. Elaphe situla Amphibians 28. Triturus cristatus 29. Hyla arborea Invertebrates 30. Cerambys cerdo 31. Lycaena dispar 32. Hirundo medicinalis

CR

Caves in Llogora-Karaburuni area, Himara, Butrinti Caves in Llogora-Karaburuni area, Himara, Butrinti Caves in Llogora-Karaburuni area, Himara, Butrinti Caves in Llogora-Karaburuni area, Himara, Butrinti Caves in Llogora-Karaburuni area, Himara Caves in Llogora-Karaburuni area, and Himara Caves in Llogora-Karaburuni area, and Himara Llogora NP, Syri kalter Llogora NP, Syri kalter Llogora NP Llogora, Karaburun, Kakome, Vuno-Himare, Syri kalter Llogora NP, Vurgu field Llogora NP, Vurgu field Vurgu field Tragjasi stream, Pavllo river, Cuka channel, Bistrica river, Syri kalter Karaburun-Rreza e Kanalit, Stillo cape, Qefali cape

LRnt

Fires for pasture management Fires for pasture management Fires for pasture management Fishing, Animal disturbance and direct killing Fishing, Animal disturbance Fishing

VU LRnt LRnt VU CR LRnt

Vurgu field, Dukati field Butrinti Ramsar site Butrinti Ramsar site Vurgu field, Dukati field Butrinti Ramsar site Butrinti Ramsar site

Uncontrolled and illegal hunting Uncontrolled and illegal hunting Uncontrolled and illegal hunting Uncontrolled and illegal hunting Uncontrolled and illegal hunting Uncontrolled and illegal hunting

EN EN

Fishing with gear nets Fishing with gear nets, Direct killing Habitat loss and fragmentation

DD

Qefali cape, Saranda Stillo cape, Kakome bay, Dukati bay Butrinti, Orikumi, Qeparo, Syri kalter Stillo cape

LRcd LRnt

Syri kalter, Orikumi Llogora, Butrinti, Syri kalter

Habitat loss and fragmentation Forest fires

VU LRnt LRnt

Llogora Llogara Orikumi, Syri kalter

Fires Fires Habitat loss, Water pollution

LRnt

Direct killing, Fires

Source: BSAP 1999, IUCN 2001

17


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

The study area provides habitats for a number of endangered species. Eighty five vertebrate species of the site are considered as threatened at the national level. The study area is also important for the global conservation interest. At least 17 species of mammals, 6 species of birds, and 6 species of Herps (2 amphibians and 4 reptiles) and 3 invertebrate species belong to the list of Globally Threatened Species (Table 1.3). The main threats to the biodiversity of the study area are: ƒ habitat loss and fragmentation; ƒ over-harvesting and non-sustainable use of natural resources; ƒ animal disturbance and prosecution, including illegal killing; ƒ fires to manage pastures for grazing; and ƒ excessive fishing and hunting. The main root causes of such threats are the following: ƒ low environmental awareness of the local communities and general public on wildlife; ƒ lack of legal enforcement; ƒ poverty; ƒ lack of management and knowledge of the best practices in sustainable use of natural resources; and ƒ low institutional capacity in the implementation of nature and biodiversity conservation policies (inadequate staff and lack of professional training).

1.3. Landscape and land cover Landscape and land cover could be considered as natural resources. However, their characteristics are largely altered by the human action. In that respect they are transitional resource systems. Their analysis is being placed in this chapter in order to emphasize the “natureness” of their basic character.

1.3.1. Landscape analysis The current length of the coastal zone study area, from the Karaburun Peninsula in the north, to the Albanian-Greek border and Cape Stillo, in the south, makes sense as an integral coastal landscape unit essentially defined by its geological and geomorphologic structure of folded limestone mountain ridges, in proximity and mostly parallel to the coast, including its system of erosion valleys, and by its concave land form defined by the Karaburun Peninsula in the north and Corfu and Cape Stillo in the south. This is the only piece of the Albanian coast where mountain touches sea. The southern mountain ridges separate the southern coastal zone from e interior of the country, both physically and visually. This Landscape Unit in fact continues to the end of Mount Lungare just south of Vlore before the coast changes character into a wide flat coastal plain, and the Ionian sea to the south becomes the Adriatic sea to the north.

1.3.1.1. Description of landscape unit zones and sub-zones The coastal landscape unit is divided in 8 landscape zones and they are presented from the north to the south. Most of the zones are divided in several sub-zones in order to provide as accurate description of the landscape unit as possible. The landscape zones are shown in Figure 1.8.

18


Physical Context and Resources of the Southern Coastal Region

Figure 1.8: Landscape unit zones

Zone 1. Cape Stillo. Sea facing slopes Zone 2. Butrint. The Larger watershed area Zone 3. Saranda. Saranda to Cape Skales. Sea facing slopes ƒ Saranda ƒ Saranda to Ksamil ƒ Ksamil Zone 4. Kakome. Kakome to Saranda. Sea facing slopes ƒ Kakome ƒ Kakome to Saranda Zone 5. Borsh. Borsh to Kakome including watershed of Fterra valley ƒ Borsh ƒ Borsh to Lukova ƒ Lukova ƒ Perperim (Shen Vasil) ƒ Eremisit Ridge ƒ Krorez Zone 6. Himara. Vuno Canyon to Qeparo. Sea facing slopes and watersheds ƒ Vuno Canyon and Vuno ƒ Jal ƒ Himara ƒ Limani ƒ Porto Palermo ƒ Qeparo Zone 7. Karaburun. Karaburun to Dhermi. Sea facing slopes to ridge including Llogara ƒ The Karaburun Peninsula and Rreza e Kanalit Ridge ƒ Llogara to Dhermi ƒ Palasa ƒ Dhermi Zone 8. Orikum. The Orikum valley watershed to the Llogara pass

Zone 8: Orikum Valley Watershed to the Llogara Pass The Natural Landscape: The Orikum Valley rises up to the Llogara pass defined by the Karaburun Peninsula to the west and Mount Lungare and Mount Cikes to the east. This erosion valley was created in part by the spring fed Dukatit stream system. The resultant delta area is wide, and is an integral extension of the southern end of the Vlora bay. The shoreline includes areas of wide sandy beaches. The Orikum lagoon and marshes provide habitat for bird migrations and is especially important as a rookery, despite its small size. Previous agricultural fields, now lying fallow are reverting to indigenous wildflower and wild

19


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

grass species. The area of the Dukatit Valley rising to the Logara Pass is partially covered with young stands of pine, interspersed with reviving areas of Mediterranean maquis. The springs and streambed host typical indigenous riparian species. The Cultural Landscape: Typical of the patterns of settlement along the southern coast of Albania, the original Orikum was located on a rise, somewhat distant from the shoreline, taking advantage of sea breezes, keeping distant from wetland areas, and leaving the arable valley bottom for agricultural use. The bay has underwater archeological structures as does the ancient site of Orikum. Remnants of orchards remain in the valley as do irrigation structures from the days of collective farming under the Hoxha regime. Remains of Eucalyptus plantings from the same area create boulevard effects along some of the roads. Bunkers dot the landscape as part of the unique system of family scale defense as envisioned by Hoxha. Constraints: Fallow fields have a neglected look. Insensitive cut and fill for new building and gravel quarrying operations have marred the landscape. Dumping of excess fill along the streambed has impacted the visual and ecological quality of the streambed as has the dumping of garbage. The siting of the expansion of modern Orikum is random and in conflict with the morphological form of the area, as is much of the random tourism development near the coast. Risks: Development of the area may further contribute to the further degradation of the existing wetlands, lagoon and archeological areas. Opportunities: Expansion and rehabilitation of the wetland areas could turn fallow farm land back into rich habitat and increase the possibility of creating a bird watching and wildlife observation recreation site as part of the coastal hiking route which would continue on to the Karaburun peninsula. Archeological excavation of ancient Orikum, including undersea archeological excavation of the nearby under water remains could create a cultural heritage site of interest to visitors.

Zone 7: Karaburun to Dhermi – Sea Facing Slopes a) The Karaburun Peninsula Natural Landscape: The Karaburun Peninsula and the Rreza e Kanalit ridge read as a single landscape unit. This unit is defined by the Logara Pass, the Dukatit watershed to the northeast, and by the Ionian Sea to the southwest. The Karaburun and Rreza e Kanalit ridges rise and fall to finally meet Mount Cikes at the pass. The entire peninsula meets the sea in steep, inaccessible cliffs. The western shore is high, fragmented with many fissures, caves, gaps, and small beaches. The Eastern shore is less fragmented. Cape Gjuhez at the northwestern tip of the peninsula is the westernmost point of Albania. The area is practically devoid of vegetation, except for sparse maquis and wild grasses, and has no sweet water sources. Cultural Landscape: Presently a piece of the Karaburun Peninsula is a closed military zone and therefore has no access. The plateau of Ravena on the southwest of the peninsula is known for its excellent winter pastures. The entire peninsula is burned by shepherds periodically inhibiting the comeback of natural vegetation. The Grama bay has caves with important inscriptions, and the whole series of caves have legends associated with them. Ancient marble quarries can be found on the site. Constraints: The military base on the peninsula excludes access by land to the area beyond the base, although it can be reached by sea from Dhermi. The area is barren and very hot in

20


Physical Context and Resources of the Southern Coastal Region

summer with almost no relief from the sun. The accessibility of the peninsula to its beaches and coast is difficult if not impossible in most areas due to the cliffs at the seashore. Risks: Any development on the Karaburun peninsula, including park recreation facilities and access roads, run the risk of compromising the total isolation of the area and its resultant pristine quality. Opportunities: If the peninsula were to become a natural landscape preservation zone, with access limited to foot, and if the area were to be declared off limits as grazing lands, a true unique wilderness environment could regenerate on this unique landscape form. b) Llogara to Dhermi The Natural Landscape: The Mount Cikes ridge is higher to the northeast of the Llogara pass and includes the Llogara National Park. Since the park is on the higher ridge, it has a visual connection to the sea both directly to the south, and over the Karaburun peninsula to the west. The character of the coast from the Llogara pass to just north of Himara is defined by the considerable height of the Mount Cikes Ridge running directly parallel to the shoreline, its steep slopes, and its proximity to the sea. The seaside slopes are eroded into ridges and valleys producing a series of coves and mixed sand/pebble beaches between transverse ridges that sometimes end in promontory cliffs at the seashore. These cliffs are occasionally fractured and or eroded by spring fed streams, creating canyons and caves. The beaches themselves are defined by rocky fingers extending into the sea. The views of the sea from the slopes and the ridge itself are immediate and dramatic, as are the views of the slopes and the ridge from the sea. The Logara National Park, near the Logara Pass, includes a National Natural Monument in its individuals of “flag� pine trees, Pishe Flamuri. Natural marquis mixed with pine is making a comeback on the steeper sections of the slopes between exposed limestone outcroppings. Watercourses are lush with riparian species sometimes in stark contrast to the sparse marquis nearby. The Cultural Landscape: Lacking large scale arable deltas, the agricultural character of the landscape is of scattered orchards in areas of more gentle slopes of the ridge, creating a patchwork pattern with the marquis and natural limestone outcroppings. The area includes random plantings of Italian Cypress, some of which may have been planted as systems of windbreaks. Traditional villages are set on hillsides in typically defensible positions and blend well with natural forms and materials. Constraints: New building along the coast often sits in conflict with natural forms creating a disharmony of site and scale. Landscape along road is degraded by land spill and garbage. The coastal road is narrow, with hairpin turns and poses a hazard to vehicular traffic. Risks: Widening of the road could destroy the landscape and other traditional and natural qualities of the area. Allowing development in the traditional villages could destroy their almost intact character if very stringent building codes cannot be enforced. Opportunities: The connecting of the Llogara National Forest, the Orikum wetlands and archeological zones, and the Karaburun peninsula into one habitat preservation zone could create a critical mass of area to herald the natural regeneration of a large biodiversity area. This would demand the curtailing of grazing in these areas and the creation of buffers to built up areas. The biodiversity zone could then accommodate recreation facilities suitable to national parks, including wildlife observation areas, wilderness trails, camping facilities, diving facilities, etc. It would also anchor the coastal development zone with a large nature reserve in the north, and the Butrint National Park in the south.

21


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

c) Palasa The Natural Landscape: The Palasa valley is the southern extension of the Llogara pass and is an erosion valley and delta created by spring fed rivulets. The upper (at around 2,000 meters) northern part of the system includes areas of pines that are a part of the Llogara National Park. Riparian species grow along the many branched watershed system. The delta is sparsely vegetated and ends in two strips of beach separated by a finger of limestone jutting into the sea. The beaches are significant in size, and the sand is white. The beaches are made up of small gravel mixed with sand. The northern beach is backed by an area of sparse maquis, whereas the southern beach is surrounded by woodlands and groves. The Cultural Landscape: The village of Palasa sits on the rise of the ridge from the valley bottom upstream some 2 kilometers from the shore, on the edge between the lower agricultural lands and the upper steeper slopes of maquis and bedrock outcroppings. There are remains of orchards on the slopes below the settlement nearly up to the beach, with remains of irrigation systems. Constraints: A garbage dump is visible on the slopes below the village. The large fan of the Palasa River delta is difficult to cross on foot and provides a barrier to easy contiguous coastal pedestrian access and is composed of unstable soils. There is no infrastructure servicing the beaches. Risks: Loosing control of quality of development in a present day pristine environment could spoil the area for future generations. Building on unstable soils could undermine foundations. A tendency to want to canalize the erratic Palasa stream in order to gain more buildable land could destroy the nature of the site. Opportunities: The pristine character of the site, and its natural form, create opportunities for significant physical development that can remain with a feeling of being in the heart of nature. The small valley to the north of the Palasa stream could function well as a camp site servicing the coastal hiking trail, and become a trails head with a path in the streambed directly up the mountain to the Llogara National Park, one along the shoreline to the Karaburun Peninsula, and a branch into the Orikum wetlands areas. Since this valley is separated by a lateral ridge from the site proposed for high density development, and providing all ridges remain free of development, and assuming the height limit is restricted to below the height of the ridgelines, each valley will continue to feel isolated in its own environment. d) Dhermiu The Natural Landscape: Two rivulets, one intermittent and one spring fed, have carved two small valleys on the south side of the larger Palasa valley near the sea. The Dhermi stream is spring fed and has cut deeply into the landscape producing a canyon and many cliffs up stream. The stream’s vegetation is riparian, and it widens at points into large pebbled spaces up stream. The watershed systems have produced a long beach at the shore of pebbles mixed with white sand. The Cultural Landscape: The traditional Dhermi settlement sits on a bluff above the primary agricultural lands with a striking view to the sea. The buildings are traditional in character and their situation in the landscape ensures views of the sea from most structures. The traditional layout of the village is oriented around three public plazas that climb the steep setting of the village, and there are 27 religious structures in the area. The mountain slopes above are crisscrossed with historic footpaths and with animal paths. The primary historic cobbled path that connects the hillside village to the beach area below hugs a cliff face and includes a small chapel along its length. Agricultural lands below Dhermi, including traditional

22


Physical Context and Resources of the Southern Coastal Region

stone terraced olive groves, are laced with remains of irrigation systems and abandoned food production factory buildings. The beach front facilities include one abandoned state hotel from the previous era, and several new small family style hotels along the beach front. Constraints: Raw sewage pours directly into the sea and produces detergent foam at some points severely detracting from the beauty of the beach. A garbage dump is visible on the slopes below the village. One hotel on the beach is built over the Dhermi river outlet to the sea compromising the visual and ecological quality of this natural feature. The traditional olive grove areas are being degraded by arbitrary constructions and neglect. Many of the religious structures are in need of rehabilitation and preservation. New construction and addition to traditional structures within the traditional village is not in character and is compromising the value of the site. Risks: Uncontrolled development inside the traditional texture of the village will quickly destroy its charm. No rehabilitation of abandoned structures will lead to their continued degradation and collapse. Continued illegal building in the agricultural lands will destroy the character of the site. Continued lack of maintenance of groves and terraces will lead to loss of soils, trees, and character. Opportunities: The extreme form of the canyon like valleys and the height of the site above the beach of the traditional hillside village of Dhermi, create many opportunities for development such that each remains in its well defined, separate zone, and allows for low impact dispersal of many development sites, and types of development sites, with a potential for becoming part of a strategic zone for development in terms of the number of possible beds in the area. Dhermi is an especially attractive area and includes many structures worthy of becoming museums, visitor’s centers, etc. The dramatic landscape also provides many natural sites, overlooks, and hiking routes to augment the attractiveness of the area.

Zone 6: Himara – Vuno Canyon to Qeparo – Sea Facing Slopes and Watersheds a) Vuno Canyon and Vuno The Natural Landscape: The spring fed streams of Vuno have cut a dramatic canyon and gorge through the mountainous landscape to exit at the Gjipa beach. The beach is mixed gravel and sand. The canyon is narrow and the walls are very high creating a unique landscape feature of the southern coast. A large relatively gently sloped shelf at the top of the gorge extends roughly one and a half kilometers inland ending in another steep landform rising to Mt. Mjeglloshit at more than 600 meters in height. Many large old sycamore trees follow these streams routes, mixed with other typical indigenous riparian species. The Cultural Landscape: Prehistoric cave sites within the Vuno Canyon are of significance. The traditional hillside village of Vuno lies on the steep south facing slopes of Mt. Mjeglloshit. The traditional architecture is relatively intact as is the structure of the village. The village continues to the west of the coastal road and is connected by a traditional cobbled route to the historic stone terraced olive groves on the slopes below. Many paths crisscross the site. A spring fed reservoir provided water for the irrigation of the groves and is still in existence. Constraints: Additions to the traditional village along the coastal highway are not in character with the traditional village style and compromise the character of the area. Many buildings inside the village are abandoned and in various stages of decay. Roofs have collapsed and the structures are being destroyed by the elements. Illegal construction at the mouth of the Vuno Canyon is compromising the character of this natural monument. Risks: The old military road which provides vehicular access to the Gjipa beach and mouth of the Vuno Canyon is a threat for providing easy access for further illegal building in the

23


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

area. Out of character rehabilitation and development within the traditional village of Vuno would quickly destroy the special historical character of the village. Opportunities: Well conceived reconstruction of the village of Vuno could be come a valuable magnet for in home hosting or bed and breakfast establishments. The villagers should receive government incentives to develop these and other commercial enterprises supporting cultural heritage tourism. The large flat shelf above the beach has vehicular access and could be developed with low rise vacation structures. The change of elevation between this area and the upper slopes of Vuno proper is great enough to prevent undue visual impact on the village’s site which viewed from below or the sea. The Natural Monument of the Vuno canyon has great value to a stay in the area. b) Jal The Natural Landscape: The Jal Valley was created by the watershed system of intermittent streams which descend from the higher ridge above. The valley ends in a long wide beach of mixed sand and pebbles, separated by limestone outcropping from a smaller beach to the north. The steeper slopes are covered with maquis, although the south facing slopes are noticeably barer than the north facing slopes. The stream beds are lush with riparian species and on the south, in stark contrast to the bare slopes themselves. The landscape definition of the beach is unique and enhanced by the form of the cape to the south, and rocky outcropping to the north. The Cultural Landscape: A reservoir just below Vuno on the mountain slopes above Jal, and its aquaduct system downhill provided a source of water that was used to irrigate the fields and orchards in the valley inland from the beach, and the grape vineyards on Cape Leres. Some pieces of the olive orchards remain and have been incorporated into the camp grounds on the site. The unique landscape situation warranted the building of a state holiday resort on the site during the Hoxha regime. This renovated building sits on the cape, with a view of the open sea, the bay and the beach, and with a broad staircase and boulevard leading down to the beach. Several footpaths connect the beach with Vuno above, and a coastal trail is present connecting the site with the Vuno Canyon to the north. An abandoned historic structure sits above the rock outcrop that separates the northern and southern beaches. Constraints: The nature of the many new constructions in the Jal valley are overpowering the landscape and creating a junky look to the area. The cut into the mountain to accommodate the hotel built on the smaller northern beach is ugly, bare, in conflict with landscape form and creates an unfortunate gouge when seen from the sea, or the overlook from the cape. The designated garbage dump is just to the south of the beach area, over a small ridge, in a streambed and creates a visual nuisance and ecologically degraded area with drainage into the sea. The dirt and gravel track that provides vehicular access is in poor condition in some parts and extremely narrow and dangerous. Risks: Hastily constructed access roads could mar the very visible hillsides between Vuno and the coast. Continued burning of the hillsides nearest to Jal shepherds could endanger new development in the area. Existing and potentially larger capacity use of the valley to the south of the beach area for an unregulated landfill site would further degrade the surrounding environment visually and ecologically. Opportunities: The unique form of the Jal valley, distant from traditional villages provides an opportunity for high density development which would be contained by the geological form of the area, without impacting traditional landscapes. The small defining capes to the north of the site provide unique sheltered areas at the coastline, and opportunities for overlooks from the ridges.

24


Physical Context and Resources of the Southern Coastal Region

c) Himara Natural Landscape: Just past Mount Bogonices at 1700 meters in height, the Cikes ridge turns to the south, undulates downhill, and meets the sea. The ridge dissolves into smaller finger ridges that define separate coves, the southernmost being the Porto Palermo Peninsula. Himara sits in the large crescent of the Cikes Ridge descent and its landscape is defined by the watershed of and erosion of the ridge. The perception is that the mountain moves away from the shore, and that the coastal strip widens and gradually climbs through a series of valleys, hills, and promontories, back up to the ridge. The Himara seashore is divided into two beaches separated by a ridge of limestone jutting into the sea. There are fresh water springs at the southern point of the Spila beach. Natural vegetation is sparse pine with mixed maquis and bare limestone outcroppings on the non arable slopes. Cultural Landscape: Himara’s northern beach is long, narrow and uninhabited. The site of old Himara sits inland and high on the promontory that separates the two beaches, with a striking view of the sea, the valleys to the north and south, and the Cikes ridge to the east. Old Himara’s ancient dry wall terraces and olive groves are located to the east and west of the site. The landscape is dotted with settlements to the east, as the many erosion valleys provide easy access and arable agricultural lands. The village of Piluri sits on a large flat shelf just below the ridge at the upper ends of the southern valley, and the valley’s water course is dotted with wells along its upper length. These wells were used as irrigation sources for the olive groves planted on the gentle slopes. Remains of historic irrigation systems can be found in the landscape. The area is laced with Ottoman era historic roads and bridges, many paths, and animal trails. The beach at the outflow of the southern valley has been developed and is the site of the settlement of Spile. The Potami springs were pumped and moved by aqueduct to the Limani valley vineyards, and the water depot and piping system are visible. There is also an electricity station at the south end of the beach. Constraints: Unsightly cuts and spills mar the landscape near Spile. The electricity station is unsightly and directly on the beach at the southern end of the Spile bay. Garbage along the roads and watercourses as well as dumps down the hillside from historic Himara, negatively impact the visual and ecological quality of the area. Himara has become a focus for construction of out of character new buildings, some directly on the sandy area of the beach. Sewage disposal into the sea is visible and dangerous. The castle compound of old Himara is severely damaged and in risk of further collapse. New, unsightly building within the castle compound is compromising the historic character of the site. Risks: The relatively gentle slopes of the Himara crescent readily encourage hasty unsightly new constructions. Uncontrolled building of the areas to the east of the coastal road is damaging the visual quality of the area. Building close to the old castle city would compromise the unique landscape situation and character of the site. Continued lack of maintenance and rehabilitation of the important buildings in the castle compound and the historic cobbled routes and bridges will cause their continued collapse and loss. Opportunities: The site of Old Himara has great appeal and opportunity for rehabilitation into a museum site to become a cultural heritage tourist attraction for the whole coastal area. The large and relatively sandy beaches of Himara and the urban character of lower Himara provide good reason for controlled urbanization into a resort town. The port of Himara could become a central point for inter Albanian coastal ferry services up and down the coast. d) Limani The Natural Landscape: This small sand and pebble beach was created by erosion and geologic fracture. Its landscape situation is pleasant as a cove defined by two limestone

25


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

promontory hills. The line of lush vegetation to the back of the beach indicates the presence of sweet groundwater. The south facing slopes of the promontory to the north are characterized by weathered limestone outcroppings with stressed maquis. The northern slopes to the south of the beach have some areas where the maquis is making a comeback. The Cultural Landscape: Water was pumped from the Potami springs near Spila to irrigate vineyards and olive orchards. Only a few trees from the olive orchards remain. Although the vineyards have now disappeared, the remains of the irrigation system are apparent. The half ruined and abandoned stone structures on the beach were originally agricultural buildings. Constraints: The landscape has been disturbed in an unsightly manner to create parking areas, and there is trash littering the area. The south facing bay area is very hot and the lack of vegetation on the slopes creates a very exposed area. Risks: The bare nature of the hillsides could encourage developers to disrespect the natural forms of the area. Opportunities: The proximity to Himara and its and the relative ease of development of access roads, makes this a desirable site for development into a resort village. The urban proximity could warrant high density although care should be taken to leave the promontories defining the area free of all but the minor development, and height restrictions should be limited to prevent the development from overreaching the height of its surrounding land form. e) Porto Palermo The Natural Landscape: The bay that characterizes the Porto Palermo area is tectonic in origin. A small rocky peninsula juts into the bay near its middle and is separated from the mainland by a narrow and shallow isthmus. There is an underwater cold spring in the seabed to the north. This landform is repeated at a larger scale with the southern promontory which defines the bay and Mount Palermo veers off in a northern direction to narrow the bay’s entrance. The northern side of the bay is defined by a finger like peninsula oriented such that it also narrows the bay’s entrance. The finger is separated from the mainland by an erosion valley and small delta at the shore. The shoreline of the valley is rocky with small beaches between outcroppings. Landscape is barren in general with very sparse maquis on the slopes. The Cultural Landscape: One of the most important historical monuments of the southern coast, the Ali Pasha Castle, is built on the small rocky peninsula/island that juts into the bay. The siting is striking since the castle is almost completely surrounded by water. There is evidence of a much earlier castle on the site. Caves were dug into the cliffs at the northern point of the bay to house submarines and this area is still under the control of the Navy. All of the surrounding hills were terraced with engineered earthen slopes by the previous regime for the enlargement of the agricultural industry. These earthen terraces are eroding but still obvious. Remains of agaves plantings can be found along the slopes above and below the road. Agave was an experimental crop planted with the intension of using the fibers for rope production. Some remnants of olive groves are also visible, as are remains of the irrigation system that watered the valley near the north end of the bay. A very large deserted casolle (or livestock corral) built of stone sits on the north pass above the site and is of some interest. Aquaculture fish farms are present in the south end of the bay. Constraints: Rusted remains of military installations litter parts of the site, and disturbed soil and spill can be seen in various locations. New construction of small cafes and bars directly on the coastal road has the look of the beginnings of strip development in the area. The area

26


Physical Context and Resources of the Southern Coastal Region

has high ecological and scenic value and any development must conform perfectly to keep the area intact. The submarine tunnels should remain open to public access. The fish farms are affecting the ecological quality of the bay. Risks: Development of the area, if not done with the utmost of care, risks compromising the unique and special physical character of this site, and the ecological integrity of the bay. There is a risk that the privatization of the military areas would result in the one of a kind submarine tunnels being incorporated into private development, as has happened with other cultural heritage sites along the southern coast. Opportunities: The unique form of this site, with its history, ancient bay and modern navy tunnels, and special marine ecology, offers the possibility of creating a rich, multiuse development including museums, diving center, marine port, and overlooks. The challenge will be in reconciling the site’s attractiveness with its sensitivity. f) The Qeparo and Borsh Valleys The Natural Landscape: Directly to the east of the southern tip of the Cikes ridge (Porto Palermo), the further inland Mount Kurveleshi ridge splits into two fingers and also turns south, parallel to Cikes, meeting the sea at Qeparo and Borsh. The western Kudhes and eastern Fterra watersheds and spring fed streams are defined by these three finger ridges meeting the sea. The resulting erosion valleys are narrow and cut more deeply inland than the relatively shallow Himara crescent. The canyons are sharply defined by cliffs and ridges on either side, and have a definite sense of geomorphologic place. This area is characterized by many springs, the western complement of the same aquifer system that produces the Tepelena springs on the eastern side of the Gjere mountain range. The valleys open into wide beaches. The Cultural Landscape: Valley mouths are planted in large scale olive and citrus orchards. Several villages are situated inland up the valleys with their own striking views of the sea. The area is crisscrossed by the remains ancient routes, some of which are cobbled, and of aqueduct systems some of which are still functioning. Qeparo The Natural Landscape: The Qeparo valley is deep and narrow and is fed by sweet water springs. The eastern side of the valley is very steep and half way up to the top of the 600 meter ridge is a natural shelf above a cliff. The upper slopes of the hills have some stands of well developed maquis. The valley opens into a wide delta near the shore and ends in a long mixed sand and pebble beach. There are several undersea fresh water springs along the shoreline which contribute to cold water areas in the sea. One large spring some meters into the sea, can be discerned from above by the eye like change in the color of the sea at the spring location. The outlet of the Qeparo stream is lush with riparian species almost to the line of the shore. The Cultural Landscape: During the Hoxha era, the entire stream valley was planted out in orchards of citrus and olive. Today, many parts of the orchards are neglected and some parts have been lost. Stands of eucalyptus at the shore were probably planted to help drain marsh areas and to provide a wind break from the sea. The irrigation systems that channeled water from the streams and springs are still evident and parts of it are still in use. The lower slopes of the hills are terraced in the engineered, earthen terrace fashion of the previous regime to enlarge arable agricultural areas. Old Qeparo was built on the defensible shelf mentioned above, and its immediate stone terraced agricultural groves occupied those parts of the shelf not built upon. As is true of most of the traditional villages, the central public area of old Qeparo has an ancient Sycamore tree at its center. The area includes clear and

27


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

ancient cobbled footpaths on the mountain side, down to the beach area, and over to the Borsh valley. The newer part of Qeparo is built lower along the valley’s edge and lacks the traditional character of the old village, which was built with the materials of the immediate site. Many bunkers remain along the shore. Constraints: Illegal building on the beaches is seriously compromising the character of the area and the sewage dumps directly into the sea. New Qeparo is visually disturbing along the scenic highway, and out of scale building is impacting the coastal character. The coastal road narrows dangerously as it passes through the lower new Qeparo area and new building continues to encroach on the highway’s right of way. Risks: Unless guidelines and restrictions are implemented quickly, the underway upgrading of the vehicular access to Old Qeparo may result in a boom in the type of out of character new construction in the old village that can be observed in other historic settlements on the coast. The shoreline and shoreline springs are under threat from shoreline construction seriously encroaching on the sandy areas. Unabated illegal construction on the beach may soon destroy the remaining good sites for organized accommodation development. There may be a temptation to develop the flat river valleys instead of locating construction in a manner that conforms to land form. Opportunities: The Qeparo beach, groves, old city above, and natural gorge form of the area make the site especially attractive physically. Careful development with integration into the natural qualities of the area and preservation of Old Qeparo and its groves as a cultural heritage open air museum village, could produce a strong magnet site.

Zone 5: Borsh to Kakome including Watershed of Fterra Valley a) Borsh The Natural Landscape: Although the arable part of the Borsh valley is similar in depth to the Qeparo Valley, it is much wider due to the erosion of the Kurveleshi Ridge by many intermittent and spring fed streams and rivulets. The Borsh River is spring fed and originates high on Mount Galishtit to the northeast. The river cuts into the mountain leaving peaks with magnificent views of the river valley and the sea. The riverbed is alive with riparian species including bright flowering native oleander along the route of the river once it reaches its delta. There are many springs dotting the landscape. The mountain slopes are covered with maquis mixed with a few pine. The delta ends in a wide, long beach. The beach continues unabated though narrower, until just before Lukova, a length of some 8 kilometers of mixed sand and pebbles. The Cultural Landscape: The remains of the Borsh castle (IV C. BC) sits on an isolated hill top, commanding a view of the valley, river and sea, and the ancient route of the ridge top road which led further inland some 1.5 kilometers to the site of ancient Borsh (bombed, burned, and destroyed in WWII), and even further to the village of Fterra and the inland route to both Vlora and the mountain pass into the inland Drinos valley. The Borsh valley has been cultivated since antiquity. The area is famous for its olive and citrus groves as well as its vineyards. The remains of a very extensive irrigation system can be found inside the existing groves which reach almost to the beach. The newer town of Borsh, which sits on the scenic coastal road, has many springs, which have been historically enlarged and built into shrines and watering points for traffic along the pass route and the coastal route. The area is full of footpaths and ancient cobbled roads. Constraints: The ubiquitous garbage thrown down the slopes from restaurants and residential areas in the area, the lack of sewage systems, unsightly earth spill near new

28


Physical Context and Resources of the Southern Coastal Region

construction sites, and the illegal constructions in the area are compromising the drama and beauty of the site. Periodic flooding of the delta area was controlled in the past with canalization for irrigation of agriculture, but as these systems are abandoned, neglected, and destroyed new flooding is beginning to occur, recreating wetland areas. Risks: The very large delta area may tend to attract unsightly and inappropriate development due to its easy access and flat form. The agricultural groves, so much a part of the national image of the area, may be lost to such development schemes if they are not specifically preserved, rehabilitated and made into viable sources of income. Opportunities: The impressive elements of this site, including the Borsh castle remains, the drama of landscape forms, the beauty of the Borsh stream and vegetation, the huge beach, the large grove developments contribute to make this site very desirable as a tourist destination. The area is large enough to accommodate a significant resort development if it is located properly stepped up the southern shoulder of the valley near the shore. The orchards could possibly accommodate the integration of some camping and recreation vehicle camp grounds without destroying the character of the groves. b) Borsh To Lukova The Natural Landscape: The southern finger of the Kurveleshi ridge runs parallel to the coast from the southern end of the larger Borsh valley to the northern tip of the Eremisit Ridge. The landscape between the road and the sea is characterized by a fairly even, moderate, undulating slope punctuated by intermittent watersheds and several spring fed streams. The soils in the area of Piqeres are unstable in character. This section of the beach has eroded earthen banks backing the beach. The Bunec stream and spring system have created one larger inland valley at Sasaj with the Buneci beach of coarse white sand at its outlet. The steeper non arable slopes are covered in maquis with a mix of some well developed pine. The Cultural Landscape: The Piqeres ridge is the site of a finger of traditional village of pristine character with traditional dry wall terraced groves and orchards below. The area nearer the road has been built up with communist era flats and that is all that is seen from the coastal road. The site of the coastal road separates the lower gentle slopes from the steeper upper slopes. Although there are a few areas that allow for agriculture above the road, the whole of the length of the area below the road is cultivated in extensive olive and citrus groves. These earthen terraces and groves were built with forced labor from the former prison at Perparim, and with forced “volunteer� labor of the communist youth movement. Today, much of the groves are intact and cultivated. The remains of a vast irrigation system with channels, holding tanks, wells and pump houses are present on the site. A three and a half km tunnel through the inland ridge to the Kalasa River channeled the water for the irrigation project. Partially ruined agricultural buildings are also evident. A bunker trail is mostly intact along the length of the coast, and Bunec has four large scale bunkers parallel to the beach which gives a strong sense of place. Constraints: Extremely unstable soils in the area of Piqeres will limit any dense construction in the area. The Bunec beach has been overdeveloped with random and illegal structures which have compromised the landscape character of the site. The valleys north of Piqeres are small in scale and their size will limit the type of development possible there. Risks: Development in the area could further destabilize soils and contribute to their continued collapse onto the seashore. The small size of the valleys in the area could temp developers to try to develop several valleys together into one large site which would be inappropriate to the scale of the landscape.

29


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Opportunities: The small scale valleys lend themselves to low impact single storey lightweight construction eco lodge development or recreational activities. The length of coast with unstable soils may lend itself to development as a recreation site. The lengthy mostly intact bunker trenches and single family bunkers with the four large scale bunkers at Bunec, lend themselves to preservation and rehabilitation as part of the coastal hiking trail with interpretation of the whole idea of the Hoxha era coastal defense strategies. This story is very interesting for foreign visitors and could become an attraction in the area. The massive irrigation system with tunnels and large scale channels for the terraces of Lukova also lends itself to interpretation and could become an additional attraction. c) Lukova The Natural Landscape: The southern finger of the Kurveleshi ridge turns southeast at Borsh and continues parallel to the shoreline till Perparim, where it moves slightly inland. The ridge is lower here, and quite narrow, defined to the interior by the Kalase river valley and on the coast by a wide arable strip of land. A subsidiary ridge approaches the shore and is a solid basement of rock in an otherwise are of quite unstable soils. The landscape is dotted with natural spring fed streams, one of which continues over an outcropping in a rare waterfall. The agricultural lands are a series of low rolling hills between the coastal highway and the shore. The 4 valleys directly east and southeast of Lukova are deeper and well defined as landscape places by the small ridges that divide them. All of the valleys either open near to or directly onto small private beaches with coarse white sand. The Cultural Landscape: The traditional village of Lukova is situated on the sea side subsidiary ridge, and the village’s dry wall terraced olive groves sit in the valleys directly surrounding the built up area. The communist expansion of Lukova is near the coastal road and consists of larger blocks of flats obscuring the view of the traditional areas from the road. The entirety of the land of the surrounding area is planted in olive and citrus orchards in a direct continuation of the Borsh to Perparim orchard plantings. Springs, wells, and agricultural irrigation systems are visible in the area. A large aquaduct brings water through the Perparim pass to the terraces of Lukova. The coastal landscape is crisscrossed with footpaths and service roads for the orchards and the inland side of the narrow ridge with footpaths into the Kalasa river valley. The agricultural lands of Lukova also cross this narrow ridge into the interior valley. Constraints: Unstable soils to the west of Lukova will limit any heavy construction in the area. These valleys are small in scale and their size will limit the type of development possible there. Some balance between development, agriculture and water delivery systems will have to be reached in this area. Risks: Lukova’s proximity to Saranda and therefore its proximity to infrastructure may create pressure for a scale of development not suitable to the landscape forms of the area. The bedrock areas suitable for heavy construction are all near the traditional village site, and development here could destroy the character of the place. The nice long beach could also pressure the area for unsuitable scale of construction. Opportunities: The small valleys lend themselves to small “green” developments which would be of high value because of the adjacent beaches. This type of construction could leave the agricultural lands almost intact or well integrated into the texture of the sites. Leaving the ridges between the valleys green and free of development would create a string of small scale “jewel” sites with good beaches, each feeling totally isolated from the development in the adjacent valley nearby. The soils of the southernmost valley before the Perparim valley are more stable and could support a larger scale of development.

30


Physical Context and Resources of the Southern Coastal Region

d) The Perparim Pass The Natural Landscape: The Perparim pass, from Lukova moving slightly inland from the coast, into the Kalasa river valley, is created by two ridges that slide past each other- the beginning of the Eremisit ridge to the seaside, and the end of the Kurveleshi ridge inland. The northern valley of the pass includes a system of spring fed streams that has sculpted the whole pass into rolling hills and valleys. The upper hillsides are covered in maquis mixed with some pine and weathered limestone outcroppings. The Perparim valley meets the sea in beautiful cove of mixed sand and gravel beach. A small natural wetlands lie to the north of the beach. The cove is defined by fine rocky outcroppings with large slabs of limestone suitable for sunbathing to south. The Cultural Landscape: The entirety of the area is planted in olive and citrus orchards in a direct continuation of the Borsh to Perparim orchard plantings. Springs, wells, and agricultural irrigation systems are visible in the area. One very large aqueduct moves water down the valley to the groves and orchards. On the slopes above, a major footpath parallels the road connecting to the interior valley. The ruins of Hundecove, destroyed by bombing and fire during WWII, sit on the southern slopes near the exit from the path. A major footpath also connects the historic site to the village of Perparim (formerly Saint Basil), and onward to Nevice. The beach is backed by olive orchards. Constraints: The large slabs of limestone outcroppings should be protected from disturbance by any development of the site. Any development should be tucked into the valley away from the shoreline to preserve the special character of the place. There is presently no infrastructure to the lower part of the beach and cove area. The existing maquis and olive groves should be integrated into any development as buffer areas or as open green spaces. Risks: Access roads to the beach and cove area could severely damage the whole of the Perparim Pass landscape, which is within the view shed of the scenic coastal highway. All construction would have to been done with the utmost of care. Opportunities: The pristine beach at the shoreline of the valley is very attractive and development in this cove would be defined by the special landscape form of the deep valley. Since the valley is fairly long and stretches to the interior, the slopes on its floor are relatively gentle and lend themselves to ease of construction. The streams run near the foot of the steep slopes on the sides of the valley and therefore maintaining their integrity during construction would be fairly easy. e) Eremisit Ridge The Natural Landscape: The northern end of the Eremisit ridge has several springs which feed the Perparim pass valley down towards Lukova. Configurations of the Eremisit ridge run from north of Krorez to Butrint and are characterized by a relatively narrow ridge defined to the east by a large open valley/lake/wetlands system, and to the west by the sea. The higher Gjere Mountains which actually separate the coastal zone from the interior of Albania, define the eastern side of this large valley. The ridge from its northern tip to Krorez, is a fairly uniform slope, steeper inland, and slightly less steep toward the sea. From the sea, the area reads as a single slope with almost no relief. The northern tip is near a coarse sand beach and developed maquis. The sea side of the slope has scattered trees and grasses. The Cultural Landscape: The scattered trees and grasses are indicators that the landscape has been used as pastureland for generations and has been periodically burned off. The bunker trail is almost intact, above the sea and the area has other foot and animal paths. A major footpath runs along the sea side of the ridge connecting Lukova with the

31


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Krorez Monastery and the Saint Maria Monastery at Kakome. The slopes are not cultivated because they are too steep, and there are no natural water sources on the sea facing slopes of the ridge. Constraints: There is no infrastructure servicing the site. The sea facing slopes are extremely visible from the sea. The slopes are not delineated into valleys which could produce a sense of place for development and therefore lead to its integration into the natural landscape. Risks: Any development in this area would demand access roads running parallel to the coast. The cut and fill for such a road would be very visually damaging. Opportunities: The intact bunkers and trenches along the length of the shore, offer the possibility of being incorporated into the coastal hiking trail and as a nearby day hike attraction to development in the valley further north. Limiting grazing in the area could leave this site to regenerate into natural maquis which already exits at its southern edge near Krorez creating a large natural green area to separate Kakome from development near Lukova. f) Krorez The Natural Landscape: The Krorez springs have cut a nice valley on the sea side of the Eresimit ridge. The classically V shaped valley is bounded to the south by cliffs and widens out quickly into two long coarse sand beaches, separated by a small rocky outcrop with small coves and tide pools. Krorez is separated from Kakome to the south by a rugged piece of the Eremisit ridge which plunges steeply and directly into the sea and with no beach. The marquis dotted with very old olive trees on this hill is making a good comeback because of its inaccessibility and the reduced stress of grazing herds. The Cultural Landscape: The access to the Krorez beaches during the summer is by small boat from the Saranda fishing harbor. The lower spring on the southern half of the Krorez beach has been turned into a Christian religion shrine and has been built with a small pool and façade. The Krorez Monastery sits on the steep slope and cliff above this spring, and on the same level as the major Krorez spring further north along the upper slope. It is located on a footpath that connects with the monastery at Kakome. The area was once planted with olive groves, and some of the remaining trees are estimated to be several hundred years old. Constraints: Pieces of the important footpath “roads” have become overgrown with brambles of blackberries and other species making their use problematic. Illegal building on the Krorez beaches has been destroyed by the construction police, but the unsightly rubble has been left on the otherwise pristine beach. Because of the high value of the natural character of the site no vehicular access should be allowed here and the area should be preserved intact. Risks: Any development of vehicular access would totally destroy the site due to its steep slopes and should be avoided. The attractivity of the beach to sunbathers arriving by boat is leaving a wake of illegal development. Opportunity: The beauty of the Krorez beaches, the site of the monastery above, and the health of the maquis provide an opportunity for creating a natural and cultural monument site. A campground, providing minimal services could fill the needs of sunbathers flocking here during the summer months and an avenue for off season hikers and campers searching for pristine nature spots. The needs of campground facilities would have to be serviced by boat only.

32


Physical Context and Resources of the Southern Coastal Region

Zone 4: Kakome to Saranda – Sea facing slopes a) Kakome The Natural Landscape: Kakome bay is a slot bay characteristic of the coast between this point and Ksamil to the south. Slot bays are formed by limestone strata that have been uplifted to stand perpendicular to their original situation as layers of seabed. When they are on end, the sea erodes away those strata that are softer, to produce deep slots of varying widths into the landscape. Kakome is the largest of these bays and is augmented by the erosion of the continuation of the layers inland producing a pass from the Kalase valley to the sea. The land between the pass and the sea consists of an irregular landscape of small hills and rivulet beds ending in a quite wide, flat area before the beach. The beach is mixed coarse sand and pebbles. The northern side of the bay is a steep hill, barren with sparsely located trees, and much weathered limestone “steps� known as the Steps of Krorez. The southern side of the bay is formed by the continuation of the Eremisit ridge, which likewise plunges directly into the sea. The north facing slope is covered with the extensive Brodonil forest of well developed maquis. An interesting landscape formation is found at the foot of this plunge, as the same wave action that produces slot bays, has left a series of parallel walls of limestone standing in the sea. The Cultural Landscape: The Monastery of Saint Maria sits on the slopes of the north side of the Kakome valley, slightly inland. Although there are remains of ancient olive groves on the slopes of the hills of Kakome, there was no plantation in the valley for the past 50 years or so, despite its very suitable terrain. This is due to the fact that the area was occupied by a naval base. Remains of the structures of the base, including a pier, exist on the site, and a well which was dug near the shoreline to supply the base is visible. Electricity infrastructure crosses the valley and continues to the antennas at Cape Qefalit. A line of small scale bunkers back the shore. Constraints: The construction police have destroyed illegal structures here and left the rubble in place creating a visual nuisance. The new road constructions into the site has created areas of unsightly cut and fill and has resulted in the dumping of excess fill in the site. The upper parts of the floor of the pass valley are severely eroded. The concrete pier is in poor repair and may be a structural liability. The site is bounded by sensitive landscape zones on the slopes to the north and to the south. The visual integrity of the landscape around the Saint Maria Monastery must remain intact to protect the cultural heritage value of the site. Risks: Development in this valley might be tempted to push into the sensitive landscape zones on the north and south in order to increase direct exposure to the sea. Developers may be tempted to create vehicular access between Kakome and Krorez to the detriment of the Krorez site. Opportunities: No doubt, this cove is one of the most suited to high density resort development due to its large flat valley bed, the relative protection of face on exposure to the views from the sea, the uniquely green natural landscape to the north and south, and its proximity to the Krorez beaches. The two areas of great natural beauty adjoining the valley add value to the site. b) Kakome to Saranda The Natural Landscape: The Eremisit ridge widens considerably at the southern definition of the Kakome bay, with Cape Qefalit at its widest point. The whole length up to Saranda averages some 4 kilometres in width. The landscape is characterised by a series of deep, fairly wide, valleys which run from the ridge top to the sea creating isolated spaces that

33


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

cannot be seen one from the next The seashore is made of limestone slabs in various stages of erosion, and is punctuated by slot bays and coves with small beaches of mixed pebbles and sand. Some of the shore is made up of what the local population calls “pllaka” beaches which are characterised by huge, exposed limestone slabs sliding one on top of the other into the sea at an angle comfortable for walking, sitting, and sunbathing. The vegetation is primarily native grasses dotted with widely spaced mature trees of various indigenous species which are connected one to the other by a network of shepherd and animal trails. The tree cover becomes denser at the middle heights of the ridge and then disappears completely at most of the ridge top areas leaving “moonscapes” of weathered limestone “trashim” formations. The Cultural Landscape: The Rodheze beach has a few illegal light material kiosk structures servicing beach goers in the summer months. The access to all the beaches in this area is by small boat or foot from Saranda. The area is still being grazed by herds coming down from the mountains during the colder seasons and is regularly burned off. The valleys are divided amongst the shepherds by a historical use of pasture lands and pastures are designated by typical fencing of cut brambles. Each pasture has some form of shepherd hut and animal enclosures. The area includes built watering pools for the animals. The Gures bay includes the remains of a cheese factory from Hoxha times. An illegal house is occupied by a family at the north end of the bay. This bay is wide, and has a coarse sandy beach. The bunker trail and bunkers are intact above the rocky coast the whole length of the area. Since the coast road is on the inland side of the ridge, no traffic is visible or heard in the area creating a unique sense of isolation. Constraints: In places the bunker trails are eroded and overgrown which limits their use. The immediate vicinity of the kasoles (shepherds huts) is strewn with trash and debris. There is no infrastructure in the area. Risks: Development in this area would be intruding into a sizable pristine landscape and might herald spill over strip development from Saranda. The creation of access roads would have to come from the interior, Gryka e Dardhes valley to avoid the risk of damaging cuts and fill along the length of the coastline. Opportunities: The pristine unspoiled surrounding landscape could provide a beautiful backdrop for the development of the small watershed valleys as resorts. Limiting the height of the developments to well below the ridges dividing one valley from its neighbor, would leave each development in its own secluded landscape setting, very near to the amenities of the urban area of Saranda. The coastal trail could be serviced to a campground in the narrowest of the valleys, giving hikers a chance to find isolation near an urban center.

Zone 3: Saranda to Cape Skales – Sea facing slopes a) Saranda The Natural Landscape: The Gryka e Gushores valley is created by an intermittent stream which ends in a slot bay with a narrow strip of rocky beach. Mount Eremisit at 500 meters in height in the north, creates the physical and visual backdrop to the area, and is still part of the wider Eremisit ridge. The Gryka e Dardhes valley splits the wider ridge into two with Mount Eremisit on one side and Mount Nakos on the other. This valley has no view of the sea or the Kalasa valley to the east and is its own enclosed environment. This watershed was primarily responsible for creating the large valley and beach at the Saranda Bay. The ridge directly to the east of the Saranda bay narrows considerably in width to about two kilometers and descends in height to about 200 meters at the northern side of the Gjashte pass. The Gjashte pass is the major pass into the Kalasa river valley. Mount Lekursi at the

34


Physical Context and Resources of the Southern Coastal Region

southern side of the pass is divided into a conical mountain at 265 m high, and ridge extension at 230 meters height. The ridge then descends rapidly to a narrow strip of about 1 kilometer in width and 7 meters in height at the Cuka pass to the south. The ridge is very weathered with many limestone outcroppings in typical patterns of rock and minimal vegetation on the sea side of the ridge, and with maquis on the inland side. The character of much of the coastline from Gryka e Gushores the Cuka pass is of sea sculpted limestone slabs sliding into the sea punctuated with small beaches of coarse sand at the outlets of small intermittent watersheds. The Cultural Landscape: The municipal limits of Saranda include the Gryka e Gushores valley in the north and the settlement of Bredenesh immediately south of the Cuka Channel in the South. There is a path that leads up the Gryka e Gushores valley to the top of Mount Nakos. The bay of Saranda was first made a port to service Finiqi in the 3rd C BC with the Gjashte pass as the route used to transport the goods into the Kalasa River valley. Swimmers and divers have discovered various ancient artifacts and remains on the seabed of the Saranda bay, but there area has never been properly studied for archeological remains. The appearance of ancient foundations at the tip of a shallow underwater ridge may have been an ancient lighthouse. A sunken German ship is marked by a buoy in the bay. The port expanded to a settlement under Roman occupation and many remains of the Roman and Byzantine period are to be found scattered around the present day town. The two highpoints guarding the Gjashte pass, both with magnificent views of the surrounding landscape, have had fortified structures on them at least since the 4th Century: The Monastery of the Forty Saints to the North and the Lekursi Castle to the South (both built on earlier foundations). The whole top of the Lekursi ridge was a medieval town surrounding the castle and in use until its destruction and abandonment in the 18th C. There are many historical remains on the hilltops. Remains of historic farms can still be seen on the seaside slopes of the Lekursi ridge. A series of historic footpaths run the length of the ridges with several descents to the river valley on the inland side. The geomorphologic shape of the site determined the layout of the town of Saranda from antiquity till today. At least the first three of the existing parallel access roads up the slopes from the fishing port (near the site of the ancient port) are laid over very ancient routes. The town has always followed the natural layout of a large theatre surrounding the bay. Under the 1930’s Italian occupation of the town, the seaside promenade and wide steps transversing the slopes were built. In the 1980’s under the Hoxha regime, the seaside gardens were expanded, many gardens were maintained throughout the urban space, and the upper slopes of the ridge directly above the town were planted with pines in a reforestation project. There are no natural water sources on the site, but remains of a system of aqueducts and cisterns have been discovered. There are springs off shore in the seabed producing cold water areas in the sea. Under the Hoxha regime, the Cuka pass was cut through by the Cuka channel, which diverts much of the waters of the Bistrice River, directly into the sea. Constraints: Illegal quarrying at the northern municipal limits has degraded the landscape of the Gryka e Gushores valley. The building boom in Saranda has led to degradation of the landscape through an inadequate and incomplete sewage system which leaks raw sewage directly into the sea from the Gryka e Gushores valley until the Cuka channel, the privatization and building of almost all the green spaces in the town, unsightly cut and fill and illegal dumping of land spill along the coast, illegal filling in of the sea. There is illegal building in and inadequate maintenance of the remaining green spaces in town, including the length of the seaside promenade. Most of the traditional buildings in town have been privatized, destroyed, and rebuilt with characterless out of scale structures. There are many partially constructed structures in town that have been left to languish in their incomplete state.

35


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Cultural and natural heritage sites have been degraded and/or completely destroyed by building. Risks: Further development of Saranda threatens the few remaining cultural and natural heritage sites in the area. The temptation of quick returns on investment is the engine pushing careless hasty, unthoughtful development and its continuation threatens to “kill the goose that lays the golden egg.” Opportunities: Saranda is the port of call for the area and will be strengthened as such by upgrading of the port facilities, building of a nearby airport, and upgrading of the road links to other places in the country and to the Greek border. Its proximity to the Butrint National Park gives a unique and important status. With control of character of development and upgrading of the types of tourist facilities and services offered by an urban area, Saranda could become the real driving force behind development of the tourism industry on the southern coast. b) Saranda to Ksamili The Natural Landscape: The narrow ridge (500-1,000 meters in width) from the Bredenesh Mountain to the settlement of Ksamil has a very interesting structure of many low hills (the highest is 200 m and the lowest 50 m) connected by passes from the sea to the Vrion Marshes and/or the Butrint Lake to the interior. Many of the hills are covered with well developed maquis woods above the seashore. The shoreline is characterized by a continuous series of numerous inlets, coves and bays, some with white sand beaches. One of the northern bays has dinosaur fossils visible in the nearby cliffs. The Cultural Landscape: The northernmost hill of Mount Dema has the Saint George Monastery built at the peak with wonderful views of the sea and the surrounding landscape. Remains of an Illyrian defensive wall surround this hilltop. The area has a patchwork of grazing pastures with natural grasses, including watering catchment pools, some orchard plantations in small scale, and an area above the inland Butrint road planted with agave. The seaside slopes immediately north of Ksamil are terraced and planted with significant olive orchards. The Butrint Saranda road runs on the interior side of the ridge, above the Lake Butrint marshes and shores, leaving the seaside quiet and free of traffic. There are remains of several Hoxha era heroic monuments along the roadside. The length of the peninsula has a bunker trail with mostly intact bunkers to the seaside, and many footpaths on the ridge, above the road, and above the sea. Constraints: Illegal building spilling over from Ksamil is eating into the interior side of the ridge. An illegal tourist facility is built directly adjacent to the entrance to the Saint George Monastery. The Monastery is deserted, has no interpretation, and is closed to the public except by prearranged appointment with the ministry of culture and monuments. (This is, by the way, true of most of the monuments along the coast.) The narrow ridge between Brenedesh up to and including the hill of the Dema wall and the St. George monastery should remain free from all development. Risks: Illegal building in the Brenedesh area is threatening to spoil the chance for significant high density tourism development at the southern end of the Saranda bay. Urban sprawl threatens to connect the urban areas of Saranda and Ksamil and to obliterate the perception of the fragile narrow ridge connecting the two. Widening of the road between Butrint and Saranda could damage the landscape quality of the area, if not carried out with the utmost sensitivity to the unique form of the area. Opportunities: High density resort development on the north and west facing slopes of the northern tip of Mount Brenedesh could provide an appropriate urban finale at the southern point of landscape definition of the Saranda Bay. A no build zone south of this point to south

36


Physical Context and Resources of the Southern Coastal Region

of the hill of St. George could provide a much needed defined green relief from over urbanization and protect a fragile land form for open space recreational purposes. c) Ksamili The Natural Landscape: At Ksamil, a finger bay off the Butrint lake and a series of sea side bays and islands “pinch” the ridge to 700 meters in width. The islands were created during the Jurassic period when pieces of land separated from the mainland. The islands are wooded with well developed maritime pines, as is the area of the beaches on the mainland opposite the islands. The beaches on the shallow Tetransia bay are of coarse sand. The small inlet and bay to the interior ends in a marsh of typical indigenous wetland species. The Cultural Landscape: The ancient site of Heksamilion occupied this unique landscape and gave the newer settlement its name. The Ksamil area was heavily cultivated during Hoxha times with citrus and olive groves in a communal farm and irrigation channels and other abandoned agricultural structures are still visible in parts of the site. The Hoxha era buildings are typical four story housing structures. The northern side of the finger of the Butrint Lake has a view of Mount Sotiris, which is part of the Butrint National Park. Constraints: Most of the citrus and olive groves have been destroyed by illegal building. Ksamil is spreading in an unsightly fashion with much inappropriate building, and with trash and garbage and construction materials scattered in the site. Pollution from raw sewage is visible on both the sea and lake sides of the site and is negatively impacting the clarity of the sea as well as fauna habitat. One of the islands has been severely defaced by illegal excavation for a building. Risks: Unabated illegal construction threatens to totally deface the area. Heavy handed tourism development could over tax the ecological integrity of the area. Thirst for more buildable land could lead to unsound practices of the filling in of wetland areas on the Butrint lakeshore and on the shallow areas of the Ionian Sea. Opportunities: Ksamil’s location at the entrance to the Butrint National Park gives it a special opportunity to develop service facilities for the park. It’s unique bay and landscape setting between lake and sea shore offer possibilities for the creation of a high density tourism development area with advantages of two shorelines. The existing infrastructure on the site would make development desirable. New development could upgrade and organize the current hodge-podge character of the village. d) Cape Skales The Natural Landscape: At just two kilometers in width, the Corfu straights are at their narrowest as Cape Skales juts westward from Ksamil into the Ionian Sea. The cape is an eroded mountain (about 100 m in height) approximately 4 hectares in size. The hill is cut with many eroded valleys of varying sizes with high enough banks that one cannot be seen from another. The mountain meets the sea in cliffs. The steep slopes directly above the sea are wooded, whereas the upper areas are quite nude of significant vegetation. The Cultural Landscape: The hilltops are scattered with defensive positions from the Hoxha era. The interior slopes were cultivated with olive and citrus groves and the hillsides were terraced with earthen terraces. Many of the olive groves in this area are still in very good condition, and are included in the larger area of the Butrint National Park. All of the southeastern facing slopes are part of the view shed of the Park. Constraints: Illegal construction from Ksamil is spilling over into the northern areas of the Cape. Dumping of garbage from Ksamil at the entrance to the Park is a visual liability. The areas of the Cape inside the Butrint National Park view shed should remain free of

37


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

development. The visibility of the western slopes from nearby Corfu should be taken into consideration when developing these slopes, since they will in a sense be Albania’s “calling card” when viewed from the island and from the Straits. Risks: Pressure for development in the Alinura Bay area, if not resisted, could damage the visual quality of the Butrint National Park, and the ecological health of the Vivari channel and wetlands. Opportunities: The western slopes of the Cape provide a significant area suitable for resort development. If carefully integrated into natural land forms these resorts would become the most desirable locations in the area due to the proximity of the Butrint National Park with its many amenities and activities, and the magnificent views to Corfu across the narrowest point of the Straits. Development of additional recreational facilities could enhance the National Park experience. Some of these activities might take place on lands inside the Butrint view shed area if they were low impact and basically green in nature. For instance, there might be a possibility to develop wildlife observation areas on the western slopes of Cape Skales. Certainly hiking trails could be developed in the area with views into the park, and pedestrian access from the resorts on the western slopes to the Alinura Bay and the Park itself.

Zone 2: Butrint – the larger watershed area The Natural Landscape: The Vivari Channel is a narrow estuary connecting the large inland watershed of the Vrina and Vrion plains to the sea. The watershed area is some 40 kilometers in length and averages some 20 kilometers in width. The ecosystem includes two lakes, (Butrint and Bufit), and large areas of wetlands. The system is transversed by three rivers, tens of spring fed streams and hundreds of intermittent streams. The Blue Eye Spring is within the system and is the source of the Bistrice River. Saline springs are found in the Butrint lake and Vivari Channel bottom. The eastern side of the valley system is defined by high ridges separating the area from the interior of Albania. The southern edges of the valley are eroded mountains with finger ridges extending north into the Vrina Plains. The westernmost of these finger ridges separates the Ionian coast from the inland watershed and ends in Cape Stillo. The northern reaches of the watershed are defined by three parallel ridges reaching into the Vrion plains from the Kurveleshi and Gjere Mountains. The erosion of the hills has produced wide flat valleys with linear limestone “bumps” rising up from them along the lines of previous limestone ridges. Each of these mini ridges has a similar character to the coastal ridge between Saranda and Ksamil. The valley bottoms were originally rich in wetlands and wetland species of vegetation. The Butrint watershed ecosystem is one of the richest in Albania, and functions as a single ecological unit. The Cultural Landscape: The watershed area contains many sites of habitation, from the earliest prehistoric times, through all periods of history, until today. The Cuka e Aitoit hill has an identifiable conical shape, is a landmark in the area, and has remnants of prehistoric habitation. Nearby prehistoric caves are the longest continually inhabited caves in Europe (27,500 years). The ancient settlement of Butrint is located on a hill connected by a narrow isthmus to mount Sotiris. The site was strategically located to control the narrow estuary and the entrance to the Butrint Lake. In Antiquity the lake was much larger, and served as an inland route for boats to reach the 3rd C BC settlement of Finiqi. Finiqi’s remains are found on the highest “bump” in the plains at more than 280 meters in height. Almost all the “bumps” of limestone hills in the plains areas have some remnants of ancient habitation, and indeed the village pattern of today is mostly continued building on these low rises. The marshes of the Vrina and Vrion plains were drained for agriculture during Hoxha years, and the enormous system of drainage and irrigation channels is visible throughout the large area. The Butrint Lake is slightly saline and has natural beds of mussels which were exploited on a large

38


Physical Context and Resources of the Southern Coastal Region

commercial scale during the Hoxha regime, and remnants of the artificial beds can be seen in the lake and the estuary. Some of the beds are still operational on a private scale. The entire watershed area is laced with ancient roads and paths. Constraints: The entire watershed area is being degraded by uncontrolled building and degradation and destruction of cultural and natural monument sites. Runoff of pesticides from agricultural areas and raw sewage, are impacting the lakes and the rivers. The draining of the marshes and the diversion of the Bistrice River has reduced the inflow of sweet water into the lake and is contributing to its increased salination. The location of the Saranda landfill on the slopes above the northern part of the valley is degrading the Kalasa River, which partially feeds into the Butrint Lake. Fires from the landfill have a negative impact on health and quality of life for the inhabitants of the area of Finiqi. The landfill is also a visual detractor as it sits on the major scenic route and includes illegal dumping for several kilometers before and after the site. The sensitivity of the area of the Butrint National Park demands restricted development within the ecological and view shed zones. The clear patterns of habitation should be respected. Risks: The high water tables of the inland valleys make the whole of the valley bottom especially sensitive to the effects of urbanization which could threaten water quality in the area. All development in the Butrint National Park area could threaten the Park’s quality and should be highly regulated. Motorized boat traffic in the Butrint lake and the Alinura bay would impact the ecology of the area. Opportunities: The villages around the Park have begun to develop family hosting facilities in private homes and one would think that a natural outcome of tourism development in the area of Ksamil would lead to a greater demand for these types of facilities. More private initiative should be developed for providing park related services.

Zone 1: Cape Stillo – Sea facing slopes The Natural Landscape: Cape Stillo reaches to almost 300 meters in height and has a form similar to Cape Skales being a rounded ending to a seaside ridge. The cape defines the lagoon area and wetlands of the Butrint National Park near the system’s exit to the sea. The Stillo Mountain contains many valleys descending its slopes in three directions. The largest descends to the sea and ends in a sandy beach with three small islands in the sea, one of which is on the Greek side of the border. Some of the smaller valleys also end in beaches. The western slopes include some sparse cover of maritime pines. Most of the surface is covered in wild grasses and exposed limestone outcroppings. In the spring the area is covered with thick fields of wildflowers. The eastern slopes have scattered maquis trees at the higher elevations and the north end of the cape has some fairly well developed stands of marquis. The Cultural Landscape: There are remnants of what may be prehistoric structures on the northern crest of the site. Although there are no springs, several wells were dug during the Hoxha era. The area has been used traditionally as pasture lands for the shepherds in the area, and is therefore burned regularly contributing to the lack of woody vegetation. The remains of an Italian roadbed connect the site with Skalla. The ridge has a sparse system of trails, some of which descend from Albanian into Greek territory. Remains of defensive military structures are found on the crests. Constraints: The site is very isolated from any vehicular access, the advantage of which has been to preserve a pristine site. There is no significant tree cover, creating a parched and very hot environment in the summer. Most of the cape meets the sea in inaccessible rocky cliffs. No functioning infrastructure is found on the site.

39


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Risks: The perceived lack of developable lands along the coast puts pressure for development on the Cape. Any road access would be visible from the Park and could damage the isolated quality of the site. Opportunities: Since the whole Cape is proposed as an addition to the Park, and since the Park is lacking in some facilities such as a stable and horseback riding system of trails, the western valleys of Cape Stillo could provide a solution to stables and horse ranch eco lodge facilities for the Park. The area could also provide camp grounds for the Butrint National Park in an isolated and sea facing pristine environment. The current proposed location for the Park’s camp grounds is on Mt. Sotiris with unpleasing views directly into Ksamil. The two facilities could be managed by the Park.

1.3.2.2. Landscape categories The summarised overview of the landscape (see tables below) shows the richness of landscape characteristics in the study area. The landscape elements are divided in two major groups, and six subgroups, three for each major group: ƒ

the natural landscape: ƒ landforms (Table 1.4); ƒ water sources (Table 1.5); ƒ vegetation (Table 1.6);

ƒ

the cultural landscape: ƒ planting (Table 1.7); ƒ built elements (Table 1.8); ƒ exploitation of natural resources (Table 1.9).

Each landscape element is judged by the opportunities it offers for coastal development (for both major groups), as well as the risks associated with the continuation of the hitherto development (in the case of cultural landscapes). In addition spatial location for each landscape element is defined. Detailed landscape analysis is presented in Map 15.

40


Physical Context and Resources of the Southern Coastal Region

Table 1.4: The natural landscape – landforms Element

Description

Importance Potential as to sense of tourist place destination

H Macro Ridges

High ridges separating the Albanian coastal zone from the interior Micro Ridges Smaller ridges running perpendicular to the coast Cliffs

Nearly vertical walls of bedrock

Valleys and Canyons

Landforms enclosed by ridges and created by watersheds or deep cut ravines with dense shade + unique vegetation

Caves

Caves resulting from water activity in carstic bedrock

Outcroppings

Small scale bedrock outcroppings that create special interest features

Islands

Small islands in the sea very near to the shore

M

L

H

Major developments, constraints and opportunities

M L ƒ Define the dramatic character of coast at the macro level ƒ High scenic value of views to the clean line against the sky ƒ Have recreational value for alpinist trekking and 4 wheel drive excursions and for macro overviews ƒ Development should be severely limited on the crests ƒ Define the sense of place along the coast for valley sites ƒ Should be kept free of building to ensure that each valley site is perceived as separate and unique ƒ Have scenic value as potential overlooks and destinations for short hikes from tourist village sites ƒ Development should be limited on the crests due to visual sensitivity ƒ Contribute to the drama of the landscape especially when at the seashore ƒ Have scenic and recreational value as potential sites for excursions and contemplative overlooks ƒ Tops of inland cliffs could be considered for development of vacation villas in some cases ƒ Valleys along the coast will be critical areas for new development as they have the potential to screen views of buildings from the natural landscape. ƒ Valleys may provide critical links between the existing highway and the coast for access and infrastructure that will have lower construction impact. ƒ Steep narrow character of canyons are a unique element in the landscape ƒ Some support spring fed streams year round and some include large and very old sycamore trees. ƒ Vuno canyon is unique in that it exits at the shore, slicing through seaside cliffs ƒ Canyons have recreational value as excursion destinations for visitors interested in isolated natural spots reachable by foot from tourist accommodation sites ƒ All development in canyons should be prohibited due to habitat and visual sensitivity ƒ Caves of varying sizes exist in several cliff faces, canyon faces, and at the seaside. ƒ Stalactite and stalagmite formations are found in caves in the Butrint watershed area. ƒ Some include remnants of prehistoric occupation including one in the Butrint watershed near Konispol area which has the distinction of the longest continually inhabited cave in Europe – 27,500 yrs. ƒ Some have historical significance as pirate (Karaburun) and submarine hideouts (Porto Palermo) ƒ The more distinguished caves have a high potential as tourist excursion destinations. ƒ “Trashim” (in the Semitic languages of the Mediterranean) - Large hillside surface cover of eroded sheets of fractured limestone – interesting typical formation found the length of the coast ƒ Exposed, fractured ends of ridges at the sea edge sometimes becoming free standing rocks in the sea – create separation of beaches into smaller coves and micro sense of place ƒ “Pllaka” (in Albanian) – horizontal exposed layered sheets of limestone at the sea edge creating a stepped appearance and easy access into the sea (Kakome and south the Cape Stillo) ƒ “Walls” – eroded sea edge vertical layers of limestone creating freestanding walls in the sea (Kakome) ƒ Are attractive as points of interest for excursions and for sun and sea trips when on the shoreline ƒ 3 occurring of the south coast of the Stillo peninsula (one of them in Greek territory), 4 low lying marsh islands on both sides of the entrance to the Vivari channel at Butrint, 4 rocky islands supporting Maritime Pine at Ksamili, one at Orikum ƒ Important for unique habitats ƒ Contribute greatly to the sense of place from the shore ƒ All areas with rocky outcroppings in the sea and small islands are particularly attractive as destinations for sun and sea, diving, and snorkeling ƒ All development should be prohibited

41


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Table 1.5: The natural landscape – water sources Elem.

Description

Importance Potential as to sense of tourist place destination

Streams and Waterfalls

Mineral water Springs

Springs

Small and Medium volume

High Volume Springs

H Large volume springs of crystal clear mineral water

Springs from trickles to hundreds of liters per hour

Springs in the Butrint Lake area

Spring fed with year round flow of clear water

Rivers

Major watershed collection routes fed by natural springs and rainfall runoff.

42

M

L

H

M

Comments

L ƒ The Syri i Kalter (Blue Eye) spring, in the Butrint watershed area, is the exit of an underground river and is the most famous spring in Albania ƒ The Borshi springs have been developed as a visitor destination (barrestaurant) around very old sycamores trees. The resulting stream creates a waterfall below the village. ƒ High volume springs are potentially major tourist attractions ƒ The trout farms at the entrance to the Blue Eye springs are a visual nuisance and a potential environmental hazard to the springs area. ƒ At Borsh, the building built over the outlet of the river blocks the springs from view and compromises the character of the site. ƒ The coastal zone is dotted with literally hundreds of springs (see landscape inventory map). ƒ Some of the springs were developed as wayside watering points under Ottoman occupation and some were developed as sources of piped drinking water under the Hoxha regime. ƒ Many of the springs have the potential of being developed into points of interest on excursions. ƒ Building and dumping in some areas has degraded or eliminated springs. ƒ Spring and pump house complexes are often (not always) unattractive. ƒ Sea edge springs at Saranda and Qeparo create cold microclimates in the sea, and are visible from above. ƒ Salt water springs exist on the bottom and at the edges of Butrint and Bufi Lakes. ƒ The Roman Villa excavations at Diaporit uncovered a mineral water spring inside the house complex. ƒ Sulpher and other mineral springs may have potential for spa and health tourism development. ƒ The salty springs in the Lake Butrint area are partially responsible (along with the diversion of the Bistrice River) for the increase in salinity of the lake. ƒ Tens of spring fed streams transverse the slopes of the Ionian Coast (see landscape inventory map) ƒ Streams in the area contribute to unique cool microclimates with lush vegetation especially attractive in the summer. ƒ Stream beds are mostly exposed limestone bedrock with various areas of river stones of different sizes. ƒ Stream beds have value as hiking routes and interest for eco tourism. ƒ Streams beds are often used to dump trash and landspill and have been degraded by dumping and general disregard. ƒ Where streams meet cliffs and canyons, waterfalls and other special interest features occur. ƒ The Bistrice, Pavlle, and Kalasa Rivers are all located in the Butrint watershed area and originally fed into Lake Butrint. ƒ The Bistrice River is fed by the Blue Eye Springs, is harnessed down stream for electrical power and has been canalized for much of its length. ƒ Much of the Kalasa river still has a beautiful wild character with large trees ƒ The rivers have potential as sources of visitor activity, from rafting, to fishing, to picnicking and hiking. Especially attractive for adventure and eco tourism ƒ The rivers are being dredged for sand and gravel in ugly operations destroying the limited river landscape. ƒ All the rivers have dumping along their feeder streams. ƒ River valleys create microclimates with special vegetation, landforms, and water features that make them important natural features.


Physical Context and Resources of the Southern Coastal Region

Elem.

Description

Importance Potential as to sense of tourist place destination

H

Marshes

Lakes

Three natural lakes of varying sizes and character

Marshlands at deltas and low lying ancient lake bed areas rich in wildlife

M

L

H

M

Comments

L ƒ The Pasha Limani Lake at Orikum is a shallow lake fed by the Dukati River ƒ The Bufit Lake SE of Butrint is a small briny shallow water-body. ƒ The Butrint Lake is the culmination of a large watershed that exits at the Vivari Estuary Channel near Butrint and is the largest and most important lake in the south of the country ƒ The upper part of Lake Butrint supports fish species but the depths lack oxygen due to degradation of the water quality. ƒ All three lakes have value as wildlife observation areas. ƒ The Butrint lake has tourism potential for development of low impact boating activities, fishing, and some form of transportation for visitors to the many sites along the lake’s shores. ƒ The Butrint lake’s water quality has been compromised by the diversion of the Bistrice river through the Cuka channel. ƒ All lakes along the coast suffer poor water quality from runoff of nearby villages, agriculture, and the dumping of garbage. ƒ Remnants of former large wetland areas are found along some streams, near spring fed areas, near the three lakes, in the Butrint lowlands, and at various points along the river courses. (See landscape inventory maps) ƒ Butrint wetlands are designated by the RAMSAR convention as having international significance. ƒ The marsh areas have potential as wildlife observation areas to be incorporated into excursions and as major points of interest for ecotourism ƒ Drainage of the marshlands for agriculture has affected the water quality of the lakes and reduced habitat for important wildlife species

43


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Table 1.6: The natural landscape – vegetation (see Map 15) Elem.

Sub Element

Description

Forests

High Altitude Pine and Llogara National Forest Fir forests

Maritime Pine

Contribution to Landscape Image ƒ

North and east facing slopes of ƒ coastal valleys in several locations contain small isolated forest stands Stands of pine on the islands ƒ and coast at Ksamili and Cape Stillo ƒ

Mediterranean Conifer Naturalized reforested areas of ƒ Forests Mediterranean pine varieties

44

Watercourse Wildflowers

Groundcovers

Marsh

Riparian Species

Woodlands

Mediterranean Maquis Dense uniform low plant predominated by scrub community found along oak and shrub complete coastal zone pistachio

ƒ

Sparse Oak and Wild Olive (argele in Albanian)

Areas of sparse, very large oak ƒ trees with wild grasses growing as understory. Usually begin widely scattered at lower elevations and become more dense at higher elevations

Various woodland areas

Predominated by elm, oak, ash, ƒ and poplar with wild almond, and wild pear

Riparian: Willow, Poplar, Tamarix, Sycamore, Beech, Catalpa, Red Bud, Wild fig Bushes: Oleander Herbs: Watercress

Native plant community that ƒ depends upon a seasonally wet environment to meet growth and maintenance requirements. Found typically along or close ƒ to streams, rivers, wetland areas, or other water sources

Cane, reed, marsh grasses

Reed-beds associated with wetland areas and along lake shorelines

Flowers: Poppy, Morning Glory, Hollyhock, Violets, Buttercups, geraniums, etc Geophytes: Iris, Cyclamen, Crocus, Garlic, Lilies, orchid, etc.

Particularly rich palette of ƒ wildflowers and geophytes in the landscape. The meeting of European Continental and Mediterranean species results in a wealth of species

ƒ

Traditional Uses

Very important as natural habitat for flora and fauna and including unique trees that are natural monuments Habitat, soil and landscape conservation

Hoxha regime hunting and vacation lodges

With the islands, create the unique landscape of Ksamili Very important to the image of the area Pioneer forests critical to the long term re-establishment of native hardwood forests The maquis is noticeably denser and greener on north and east facing slopes creating and interesting pattern of green, defining slopes, and can grow to within a few meters of beach areas in rocky zones Lend an identifiable character to the landscape from a distance, changing from the impression of a barren landscape in the winter, to an impression of intense green of leaf and understory in the spring and dark green mass offset by golden dry understory in the summer and fall Small remains of larger woodlands provide important habitat and seasonal character to the landscape Flowering red bud in spring, especially dense along some watercourses create spectacular sense of place Pink and white blooming Oleander along stream beds can be quite dense and create a strong visual image from afar, and a strong aroma from up close Provides habitat for related plant and animal species critical to maintaining a rich biodiversity Undisturbed hillsides and fallow fields bloom in broad expanses of single species staggered in their bloom periods so that the landscape appears painted in broad sweeps of color sequentially over a short period of time.

Shade for sunbathers who swim to the islands

Some trees have been adopted for urban landscaping

Reforestation projects on barren hillsides by Hoxha Acorns used as animal feed and greenery used for grazing (especially for goats)

Acorns used as animal feed and understory for grazing of herds Wild olives collected, pressed into expensive oil, trees used as graft base for cultivated olive

Wood burning stoves and charcoal production Many plants have been adopted into the urban palette for public and private gardens

Shade structures, roofing materials herders huts and animal pens, baskets Picking wildflowers is allowed, and is customary to cut them for vases at home


Physical Context and Resources of the Southern Coastal Region

Native Grasses, bushes and broad leafed species

Elem.

Sub Element

Flowering: Asphodel, Rich expanses of wild grasses, Snake Flower, Spanish and shrubs, including flowering broom, Queen Anne’s and aromatic shrubs lace, Yarrow, etc Edible: Wild Cabbage,Pigweed, fennel, thistle, anise, mustard, caper, etc Bushes: Myrtle, Butterfly Bush, Laurel, Other: Jerusalem Sage, Thorn bushes (driza)

Ferns

Contribution to Landscape Image ƒ

ƒ ƒ

ƒ

ƒ Sea fern grass

Herbs and Spices

Description

Large expanses of near 100% cover in open areas and as understory

Herbs: Hyssop, Grow in open areas and as Oregano, Thyme, Bay understory the length of the Laurel, Sage, etc coast Teas: Chamomile, Mint, Mountain Tea, Medicinal: Digitallis, “kidney stone tea”, Birthwort, etc

ƒ

ƒ ƒ

ƒ

Hillsides of Spanish broom blooming in early spring create a heady aroma discernible even from a considerable distance Asphodel blooms in large expanses and covers most of the top of Cape Stillo Myrtle and laurel are part of the Mediterranean maquis and contribute fragrance to the countryside Butterfly bush attracts large numbers of a variety of butterflies in the spring and summer Yellow flowering Jerusalem Sage covers vast areas of the open hillsides Late spring and early summer lush, bright green understory and ground cover in large areas of the coast

Traditional Uses Grasses provide fodder and grazing for flocks and herds Baskets, hats, brooms Wild Cabbage, Pigweed gathered for making “bureke” (vegetable pie) Thorn bushes cut and used as fencing for flocks

Thatching for shade structures

Mountain tea, the national Harvested from the wild herbal drink, grows on highest by villagers in an coastal slopes unsustainable manner Aromatic herbs grow the length of the coast and contribute fragrance to the countryside All of the herbs have traditional use as medicinal teas and potential for tourism market

45


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Table 1.7: The cultural landscape – planting (see landscape inventory maps) Sub Element

Description

Rice Corn Hay

ƒ ƒ ƒ

Fields

Elem.

ƒ

ƒ

Local varieties of grape

ƒ

Vineyards

Olive Walnut Citrus Fruit

ƒ

ƒ Vines: Grape ƒ Trees: Pears, Plums, Peaches, Grapes, Apricot, Mulberry, Walnut, Fig, Almond, Carob, Olive, Fig, Quince, Citrus, Persimmon, etc. Bushes: Pomegranate, Bay Laurel Prickly Pear Cactus Vegetables: Pumpkin, tomato, cucumber, lettuce, onion, green onion, ochre, eggplant, peppers, beans, potato, garlic, squash, melons, spinach, corn, lentils, peas, lima beans, chick peas, carrots, cabbage, cauliflower,etc Agava ƒ

Other

Garden Orchards

Agriculture

Groves

ƒ

Town Squares

ƒ ƒ

Plants in the Designed Landscape

Cemeteries ƒ Promenades ƒ

Public Gardens

Tree of Paradise (ailanthus) Eucalyptus Invasive Species

46

ƒ ƒ

Large scale collective farming of grains implemented during the Hoxha regime Rice was planted in drained wetlands in the Butrint watershed area Wheat was in short supply on the coast under Hoxha due to lack of suitable environment and people of the coast mostly ate cornbread Many fallow fields are reverting to their natural species and environments Some fallow fields are suitable for wetland restoration projects Commercial scale groves planted during the previous regime. Strong contribution to image in the Qeparo, Borsh, Lukova, and Ksamili areas May have some attraction for the development of agro tourism Planted in large vineyards often connected to a small winery especially in the Delvina area (northern Butrint watershed) Large areas were farmed collectively under Hoxha and now stand fallow with rusting remnants of orchard pergola structures Traditional small scale private gardens planted around a dwelling, to provide food for the family. Were also used for family recreation and farmstead purposes. This pattern of subsistence garden gives a clear character to settlements, with grape vines often planted to the south to provide shade, and/or climbing to pergolas above flat roofed structures for shade and cooling of houses in the summer. Often include small plots of grains for food with chaff used as fodder for animals. Prickly pear cactus was planted as plot fences and dividers and the fruit was also eaten. Still in evidence today, especially in choice of tree species, as private garden style in new urban environments. Foods grown in these gardens are basic to Albanian cuisine. Planted on the hillsides above and below the road in the Porto Palermo and the Shen Gjergji area for industrial use in rope making under the Hoxha regime, they now create a recognizable landscape image valued by local residents Traditionally located around one or more very large trees of oak, sycamore, cedar, etc Traditionally planted with dark Italian cypress which has become associated with death as a result, and used very sparingly in other landscape settings The best known promenade on the southern coast, at Saranda, defined by linear planting of palms

Traditional Uses Haystacks and Cornhusk stacks for animal fodder Staple foods Contribute to image of the cyclical landscape

Fruits, nuts, juices and oil Small quantities harvested for wood carving Grapes Grape leaves Wine Raki A clear pattern of vegetation in inhabited areas Shade Structures Hay and Corn shuck Stacks Cactus Fences Basis of Albanian cuisine Rope, medicinal uses for skin treatment (similar to aloe vera) Shade and landmarks Landmarks

Nightly promenading, Urban coastal definition, focus for summer activities Planting palette primarily made up of indigenous Family recreation species such as Oak, Cedar, Pine, Sycamore, ligustrum, oleander, myrtle and herbs, Highly valued by public augmented by very old introduced species such and rapidly as carob, magnolia, mimosa, olive, bougainvillea, disappearing under clematis, wisteria, rosemarie, lavender, rose, iris, construction geranium, ivy, and more recently introduced species such as palm, locust, box elder, and other species Ailanthus is dangerously spreading and taking Shade over the urban landscape. It has also begun to spontaneously appear in the wild. Eucalyptus is considered invasive, has been planted in Archeological zones where its aggressive root system does great damage. It is the largest tree in the urban landscape of the coast but is not spontaneously regenerating


Physical Context and Resources of the Southern Coastal Region

Table 1.8: The cultural landscape – built elements Elem.

Importance to sense of place

Religious Shrines

Memorials

Village Plazas

Bridges

Roads

Cobbled paths

Paths

Walls

H

Description

Comments

Ancient system of retaining walls for groves (mostly olive groves) in the vicinity of traditional villages built of weathered found stone Walls above eye height bordering paths in traditional villages creating walled alleyways in settlements built of plastered or exposed local found stone Retaining walls in traditional villages allowing for construction on slopes built of weathered found stone Traditional dirt or cobbled foot and animal routes connecting settlements to each other and settlements to the coast. Picturesque routes with dramatic views and/or passing through sites of unusual beauty such as valleys, streambeds, and groves. Sometimes clinging to cliffs. Scenic coastal route. The narrow asphalted road is built on top of ancient road alignments in many places. Its narrow winding nature affords dramatic views of the coast.

Require preservation and restoration. Groves could absorb low impact camping, park or picnicking facilities.

M L

Require preservation and restoration and should provide guidelines for infill development in traditional settings. Should provide guidelines for maximum height of cuts into bedrock for the purpose of infill development in traditional settings. Require preservation and restoration. Potential for hiking trails routes. The cobbled routes are of particular importance and often include shrines along their length.

Character should be preserved and although the road surface demands upgrading, the road should not be widened significantly. Speed should be limited by signing, speed bumps, density of roadside vegetation, etc. Layovers should be designed along its length for panoramic views. Parking should be provided at trail heads, picnic areas, overviews, etc. The visual corridor of the road should be protected and all quarrying, landfill, and industrial activities affecting views should be prohibited. Strip development along the road should be prevented. Cobbled vehicular routes near traditional Require preservation and restoration. settlements surfaced with rough natural riverstone. Complex of dirt and gravel roads mostly Potential for 4 x 4 and/or other vehicular adventure outings to out built during the Hoxha regime located on of the way places with magnificent views and to some of the more ridgetops for military purposes and/or in isolated villages. Most roads need upgrading and frequent reagricultural areas for access. grading. Some of the agricultural roads suitable for including in coastal hiking trail route. Coastal road bridges along the scenic Care should be taken not to block the views from bridges by coastal road afford places of unusual roadside building. (This has already happened in some places.) beauty and views, often with the sound Many could be setting off points for canyon and valley hikes. of water. Historic bridges in the Ottoman style along historic routes over streams and rivers

In need of restoration and preservation. Graceful cobbled stone bridges over streams on historic footpaths from villages to the sea and from village to village. Potential as points of interest along hiking trails. Modern plazas in newer settlement New building around plazas should be moderated to preserve areas views and sculptures. Most need upgrading. Historic plazas in traditional villages Require preservation and restoration. Often stone paved open important as element of traditional urban spaces with very old trees at the center. Traditional village layout texture. often included several plazas at different levels of hillside towns. Commemorative and heroic memorials Have historical significance. Many have been vandalized. An built under Hoxha regime as public assessment should be made to determine which of the most works of art important deserve preservation and upgrading. Many built at points of scenic outlook and at village centers. Private memorials built along roadsides Most built in the style of graves with flowers and photographs, in memory of automobile accident these memorials have a disturbing effect and in a way are visual victims supports for the claim that vehicular transportation is dangerous in Albania. Typical of Mediterranean Christian Shrines are often located near water, on promontories, and many landscapes, many shrines and chapels serve ongoing part of religious ceremonial practice of the local are found along modern and ancient population, with places for prayer and/or candle lighting. Vary roads and on prominent points of special from decorative glassed metal boxes at roadsides, to small stone landscape beauty. whitewashed one room chapels with frescos (often defaced). Chapels usually have some large trees planted nearby, and offer a cool, quiet resting place for travelers. In need of protection, upgrading, and restoration.

47


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Elem.

Importance to sense of place

Military Structures

Tunnels

Water Sources

Agricultural Structures

Cemeteries

H

48

Description

Comments

M L Characteristically walled, planted with Italian cypress, with raised flat tombs built of stone, decorated with artificial flowers.

Traditional cemeteries often have very old Italian cypress plantings around the outside edge of the cemetery just inside a 1.5 – 2 meter found stone freestanding wall. Later cemeteries often have a pattern of cypresses along a central pedestrian boulevard. Points of interest for historical and roots visitors. Many in need of maintenance. Traditional structures built for individual Traditional small scale herder structures are built from wood, scale animal husbandry cane and thatch, and provide shelter for herds at night. Many shepherds are migrant, moving into the coastal areas in the winter from the mountains and they also build small living huts from the same materials. These structures are found in the open landscape and inside villages. Shepherds also build fences using an indigenous thorny plant to separate pasture areas and to control the grazing of flocks and herds. Could serve as inspiration for park facilities, beach facilities, etc. Collective farming structures usually built Many abandoned structures are found in the landscape in of concrete and/or stone outlying areas which were previously flour mills, animal pens, wineries, canning factories, cheese and milk product producing structures. Some are interesting as historical remains of communist years. Some have preservation value and should be scheduled for re use as tourist facilities such as hotels, museums, tourist markets, etc Springs Had significance in the traditional use of the landscape and many Wells have built collection areas and shrines. During Ottoman times Fountains used as drinking fountains along roads and paths. Many in need of protection, restoration and upgrading. Most historical fountains in urban park landscapes neglected and in need of protection, upkeep and reconstruction. Ancient aqueducts built of local stone Some remains of ancient aqueducts can be found in the Saranda and brick and Butrint watershed area. However, the length of the coast is Modern era aqueducts built of concrete literally full of Hoxha era irrigation channels. Some are still fulfilling their original purpose. Others may have value for recreational purposes. In need of maintenance and use definition. Watering Ponds Livestock watering ponds dot the landscape in grazing areas. Most filled by site situation by winter rains. Important elements in the husbandry landscape and should be preserved and maintained to encourage continuation of nomadic herd culture where feasible. Strong contribution to local landscape identity. Sasaj tunnel 3.5 km in length, the tunnel is cut through the mountain from the Kalasa river to the coastal slopes continuing in a large canal. Has potential as a very special hiking and perhaps boating route. May have other creative recreational use. Submarine tunnel At Porto Palermo, one exit to the sea side and one to the bay side. Has significance as a historical monument and may have some potential as a museum or recreation site. Should remain outside of any hotel development area and should have public access. Mines Abandoned mines along the coast are hazardous if left untreated. May have some possible recreational reuse. Ancient and historical military structures Always located on prominent landscape forms, their remains serve today as landmarks. Need creative reuse, rehabilitation, and protection as part of tourist attractions on the coast. Could be museums, hotels, restaurants, visitor centers, etc. Modern abandoned military facilities Sometimes include modified historical structures. Most are of little architectural significance. Bunkers and trenches Of great landscape significance as historical landscape sculpture and of interest to visitors. Most should be left as elements defining the coastal hiking trail. Some of the larger bunkers could get reuse as beach/trail facility structures. Gun Embattlements Built on points of military strategic position, usually coinciding with beautiful overlook potential. Are interesting and have historical significance. The most important should be maintained as overlook sites in the landscape, should be upgraded and should be incorporated into trail systems.


Physical Context and Resources of the Southern Coastal Region

Table 1.9: The cultural landscape – exploitation of natural resources Elem.

Negative impact on the landscape

H

Description

Comments

M L Stone quarries in ƒ the coastal zone ƒ

Quarries

ƒ ƒ Sand and gravel quarries in the coastal zone Urban waste

ƒ ƒ

ƒ ƒ

Landfills

ƒ ƒ ƒ

Inert waste

ƒ

Mine shafts and slag dumping

ƒ ƒ

Illegal logging activities Gathering of plants Burning of hillsides

ƒ ƒ ƒ

Cultivation

ƒ

Drainage Irrigation Hydro power

ƒ

ƒ Disposal

ƒ

Fishing with the use of dynamite

ƒ

Fishing

Sewage

Canalization of Rivers and Streams

Agriculture

Native Plants

Mining

ƒ

Stone quarrying operations along scenic routes seriously degrade the visual quality of the coastal zone in several places. Two quarries to the north of Saranda, on the coast, have polluted the environment by the dumping of inert materials into the sea and are an eyesore and visible from the sea on boat outings. Two stone quarries to the east of Saranda on the coastal road pollute the physical and visual environment. Stone quarrying activity at the Muzine Pass from the coastal area into the interior along the major Saranda – Tirana route have defaced the landscape and destroyed a section of the remains of an ancient Roman road route. All quarrying activity in the coastal zone must be limited to areas with no visual or environmental impact on the zone. Existing and abandoned quarry sites demand reclamation projects. Sand and gravel quarrying operations occur in the coastal zone, at the seashores (illegally), along streams and rivers (with concessions at Kalasa and Pavlla) and seriously impact the environmental and visual quality of prime tourism sites. These sites are in need of protection and rehabilitation. Dumping of urban waste in an uncontrolled manner is an acknowledged visual and environmental problem negatively impacting elite tourism potential. The current Saranda landfill site is located directly on the coastal scenic road in a highly visible and ecologically unsound site. Burning is impacting the health of local residents. Delvina’s current site is on the river banks and trash is washed into the river system. Almost every existing tourist develop has a surface dumping grounds nearby, often only slightly off the beach. Bars and restaurants dump directly onto the ground or down slopes at the rear of their establishments. Local residents litter with no control, and bus drivers allow all trash to be thrown onto the roadways from their vehicles. Primarily produced by the construction industry, inert waste is dumped into the sea, along scenic roadways, down mountainsides directly from building sites with no control. Seriously impacting the visual quality of the coastal zone and destroying the environment and ecology of the area. Large scale mining once took place in the eastern part of the Butrint watershed area. Dumping of slag near the mine sites has left areas of unstable soils very susceptible to erosion despite maquis comeback on some slopes. A few mine shafts and tunnels are visible from the coastal road and are not objectionable in themselves, but open shafts are a hazard for visitors to the area. Open shafts and tunnels must be either closed to access, or reused in some imaginative manner. Villagers cut woody vegetation for making charcoal, building fires, building small agricultural structures thus contributing to the continued deforestation of the hills. Villagers collect herbs and spices in an unsustainable manner. Sage has become an endangered species as a result of these practices. Shepherds burn off grasslands each year (Cape Stillo, Karaburun, Porto Palermo, Cape Qifalit, Eremisit Ridge, etc) to keep maquis from making a comeback. They often destroy areas of existing maquis and sometimes forested areas. Although husbandry has a positive cultural landscape value, allowed grazing areas should be defined and regulated to forestall unintentional destruction of the landscape. Although cultivation has a very positive visual image in the cultural landscape, the practices have impacted some areas. At present, agricultural activity is greatly reduced from its former and potential capacity. As tourism numbers grow along the coast, so will agricultural production and perhaps incentives for organic produce would be appropriate. Although the extensive networks of channels for drainage of marshland and irrigation of fields have a pleasing visual component they have seriously impacted the environmental quality of much of the coast. In additional, deteriorating irrigation channels leak water onto the coastal road creating hazardous driving conditions. Hydro electric canals and reservoirs are small scale and of interest in the landscape but of course impact natural riparian habitats. The Saranda pump station often doesn’t function. When this happens, the sewage goes directly into the sea at the bay. In addition there are numerous illegal hook ups of sewage to the storm water drainage system creating an awful smell in the open storm collection drains throughout town and visible raw sewage in the water where the storm drains empty into the bay all along the promenade. A problem for all coastal settlements. The use of dynamite in fishing is damaging the sea bed in places and probably also damaging potential cultural heritage dive sites along the coast (as reported by habitual local divers and snorkelers). Not to mention the negative impact on the fish species.

49


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

1.3.2. Land cover 1.3.2.1. The methodological approach Land cover map of the 5 km coastal strip of the study area has been produced using digital ortho photos (IKONOS) taken in May 2005. The resolution of 1 m allowed coding and vectorisation of built up areas, as well as the main vegetation cover classes, namely: ƒ forests and woodlands; ƒ fields and farmland; ƒ olive plantations and orchards (active as well as abandoned); and ƒ rocky areas with sparse vegetation (maquis). Vegetation cover types have been analysed in photographs by examining differences in tone, texture, and pattern. The following was noted: ƒ

woodlands and forests are easily distinguished from non-forested lands;

ƒ

olive plantations and orchards show a repetitive pattern;

ƒ

non-forested lands have been further interpreted based on the following: ƒ croplands have been distinguished by the presence of ploughed furrows or the straight-line pattern of the previous season’s crop rows; ƒ pastures have been distinguished by the uniform texture on the photographs; ƒ non-pasture open lands appear to be less uniform as the processes of succession may have begun with sparse vegetation such as shrubs, bushes, and small trees, contributing to the mixed texture.

The information obtained from digital ortho photos were further verified using the data and photo documentation collected during the field trip in April 2005.

1.3.2.2. Land cover analysis The land cover classes within the 5 km coastal strip are shown on Map 5 and 17, accompanied by tabular data on the share of each land-cover class within different coastal belts (5 km, 2 km and 0.5 km) and within coastal communes and municipalities (Table 1.10) Analysis of the situation within different coastal belts allows an assessment of the development pressures on the coast itself, as well as the level of artificialisation of the shoreland. The situation in the coastal communes and municipalities is the following: ƒ

ƒ

50

Commune of Himara covers 13,213 ha (132 km2 is the area of the Himara commune in the 5 km belt) or more than 1/3 of the total 5 km belt area of the region (the highest share of all administrative units within the study area). The area of already developed land, both within and outside the so called “yellow” lines, i.e. the area inside which the construction is permitted, is 216 ha (1.6% of the total 5 km belt area). The registered population of Himara including all 9 villages in 2004 was 10,697, which means that the average population density of all built up areas was around 50 inh/ha. The total area of agricultural land, mainly olive groves and orchards, is 2,834 ha (21.4% of the 5km belt area) which makes Himara the first within the study area in absolute terms and the second, after Lukova, in relative terms. The share of bare land and maquis is 74.4%, the second highest, after Saranda.


Physical Context and Resources of the Southern Coastal Region

Table 1.10: Land cover 5,000 m coastal strip Name

Himare Lukove Sarande Finiq Aliko Ksamil Xarre Total

Settlements Fields, mostly Olive plantations and built-up tiled farmland and orchards, areas active or abandoned area (ha) 216 0 2834 % 1.6% 0.0% 21.4% area (ha) 90 0 2,332 % 1.0% 0.0% 25.5% area (ha) 431 203 0 % 13.7% 6.4% 0.0% area (ha) 78 1377 0 % 4.6% 81.6% 0.0% area (ha) 237 2396 0 % 6.0% 60.78% 0.0% area (ha) 105 0 245 % 7.9% 0.0% 18.4% area (ha) 36 1355 3 % 1.2% 43.5% 0.1% area (ha) 1193 5331 5414 % 3.4% 15.0% 15.2%

Forest and Bare land, woodland shrubs and single trees 326 2.5%

9,837 74.4%

757 8.3%

5,941 65.0%

55 1.8%

2,447 77.5%

4 0.2%

227 13.5%

0 0.0%

1,314 33.2%

230 17.3%

751 56.4%

55 1.8%

1,665 53.5%

1,427 4.0%

22,182 62.4%

Total

13,213 100% 9,120 100% 3,136 100% 1,686 100% 3,947 100% 1,331 100% 3,114 100% 35,547 100%

2,000 m coastal strip Name

Himare Lukove Sarande Aliko Ksamil Xarre Total

area (ha) % area (ha) % area (ha) % area (ha) % area (ha) % area (ha) % area (ha) %

Settlements Fields, mostly Olive plantations and built-up tiled farmland and orchards, areas active or abandoned 188 0 2036 3.1% 0.0% 33.8% 49 0 1464 1.1% 0.0% 32.3% 427 115 0 19.4% 5.3% 0.0% 107 500 0 10.9% 51.0% 0.0% 105 0 245 8.0% 0.0% 18.6% 2 420 3 0.1% 29.2% 0.2% 878 1035 3748 5.1% 6.0% 21.8%

Forest and Bare land, woodland shrubs and single trees 41 0.7%

3,756 62.4%

323 7.1%

2,697 59.5%

55 2.5%

1,599 72.8%

0 0.0%

373 38.1%

222 16.8%

746 56.6%

27 1.9%

987 68.6%

668 3.9%

10,834 63.1%

Total

6,021 100% 4,533 100% 2,196 100% 980 100% 1,319 100% 1,439 100% 17,163 100%

500 m coastal strip Name

Himare Lukove Sarande Aliko Ksamil Xarre Total

area (ha) % area (ha) % area (ha) % area (ha) % area (ha) % area (ha) % area (ha) %

Settlements Fields, mostly Olive plantations and built-up tiled farmland and orchards, active or areas abandoned 77 0 521 4.2% 0.0% 28.7% 10 0 400 0.8% 0.0% 33.9% 230 0 0 34.5% 0.0% 0.0% 36 6 0 14.0% 2.4% 0.0% 82 0 122 9.7% 0.0% 14.5% 0 71 0 0.0% 13.8% 0.1% 435 77 1,045 8.0% 1.4% 19.2%

Forest and Bare land, woodland shrubs and single trees 2 0.1%

1215 66.9%

132 11.2%

639 54.1%

8 1.2%

429 64.4%

0 0.0%

217 83.6%

150 17.8%

490 58.0%

3 0.6%

437 85.5%

295 5.4%

3,598 66.0%

Total

1,815 100% 1,182 100% 667 100% 260 100% 844 100% 511 100% 5,450 100%

51


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

ƒ

Commune of Lukova covers 9,120 ha (91 km2 is the area of the Lukova commune in the 5 km belt) or more than 1/4 of the total 5km belt area. Developed land area, both within and outside “yellow” lines is 90 ha (1.0% of the total 5 km belt area). The registered population of Lukova including all 8 villages in 2004 was 8,911 with the average population density of built up areas of around 80 inh/ha. The total area of olive groves and orchards is 2,332 ha (25.5% of the 5 km belt area), which makes Lukova the commune with the highest share of agricultural land of this type. However, most of this land is abandoned. The share of bare land and maquis is 65%, close to the study area average.

ƒ

Municipality of Saranda covers 3,136 ha (31 km2 is the area of the municipality in the 5 km belt) or less than 1/10 of the total 5km belt area. This is a mostly urbanised area, so the structure of land cover is hardly comparable with other coastal communes. Developed urban land area covers 431 ha, which with the 2004 population of around 35,000 makes for an average population density of built up areas of around 80 inh/ha.

ƒ

Commune of Aliko covers 3,947 ha (39 km2 in the area of the Aliko commune in the 5km belt) or 11% of the total 5km belt area. Developed land area, both within and outside “yellow” lines, is 237 ha (6% of the total 5km belt area). The largest share of the commune is agricultural land. Fields, mostly farmland, cover 2,396 ha or 61%. The share of bare land and maquis is 33%, or an area of 1,314 ha.

ƒ

Commune of Ksamili covers only 1,331 ha (13 km2 is the area of the Ksamili commune in the 5km belt), or less than 4% of the total 5km belt area. Developed land area, both within and outside “yellow” lines, is 105 ha (7.9% of the total 5km belt area). It is important to point out that the “yellow” lines shown on the Map 17 are the boundaries of the new draft urban planning study, which anticipates certain growth of urbanised land. The Ksamili registered population in 2004 was 7,124 with the average population density of built up areas of around 68 inh/ha. The total area of olive groves and orchards is 245 ha (or 18.4% of the 5km belt area). The total area of bare land and maquis is 1,314 ha or 56.4%. It is important to note that Ksamili and Aliko have the largest share, after Saranda which is not comparable as an almost fully urbanised old harbour centre, of developed land within the 500 m coastal strip (9.7% and 14%, respectively).

ƒ

Commune of Xarra covers 3,114 ha (31 km2 in the area of the Xarra commune in the 5 km belt), or slightly less than 9% of the total 5 km belt area. Developed land area, both within and outside “yellow” lines, is only 36 ha, or only 1.2% of the total 5km belt area. The land cover structure indicates predominant agricultural character of the commune with 1,355 ha, or 43.5% of agricultural land, mostly fields. The total area of bare land and maquis (Cape Stillo) is 1,665 ha or 53.5%. There are no built up areas within the 500 m coastal strip.

Map 16 shows all the built up areas on the ortho photo as a base map. The analysis of distribution, average size and fragmentation of the built up areas indicates largely uncontrolled development, and weak or non-existent growth management in all settlements. This process of uncontrolled urbanisation is differentiated only by its intensity in particular coastal settlements, where Saranda, Ksamili and Himara could be considered as “the leaders”. The result is sprawl development, which does not provide for a regulated system of public spaces or a decent built form, and makes provision of urban infrastructure much more expensive and technically difficult. Map 17 presents the main land-cover classes together with the boundaries of buildable land (“yellow” lines) as designated by the statutory planning documents (mostly provided by the Vlora Region Planning Department and MOTAT). The analysis of these plans, with the

52


Physical Context and Resources of the Southern Coastal Region

“yellow” lines superimposed on the ortho photos, enabled the comparison of actually built up areas with the areas encircled by the “yellow” lines. Subsequently, the areas presumably built illegally were identified. Although the quality of the original hard copy maps containing the yellow lines has been rather poor, while digital ortho photos may bring some positional accuracy errors, this analysis has clearly indicated the distribution, size and number of the zones with illegally built buildings. It is important to point out two types of illegal development* that can be identified in the study area. The first type of illegal development relates to the construction outside the “yellow” lines, which means an action against the capital provision of the statutory planning document. The second one relates to the construction within the “yellow” lines, which means inside the designated land use, but without the building permit. The land cover analysis that we have performed, where actually built up areas were compared with the areas within the “yellow” lines where construction is allowed, helped us identify only the first of the two mentioned types of illegal development. The analysis of the second one is much more difficult, almost impossible, because of the impossibility to obtain records of the legal status of buildings constructed within the “yellow” lines. However, the analysis of the first type of illegal development is much more relevant from the planning point of view, because the resulting development is much more harmful for the utilisation of the development potential of the area. It also shows the real extent of this problem. Table 1.11: Developed land outside of the “yellow lines” area (based on Ortho photos) Settlement

Area (ha) Comment

Palase Dhermi Ilias Vuno Vuno – coastal segment Gjileke Old Himara Himara – the outskirts Himara – centre Qeparo Borsh Piqeras Lukova Shen Vasil Nivice Bubari Saranda

8 4 3 3 4 20 12 4 14 3 5 4 -

Gjashta and Metoq Cuka Ksamil

70 30 3

Total

No “yellow” lines available Includes extension towards the coastal zone

No “yellow” lines available Coastal segment Includes coastal segment Sprawl plus coastal segment No “yellow” lines available New plan, just approved, has brought all illegal buildings within new “yellow” lines New plan, just approved, legalised a large section of previously illegal buildings, i.e. extended “yellow lines

187

Source: PAP/RAC, 2005

Table 1.11 shows the land outside the “yellow” lines where buildings have been constructed. These buildings could, therefore, be considered as illegal because under no circumstances their owners could have obtained the building permit. Also, they fall within the first category of illegal buildings, as explained above. Although the total size of these areas, due to

*

There is another possible typology of illegal development which is based on the ownership of land on which illegal structure is put up.

53


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

possible positional errors, could be taken with some reservation (plus or minus, say 10%), we are still confronted by a colossal problem. Rough calculation shows that, if we estimate that there are 8 to 10 buildings per hectare, we are still talking about 1,500-2,000 illegal buildings. This calculation doesn’t take into consideration very large tracts of land in Saranda and Ksamili where recent plans have simply extended the “yellow” lines making, thus, illegal buildings possibly legal “overnight”. Although they could obtain a building permit now, the structural causes of that illegal development and the resulting problems have not disappeared at all. A deeper analysis of the causes of these processes, particularly originating in the planning system itself, and to some extent within the society as whole, is given in Chapter 5. However, analysing the recent coastal development in the physical context, in particular the land-use change, the future planning proposals and policy actions should consider: ƒ

re-urbanisation through: ƒ consolidation of the settlements’ fabric and containment of uncontrolled spreading within clear and respected settlement growth boundaries; ƒ provision of adequate street corridors and infrastructure, where necessary through reconstruction; and ƒ provision of public open and green areas in the urbanised areas.

ƒ

special protection of the coastal area presently not being subject to the uncontrolled development (usually in the strip of up to 1km from the shoreline).

ƒ

land identified as agricultural, be it olive groves and orchards (mostly in the northern part of the study area in the Lukova and Himara communes), or fields and tiled farmland in the south around the Butrinti lake, should be protected as a development asset. Although partly abandoned, it indicates great regional potential, specially given the expected tourism development, and requires protection not only as a productive resource but also as a part of the cultural landscape. There are indications that some communities would like to maintain their agrarian character as an important tourism cultural and environmental asset.

1.4. Physical context and resources: Opportunities, constraints and risks The Ionian Coast of Albania, and in particular its coastal zone within the 5km strip, is an area with abundant natural resources. The long history of settlement in this area is a proof that this fact has been recognised long time ago by the current inhabitants' predecessors. Although the coastal land is steep, where the mountains sometimes dramatically touch the sea, a relatively orderly system of settlements has been developed. The region's inhabitants have fully utilised the natural opportunities to lay down their settlements. A system of valleys in the hinterland of the coastal zone has been intelligently used for agricultural production. In spite of the recent history, when some of the development logic has been turned upside down, the study area still contains a number of natural opportunities that might be fully utilised for its future development, namely: ƒ

The dramatic landscape and seascape is probably the primary attraction of the southern Albanian coast for tourists. Properly respected and sensitively developed, it can maintain its primary positive qualities, become accessible to the international visitor, and become the primary memory of the visitor to the coast.

ƒ

The region has probably the most beautiful beaches of the country. Although they are mostly rocky (with few long sandy or pebble beaches, see Map 3), contrary to lengthy

54


Physical Context and Resources of the Southern Coastal Region

sandy beaches along the northern coast, they are very attractive and, if the quality of coastal waters is maintained, they can become one of the most important factors of the Albanian tourist attraction. ƒ

Numerous terrestrial and marine ecosystems contain many rare and important species that create a solid basis for rich biodiversity in the region. Many existing and proposed protected areas are primarily aimed at the conservation of biodiversity, but could also be utilised for a specific type of tourism development that will contribute to the increase of well-being of the local population. The Butrinti National Park, a combination of rich biodiversity and important historic monument, is a recognised international site already being visited by many tourists.

ƒ

Overall, the region is rich in fresh water, although the southern part of the region is much richer than the northern one. The water is of good quality and relatively safe from pollution.

ƒ

The climate is mild and offers good opportunities for a relatively long tourist season.

ƒ

In spite of recent uncontrolled physical development resulting, in many places, in sprawl, the land is still abundant and offers many opportunities for growth in most of the settlements. Many villages are still very attractive with well preserved authentic historical character. Agriculture has always been a traditional economic occupation of the local population, the fact that has resulted in very interesting and high-quality cultural landscape all over the region, which could be renewed becoming a source of sustained income for local population.

Any future development option should take into consideration a number of constraints that limit the availability of natural resources of the region. Landform and slopes; quality of soils; quality of vegetation cover; areas of historical land use for habitation, transportation, and agriculture with a high value for the area’s image; sensitivity of ecosystems and habitat; access to infrastructure; should all be carefully protected, which could limit the availability of areas suitable for future development, particularly the one based on tourism. Above all, particular attention should be given to the risks that are either inherent to some of the resource systems of the region, or man-made, i.e. associated with the current or future development processes, namely: ƒ

Development with a lack of respect for landform, vegetation, agriculture, historical landscape elements, ecosystems and habitat could compromise the attractiveness of the coastal areas for tourism development.

ƒ

The area is a part of a larger seismically active region but catastrophic seismic events have not occurred in the recent past. That doesn't, however, mean that precautionary measures should not be taken in order to reduce this risk.

ƒ

Due to the structural composition, some areas in the central coastal zone are not fully suitable for construction (Map 2), and additional measures should be taken into consideration when construction takes place.

ƒ

Some areas are exposed to flood risk because they are either laying too low (with an additional risk of being prone to negative consequences of the sea level rise), or are within the stream buffer zones (Map 2).

ƒ

Uncontrolled physical development carries multiple risks with it. In addition to the above mentioned risks to the landscape, it could, inter alia, endanger water resources if getting too close to safety sanitary zones around important springs and/or aquifers, consume high quality land aimed either for agriculture or other highly profitable activities such as tourism, reduce high visual quality of coastal settlements, etc.

55


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

ƒ

There is a risk of lack of water in the northern part of the region, particularly if the future development does not respect its environmental carrying capacity.

ƒ

Biodiversity could be exposed to the risk caused by over-fishing, over-hunting, animal disturbance, and intentional forest fires to clear up the land for construction.

56


2

Socio-Economic Development: Driving Forces

2.1. Analysis of demographic processes and economic development 2.1.1. Population size, distribution and dynamics This section examines the population size and dynamics mainly for purposes of analysing the present and future labour force availability. Reliable figures are scarce and several assumptions are made for working purposes. For information collection purposes, the study area has been sub-divided in 6 units: municipalities of Himara and Saranda, and communes of Lukova, Aliko, Ksamili and Xarra (Map 6). The geographical mobility of labour is one of the important responses to the lack of employment in Albania. During the period 1997-2001, each year, 8-10% of Albanian males of the age between 15 and 34 were part of the employment-related emigration, mostly to Italy and Greece. For men of age 35-64 the percentage was 3% increasing to 5% in 2001. More than 80% of temporary migrants are young men below the age of 35 (Albania: Sustaining Growth Beyond Transition, World Bank, 2004). For women, emigration is much weaker. In the mountain areas the emigration rates are twice as high, in the southern coastal region estimated to be just under that level, while Tirana experiences immigration. It is estimated that the average wage earnings are about three times higher than the earnings in the jobs engaged in prior to emigration. The savings of the emigrants are mostly repatriated to Albania, and the vast majority of migrants (66-79%) express strong willingness to return to Albania. The population data for municipalities and communes are given in Table 2.1 and Table 2.2. There are 2 sources of data for this table: the Vlora Region Profile (2003), and the population study prepared by the PAP/RAC consultant specifically for this project (2005). In the study area, emigration rate is below the national average but remains important, particularly in the Municipalities north of Saranda. The emigration trend is reflected in the Vlora Region Profile (2003). In the Himara Municipality the resident population in 2001 is reported to be 3,214 while the registered population in 2000 is quoted as 10,057. The difference is attributed to temporary emigration. Likewise, in the Municipality of Saranda the corresponding population figures are 15,259 and 31,571 respectively. While the registered population of Himara and Saranda together is reported to be 41,628, 23,155 (56%) seem to be working abroad as migrant labour for at least a large part of the year. The PAP/RAC study quotes population figures (2004) for Himara 10,697 and for Saranda 34,226. According to the Vlora Region Profile, the difference between the resident and the registered population for the whole area as shown above (assumed to be the level of migrant population) is 36,516, implying a percentage of migrant population of 58%. The PAP/RAC figures (2004) and the Vlora Region Profile figures (2000) seem to be close with respect to the registered population.

57


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Table 2.1: Population data Area

Vlora Region Profile Resident 2001

Municipality of Himara Municipality of Saranda Commune of Aliko1 Commune of Ksamili Commune of Lukova Commune of Xarra Total

PAP/RAC

Registered 2000

1989

2004

3,214 15,259

10,057 31,571

9,441 19,000

1,943 3,396 2,246 26,058

5,857 8,866 6,223 62,574

1,852 8,056 5,450 43,799

10,697 34,226 3,353 7,124 8,911 6,811 71,122

% growth

13.3% 80.1% 284.6% 10.6% 24.9% 54.7%

Source: Vlora Profile 2004; PAP/RAC, 2005 1 only the settlements Cuka and Berdenesh (location in coastal region)

Table 2.2: Settlements population dynamics 1926-2004 Settlements 1926 I Himara Municipality 8,043 1 Dhermi 1,817 2 Gjileke (with Dhermi) 3 Himara Town 1,786 4 Ilias (with Vuno) 5 Kudhes 508 6 Palase 682 7 Pilur 651 8 Qeparo 1,120 9 Qeparo-Fushe (with Qeparo) 10 Vuno 1,479 II Orikum Municipality 3,337 1 Dukat 1,840 2 Dukat-Fushe (with Dukat) 3 Orikum Town 4 Radhime 405 5 Tragjas 1,092 III Saranda Municipality 853 1 Gjashta 35 2 Metoq (with Gjashta) 3 Saranda Town 818 4 Shelegar IV Ksamili Commune 1 Ksamili V Lukova Commune 4,800 1 Borsh 937 2 Corraj 556 3 Fterre 448 4 Hundecave 99 5 Lukova 470 6 Nivice-Bubar 861 7 Piqeras 798 8 Qazim Pali (with Borsh) 9 Sasaj 173 10 Shen Vasil (Perparim) 458 VI Xarra Commune 964 1 Mursi 757 2 Shkalle (Kllogjer) 3 Vrine 72 4 Xarra 135 TOTAL 17,997 Source: PAP/RAC, 2005

58

Population Dynamics 1945 7,487 2,053 2,069 484 702 483 814 882 4,257 2,544 564 1,149 1,491 263 115 1,113 75 75 4,404 744 514 559 529 789 658 186 425 1,259 835 133 85 206 18,973

1950 9,964 1,385 3,986 726 903 750 1,134 1,080 5,348 3,426 544 1,378 1,777 187 95 1,495 5,673 860 730 693 39 672 1012 826 229 612 1,550 1,092 169 69 220 24,312

1960 8,698 1,601 4,001 580 509 435 866 706 4,880 2,504 1,008 421 947 6,616 364 209 6,043 4,622 1,088 371 460 629 838 540 217 479 2,225 929 419 419 458 27,041

1969 1979 8,043 7,832 1,545 1,358 2,895 4,498 778 402 468 411 584 289 1,028 530 745 344 6,065 7,311 3,128 3,495 1,399 2,175 476 539 1,062 1,102 8,805 13,095 523 2,338 877 (w. Gjashta) 7,405 10,757 765 765 5,630 6,263 1,431 1,022 367 302 415 364 895 1,043 927 874 761 788 697 232 215 602 958 4,102 4,509 1,470 1,607 480 540 680 745 1,472 1,617 32,645 39,775

1989 9,441 1,341 4,601 100 759 328 638 1,170 504 8,565 3,876 2,832 703 1,154 19,000 1,738 1,589 15,673 1,852 1,852 8056 1,213 301 392 1,872 898 917 796 280 1,387 5,450 1,887 617 975 1,971 52,364

2004 10,697 620 935 5,284 110 868 408 497 1,500 475 10,290 1,485 2651 4,194 786 1,174 34,226 2,343 1,801 29,805 277 7,124 7,124 8,911 1,280 267 291 2,266 959 1,140 1,186 288 1,234 6,811 2,252 707 1,561 2,291 78,062


Socio-Economic Development: Driving Forces

The following conclusions could be drawn as regards the population dynamics in the study area: ƒ

The growth of the registered population between 1989 and 2004 results equal to about 55% (more than doubling of the population). The highest growth is shown to be in the Saranda Municipality and Ksamili Commune, both predominantly urban areas.

ƒ

The issue which remains to be discussed, however, is the permanent resident population of the area being the base for the available labour force. Assuming that the temporary migrant population (which could be as much as 55% of the total population) will be potentially participating in the area’s labour force when future employment is generated, the labour pool will be close to 40,000 (60% of the population) posing no problem, from the point of view of numbers, for supporting tourism development.

ƒ

If half of the labour force is available for employment in the tourism sector (both direct employment in the accommodation sector and the indirectly generated broad service sector) the number of tourist beds that may be supported could by far exceed the planned level of development for the foreseeable future.

ƒ

Service skills will be the main constraint together with important environmental considerations. Certainly, future labour force is unlikely to continue growing at the same pace as in the past 15 years which has been exceptional from all points of view.

ƒ

Himara Municipality and Lukova Commune are shown to lag behind in terms of population growth. This is a constraint but also a policy challenge to create development opportunities in the Northern Section of the study area, as it is obvious that population growth follows job opportunities. It is therefore well justified to allocate planned tourism provision focused on Himara as complementary to urban tourism and as a strategy for diversification and protection of tourism against competition from other destinations.

2.1.2. Economy of the Area The brief analysis of the economy of the study area is intended to provide a broad understanding of the present structure of the economy (together with its production and consumption patterns) on the basis of which to appreciate the opportunities and constraints for future development and its broad consequences. Given the objectives of promoting sustainable economy of the study area that will take fully into consideration its natural resources and environmental carrying capacity, it is important to see how development options will impact on the area’s economy and what beneficial outcomes can be expected. The economy of the area is reflected in what it produces. Likewise, future opportunities depend on what it can (or should) produce in the future. This section will review what the area produces, how, and for which market. Unfortunately, there are no reliable local-level statistics pertaining to the study area as such, and even aggregate figures are patchy and inconclusive. For the purpose of this analysis rough figures will be used obtained through interviews conducted during the field visit to the area. In the study area, as in many other parts of Albania, there is a large ‘informal sector’ comprising small-scale trading activities in which employment is part time and unrecorded in statistics. The economy of the study area may be described as ‘dual’, urban economy with a large construction and service sector in and around Saranda in the southern part of the region, and predominantly rural economy in the Northern Section. In the latter part, economic activities are limited and the communities are characterised by population loss and lack of development (see section 2.1.1). The analysis of the economy below reflects more the urban economy focused on Saranda.

59


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

The productive sectors are mainly three: construction, services and agriculture: ƒ

Construction is the largest sector both in terms of employment and output. It is estimated that this sector accounts for as much as half of the total employment and around 40% of the total output (value added). The predominance of the construction sector is evident from the presence of new construction activity all over the area of Saranda and its outskirts bulging into the countryside in all directions.

ƒ

The service sector (including shops, banking, insurance and restaurants) is growing rapidly and is estimated to account for about 30% of the employment and approximately half of the output (value added). The service sector is partly dependent on tourism and construction as it serves the needs generated by these activities as well as the needs of the local population. Tourism is a small but growing sector, presently limited to about 3,000 beds, utilised during the two-month short tourist season. The growing opportunities for tourism stimulate investment in buildings far ahead of demand as revealed by the large stock of newly-built vacant units (about 1,300 in Saranda).

ƒ

Agriculture is the smallest sector and shows a declining trend reflecting the consequences of urbanisation and population emigration to Greece and Italy. It is estimated that agriculture accounts for 20% of employment and 10% of the value added. Despite the availability of sufficient agricultural land within the study area as a whole, agricultural production is low due to the shortage of resident young labour force and the reluctance of young population to opt for employment in agriculture rather than seek employment abroad. The area ‘exports’ wage labour force to neighbouring Greece and Italy, who nevertheless participate in the area’s expanding ‘summertime economy’ when wage employment becomes seasonally available. Seasonal labour force does not engage in agriculture which is in practice the domain of the elderly rural population. It is estimated that about half of the food on the market of Saranda is imported from other regions and abroad. Locally produced food is limited to traditional cheese, milk, olives, olive oil and meat. Fruits, vegetables, beverages, alcoholic drinks, are mainly imported.

The production activity of the study area is generally dependent on ‘imported’ inputs, particularly building materials and fertilisers, as the industrial base is weak. Land (both agricultural and urban) in almost all the parts of the study area belongs to private owners residing in the area or temporarily abroad. Financing is available through the banking system and through remittances from abroad and repatriated savings. The production of the economy of the study area is largely consumed by the local market. Construction is an exception having strong links to external markets. Construction activity produces partly for the growing local housing market, which grows due to urbanisation, and partly for the expected future tourism demand. It also acts as an avenue for investment in real estate for repatriated savings accumulated by labour employed abroad. The duality of the economy (short high-season summer economy and long low-season winter economy) means that in the summer a larger population creates additional demand that is partly met by local production and to a greater extent by imports. The local population is too small to generate sufficient demand to secure sustained income and employment growth. Local population and its likely growth will be inadequate to provide the additional purchasing power to employ the presently idle resources in the area. Thus, it is evident that the economy of the study area needs a strong ‘export sector’ to achieve this goal. Tourism is the obvious sector which should be relied upon to create market demand for labour force and agriculture.

60


Socio-Economic Development: Driving Forces

2.1.2.1. Strategic development potentials for the future The future development of the study area should secure three important interrelated longterm objectives: ƒ Income and employment generation (economic growth); ƒ Sound management of environmental resources (integrated environmental management); ƒ Social regeneration and poverty alleviation (‘inclusion’ of the local communities in development). The achievement of these objectives implies significant changes to the existing economic, environmental and social conditions which are associated with the following: ƒ dependence of income and employment on remittances from abroad; ƒ inadequate management of environmental resources; ƒ weak planning enforcement; and ƒ presence of rural and semi-rural communities facing decline and abandonment. Generally, the study area lacks sustained sources of employment and adequate linkages across sectors of the economy (agriculture, tourism, services, etc.) to generate income growth remaining in the area. Hence the high percentage of the local labour force employed abroad. The main growth centre is the urban economy of Saranda which absorbs wage earning labour force from the surrounding settlements (from Butrinti in the south to Palase in the north), while the ageing population of those settlements obtains supplementary income from remittances and part time agriculture. The largest sector in Saranda is construction, stimulated more by speculative investment of foreign earned employment income in real estate than by the needs of the local economic activity for building accommodation. A significant part of the urban economy is ‘informal sector’, small-scale unregistered trading activities, mainly practised as short-term filling-in family-based employment between work abroad. Agriculture is an unfavourable option for the majority of the economically active population who chose to work in Greece and Italy instead. Obviously, emigration and population drain reduce the demand for locally produced agricultural goods. Even tough land titles are rapidly becoming privately owned through land restitution, investment in agricultural land use on a commercial basis is unattractive compared to investment in land for housing, commercial and tourism related premises in expectation of future demand. Tourism, in spite of stronger recent growth, is still more of a future promise than an actual income earner. The development choices available to the study area may be summarised as follows: ƒ

Continuation of the existing situation with dependency on remittances from abroad being the main source of income and employment growth. This is hardly a sustainable option; it holds limited prospects for economic revitalisation, environmental improvement and social regeneration through wider participation in development benefits.

ƒ

Adopting a supply side / economic growth-driven strategy with emphasis on mass construction and increase in tourism numbers will expose the area to regional price competition, negative environmental impacts and spatial over-concentration of tourism in the urban and peri-urban centres limiting opportunities for inclusive development in the coastal rural settlements.

61


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Adopting an integrated development strategy based on tourism focused on the area’s environmental comparative advantage and environmental carrying capacity, and as a prime-mover in generating demand-driven development across sectors (agriculture, services, construction, small scale manufacturing, etc.). This development strategy is most likely to achieve a combination of economic, environmental and social objectives. A major element in this strategy will be the strong linkage of tourism with environmental protection where quality will be a major asset protected by the tourism market itself. In parallel, tourism will generate demand for cross-sector production (primarily agriculture) creating new employment position for the younger age groups now seeking employment abroad.

ƒ

Tourism being a composite economic activity presents several advantages to be the focus (prime mover) of the integrated development strategy for the study area, in particular because of the following: ƒ

Strong linkage between economic development and environmental protection. Sustainable tourism depends on its profitability and performance, part from good management and skilled labour, and part from the high quality of the environment. Therefore, sustainable tourism, rather than being a threat to the environment, could create market-based incentives for environmental protection.

ƒ

Strong inter-sectoral multiplier effects. Tourism creates spending on services, transport, small-scale manufacturing, crop and animal agricultural products, etc.

ƒ

Inclusion of local communities in development. Sustainable tourism development could create opportunities for local communities to invest in facilities either by families or by joint ventures providing a basis for local ownership and regeneration of local communities now facing the threat of disintegration. Table 2.3: Major spatial units in the study area, from socio-economic point of view Northern Section: South of Karaburuni Peninsula to Kakome Bay (outskirts of Saranda city)

Southern Section: From Saranda city to Butrinti Park

Rural settlements Low development pressure Low, declining and ageing population Low income Inadequate infrastructure services Tendencies for community disintegration Idle resources (agricultural land, empty housing) Little or no economic benefit from environmental quality Development implications: To promote tourism opportunities as a means of activating the local economy, preventing further decline and engaging environmental quality into market development

Urban area (in and around Saranda) Development pressures and urban sprawl south of Saranda Illegal scattered housing in and around Saranda almost up to Butrinti park Rapid population growth Higher income Existing network of infrastructure Development pressures on the environment (inadequate development control) Development implications: To utilise the existing tourism development potential and the presence of urban support services for earlier tourist ‘take off’

Tourism is a general concept which on the ground, in its development and operation, can take different forms with diverse spatial, economic, social and environmental implications. Tourism must be given a more precise meaning based on its characteristics and what it means to achieve in the study area. Evidently, the success of tourism in fulfilling the role of the prime mover towards integrated development of the study area will depend on the

62


Socio-Economic Development: Driving Forces

building type, scale, quality, ownership and location of tourism development. This means that tourism development should be planned according to the resource base, economic and social needs and environmental carrying capacity of the study area and the opportunities and constraints of each locality for fulfilling the above three success criteria (economic / environmental linkages, inter-sectoral multiplier, and inclusion of local communities). Taking in consideration all the above-mentioned factors, the broad development profile of the study area comprises the following two main spatial units/sections – the Northern and the Southern sections – with the respective basic features (Table 2.3):

2.1.2.2. Economic benefits from tourism If tourism looks like being among the prime economic activities in the future, then it is necessary to estimate what economic benefits it might bring for the local population. This would not, however, be the only factor to be taken into consideration when decisions regarding the future development option of the study area are taken. But it would certainly help if a simulation of the potential economic benefits from tourism could be made so early in the planning phase. Tourism development areas provide the spatial focus for potential tourism development in which building design and planning control policies will be proposed as part of the Integrated Development Plan of the Southern Albanian Coastal Region. At this planning stage, these spatial units should be reviewed as the locations for promoting an Integrated Development Strategy and for an estimation of the potential economic benefits. In this section, the socioeconomic significance of the tourism development areas will be reviewed, while their physical characteristics (size, coastal features, road access, suitability for development, etc.) will be reviewed in Chapter 4 of this Report . Based on the analytical procedure performed elsewhere in this report the tourism development areas generally fall into three categories: a)

Areas located in parts of the study area without immediate proximity to settlements and existing development centres, most of them in the Northern Section (Palase, Dhermiu, Jala/Vouno, Porto Palermo, Quperoi, Borsh, Piqeras/Lukova, Kakome Bay).

b)

Areas located near population/development centres (adjacent to Saranda urban area, Cuka-Aliko, Ksamili).

c)

Intermediate areas close to small rural settlements and existing development areas (Himara –Livadi, Limani and Potami).

Following on from the above, three pilot areas have been selected to identify the possible economic benefits from future tourism development: Himara (rural municipality), Ksamili (urbanised community), and Palase-Lukova (cluster of rural communities). For the quantification purposes, it is assumed that the first two areas (Himara and Ksamili) will be developed over the next 15-year period (2020), and the northern area (Palase – Lukova) over the next 20-year period (2025). It should be noted that this assumption is a highly hypothetical one and should not be taken as a definitive statement. Each area is envisaged to plan future tourism development relative to its location, economic and environmental potentials and social objectives. Himara, occupying an intermediate position in the study area with regard to location, population size and environmental character, could combine coastal and village-based accommodation facilities at a lower medium density (20% plot ratio, about 30 beds per gross ha). Ksamili, being at the rim of the urbanised area of Saranda with easy access to infrastructure services and labour pool, is more suitable for medium-level density (plot ratio of up to 25%, about 40 beds per gross

63


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

ha) hotel accommodation as part of comprehensive tourism development. The Palase – Lukova area includes a cluster of rural communes at the northern edge of the Study Area. Due to its location, population and poor infrastructure development, it should be at a low density (10% plot ratio about 16 beds per gross ha), taking also into account their environmental profile. The numerical calculations involved in the estimation of the future income growth contain assumptions in order to arrive at approximate results (e.g. occupancy rate 80%, gross floor area per bed 35 m2, cost per m2 USD 400, etc., employment generation per bed, etc.). When more accurate statistics become available at a later stage for planning purposes the results may be reviewed accordingly. The calculations for all three areas show that considerable economic benefits could be achieved from tourism development. Detailed calculation of economic benefits for three areas is given in Annexes 1, 2 and 3. From the social point of view, it is possible to envisage that in the rural tourism development zones (Himara, Palase – Lukova) there should be greater opportunities for community participation in development through mobilisation of local capital sources and joint ventures with other development enterprises. In Ksamili, where ‘mass tourism’ markets should play a major role, community participation may be expected to be relatively lower.

2.1.3. Social assessment Albania is now beyond the stage of transition and on to the verge of sustainable growth. Nevertheless, despite impressive performance in many sectors of the economy, society continues to suffer from the presence of poverty and relative deprivation affecting primarily the most vulnerable groups of unemployed women, the elderly and those rural regions with inadequate access to education and health services. The southern coastal area and Tirana are among the more developed parts of Albania. According to the national and regional statistics (Population and Housing Census 2001 INSTAT, Vlora Region Profile, 2004) the study area has lower unemployment rates (see Map 7) and higher income levels. However, the UN Human Development Report 2005 identifies the sources of poverty in lack of income, sense of ‘voicelessness’ and vulnerability to shocks. Social reconstruction, one of the basic objectives of the National Strategy for Social and Economic Development (NSSED), requires deeper transformation beyond income growth including the development of capacities and opportunities for participation of women and the rural population in private sector investment and in SMEs. Achieving growth requires not only mobilisation of physical and financial resources to implement development projects but also mobilisation of human resources to participate in development projects and thus make the development process more participatory and inclusive. Obviously, the social benefits from development projects, and the distribution of those benefits, will depend on who participates in the development process and in what capacity. The more ‘inclusive’ the development process the higher the social benefits will be. At present, about a fifth of the economically active population of Albania, and a little less of the active population of the Study Area, are employed abroad earning roughly USD 200 million a year (Sustaining Growth Beyond Transition, World Bank, 2004).

Tourism Development and Social Assessment Tourism development in the study area involves three important elements: ƒ

investment and management of tourism establishments, being capital- and knowledgeintensive;

ƒ

the servicing and operation of tourism establishments, which are mainly labour-intensive;

64


Socio-Economic Development: Driving Forces

ƒ

planning decisions for sustainable tourism development, which are a mixture of technical capacities and social inclusiveness to create and distribute income opportunities from tourism.

At this present stage of the development of the economy of the study area, capital resources are the main limiting factors and will, in the initial ‘take-off’ phase, have to be attracted from the international market. Labour force in the study area is potentially available locally but in the short run it is greater than the presently available jobs, and that is why it is ‘exported’ to the neighbouring countries. It seems logical that the ultimate social impacts of tourism development will depend on the participation (and inclusion) of the emerging private sector in development beyond the mere supply of wage labour for construction and unskilled service personnel at hotels. Tourism development potential of the study area is high and lends itself to a two-pronged strategy reflecting the spatial and environmental profile of the area. In the first stage, an early development would take place in the wider urbanised area of Saranda (Saranda and Ksamili), where infrastructure, location and topography are conducive to early development and job creation at least cost. In the second stage, smaller-scale development in the northern part of the study area utilising the environmental and heritage assets of the rural communities in and around the Himara Municipality would materialise. Apart from the spatial advantages of adopting this dual tourism development strategy, combining urban masstourism facilities and village-based ‘environment-intensive’ tourism, the social advantages will be significant in ensuring participation opportunities in tourism development for the local communities and establishing a base for sustainable rural regeneration in the northern area presently on the verge of disintegration and abandonment. The social assessment of the two types of tourism development is given in the Table 2.4. Given that tourism development presents itself as the most important driving force for economic development in the study area, the task of social assessment is to consider: ƒ

the combination of development options comprising the strategy to be pursued;

ƒ

the main actors likely to be involved in tourism development, and

ƒ

the opportunities for community participation as actors in the development process.

The modes of community participation in tourism development may be characterised by participation opportunities in the following: ƒ

participation in investment – who will be the main investors in the development of the tourism establishments;

ƒ

participation in management – who will be the main managers of the establishments;

ƒ

participation in planning decisions – who will take the main decisions on the location, quality, density and design of tourism development;

ƒ

participation in the supply of land and in the gains in land values – whose land will be included in tourism development;

ƒ

participation in the job market – who will provide the labour force in the operation of the tourism establishments; and

ƒ

participation in small and medium-size enterprises (cafes, restaurants, agricultural farms, handicraft, etc.).

As a result, different ways the members of the local communities participate in tourism development mean different social impacts of the coastal development plan. In addition, there are certain less favourable impacts which are not dependant on an individual participation in development process. They are the consequence of development and may include:

65


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

ƒ

population changes in number, distribution and density, for example due to influx of temporary or permanent workers – new housing and services demand;

ƒ

presence of new seasonal residents, maybe better off than the local residents - costs of living may go up;

ƒ

increased demand for properties will increase their price – those who sell may benefit, locals who need to buy may be excluded – socio-spatial segregation; and

ƒ

community and social infrastructure needs will increase over time – will developers pay proportionate share required to serve the new development or costs will be covered by community as a whole.

The rural village-based tourism development component seems to possess significant social advantages, not only as a contributor to tourism itself but also to social policy objectives concerning poverty eradication, agricultural development and rural regeneration issues. The component of the tourism development strategy modelled on the self-contained and allinclusive tourism complex facilities, addressing the mass tourism market, planned for the wider Saranda urbanised area, is most likely to create local wage jobs and generate spending in the Saranda urban economy. It is unlikely, in the foreseeable future, to establish opportunities for wider participation necessary for stimulating capacity building and sustainable social structure for lasting transition to remove the present vulnerability to poverty, female unemployment and dependency on wage income.

Table 2.4: Social assessment of tourism development opportunities in the study area Urban tourism (Saranda-Ksamili)

Village-based tourism (Himara – Lukova)

The area which will accommodate the largest amount of tourism development in the form of coastal self-contained and all-inclusive hotel establishments. Main attribute will be early development, capital investment, good management and links with international markets. Investors: Mainly foreign sources with know-how and international market links (limited local participation in profits). Management: Mainly foreign sources with knowhow and international market links (limited local participation in managerial highly paid jobs) Planning decisions: Mainly the Municipalities with support from the present Study (local participation through the ‘political process’) Land supply and gains: Albanian Government and private owners (local participation for owners with ownership titles) Labour supply: Local labour force (local participation in wage earning and service jobs) Supply of trading services: Local urban private sector (local participation in out-of hotel economy, agricultural goods from communities and imports) End result: Creation of wage income in a relatively short period of time, with community participation mainly in wage labour and agriculture with some but limited managerial capacity building and sustainable social development based on ownership of assets and influence over decisions.

The area which will accommodate a moderate amount of tourism development in the form of small-scale coastal bungalows and village-based recycled houses. Main attribute will be differentiation of tourism product with heavy environmental, rural and heritage inputs. Investors: Mainly repatriated local investors with accumulated savings, including partnerships with international investors when needed. Management: Mainly repatriated local managers with experience abroad, including support from national, regional and international groups. Planning decisions: Mainly the Municipality in consultation with regional authorities with support from the present Study with respect to community capacity building for participation. Land supply and gains: Local communities Labour supply: Local communities with support from repatriated labour. Supply of trading services and agricultural goods: Local communities and imports End result: Community participation extended to small tourism, trading, service and agricultural investment, beyond wage incomes. Also capital gains in land, strengthening local capital base, agricultural production and development of social skills in management for future tourism planning.

66


Socio-Economic Development: Driving Forces

2.2. Settlement system and land use The settlement system and land use section deals with the specific issues of the urban environment: zoning, planning, urban design, and architecture. Both settlement system and land use are undergoing drastic changes. Both were severely constrained under the communist rule, both are evolving rather disorderly nowadays. Tourism and land use are closely inter-dependent: tourism development needs land, inappropriate land use hampers sound tourism development, tourism development land-use patterns may affect the local environment. The existing settlements feature high interest vernacular architecture considered as a prime asset for tourism development; recent and on-going developments on the other hand show a real local investment capacity but represent a threat for the attractiveness of the coast where land availability is in effect limited. These issues of specific relevance for the ICD Plan are studied herewith.

2.2.1. Settlement system The study area in planning terms is the 5 km wide coastal strip extending between Karaburun and the border with Greece. Administratively, this area is part of the Vlora Region and Prefecture. It includes three districts, Vlora, Delvina and Saranda, and counts 34 settlements in total (see Table 2.5 and Map 8) at a density of three per km2 in a radius of 5.6 km, and an average density of 93 inhabitants per km2 (1,327 in urban areas, 48 in rural areas). Table 2.5: Administrative and territorial division of the Vlora Region Districts Vlora Saranda Delvina Vlora Region

Villages 98 62 38 198

Communes 9 7 3 19

Towns (Bashki) 4 2 1 7

Rural roads (km) 183 67 37 287

Source: Vlora Regional Profile, 2004

Settlements in this 836 km2 mostly rural region are predominantly in the form of perched villages, with Himara and Saranda being the two main coastal towns of the study area (with 5,284 and 29,805 inhabitants in 2004, respectively). The villages could be divided in three groups: ƒ

the villages of Dhermi, Vuno, old Himara, old Qeparo, are traditional settlements with most buildings dating back before 1945;

ƒ

other main villages, such as Borsh, Piqeras and Lukova, feature mainly post-war and post-1990 buildings. In both cases these dense settlements are mainly constituted of self-built detached stone houses, but starting to be surrounded by "spontaneous" residential buildings including a number of out-of-scale structures of more than three floors.

ƒ

a third type of settlements is represented by the cases of Cuka, which is a spontaneous squatter settlement of around 730 houses built on un-serviced public land; and Ksamili which is a large spontaneous settlement of 990 self-built houses and 20 four-storey buildings totalling 150 flats (out of which only the 20 buildings and 40 houses are legal) on former state-owned agricultural land (90% of all constructions), and with hardly any infrastructure at a site with one of the highest tourism potentials of the whole coast.

67


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Traditionally more dependant upon rural activities than sea-related activities, most settlements on the coast have no direct physical relation with the shore (Map 8). They are linked with one another by the main North-South road. Land ownership by village dwellers, however, often includes cultivated or planted plots on the sea side of the road (Dhermi, Vuno, Lukova) sometimes extending all the way to the beach (Himara, Qeparo, Borsh, Lukova). Even though not as pronounced as in Cuka or Ksamili (8,300 inhabitants), there is a clear trend towards the development of these lots either for tourism or residential purposes. Despite the extremely fast pace of urbanisation, with 185 applications for building permits submitted to the Municipality of Saranda in 2001 (Table 2.6), and 500 in 2003, and 160 and 145 respectively for Himara and Delvina in 2004, parcelling of land is still relatively limited and most settlements remain rather compact for now with a large share of new developments appearing within town limits (in Himara, 80% of the 200 new constructions since 1990 were built in the past five years). Building permits are not systematically applied for. The so called "yellow line" – a territorial expansion limit around each settlement, dating back to the former regime and recently expanded – certainly has a role in keeping urbanisation relatively compact. The cases of Cuka, and especially Ksamili, as well as most recently witnessed developments such as new constructions away from settlements, and the preparatory roadworks on the seaside public land, tend to indicate, however, that disorderly urbanisation is about to become the rule on the coast. Typically, new constructions are a concrete frame with block or brick in-fill. No element in the "design" of new constructions reminds of traditional house building: roofs are usually flat with rods sticking out of the columns, openings and balconies are oversized, average height and overall dimensions do not allow any site or landscape integration. The sharp increase of the number of licenses issued in the past five years was also marked by the creation of a special license for buildings over eight storeys high. The overall number of such licences for 2002 and 2003 is 40. During 2004 no licensing of this type was issued. Table 2.6: Types of building license, Saranda, 2001 Works Type Extension of existing buildings Houses Hotels Buildings ≥ 8 storeys Restaurants Other Total

Number of Licenses 6 134 30 10 5 185

Source: Municipality of Saranda, INSTAT 2004

The so called "building police" (Department of Building Control and Expertise) is operational since 1993. It is under the authority of MOTAT and CTARA (Law 8405, Chapter 8) and financed 100% from the State budget. It is responsible for building control, urban planning control and demolition of illegal settlements. It takes action on its own further to on-site inspection and can act at the request of the National Territorial Adjustment Council or of the Municipal/Regional Adjustment Council. In Saranda, the Building Police strives to enforce the September 2004 Master Plan. In total, it has demolished 185 houses, mostly in Borsh and Ksamili (73) either for absence of a building licence or for construction on public land. Despite its status as an autonomous body, the main caveats impeding the Building Police

68


Socio-Economic Development: Driving Forces

actions are the difficult relationship with the Municipality, and insufficiency of financial, human and technical means. The monitoring function seems to be overlooked.

2.2.2. Land-use patterns and trends A number of factors, discussed below, are causing the on-going mutation of the settlement system in the southern coast from in-land compact and cohesive mostly residential settlements to sea-side scattered and heterogeneous mixed-use developments. Land use in the Southern coast differs from the situation of the rest of the country due to the acuteness of a number of phenomena: ƒ strong real estate pressure on the coastal strip; ƒ strong migration pressure; and ƒ strong emigration abroad. The relatively high proportion of privately-owned land, with a relatively small average plot size, dominates the area today. The large size of the public domain plots, including army and navy possessions, has guaranteed up to now the preservation of a sizeable amount of open land. Army and Navy property constitutes prime location for profitable tourism development respectful of sites, especially Porto Palermo. The limited amount of land available for municipalities and communes considerably limits their possibility to play a leading role in the future development of the coast, whether to cater for housing needs or for tourism. Their strategic and regulatory functions should in turn be reinforced as much as possible. In proportion, undeveloped land, when adding publicly-owned land and agricultural land, seems vast enough to allow a significant amount for any type of future development (Table 2.7), the tourism development included. The rampant uncontrolled construction at open land, currently underway on the shore, is reducing available space and lessening the attractiveness of whole areas such as Dhermi beach, Jala beach, or Ksamili. Land-use patterns in the study area are undergoing profound changes typical of a country in transition. The change to a market economy has unleashed initiatives and investments especially in real estate and construction sector, that contributed 10.3% of total GDP and grew by 14% in 2001 according to INSTAT.

Table 2.7: Households and land according to cadastral status for Saranda, Konispol, Delvina and communes within the Saranda District Municipality

Number of households

Saranda Konispol Delvina Communes Ksamili

9240 729 3963

Aliko Lukova

2,058 (Cuka included) 2,260 (Borsh and Piqeras included) 1,439

Land according to cadastral status Agricultural

Xarra

1,680 (8,300 residents)

1,341 ha 963 ha 2,029 ha 464 ha (all cultivated fruit & olive trees = 30,000 stalks) 658 ha 2,736 ha 2,567 ha

Forestry

Pasture

20 ha -

274 ha 1,465 ha 542 ha

201 ha

200 ha

290 ha 5,173 ha

666 ha 5,749 ha

1,372 ha

2,092 ha

Source: Cadastral Data References

69


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Combined with the reestablishment of freedom of movement and land restitution/privatisation, the liberalisation of the economy is entailing the following changes concerning land use: ƒ

agricultural land is under-exploited compared to the situation before 1990;

ƒ

in-land, agriculture-dependant settlements are faced with depopulation and residential use is decreasing in parallel with agriculture use;

ƒ

the shoreline population density (with a density of 1,900/km2 in the Saranda municipality compared with 70 in Himara and 46 in Lukova) fuelled by tourism-related income expectations and financed in a large part by remittances (14% of GDP, 630 M$ in 2002, 40% spent on "immovable property") brings about mixed and unruly land use in formerly open and vacant land on the coast;

ƒ

the absence of designated land-use zones – except for the Butrinti Park – accentuates the competition among uses: tourism, residential, heritage protection, environment protection, at the detriment of all uses.

This evolution is hardly framed by any performing legal framework, and is not accompanied either by the necessary provision of infrastructure or social facilities.

2.2.3. Housing and social services In communist times, urban housing was predominantly public rental housing let at minimal rents, whilst private ownership dominated in rural areas. Urban housing was provided in the form of blocks of flats, provision was inferior to needs, and standards both in terms of quality and average surface per dwelling are considered low. In rural areas, where 75% of the population lived in 1990, housing was and still is in self-built single-family houses. Albeit private, houses in rural areas were not considered as a commodity that could be traded; virtually no real estate market existed before 1990. The change of regime and the rapid and drastic transition to a market economy since 1990 have brought about three changes that had direct consequences for the housing sector: ƒ the lifting of the restrictions on free movement of people; ƒ the privatisation of the housing stock; and ƒ the restitution of property. The introduction of freedom of movement caused huge changes both to the physiognomy of the cities and to the demographic distribution throughout the national territory. From a predominantly rural country, Albania is becoming, in a decade's time, a country where people living in cities will outnumber those living in rural areas. For housing, this migratory trend to cities (Tirana for instance has an annual population growth of 7%) and to the coastal area (with the districts of Lushnia, Durres, Fieri, Vlora and Saranda taking up to 1/5 of all migrants) has caused a massive sprawl of illegal settlements often built on un-serviced plots at cities' outskirts and, in parallel, a severe depopulation of rural settlements with areas where 50% of the housing stock is empty. The foreseen evolution of the housing trends raises serious concerns with regard to regional disparities and to the capacities of the migration receiving regions – the southern coast being the second one behind Tirana/Durres – to cope with the mounting pressure on land. The housing stock has been privatised in 1993, either transferred or sold to sitting tenants. Even if it endowed new owners with a capital that could either be sold or used as collateral, privatisation of dwellings was not accompanied by an appropriate legal reform and property management arrangements concerning condominium/co-ownership law and building

70


Socio-Economic Development: Driving Forces

maintenance. The housing stock inherited from the former regime is deteriorating and loosing market value. It is also insufficient to provide for current housing needs. The dwellings per inhabitants ratio is 253/1000 (219/1000 in 1990), the SEE average being 304/1000 and the EU average 490/1000. There are virtually no dwellings left in public ownership today, and private renting is limited to only 40,000 housing units (5% of the total 785,000 dwellings, according to the 2001 census). Land restitution combined with freedom of movement caused an upsurge of residential construction on newly privatised plots, as well as on agricultural land and on the predominantly state-owned coastal strip. Concerning the institutional set-up, neither the state nor local authorities are endowed with the necessary instruments to carry out a responsive housing policy. From the tourism perspective, demographic pressure on the narrow coastal strip (especially in the Saranda-Ksamili area where employment and money making opportunities appear the highest) is causing unruly constructions to mushroom on high tourism potential land leading to irreversible damages prone to impede sound and profitable tourism development. The mixed vocation of most of these undesirable buildings – housing and summer rental – makes it difficult to develop either an adequate housing policy meeting actual and foreseen growing needs or a long-term summer rental strategy.

2.2.4. Cultural Heritage, traditional villages and building forms The presence of a varied heritage on the coast considerably raises its attractiveness and allows to: i) broaden and diversify the tourism offer hence to target different markets; ii) bring in-land, including up to the Girokaster valley, the income-generation and job-creation opportunities a sound tourism development provides for. The cultural heritage consists of the archaeological (prehistoric, Illyrian, Hellenistic), Byzantine, Ottoman and vernacular buildings and sites offering a wide range of tourism development possibilities whilst requiring specific preservation and rehabilitation strategies. Table 2.8 shows the periods when buildings in selected coastal settlements were constructed. Table 2.8: Houses according to construction period (%) Villages Himara Himara (the old village) Qeparo Qeparo (the old village) Dhermi Vuno

Construction dates Before 1945

1945 - 1990

After 1990

10 70 10 80 50 50

70 25 60 10 40 40

20 5 30 10 10

Source: Himara Cadastral Data, 2005

A heritage listing and mapping exercise has been completed in 2005 (Integrated Coastal Management and Clean-up Program: Heritage Assets Mapping, SIM Spa - GICO Branch, iMED, 2005). This inventory identifies 77 registered sites or buildings in the Vlora district and 97 in the Saranda and Delvina districts (Map 9), and provides a quick assessment of their visitors' interest, status of preservation and accessibility. Twenty sites in Vlora and 32 in Saranda/Delvina are ranked as low interest, whilst 5 and 2 respectively are considered of

71


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

high interest. Besides the value/interest ranking of these sites, another classification may be introduced, placing cultural heritage sites in the active or passive category. Active sites are those that are inhabited and feature human activities. These include villages where agriculture-related or traditional activities are still practised. They also feature numerous examples of vernacular architecture. These are sites where tourism development would include revitalisation of the existing activities and creation of hospitality activities such as bed and breakfast, restaurants, arts and crafts on the one hand, and rehabilitation of houses with a tourism development objective on the other. A high part of the active sites' value derives from their consistency and authenticity as an ensemble. They require a contextual approach. Passive sites are vestigial sites, mainly religious, military or archaeological where no dedicated human activity takes place. In addition to their historic interest, they must be in spectacular settings, very photogenic, well taken care of and easily accessible to draw significant interest from tourists and tour operators. Their direct income generation potential is low (visitors' fee) and additional activities either on-site (shows for instance) or in its perimeter (restaurants, hotels, vendors) are potentially harmful to the site value. Both in terms of attractiveness and income generation potential, active sites must not be underrated. If passive sites, when remarkable and photogenic, can be fully part of a tourism promotion strategy and contribute to putting Albania Southern Coast on the map, their economic percolation potential is lesser than that of active sites. The villages of Vuno (477 registered inhabitants, 191 houses out of which 57 unoccupied, 250 people presently living there), Dhermi (703 registered inhabitants, 233 houses out of which 87 unoccupied, 300 people presently living there), old Himara (1,500 inhabitants, 127 houses out of which 86 unoccupied) and old Qeparo (430 inhabitants registered, 67 houses out of which 35 unoccupied) are emblematic of the South coast situation (Table 2.9). The degradation of the historic settlements is directly linked to the sharp population decrease causing a very low housing occupancy rate and subsequent high number of dwellings falling in disrepair (Table 2.9). Empty houses in villages such as Dhermi, Vuno and Himara are however suitable for tourism uses, and various options to rehabilitate and valorise these assets should be proposed in the ICD plan. Table 2.9: Population occupancy rate in selected settlements Villages

Himara Himara-the old village Qeparo Qeparo-the old village Dhermi Vuno

Number of inhabitants 3,800 1,500 1,100 430 703 477

Number of houses Number of occupied houses

Number of unoccupied houses

Total

710 127 173 67 233 134

95 86 46 35 87 57

805 213 219 102 320 191

Source: Himara Municipal Office Data, 2005

The traditional villages of Dhermi, Vuno, Himara, and Qeparo are hillside settlements centred on a thalweg and built a few kilometres up from the shore. They are surrounded by exploited or formerly exploited land, mainly terraced olive tree plantations, vineyards and orchards, and are crossed by the main road in the case of Dhermi, Vuno and Qeparo, whilst Himara is on a hilltop further away from the sea and devoid of passable thoroughfares.

72


Socio-Economic Development: Driving Forces

The layout of these villages is characterised by their adaptation to the contours, their density and their formal cohesion. Besides the north-south main road, circulation is made by way of narrow uphill streets, occasionally paved in cobble stones and stepped. These sinuous streets are flanked by stone garden walls and house walls. Houses are built in stone (calcareous stone) extracted from local quarries with walls over 40 cm thick (up to 70 cm). The stones are mostly oblong and carefully joined with a very thin layer of mortar, and the angles are made of larger stones for locking the walls together. The walls are not systematically roughcast, and usually in natural white colour. Openings are usually narrow and of rectangular shape, topped by either a single stone lintel or stone arch, and make up less than 1/6 of a wall total surface. Balconies, made of wood, are rare and do not stick out by more than one meter. Roofs are four-sided pitch roofs at an angle of less than 30° from the horizontal. They are made of semi-circular section white clay tiles and stick out of the façade by less than 30 cm. The under face is linked to the top of the wall by a recessing cornice made of several (often three) rows of tiles. Carpentry, like floors, is made of roughly-cut wooden pieces, often whole tree trunks. House plans vary and often shows evolution over the years with successive additions on several sides sometimes served by an outside door or stairway. The most common footprint is a rectangular shape (with a 1 to <2 proportion) or a combination of rectangular and "squarish" shapes resulting in L or U shaped compounds surrounding a yard partly planted with vegetables and one or several fig, orange or olive trees. As they are built on steep slopes, houses usually have one storey on the uphill side and two on the downhill side, or two and three respectively. Their total height from downhill side ground floor to roof top seldom exceeds 8 meters with a typical maximum building envelope very seldom exceeding 16x7x10. Adaptation to this particular terrain has also created a specific type of houses, sometimes called "tower houses", which are characterised by towerlike proportions with a narrow floor plan and a proportionally high façade, looking like a standing up rectangle. To free the space inside, this house type often has exterior stairs. Houses are usually devoid of ornaments except for a carved name and date-bearing stone on top of the front door on some. Colours are not common except for green or blue shutters if any. These villages usually feature a number of more prominent houses of larger size and with a more formal design. Most houses however, if not all, are self built. As mentioned before, these villages could represent the added value to a traditional "sun and beach" tourism and must be considered as anchors for tourism development, together with the beaches and bays identified as suitable for tourism. The current legal framework for cultural heritage preservation has been instituted through the Law on the Cultural Heritage from 2003. The Ministry of Culture, Education and Youth (MOCYS) is responsible for cultural heritage registration, protection and restoration through the Directorate for Cultural Heritage and two institutions, the Institute of the Culture Monuments and the National Centre for Inventory of the Cultural Heritage. At the local level, eight Regional Directorates (one in Vlora and one in Saranda for this region) are in charge of the preservation and restoration of the registered cultural monuments under the authority of MOCYS. The 2003 law is marked by the "culture of the monument". This has implications on the registration and protection of the cultural heritage. The military, religious and vestigial buildings or ruins tend to be privileged at the expense of vernacular/self built architecture,

73


PAP/RAC â&#x20AC;&#x201C; SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Interim Report

although the latter embodies the Albanian culture as well. Furthermore, the primacy of individual buildings over urban ensembles such as traditional villages has consequences when it comes to land-use regulation. The notion of context tends to be overlooked, and instruments such as exclusion perimeter and protected zone are lacking or not enforced. The concepts of landscape, milieu and visual integrity, utilised to justify the creation of immense environmental protection areas, should be very valid for the built environment as well.

Figure 2.1: Examples of traditional village architecture

Source: Himara in Centuries (Riza E., Popular building in Himara Castle), 2004

74


Socio-Economic Development: Driving Forces

2.3. Infrastructure systems The provision of adequate, sufficient, and sustainable infrastructure facilities is one of the key components for any socio-economic development. The infrastructure systems will include 6 main sectors: ƒ transportation sector, being itself divided into 3 sub sectors: roads, ports and airports; ƒ water sector; ƒ waste water sector; ƒ solid wastes, including domestic wastes and construction wastes; ƒ electricity; and ƒ telecommunications. The analysis of infrastructure systems in this report will aim at: ƒ assessing the present situation of the existing facilities in terms of their capacity and condition; ƒ evaluating the potential of development of these facilities from the aspects of constraints and needs; ƒ discussing the perspectives of development, through a simplified SWOT analysis, and with consideration to ongoing studies and projects. The preliminary overview of the infrastructure sectors made through three above mentioned components, namely, assessment, potential evaluation and perspective is briefly presented in the Table 2.10: Table 2.10: Preliminary findings of infrastructure components Sector

Sub sector Assessment

Transportation Roads Ports Airport

Water

Solid waste

Electricity

Access to the area / movement inside the area Access to the area No civilian airport and need for future tourist development

Water supply

No problem with resources, problems with organisation and management Waste water Diffuse and overall pollution, and environmental aggressions Domestic Predominantly waste uncontrolled disposal Construction Disposal along roads; waste degradation of the environment, landscape and roads Insufficient in quantity and quality of distribution

Evaluation of potential

Perspective

Bad condition, limited carriage capacities

Projects linked to the tourist sites

On existing sites / new sites / capacities Comparison between the 2 Feasibility for potential sites of Vlora and transforming Saranda/Girokaster military facilities to civilian ones Satisfactory and could be Projects to include adapted to the tourist and management and overall socio-economic organisational strategy issues Situation could worsen by Site controlled rapid implementation of facilities collective treatment units Good trend for ongoing regional dump site near Saranda Should be envisaged together with the domestic regional landfill site High; long-term projects under implementation

Education and control Prevention and regulatory and control approach are needed Some threats for the continuation and achievement of projects

75


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

2.3.1. Transportation network 2.3.1.1. Road network Coming from Tirana, the area is accessible via two main roads: ƒ

the coastal road joins the coast in Vlora (after passing Lushnje and Fier) and serves all the localities included in the project area (the main of which are Orikum, Palase, Himara, Qeparo, Saranda and Ksamili);

ƒ

the inland road goes to Lushnje and then to Girokaster, and joins the project area in Saranda.

Table 2.11 summarises both the information on the existing roads (technical characteristics and condition) and the prospective for the future assessed through the identified and ongoing projects. Road network is shown in Map 10. Table 2.11: Status of the existing road network and on-going projects Description of present situation Road portion Tirana – Lushnje

Dist. Type and (km) present condition 88 New (works completed less than 5 years ago)

Lushnje – Fier

28

Existing road 6.5 m wide in bad condition

Fier – Vlora

35

Existing road 6.5 m wide in bad conditions

Vlora – Orikum

15

Orikum – Palase

32

Works under construction June 05 New (works completed)

Palase – Qeparo

34

Qeparo – Saranda

Saranda – Butrinti

Asphalt road in bad condition, 4.5 m width; speed 30-40 km/h

48.5 Asphalt road in fair condition, 44.5 m wide; bad curves from Nivica to Saranda; speed 30-50 km/h 18

New road in good condition, 4.5 6.5 m wide

Information on project (if any) Description of the project

Costs (estimated or executed) Tirana – Durres four lane Completed (2x2) highway Completed Durres – Rrogozhina two 11 mio USD lane (1x1) Rrogozhina – Lushnje two lanes exist; two other lanes under construction Four lane highway (2x2) 25 mio USD to be constructed. Works scheduled to start in 2005 Four line highway (2x2) 35 mio USD to be constructed. Works scheduled to start within 2005 According to the project 13 mio USD schedule the road is 8.5 m wide 25 mio USD To be noted that bad construction results in problems of stability of the road (7 km from Orikum) and rocks falling on the road (12 km) Enlargement to 6.5 m Rehabilitation width and asphalting; option 20 mio 2 alternatives USD ƒ rehabilitation of New road existing 34 km, option 43.9 ƒ construction of new mio USD 28 km Enlargement to 6.5 m 20 mio USD 35 mio USD width and asphalting; 2 alternatives: ƒ rehabilitation of existing 48,5 km, or ƒ construction of new road 41 km Possibilities to widen the Open existing road, but it crosses the National Park

Source: Information provided by InfraTransProject in April 2005

76

Status (progress/ financing)

Exp. compl.

Completed Completed Government of Albania

1998 1999 2005

Detailed design completed, Italian financing agreed

2007

Detailed design completed, Italian financing under study Government of Albania

2008

2005

Government of Albania

2004

Preliminary study

Open

Detailed design is ready, Open but no financing available; rehabilitation alternative has been approved by the National Road Committee Open

Open


Socio-Economic Development: Driving Forces

The visual assessment of the present situation of the coastal road has been made during the field mission in April 2005. It was complemented by oral information provided on the ongoing projects. General conclusion is that the coastal road is in very bad condition and is an obstacle for any potential future development. The inland access road might be of lesser interest for the area itself because it only serves Saranda. However, it has to be considered, first, because Saranda is at present the main tourist attraction spot in the area and, second, because the time required to reach Tirana from Saranda with this road is at present shorter than using the coastal road. The new road section Tepelena – Girokaster (29 km) will be financed by EIB and EBRD (€ mio 26). Construction works have started in 2005 and completion is forecast for 2007. The new road section Fier-Tepelena (70 km) will be financed by the EIB and EBRD (€ mio 70). It is envisaged that the construction works will start in 2006 and be completed in 2009. The secondary roads comprised in the study area, include: ƒ the access roads to the existing tourist sites (villages, places of interest, beaches); ƒ the access roads to the potential tourist settlement sites. In the northern part of the study area, from Palase to Lukova and Kakome Beach, the access to the sea and the existing beaches is generally difficult by car, and usually requires a 4wheel drive vehicle. In some cases, the access is possible only for pedestrians (Lukova), while in some places the main road is close to the sites and no special access facilities are required (Qeparoi, Porto Palermo). In the southern area, from Saranda to Butrinti, the access to the main sites is easy. In some places, a relatively good road network has already been constructed (Dhermiu, Himara). Most of the places of interest are located in the villages or on the main roads linking the villages. The roads are at present the only possible access to the settlements in the study area (with the notable exception of boats coming from Corfu to Saranda). In spite of works recently carried out or under progress, the condition (carriageway and curves) of the main road between Palase and Saranda is generally bad. At present, the road situation could be to a certain extent satisfactory for the purpose of regional tourism (tourists coming by car), given an improvement of its condition (which is under progress) takes place; any delay of this improvement will represent a constraint for this regional development.

Table 2.12: SWOT analysis for road network Strengths

Weaknesses

The conditions have recently improved significantly owing to heavy investments

According to recognised criteria, the situation and condition of the access road is inadequate to attract foreign visitors

Opportunities

Threats

Development of wild and attractive tourist areas in the northern part of the zone requires road improvements

Unsecured funding for the continuation of rehabilitation works on the main coastal road

77


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

On the other hand, the road situation, even in the future after the rehabilitation and improvement of the present roads, will remain a severe constraint for foreign visitors coming by plane to Tirana. Thus, for example, the time needed to access the northernmost tourist zone from the Tirana airport will never be less than 2 hours, which is more than the criterion of 1 hour generally considered as maximum time for transfer from the airport to recreation areas. Table 2.12 could be the considered as a conclusion on the road situation.

2.3.1.2. Ports Port facilities are at present an important way of access to the study area, in particular to its zones targeted for tourist development, mainly through the link with the island of Corfu and Italian ports. The ports should be divided into: ƒ port facilities for transportation of passengers and vehicles; and ƒ port facilities for nautical tourism. With regards to the port facilities for passenger transport, the most important issue concerns the port of Saranda and its relations with Corfu and Italian ports. At present, the port, located in the bay of Saranda, hosts both freight and passenger transport from the Corfu island (respectively 80,000 to 100,000 tons of goods per year and 80,000 to 90,000 passengers per year). Aware of the importance given to the tourists coming by boat from Corfu between May and October (3 times more than in the rest of year), the Municipality of Saranda and the Government of Albania are at present implementing a project to improve the spatial organisation of the port. The project consists in separating the 2 locations for leisure boats and for ferry boats (Corfu), thus increasing the capacity of the ferry transport. In addition, the commerce port, presently inside the Saranda bay, will be moved to another bay (Limjan). In the Port of Himara, a boat is coming from Corfu every day, mainly in the summer season. There is no mention of an expected increase in this traffic. In Saranda, the ongoing project has the objective of improving the management of both freight and passengers transport, and increasing the capacity, notably for incoming tourists. This is a key issue because the route via Corfu will be for many years (before the eventual construction of an airport) the main ”alternative entrance gate” to the zone. As a matter of fact, the “major entrance”, i.e. access by road, will be constrained by the bad condition of the road and by the uncompressible access time when the road is completely rehabilitated. Therefore, the opportunities offered by this first step will be analysed and made coherent with the tourist schemes and scenarios to be proposed in this study. Table 2.13 provides an overview of prospects regarding the ports situation. Table 2.13: SWOT analysis for port facilities Strengths

Weaknesses

The port of Saranda is an ideal access to the tourist areas of Saranda, Ksamili and Butrinti

The development is limited by the natural space of the bay of Saranda

Opportunities

Threats

There is a real demand for boat access to the area from the “overcrowded” Corfu in summer

Exiguity of the site and nuisances of high summer rotations could threaten development

78


Socio-Economic Development: Driving Forces

The aspect of nautical ports has been addressed in a recent report Nautical Tourism Development Planning Study, J.A. Sciortino, Malta 2004. Key issues and concerns have been assessed taking into consideration the following: ƒ

Albania is geographically located between two important attractive nautical countries: Croatia (in the North) and Greece (in the South), but at present doesn’t benefit from this situation because the vessels coming from one of these destinations to the other do not stop due to lack of infrastructure. The overall goal is to make yachts stop between these existing destinations and to create a destination in itself.

ƒ

There is at present no authority to deal with and manage the nautical tourism, and there is no maritime administration (the Port authorities do not deal with maritime organisation and regulations).

With respect to these issues and findings, the mentioned Study recommends to develop a project with 2 major components: ƒ development of adequate infrastructure; and ƒ creation of a yachting directorate to manage the sector. With regard to the development of adequate infrastructure, the Study recommends to implement various kinds of infrastructure and facilities, from the more complex and expensive to the most simple ones, as follows: ƒ creation of new marinas; ƒ redesign of the existing port facilities; ƒ creation of sheltered managed moorings for permanent destination ports; ƒ creation of unsheltered managed moorings for seasonal destinations; ƒ implementation of launch and recovery operations. The sites selected for the development of new infrastructure are shown in the table Table 2.14 (North to South, starting with Vlora). Table 2.14: The sites selected for the development of new infrastructure for nautical tourism Location

Distance from Vocation previous (km)

Vlora Orikum Dhermi Jali Spile (Himara) Laman Porto Palermo Sasaj Kakome

0 Vlora +15

Saranda Ksamili

Kakome + 17 Saranda + 18

Dhermi + 7 Vuno + 5 Spile + 3 Laman + 1 Porto P. + 15

Type

Marina Marina Seasonal Swing moorings Seasonal Trot moorings Seasonal Trot moorings Seasonal Moorings Permanent Pontoons Permanent Pontoons Permanent Pontoons Permanent Dry stack + Marina Permanent Marina

Expected no. Comment of berths 300 625 10 10 10 10 12 6 6

Under construction

To be analysed in a global resort project, if any

50 + 200 60

Source: Nautical Tourism Development Planning Study, World Bank 2004

The proposals made in the report look appropriate with respect to the sites potential and analysis. Nevertheless, they have to be carefully translated into investment costs and adequate scheduling. The first recommendation is to ensure the expected success of any project by a preliminary market study (this is also the concluding recommendation of the

79


PAP/RAC â&#x20AC;&#x201C; SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Interim Report

mentioned report) including the expected flows of vessels and tourists, expectations in terms of services provided, tariffs, etc. To this respect, the second recommendation would apply to the coherence with the tourist development potential analysed in other sections of this report. In particular, it would be advisable to focus initially on 2 or 3 locations/projects, that could be replicated in other places after successful implementation.

2.3.1.3. Airports At present, the only civil airport functioning in Albania is the international airport of Tirana, which is then connected to the area through road access, either by the coastal road (via Palase and Himara) or by the inland road (via Girokaster). For the reasons mentioned above (road situation), and at least for foreign visitors, it will be necessary to consider other accessibility options, notably through airport(s) located either near the study area and/or, more specifically, near the identified attractive tourist zones. In the study area itself, there is at present only one airport, a military one located in Vlora. Another field airport, located 6 km north of Saranda, on the road to Girokaster, is no more in operation. Unfortunately, the airport of Vlora could not be visited. The site of the field airport in Saranda is situated near the road to Girokaster; the runway is relatively short and narrow, or seems to have been progressively occupied by other activities, such as a small military control post and intensive agriculture. On the other hand, the presence of the mountains in the vicinity of the airport might be a constraint for big planes to take off and land. As it has been assessed through visual observation, this airport could at least receive small planes, but only after serious rehabilitation is undertaken. At present, two sites are envisaged for the location of a possible civil airport, in Vlora and in Saranda. According to preliminary investigations in the zones included in the study area, the potential attraction of Saranda looks better than the one in Vlora. This should be confirmed after the analysis of tourist potentials. In the zone of Saranda, two possible sites have been identified by the Institute of Transport Studies: the existing one near Saranda (Option A), and the other in a place named Vurgu (Option B). Figure 2.2 shows the location of these sites. Preference of the Institute is given to the Option B (the estimated cost is said to be up to USD 57m, out of which USD 25m will serve to compensate the private land owners), rather than to the rehabilitation of the Saranda airport (Option A), for which other sources mention that the cost could be far lower (from USD 5 to 6m). The length requirement for the option B is approximately 2,000 m, while the width requirement is approximately 30 m. Figure 2.2: Options for Saranda Airport

Vrioni Option A

Vurgu Option B

80


Socio-Economic Development: Driving Forces

With regard to the potential airport in Saranda, a feasibility study has been prepared in 2004 by the Institute of Transport Studies. Hypotheses of a number of passengers are derived from the figures given in the Master Plan for Development of Tourism (1996), which assumes that 25% of the 320,000 tourists will come by plane. Accordingly, the above-mentioned study indicates the expected number of passengers and a number of planes/flights (Table 2.15), assuming only the small planes with 40-50 seats, probably because of the physical limitations mentioned above. Table 2.15: Expected number of passengers and flights Year Expected number of passengers Expected number of flights

2008

2012

2015

2025

36,000 920

80,000 1,600

96,000 2,330

207,000 4,816

Source: Institute of Transport Studies, 2004

The airport looks to be a key issue to achieve many objectives in tourist development, namely to accommodate the foreign visitors not willing to spend many hours on the roads from Tirana, should they come either along the coast or via Girokaster. From the point of view of the tourist development, the site of Saranda, representing the central attractive point of the area, is to be preferred to that of Vlora. However, the constraints are high: the site of Saranda doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t look so easy to rehabilitate (see above), and that of Vurgu looks quite expensive, especially for the expropriation component. Being part of the project process and schedule, the preliminary constraints should be addressed immediately, because the process of planning, designing and building an airport takes from 8 to 10 years. This could also be considered as a realistic schedule for the tourist development of the study area as well, i.e. to reach the step when air access to the sites will be needed. It is generally considered that an airport becomes viable only when it serves around 10,000 beds, a target which should probably not be reached before 8 to 10 years time required for the project. The conclusion on the airport transport in the study area is expressed in the SWOT analysis presented in the Table 2.16.

Table 2.16: SWOT analysis for airports Strengths

Weaknesses

The status of state ownership for the site identified near Saranda

The site in the vicinity of Saranda (6 km) looks difficult to design for big planes

Opportunities

Threats

Growth of the number of tourists coming from foreign countries The site in Vurgu could be designed for big planes

The time required for the construction of the airport will not be commensurate with the schedule of the tourist development The land on Vurgu site is mostly private; cost could be increased

81


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

2.3.2. Water supply 2.3.2.1. Overview of water resources in the region It is generally considered that the zone doesn’t lack water, which mainly comes from mountain rivers. Nevertheless, the capacities of underground waters have already been mobilised (for instance in Himara) but with obviously limited quantities (in Himara town, the tap water is already salinised). Location of major water sources is given in Map 10. Some points, such as Palermo Beach, are possibly limited in their water resources: no surface water and unknown underground resources. These capacities will have to be carefully assessed and eventual constraints taken into consideration in any future development scenario. Apart from this exception, the mobilisation of additional water resources will not be of great concern: the rivers between Qeparo and Vuno present important flows, and there are some unexploited sources such as that of the Buronja Spring in the hinterland of Qeparoi and that of Blue Eye Spring near Saranda, which represent important and permanent capacities. Additional abundant groundwater resources are in the area of the lower course of the Cuka Channel. Presently, they are partially exploited for the water supply of Ksamili. Further, in the hinterland of Saranda, groundwater and spring-water resources of sufficiently enough capacity are located. Within the scenarios of tourist development, which will be selected at the coming stages of the Project, further analysis will be performed on a case-by-case basis, in order to optimise the mobilisation of resources with respect to the quality needed and the investment costs.

2.3.2.2. Institutional issues of water supply Contrary to this optimistic situation regarding the overall water resources capacities, the country as a whole faces huge problems regarding organisational and managerial issues: ƒ high rates of losses in the network; ƒ recognised wastage of water (in parallel with absence of meters and/or low tariffs); ƒ overall poor management. The above causes reported figures which are either exaggerated or illustrate the dramatic situation: 60 to 70% of leaks, per capita allocation of 500 l/day (see also the findings for the city of Saranda, whose resources are more than sufficient but still faces severe restrictions for water use and frequent shortages). Aware of the necessity to preserve the water resources, the Albanian authorities have published decrees and guidelines (for instance, in 1992 it was decreed that the unit consumption per capita should not exceed 150 l), but without strong policy or information or tightening the consumption figures by appropriate raise of tariffs, these regulations face the risk of not reaching their initial objectives. An indispensable element of water supply operation is continuous monitoring and maintenance of facilities. Presently, respective activities are scarce and insufficient. Accompanying technical training must be performed in order to establish skilled personnel for water utility staff. There exist water utilities and respective associations in villages along Southern coast. Whereas in former times they had been operated by the state, presently, the responsibility is transferred to the municipalities. This decentralisation process will probably be finished by 2006, and is part of the National Water and Wastewater Plan.

82


Socio-Economic Development: Driving Forces

2.3.2.3. Assessment of overall water supply capacity During the field mission in April 2005, various documentation has been provided and information reported regarding the potential development with respect to water resources and water supply considerations. The Table 2.17 has been prepared by the aggregation of the data provided by these sources: the “registered population” is the one that resides in the area for most of the year (not including those that have emigrated), while the ”presumable future population as of supply capacity” has been computed on the basis of a ratio of 270 l/c/d (including 190 l/day of consumption, 40 l for specific municipal demand and 80 l – 30% of total – for leaks). Table 2.17: Population data Settlement Palase Dhermiu Iliasi Vuno (Jali) Himara town Piluri Kudeshi Porto Palermo Qeparoi Borsh Piqeras Lukova Saranda Ksamili

Population registered(1) 408 620 110 475 5,284 497 868 0 1,500 1,280 1,140 2,266 29,805 7,124

Population forecast(2) 447 679 120 520 5,785 544 950 0 1,642 1,292 1,150 2,286 35,880 8,959

Potential future population as of supply capacity 2,520 1,260 315 1,610 31,800 (see Himara project) 315 (see Himara project) 630 (see Himara project) (see Himara project) 1,610 (see Himara project) “sufficient” “sufficient” “sufficient” (see Saranda project) (see Ksamili project)

Source: 1) 2004 figures, according to the Registry Office 2) Population forecast provided in the Wastewater Management Study, World Bank, 2004

The Table 2.17 illustrates obviously the sufficiency of resources for most of the locations of the study area, notwithstanding the perspectives of additional needs required by the potential development of tourism and return of the emigrants. Other locations or villages already face or will shortly face specific problems of water shortage and need resource mobilisation: Himara, Qeparo, Piluri, Kudeshi, Porto Palermo, Saranda and Ksamili. Therefore, projects have been prepared or are already under implementation. To date, three main projects are dealing with water supply in the area: ƒ project for Himara and the surrounding villages of Qeparo, Piluri, Kudeshi Porto Palermo (stage of preparation); ƒ project in Saranda (stage of implementation); ƒ project for Ksamili (stage of preparation). Technical components of these projects are presented in Annex 5.

2.3.2.4. Water resources in coastal communes Stocktaking of the existing water resources has been performed for the areas between the Ionian coast and the adjacent watershed boundaries in the hinterland. The regarded area drains into the Ionian Sea. Further, the quantitative assessment has included particularly big water resources located in the interior beyond the coastal watershed because they are

83


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

already exploited for the present water supply of coastal settlements (i.e. Navarica Spring utilised to supply Saranda). The compilation of resources takes into consideration springs, karst springs, ground water and maritime freshwater springs. Mineral springs are also indicated (italicised) but are not included in the amount of the total water resource quantity since usually mineral water is not included in municipal water supply systems. For each coastal settlement particular water sources located close-by are listed including capacities and air-line distance to the coast. Coastal settlements belonging to the same commune are subsumed including their identified water resources. For graphical presentation see the Landscape Inventory (Map 15) enclosed to this report, and the Hydrogeological map of Albania. As a result, the total estimated water resource capacity for each particular commune is presented. It does not appear meaningful to assign resources to small spatial clusters like particular settlements since the suitability for water supply purposes depends on larger local specific topographical and socio-economic conditions. With regard to this circumstance and from the viewpoint of future village and tourism development the water resources description at commune level is deemed appropriate. Sources of water resources data for the present estimate are as follows: ƒ

Hydro-geological map of Albania (scale 1:200 000). This map presents particular springs in capacity classes (e.g. 1-10 l/s; 10-100 l/s; 100-1000 l/s; etc.) but no site-specific capacities. For the present estimate the lower limit has been considered. Thus, the quantitative assessment lies on the secure side;

ƒ

Topographical map of Albania, sheets for Ionian coast from Llogara (North) till Xarra Commune (South) (scale 1:25.000). This map points out many springs without displaying their capacities. These are only indicated for some of the presumably more yielding springs. Apparently there are additional springs presented of still unknown delivery. These springs have been lined up in the present estimate with their air-line distance to the coast but without capacity data (indication n.a.). This characterisation lies on the secure side. For precise capacity assessment in the framework of future development projects site-specific flow measurements have to be undertaken;

ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

MOTAT, Directorate for Canalisation and Hydraulics; Water Department of the Municipality of Saranda: Municipality of Ksamili; Municipality of Himara; and Integrated Tourism Development Plan Llogara to Qeparo, Horwath Consulting, 1996.

It should be added that spring capacities fluctuate seasonally. For the present water resources assessment only the lowest figure has been utilised in order to keep the estimate on the secure side. It is reserved to future infrastructure projects to exploit the temporary higher flows by specific construction measures (e.g. reservoirs for long-term storage). In the case of ground water resources the present estimate regards only the installed delivery capacities (e.g. drilled well at Cuka) but not the whole capacity of the ground water body. Such an assessment will require separate comprehensive hydro-geological investigations which are not subject of this study report. The capacities for coastal municipalities and communes are given in Table 2.18 – Table 2.24.

84


Socio-Economic Development: Driving Forces

Table 2.18: Himara commune Settlement Palase

Type of resource

spring spring spring spring spring spring Dhermi spring spring spring spring spring spring spring spring spring Vuno spring spring Ilias spring spring spring spring spring spring spring spring spring spring Himara spring pit-type well spring spring spring spring spring spring mineral spring Porto Palermo maritime spring Kudhesi spring Kudhesi ff. spring spring spring spring spring spring spring Pilur spring spring spring Qeparo spring spring spring spring spring mineral spring mineral spring mineral spring Himara commune - total

Capacity Q (l/s) 10 1 1 1 n.a. n.a. 10 1 1 1 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 10 1 1 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 100 2.3 1 1 1 n.a. n.a. n.a. <10 1,000 1 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. <10 <10 <10 1,144

Air-line distance to coast D (km) 2.0 4.5 2.8 5.5 1.6 1.8 0.8 2.0 3.0 1.8 1.3 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 1.4 0.9 3.0 6.5 7.3 2.9 2.8 3.0 3.1 2.0 1.8 1.5 0.1 1.8 0.3 0.4 1.5 0.6 0.2 0.1 0.3 0 10.0 4.5 4.0 4.0 3.4 3.3 3.3 1.9 2.6 2.4 2.2 3.4 2.6 2.2 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.3 0.3

85


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Table 2.19: Lukova commune Settlement

Type of resource

Borsh

spring spring spring spring spring spring spring spring spring spring mineral spring Lukova spring spring spring spring spring spring spring spring spring Nivice-Bubar spring spring spring spring spring spring spring Nivice-Bubar ff. spring Piqeras spring spring Sasaj spring spring mineral spring Perparim spring Lukova commune – total

Capacity Q (l/s) 100 100 10 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 <10 10 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. 100 n.a. 1 n.a. <10 n.a. 328

Air-line distance to coast (km) 2.3 10.3 0.3 2.1 4.9 5.5 9.0 10.0 8.8 10.8 0.8 1.3 2.5 2.1 1.8 0.9 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.5 2.8 2.3 2.3 2.0 1.9 0.8 0.4 0.0 1.0 0.4 1.2 1.4 2.3 1.6

Table 2.20: Saranda Municipality Settlement Metoq Gjashta

Type of resource

--spring spring Saranda groundwater (Vrioni wells) spring (Navarica springs) Saranda commune – total

86

Capacity Q (l/s)

Air-line distance to coast (km)

--n.a. n.a. 97

--2.0 1.8 4.5

67

12.0

164


Socio-Economic Development: Driving Forces

Table 2.21: Aliko commune Settlement

Type of resource

Cuka

Groundwater (drilled well)

Capacity Q (l/s)

Air-line distance to coast (km)

30

Aliko commune – total

1.5

30

Table 2.22: Ksamili Commune Settlement

Type of resource

Ksamili

Capacity Q (l/s)

---

Air-line distance to coast (km)

0

Cuka commune – total

---

0

Present water supply takes place in Cuka drilled well.

Table 2.23: Xarra Commune Settlement

Type of resource

Capacity Q (l/s)

Shen Delli

groundwater (pit-type well) Vrina groundwater mineral spring Xarra spring spring spring mineral spring mineral spring Xarra commune – total

Air-line distance to coast (km)

n.a.

3.0

n.a. <10 1 1 1 <10 <10

2.5 2.5 3.8 3.8 3.3 1.5 4.0 3

Table 2.24: Coastal water resources – summary Commune Himara Lukova Saranda Aliko Ksamili Xarra Total

Capacity Q (l/s) 1,144 328 164 30 0 3 1,669

Daily quantity V (m3/d) 98,868 28,339 14,170 2,592 0 259 144,228

2.3.2.5. Potential development regarding coastal water resources The number of persons equivalent to the assured coastal water resources has been computed on the basis of a specific personal demand of 240 l/c/d as stipulated by the Albanian governmental Decree No. 102 of 1992. This standard value includes 150 l/c/d domestic consumption, 40 l/c/d for specific institutional consumption and 50 l/c/d for losses

87


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

(25% of total). Detailed calculation of water resource potential is given in Chapter 4 related to the assessment of environmental capacity. It will be enough here to say that coastal spring water resources and tapped groundwater potential amount to 144,228 m3/day which would satisfy 600,000 inhabitants, based on the above consumption level. Additional water resources in the hinterland are the following: ƒ

Buronja spring. The spring shows a capacity of 300 l/s at minimum. There already exists a project concept to tap the Buronja spring for a coastal water supply system comprehending Himara, Qeparo, Kudhesi and Pilur. This concept has been elaborated by the Albanian company HUK (the biggest Albanian technical consultancy for water supply and sanitation). Due to the necessity of high investments (long transmission mains, pumping stations, reservoirs) the project has been postponed. Nevertheless, for a long-term view the Buronja spring remains a realistic option for water supply of coastal settlements. Therefore it can be included in the potential of coastal water resources.

ƒ

Blue Eyes spring. The spring capacity is 14,000 l/sec in February, and 25,000 l/sec in September. The Albanian Government in cooperation with Italian authorities has developed the idea for an supra-regional project to tap 12,000 l/s. A portion of 8,000 l/s would be envisaged for delivery to southern Italy. For the water supply of the adjacent hinterland settlements 2,000 l/s are foreseen, for Saranda 1,000 l/s and for coastal villages 1,000 l/s. Due to the complex technological measures (pipeline at the bottom of the Adriatic Sea!) and the resulting high costs the implementation does not appear probable in the near future. However, for a long-term view infrastructure planners should bear in mind the option of additional water supply capacity of 1,000 l/s for coastal villages.

The study of springs and groundwater confirms that water resources available for the supply of the coastal settlements are largely sufficient for future village and tourism development. The total available water resources correspond to a water supply for about 1,068,000 persons. Regarding the estimated population and tourism trends it is obvious that the water resources will not represent a limiting factor for developments by far. Leaving aside the physical resource capacities (quality and quantity), and required the financial resources to mobilise them, one of the key issues regards the present poor management capacities of water utilities. The authorities are conscious of this issue and are trying to experiment new managerial processes meanwhile implementing the Saranda water supply project: a management contract has been awarded to a foreign company (Berlin Wasser) in order to improve the management and promote appropriate technologies. The process is on going for an expected duration of one year, and results are expected to be interpreted as lessons to be learned from this first experience.

2.3.3. Waste water At present, there is only one treatment plant in the study area (in Himara, and only with mechanical treatment), and only few and partial waste collection networks (Saranda and Himara). Therefore, the waste water disposal is mainly based on individual installations, when existing. Simple pits and septic tanks are the most common type of installation in the region This is generating diffused pollution in the karstic underground or into the sea. Polluting hotspots are identified in the places where networks have already been built (Saranda and Himara), either without treatment or with inadequate treatment facilities. Descriptions in detail of present waste water disposal situation in particular coastal settlements are provided in Annex 6.

88


Socio-Economic Development: Driving Forces

The Albanian authorities are conscious that untreated waste water can quickly and durably jeopardise the development of an area by reducing the attractivity of any potential site (for instance in Ksamili commune, the impact of the effluents of the growing settlements in the sea is already considered as a burden for the development of some bays). For this reason, they have launched a project dealing with the management and the construction of treatment facilities for the city of Saranda and part of Ksamil.

2.3.3.1. Present situation In Saranda, the network covers the centre of the city and does not cover the surroundings and recent urban developments. The main collector conveys the wastewater to a pumping station located in the eastern part of the city. It is then pumped to Cuka canal where the effluent is discharged without treatment. In Himara, the collection network covers part of the city (“new” Himara). The wastewater is transported to a treatment plant which provides only mechanical treatment by the means of decantation basins. These basins, however, are in a very poor condition. The collection network is of insufficient capacity and the partial purification in the sedimentation basins is far below the required rate of pollution reduction according to respective EU legislation.

2.3.3.2. Proposed projects The Saranda Project for a “constructed treatment wetland (aerated lagoon)” is under implementation in the region. It will cover the localities of Saranda and surroundings. Located at 10 km in the south east of the city, the wetland (publicly owned land) has a total surface of 30 ha and is supposed to serve a target population of 60,000 by the year 2022 (assumed present population is 30,000). Project components include: ƒ the installation of the main collector from Saranda; ƒ the pumping station and the pre treatment facilities; and ƒ the earth works for the basins. Civil engineering works and equipment are financed with a loan provided by the European Investment Bank, while the earth works are granted through Global Environment Facility (managed by the World Bank). In addition, the project includes: ƒ

the project management with a project implementation unit (based in Durres and managing other projects financed by the World Bank in the country); and

ƒ

the provision of operating services by a private company, as well as training of personnel, during one year.

Detailed design and preparation of tendering documentation are under progress. Tendering for construction is expected by June 2005 and the construction should last 2 years. It seems that the Municipality of Saranda will not agree with present design of WWTP outflow to Butrint Lake (comment of Environmental Department in Saranda). Aqueous ecosystem of Butrint Lake is sensitive and euthrophication has already been reported. Future charges through residual pollution loads from WWTP effluent will further endanger ecological balance. Alternative design would be to discharge WWTP effluent to Cuka Channel which will finally evacuate residual pollution loads to the sea. The project consequence will be the need for an additional pumping station for effluent delivery and subsequent additional costs (for construction and operation of effluent pumping station). The discussion is still ongoing and a decision is pending.

89


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

The municipality of Himara assigns high priority to the improvement of wastewater disposal system since, presently, local population as well as tourism suffer from the unpleasant impacts of existing wastewater disposal situation. With the Himara project, the municipality is striving for rehabilitation of existing sewerage system as well as for network extension in order to connect all residential areas to sewage collection network. According to the wishes of the municipal decision makers, the present mechanical treatment basins should be closed and a new wastewater treatment plant with mechanical and biological stages should be constructed. As of new houses, they would be connected to the extended collection network, while existing septic tanks should be closed in order to stop pollution to soil and groundwater. For single houses with large distance from municipal agglomeration, the connection to the sewerage system might be too expensive. The solution would be the installation of a separate prefabricated compact treatment plant. However, the decision for such a separate option or for construction of one channel as connection to the municipal sewerage will be based on economic consideration of detailed design project.

2.3.3.3. Prospects for improved waste water management The project of construction of aerated lagoons for Saranda area has a good prospect and, according to our information, should by completed by 2007. Depending on the development scenario that will be approved by the authority (after the proposals made in the phase 2), other locations for similar facilities should be considered, primarily in Himara and Ksamil. Given the present situation and difficulties in the water supply sector, the first project (Saranda waste water treatment wetlands) has highlighted the need for adequate assessment of organisational and operational aspects, and therefore has implemented a project including operating issues as well as training of personnel. Therefore, it is considered that the organisation and operational constraints shall be of first importance while designing the strategy for the waste water sub-sector. To this regard, technical choices are to be made accordingly. Problems caused by the bad performances (probably both technological and operational) of the mechanical treatment plant in Himara is an example of what should not be done in the short term in the waste water sub-sector. Ensuring adequate management for water supply should be the first step; planning, design and construction, and operation of collective waste water treatment plant follow as the 2nd or 3rd steps. The construction of treatment facilities in the low areas, which means near the sea, without adequate organisational and operating skills is, in any time and any country, a much bigger concern for environment and pollution than diffuse local pollution coming from individual facilities. Therefore, the proposed strategy, which has been discussed and agreed upon with some Albanian responsible authorities, for the short and mid term (5 to 10 years) stipulate that individual on site facilities should be preferred to collective off site treatment plants, which could be built as a second step. Practically, it is recommended to: ƒ

ƒ ƒ

encourage the construction and operation of septic tanks, and/or promote the rehabilitation of other archaic systems (open pits, one-room tanks) into appropriate and well designed septic tanks; promote adequate and environmentally safe design for disposal of liquid refuse (trench, gravels, etc.); and provide adequate and appropriate service for sludge remove and disposal.

From the regulatory point of view, existing regulations, such as construction permits, should be either improved or updated so as to include the construction of normative and official private installations. Special attention should be paid to the tourism facilities, such as hotels, accredited guest houses, and various seasonal accommodations.

90


Socio-Economic Development: Driving Forces

2.3.4. Solid wastes In spite of recent efforts materialised in the construction of the first dumping site in Saranda, the situation remains an important concern, with a large number of illegal dumping sites, lack of collection and dumping facilities in most areas, increasing degradation of landscape and, last but not least, growing volumes of construction wastes along main roads. With the financing from the World Bank (Pre-Feasibility Study and Solid Waste Management Plan for Southern Albania, Solid Waste Consultancy B.V., 2005) has been completed recently. It has successfully introduced the concept of regional approach to the solid waste management. The two sites of Vunoi and Bajkaj have been assessed and analysed (up to the feasibility stage) for future dumping of solid wastes. To this respect, the study area can be analysed with a focus on the 4 main spots, which are both administrative units and important producers of solid wastes and construction wastes: Himara and its region, Lukova, Saranda and Ksamil.

2.3.4.1. Present situation The detailed present situation of the municipalities and villages of the study area is presented in Annex. 7.This situation, summarised in terms of equipment and material (collection of wastes) and disposal facilities (sites, installations, etc.), is presented in the Table 2.25. Table 2.25: Preliminary assessment of solid waste management City / municipality

Equipment / material Disposal

Dermiu, Iliasi and other None villages of Himara Municipaliy Himara Yes Lukova Saranda

Ksamil

Diagnosis

Uncontrolled

Dumping site northeast of city None Part in Saranda dumping site Containers for deposit Dumping site located 7 from individuals and km north (shared with municipal trucks for Ksamil) transport and disposal Containers for deposit Dumping site located 7 from individuals and km north Saranda (same municipal trucks for as Saranda) transport and disposal (service provided by Saranda)

Bad functioning of the dumping site First controlled dumping site of the region; needs to be improved See Saranda

Source: Field Investigation Data, 2005

2.3.4.2. Ongoing and proposed projects The already mentioned “Pre-feasibility study and solid waste management study” has been completed recently. The study has succeeded to select two potential sites in the area (namely near Vunoi and Bajkaj villages), which look to be agreed upon by the municipal authorities (this being an important key point). The regional approach is foreseen for the development of the sector, so it is envisaged that each commune or village should join a common project shared with the neighbour localities. In terms of geography and location of future sites, the frame of the future organisation of “catchment” areas for solid waste is summarised in the Table 2.26.

91


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Table 2.26: “Catchment” areas of future dumping sites Future dumping sites

Villages and municipalities

Bajkaj dumping site Vunoi dumping site

Saranda, Ksamil, Lukova Himara and surrounding villages (from Palasa to Qeparo ?)

Source: Pre-feasibility Study and Solid Waste Management Plan for Southern Albania, World Bank, 2005

However, some points have to be made more precise: for instance, the future perspective of Ksamil is still unclear. The study indicates that the Bajkaj site will not include the area of Ksamil, probably for reasons of distance. However, the responsible persons in Ksamil being met during the site visits in April are indicating that the present co-operation with Saranda will be continued with the exploitation of the future site of Bajkaj.

2.3.4.3. Solid waste: Future steps The allocation of two sites for purpose of dumping of waste is an important progress in the issue of waste management. These sites look appropriate as regards the waste generation localities (city of Saranda as well as foreseen potential tourist zones), and the access facilities (roads), and seem to have an adequate institutional situation (public ownership and agreement of the relevant authorities), if this is confirmed. Successful implementation of these 2 sites, as well as long term sustainability (organization, operating costs and maintenance of the service) are the next steps to be taken. In the mid and long terms additional sites will have to be identified; one probably very soon, in the vicinity of Ksamil, and 1 or 2 others around Borsch and Qeparo (too big distances from Vunoi and Saranda) or Dhermiu and Palasa. This issue should be addressed in further surveys, investigations and studies.

2.3.5. Electricity 2.3.5.1. Present situation The dramatic situation of electricity has been reported mainly informally during the site mission in April. In many places, the electricity failures are frequent. In Ksamil, it has been reported that the pumping station for water supply can operate on a daily basis only for one hour, due to electrical problems. On the institutional and managerial sides, it has been reported that new enforcement procedures have been implemented, mainly by disconnecting bad payers. The study area is covered by 2 production units, in Bristica (for the southern part from Ksamil to Borsh), and in Vlora for the northern part (north of Borsh and Vlora). In most areas, the network is old and still working under the oudated technical conditions of 35 kV for “high” voltage and 10 kV for “ medium” voltage. In addition, with the age of the network and the sub stations, the system faces heavy losses.

2.3.5.2. Proposed projects No written document was provided during the site visit performed in April 2005 on the project for Bristica and Saranda region. Oral information was given by the responsible persons of the national company (KERSH) in Saranda on the present situation and the on-going projects, in particular the rehabilitation project financed by the German co-operation (KFW). The project deals with the production and distribution of electricity in the area around Saranda (which covers all the coastal zone from Borsh to Ksamil).

92


Socio-Economic Development: Driving Forces

According to the responsible for operation of the system in the southern part of the study area (including all human settlements from Borsh to Butrinti), the project which is on-going has the objective of reducing the leakages and meeting the requirements for up to next 50 years. The project consists of: ƒ rehabilitating the 2 production units of Bistrica; ƒ modifying the technical features of the distribution (shift of the 2 high voltage lines from 35 to 110,000 kV and of the medium voltage from 10 kv to 20 kV and modification of the sub stations accordingly); and ƒ rehabilitating low voltage network. The project (production, high and medium voltages) is financed by the German co-operation (KFW) and its 1st phase is being implemented. Implementation and financing of the 2nd phase (implementation and upgrading of a second production unit) is under discussion with the same financing institution. Under national financing (budget), the rehabilitation of the low voltage network is foreseen and a budget of 140 Millions Leke has been allocated (according to the Bulletin for public investment dated 30 March 2005). In an additional project phase, the same project (replacement of sub stations and rehabilitation of distribution network) will be applied to all areas up to the limit of the Bistrica plant. The implementation status is as follows (April 2005): ƒ 10 transformers have been upgraded (from 10 to 20 kV) in the 1st stage, 40 are remaining for the 2nd stage of the project; and ƒ 3 medium voltage lines (20kV) will be soon (summer 2005) operating for Saranda, and 2 are under implementation for Ksamil and Butrinti (scheduled within 1 year according to KERSH). In an expected next stage, the project will shift all the medium voltages lines from 10 to 20 kV in the northern part of the zones, up to Borsh. A high voltage line (220 kV) is under construction to link Fier and Vlora. Project of transforming the old voltage system from 35 to 110 kV is under preparation or implementation in the Vlora production unit. Substations 110 kV are needed in Palasa, Himara, Borsh and Saranda. Tourist area Vlora – Saranda will get secure power supply as part of 110/20kV line in 3 to 4 years from now. The 110/20kV is already partially operational in Vlora city. The construction of TEC Park in Vlora financed by EIB and EBRD with €40m will bring more security in power supply. Finally, there are many Hydro Power Stations in the region that contribute in the electricity supply by local lines. This capacity almost is not operating or currently is under privatization.

Table 2.27: SWOT analysis for the electricity sector Strengths

Weaknesses

Important structural projects are underway (high voltage network, renewal of technical standards, rehabilitation of networks)

Poor management and operational procedures as well as slow project implementation result in long delays and slow improvement

Opportunities

Threats

Development of tourist facilities (hotels and tourist settlements) and basic infrastructure (water supply) need adequate energy provision

Unsecured funding for continuation of rehabilitation (2nd phase of KFW financing) and slow process of improving the low voltage network

93


PAP/RAC â&#x20AC;&#x201C; SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Interim Report

Sustainable and secured provision of electricity facilities is critical for the socio-economic development, and in particular for the development of the tourist sector, whose energy needs are very high. The conclusions on the assessment of situation and future perspectives are presented in the Table 2.27.

2.3.6. Telecommunications Albanian Telecom is in its last stages of privatisation. Under these circumstances, the new company is expected to formulate a new strategy. According to unofficial information, the existing capacities at Selenica, Orikum, Himara and Saranda may be increased by up to 1,000-5,000 new numbers. Technical possibilities to increase the telecommunication capacities exist if the demand will emerge. The use of optical cables for the Internet and other services in current conditions is not profitable since the demand is limited and these services are mostly carried out by other strong mobile operators such as AMC and Vodafone. As a conclusion, development of telecommunication infrastructure is not at all a limiting factor for development of the region. As soon as development process starts, telecommunication infrastructure will be extended and improved to cover additional demand.

2.4. Coastal Pollution Table 2.28: Wastewater disposal impact to environment Environmental category

Wastewater disposal impact to environment

1.

Coastal seawater

2.

Inland surface water

3.

Groundwater

4.

Soil and underground

5.

Air quality

6. 7.

Noise Human health

8.

Ecological resources

Pollution load discharged directly to the sea (Himara, Saranda), no load reduction, local reduction of water quality (Saranda Bay, Himara harbour), in summer, partially recognisable sewage smell on beaches, decreased suitability for tourism development, effects are reversible in case of wastewater treatment Significant pollution of water streams, vast pollutant transfer to the sea, partial pollutant dispersion to river basins, partial infiltration to underground water resources, pollution of karstic water, partial pollution of water resources for human consumption, hygienic risks Local pollution through wastewater seepage due to leaky septic tanks, laminar diffusion of pollutants to karstic water resources, contamination of dug wells for private water supply, hygienic risks Sewage trickling into underground due to un-tight septic tanks, no soil filtration due to the lack of substantial layers of loamy and sandy material, unrelieved pollution transfer to karstic underground, pollutants spread to karstic water resources Generation of disagreeable smells in residential areas, temporary noticeable odour problems on beaches, adduction of numerous flies affecting human living conditions and increasing danger of disease dissemination No recognisable impact Diffuse potential of hygienic risk through polluted groundwater, danger of infection due to pathogenic germs in polluted dug wells, dispersion of pathogenic germs by insects Shrinkage of oxygen in surface waters, deteriorated living conditions for some aqueous species (specific investigations through biologists needed), local disturbance of native flora and fauna No significant impact Unpleasant odour generation, derogation of quality of life, danger of disease dispersion No remarkable impact on civil structures and mechanical installations

9. Landscape 10. Human settlements 11. Infrastructure

94


Socio-Economic Development: Driving Forces

This section provides an estimate of negative influences on the environment due to present pollution generated by coastal settlements in the study area. Presently, the most significant pollution to coastal areas origins from (a) wastewater discharge to hinterland environment and to the sea, and from (b) uncontrolled solid waste disposal. Generally, the existing wastewater disposal practice is characterised by a lack of satisfactory treatment, by direct discharge to stream basins, to karstic underground or to coastal sea waters. Details of waste water disposal, in particular coastal villages, have already been described in section 2.3.3. Typical aspects of present solid waste disposal practice are numerous uncontrolled waste dumps along roads, in the terrain close to residential areas (in ditches, pits, river and stream basins) and on the coast. Particulars have already been described in section 2.3.4. In the Table 2.28, the preliminary overview of the environmental consequences of present wastewater disposal are roughly summarised. In the Table 2.29, environmental consequences of present solid waste disposal practice are roughly summarised.

Table 2.29: Solid waste disposal impact to environment Environmental category

Solid waste disposal impact to environment

1.

Coastal seawater

2.

Inland surface water

3.

Groundwater

4.

Soil and underground

5.

Air quality

6. 7.

Noise Human health

8.

Ecological resources

9.

Landscape

Solid waste dumped on beaches is temporarily flushed to coastal seawater by tidal sequence, uncontrolled dumped waste in stream basins is gradually leached by surface waters entailing dispersion of dissolved pollutants to coastal sea water Solid waste uncontrolled dumped in river basins pollutes periodic water flows, dumped waste is gradually leached entailing dissolving of pollutants and deterioration of surface water quality Leaching of uncontrolled dumped solid waste and subsequent trickling of contaminated leachate to karstic subsoil effects diffuse transfer of pollutants to groundwater resources, threat for water supply from groundwater, hygienic risks Dissemination of pollutants adsorbed on solid particles and dissolved in stormwater to soil, possible long term accumulation of hazardous substances in agricultural soils Dispersion of polluted dust by wind, danger of germs dissemination adsorbed on solid particles by wind, hygienic risk for close-by residential areas, generation of disagreeable odour to adjacent areas No significant impact Generally enhanced danger to human health since solid waste based hygienic risks are widely spread over terrain and to residential areas, lack of measures for risk mitigation causes permanent source of danger for human health, attraction of rats and other waste associated species including respective hygienic risk potential Disturbance of habitats by both dust dispersion and solid waste dumped on site, modification of native flora and fauna, promotion of rats and scavenger species Significant derogation of overall optic scenery, markedly impact on appearance of vegetation, deterioration of townscape Manifold sources of hygienic risks and disease dispersion, degradation of settlements optic scenery, decrease of suitability for tourism development No significant derogation of infrastructure state and functioning

10. Human settlements 11. Infrastructure

95


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

2.4.1. Key aspects of coastal pollution 2.4.1.1. Wastewater coastal pollution Pollution loads presently (2004) discharged to the marine and coastal environment are listed for particular coastal communes in the Table 2.30. The assumption is that wastewater flows to the sea by 100%. Soil infiltration due to leaky septic tanks and losses in untight sewerage systems cannot be quantified precisely. Figures are estimated on bases of municipal population (2004) and standard specific contents for wastewater parameter according to work sheet ATV-A 131. Respective standard values are listed as follows. ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

Specific domestic COD load: Specific domestic BOD5 load: Specific domestic N-Total load: Specific domestic P-Total load: Specific domestic SS load: Specific domestic TDS load:

110.0 g/capita/day 60.0 g/capita/day 11.0 g/capita/day 1.8 g/capita/day 55.0 g/capita/day 70.0 g/capita/day

The results for particular settlements and subtotals for corresponding communes are lined up in the Table 2.30. Table 2.30: Overview of present (2004) daily sewage pollution loads in coastal settlements Commune Settlement Himara Palase Dhermi Gjileke Vuno Ilias Himara P. Palermo 2) Kudhes Pilur Qeparo Lukova Borsh Lukova Nivice-Bubar Piqeras Sasaj Perparim Corraj Fterre Qazim Pali Saranda Metoq Gjashta Saranda Shelegar Aliko Ksamili Xara Total coastal communes 1) 2)

Population 1) 2004

COD (kg/d)

BOD5 (kg/d)

N-Total (kg/d)

P-Total (kg/d)

SS (kg/d)

TDS (kg/d)

10,697 408 620 935 475 110 5,284 --868 497 1,500 8,911 1,280 2,266 959 1,140 288 1,234 267 291 1,186 34,226 1,801 2,343 29,805 277 8,066 7,124 6,811 75,835

1,177 45 68 103 52 12 581 --95 55 165 980 141 249 105 125 32 136 29 32 130 3,765 198 258 3,279 30 887 784 749 8,342

642 24 37 56 29 7 317 --52 30 90 535 77 136 58 68 17 74 16 17 71 2,054 108 141 1,788 17 484 427 409 4,550

118 4 7 10 5 1 58 --10 5 17 98 14 25 11 13 3 14 3 3 13 376 20 26 328 3 89 78 75 834

19 1 1 2 1 0 10 --2 1 3 16 2 4 2 2 1 2 0 1 2 62 3 4 54 0 15 13 12 137

588 22 34 51 26 6 291 --48 27 83 490 70 125 53 63 16 68 15 16 65 1,882 99 129 1,639 15 444 392 375 4,171

749 29 43 65 33 8 370 --61 35 105 624 90 159 67 80 20 86 19 20 83 2,396 126 164 2,086 19 565 499 477 5,308

Population data 2004 according to PAP/RAC study, 2005 Temporarily inhabited

96


Socio-Economic Development: Driving Forces

The above listed pollution loads represent the total daily generation of pollution loads. These are partially discharged to the sea and to some extent infiltrated into coastal soils by percolation occurring either through leaky sewerage or from untight septic tanks. The ratio of discharge to sea and seepage to underground depends on specific conditions of particular municipal wastewater infrastructure cannot presently be determined precisely due to a lack of sufficient analyses for wastewater effluent to the sea. The selected approach of total wastewater discharge to the sea is the “worst case” scenario, so that the estimates of pollution loads to coastal waters lie on the secure side. In the text below a rough interpretation of these data will be given. Saranda town wastewater effluent analysis data Only few measurements of wastewater effluent into the sea and respective chemical analyses exist for Saranda town. However a rough interpretation of these data is outlined as follows. The data source for this calculation is “National Diagnosis Analysis Report – Albania” (2003). Ingredients contents related to one spot sample (average wastewater flow discharged to the sea via Cuka Channel) is the following: ƒ Q: 1,920 m3/d; ƒ COD: 220 mg/l; ƒ BOD5: 107 mg/l; ƒ N-Total: 32.9 mg/l; ƒ P-Total: 20 mg/l; ƒ SS: 217 mg/l; ƒ TDS: 650 mg/l. Pollution loads derived from sample analysis data above result in figures as presented in the Table 2.31. Table 2.31: Saranda town pollution loads of effluent to Ionian Sea Settlement Saranda Town

Q (m3/d)

COD (kg/d)

BOD5 (kg/d)

N-Total (kg/d)

P-Total (kg/d)

SS (kg/d)

TDS (kg/d)

1,920

422

205

63

38

417

1.248

Pollution loads listed in table above are much too low for Saranda population of about 30,000. They are compared with data of effluent to the sea (Table 2.32). Table 2.32: Saranda total pollution load generation compared with pollution load of effluent to Ionian Sea Parameter

COD BOD5 N-Total P-Total SS TDS

Total pollution load (kg/d) 3,279 1,788 328 54 1,639 2,086

Pollution load of effluent to Ionian Sea (kg/d) 422 205 63 38 417 1,248

Pollution load of effluent / Total pollution load (%) 13 11 19 70 25 60

97


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

The figures for ratio of effluent loads to total loads indicate that Saranda total pollution loads of COD, BOD5 Nitrogen and suspended solids are discharged to the sea by approximately 10 to 20%. Figures for Phosphorous and total dry substance do not appear plausible since they are surprisingly high and do not lay in a reasonable proportion to Nitrogen and BOD5. The assumption rises that the remaining 80% of organic and Nitrogen load not found at the outlet to the sea might infiltrate to the underground. In any case the estimate above is diffuse due to the minor data amount. For a sound differentiation between pollution load rates to sea and underground much more sample analyses are necessary describing all qualitative and quantitative characteristics of municipal wastewater generation. Further, the metering of wastewater flow in the municipal sewerage network must be extended and more measuring points have to be established in order to identify location and amount of wastewater seepage to underground. Eutrophication According to assessment of existing data on quality of river flows to the sea and coastal waters, Albanian coastal waters are still in an oligotrophic state. However, there exist some exceptions mainly around the beach areas and river mouths. In Saranda Bay the development of nitrofile algae has been observed . This indicates an advanced stage of eutrophication of this water body. Data on organic matter and nutrients in sea water of Saranda Bay performed during the year 2002, are listed in the Table 2.33. Table 2.33: Sea water quality in Saranda Bay (2002) Location

Nitrates (mg/l)

Rivier Club (Sarande) Lagja “Koder” (Sarande) Wastewater treatment effluent according to EU directive for urban wastewater treatment (3)

P-total (mg/l)

0.40-0.45 0.38-0.45 151

COD (mg/l)

0.18-0.49 0.30-1.03 22

40.10-63.40 36.00-65.00 125

BOD5 (mg/l) 19.96-31.90 17.95-32.84 25

Note: Values of N and P in the EU Directive are applied for discharges from wastewater treatment plants in areas which are subject to eutrophication 1) Total nitrogen for urban centres of 10,000-100,000 person equivalents 2) For urban centers of 10,100-100,000 person equivalents

Related to BOD5 data in the above table, the quality of sea water in Saranda Bay is frequently worse than requirements for effluents from wastewater treatment plants. The comparison of COD and BOD5 with the classification of river waters according to UNECE (see Table 2.34) indicates that Saranda Bay sea water quality corresponds to category V (the worst).

Table 2.34: Classification of river water qualities based on UNECE Category I II III IV V

NH4+ (mg/l) NO3 (mg/l) Ptotal (mg/l) COD (mg/l) BOD5 (mg/l) Dissolved O2 (mg/l) <0,1 0,1-0,5 0,5-2 2-8 >8

<5 5-25 25-50 50-80 >80

<10 10-25 25-50 50-125 >125

<3 3-10 10-20 20-30 >30

Source: Environmental Performance Review of Albania, UNECE, 2002

98

<3 3-5 5-9 9-15 >15

>7 7-6 6-4 4-3 <3


Socio-Economic Development: Driving Forces

Microbiological pollution Contents of wastewater microbiological parameter in the coastal waters of Saranda Bay caused by discharge of urban sewage are partially higher than guiding values of the EU Directive for Bathing Waters (Table 2.35). Table 2.35: Bacteria contents in Saranda Bay compared with EU Bathing Water Directive requirements Place Riviera sea, Sarande Lagja Koder sea, Sarande Guiding value of the EU Directive for Bathing Water (4) Mandatory value of the EU Directive for Bathing Water (4)

Total coliforms Faecal coliforms Faecal spreptocooci (germs/100 ml) (germs/100 ml) (germs/100 ml) 520-630 164-780 500

66-80 32-46 100

42-46 28-126 100

10,000

2,000

_

Priority ranking for future wastewater treatment plant projects For identification of project implementation priorities the following criteria are considered: ƒ proximity of the city/town to the coast; ƒ number of inhabitants; ƒ economic and commercial activities in the city/town and respective contaminants; ƒ present dimension of pollution; and ƒ tourism development.

Table 2.36: Preliminary priority ranking of wastewater treatment projects in coastal settlements according to above cited criteria Settlement ranked acc. to wastewater project priority

Population 1) Comments on future wastewater treatment 2004 projects

Saranda Town

29,805

Himara Town Ksamil Qeparoi Borshi Dhermi Vunoi Lukova Piqerasi Kakome Bay

5,284 7,124 1,500 1,280 620 475 2,266 1,140 ---

Porto Palermo Palase Ilias 1)

--408 110

existing project “Wastewater Management Master Plan Saranda”, for particulars see Annex 6, chapter 2.3 for particulars see Annex 6, chapter 2.3 for particulars see Annex 6, chapter 2.3 for particulars see Annex 6, chapter 2.3 for particulars see Annex 6, chapter 2.3 for particulars see Annex 6, chapter 2.3 for particulars see Annex 6, chapter 2.3 for particulars see Annex 6, chapter 2.3 for particulars see Annex 6, chapter 2.3 should be done in accordance with tourism development should be done in accordance with tourism development for particulars see Annex 6, chapter 2.3 for particulars see Annex 6, chapter 2.3

Population data 2004 according to PAP/RAC study (2005)

99


PAP/RAC â&#x20AC;&#x201C; SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Interim Report

2.4.1.2. Solid waste coastal pollution The average municipal waste generation in Albania accounted for 255 kg/capita/year in the mid-1990-ies. Respective particular data for small coastal settlements are not available. Thus estimates on solid waste quantities are derived from population times the average country specific municipal solid waste generation. Specific municipal solid waste generation (Albanian average, mid-1990-ies) is 0.72 kg/capita/day. Specific municipal solid waste generation in small coastal settlements might be smaller than in big cities due to average lower standard of living. Figures for waste quantities in the Table 2.37 are based on specific value typical for big cities. Therefore the estimates for small villages are presumably ample.

Table 2.37: Solid waste generation estimate in coastal settlements Commune

Settlement

Himara

10,697 408 620 935 475 110 5284 868 497 1500

2.811 107 163 246 125 29 1.389 228 131 394

8,911 1280 2266 959 1140 288 1234 267 291 1186

2.342 336 596 252 300 76 324 70 76 312

34,226 1801 2343 29805 277

8.995 473 616 7.833 73

Aliko

8,066

2.120

Ksamili

7,124

1.872

Xara

6,811

1.790

75.835

19,929

Palase Dhermi Gjileke Vuno Ilias Himara Kudhes Pilur Qeparo Lukova Borsh Lukova Nivice-Bubar Piqeras Sasaj Perparim Corraj Fterre Qazim Pali Saranda Metoq Gjashta Saranda Shelegar

Sum - coastal communes 1)

100

Population 1) Solid waste generation 2004 (ton/year)

Population data 2004 according to PAP/RAC study


3

Tourism Development

Tourism development has been considered as a sort of “panacea” for many Albanian development problems since early nineties. In a situation characterised by almost limitless optimism, environmental assets were rightly considered as a solid basis to develop tourism as a mainstay of transformed economy, particularly on the coast. All reports, studies and plans prepared then have been based on that premise. All of these reports have been carefully studied, basic conclusions relevant for this project have been extrapolated and utilised during the preparation of this report. A brief summary of the most relevant reports is given in Annex 11. Most of the above mentioned reports are centred on environmental issues and not tourism per se. Some describe what has to be done for tourism but on a prevailing "ideological" basis that can be summarised by the following: tourism is dangerous; it is not sustainable unless it is eco-tourism with low negative impact on the environment, something that is contrary to the situation just across the narrow channel in the south, i.e. on the island of Corfu. Also, a strong linkage has systematically been made between beach tourism and mass tourism. However many reports are silent when answer is needed for the most basic questions, such as: When does mass tourism begin? Thus, for example, one of the most recent documents, “Tourism Development Strategy”, a sort of tourism master plan prepared in 2002, says very straightforwardly that in “…northern coast [of Albania] (…) mass tourism with 10,000 beds, in southern coast [of Albania] (…) eco-tourism with 8,000 beds”. The document does not elaborate in detail how this strategy will be implemented. Actually, few priorities are set so that there is no real strategy. Similarly, few advices on how to do and how to implement are given. In the meantime, during the time covered by the reports (more than 10 years) about 4,000 beds have been built, mainly around Saranda. They were built without a vision, plan and/or the decision taken whether the Albanian coast will be a mass-tourism or some other type of tourism destination. This chapter is composed of two basic parts: ƒ

analysis of historical tourism trends with the aim of finding out how the tourism assets have been utilised in the past; and

ƒ

elaboration of the preliminary tourism development strategy.

3.1. Analysis of historic tourism trends 3.1.1. Tourist visits The Southern Coastal Region has not really developed its tourism sector. Its neighbouring countries, namely Croatia, Greece and Italy, are very much advanced in terms of the quantity of international tourists it brings in and the quality of tourism offered. The current market for the Southern Coast is based almost exclusively on Albanian visitors. The majority of tourists to the Southern Coastal Region are locals or Albanians from Kosovo and FYROM. The local market is virtually saturated and we may, in fact, witness a decrease as Albanians become more affluent and choose to travel abroad for their vacations, which is the process

101


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

that has already started. After a research conducted by the National Commercial Bank of Albania during the last summer, 1.8 million Euros were generated by travel agents only from travel fares paid by the Albanians that spent their vacations in Turkey. Montenegro and Croatia are two other markets opening up for the Albanian tourists. Saranda’s proximity to the World Heritage Sites of Butrinti and Corfu makes it the main attraction point for foreign tourists to the site, the majority of whom are daily trippers. Therefore, Saranda has the highest percentage of foreign visitor entries compared to the rest of the Southern Coast (30%), with Vlora estimated to be around 2% and Himara 1%. In the late 1980s, day visitors from Corfu made up half of all Albania’s foreign tourists in numerical terms. In 2004, around 22,000 international tourists or 50% of all visitors that arrive to Saranda by sea, visited the Butrinti site and the cultural sites around it, for one day or less, spent a day in Saranda and then returned to accommodations on the Greek island of Corfu. These tours are organized by Greek and Albanian tourist agencies with little incentive or available tourist infrastructure (i.e., hotels) to keep the tourists in Saranda for more than a day. The increase in the number of foreign visitors emphasises the high dependency on foreign intermediaries (mainly from Corfu) indicating at the same time the lack of local tour operators and of a marketing strategy. Consequently, there is a lack of incentives in encouraging direct selling or control over the intermediaries. There is a considerable interest in Saranda on the part of international tourists as reflected in Figure 3.1. However, there is a need to build the marketing and promotional side of the foreign markets. Figure 3.1: Foreign tourists by country of origin in Saranda

Others Austria France USA Greece Germany Italy UK

5%

10%

15%

20%

Source: Saranda Mayor’s Office; Dept of Tourism (in Gunaratnam, 2004)

Corfu constitutes the main supplier of visitors (foreign and Albanians) that reach both Saranda and Himara by boat on a daily basis. A yearly average of about three boats a day caters for the Albanians that live in Greece, who usually travel to visit their families or for business, as well as for daily and independent foreign visitors. There are literally no daily visitors to Himara, yet since 1998 there have been almost regular itineraries from Corfu (once a week in winter and up to three times a week in summer) catering for the Albanians from the northern coastal area that live and work in Corfu or mainland Greece and very few independent foreign visitors.

102


Tourism Development

Part of the present development in Corfu island is the improvement of road and sea communications, such as the new port at Kasioppi which will have its first phase completed by the end of 2005. According to the Corfu planners it is clear that the development of this port will not contribute to the large-scale tourism activities in the Southern Albania, except for daily excursions that could aim at Saranda, Himara and Butrinti. On the other hand, the rebuilding of the large port of Igoumenitsa in Epirus and its connecting roads will have substantial impact on access to the Southern Albania for freight trade and tourism. It is estimated that 30,000 people per day will be passing through Igoumenitsa during the tourist period. The growth of Saranda in terms of tourism arrivals over the past 5 years has been quite dramatic. The number of foreign tourist arrivals has almost quadrupled, while the Albanian visitors' arrivals have remained relatively stable, showing only a 21% growth rate in that period (Table 3.1). As mentioned above, the Albanians entering Saranda through its port are usually the emigrants working abroad, and since their number has not increased in that period, their arrival rate has remained relatively stable. Foreigners entering through the Saranda port are predominantly day tourists, three times more than those staying overnight (Figure 3.2) The visitors entering through Himara and Vlora ports are predominantly Albanians, coming to Albania for the same reason as those coming to Saranda. However, the total figures are similar to those for Saranda (44,175 and 38,000 in 2004 for Vlora and Himara respectively, as opposed to 43,270 for Saranda). The relevant figures are provided in Table 3.2, Table 3.3, Figure 3.2 and Figure 3.3. The structure of visitors proves that Saranda is the most attractive point for international tourists, and that the tourism assets of other areas have not yet been fully utilised. The tourism industry varies significantly across the region â&#x20AC;&#x201C; in and around Saranda tourism (mainly foreign day tourists) is mainly heritage-cultural and beach tourism related (mainly local overnight), while in and around Vlora it is eco-tourism (Llogara National Park) and beach tourism. In all other settlements between Vlora and Saranda it is mainly beach tourism. The forecasts up to the year 2020 are, however, more dramatic. According to the World Bank financed study (Gunaratnam, 2004) a steady growth is envisaged, with more than 250,000 tourist arrivals expected in 2020. The share of foreign tourists will grow in the total, but Albanians will still make almost 70% of incoming tourists (Figure 3.4). This forecast will have to be made more precisely in order to find out what will be the distribution of future tourists among the southern coastal communes and municipalities. This will, certainly, depend to a large extent on the tourism strategy chosen.

Table 3.1: Total arrivals of Albanians and foreign visitors through Saranda Port in 2000-2004 Visitor type Albanians Foreigners Total

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

14,524 6,591 21,115

14,807 8,268 23,105

17,828 16,481 34,309

19,093 20,084 39,177

17,658 25,612 43,270

Source: Saranda Port Authority

103


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Figure 3.2: Arrivals of Albanians and foreign visitors (overnight and daily) through Saranda Port in 2000-2004

20000 18000 16000 14000 12000 10000 8000 6000 4000 2000 0

Foreign overnight Foreign Daily Albanians 2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Source: Saranda Port Statistics, 2005

Table 3.2: Arrivals of Albanians and foreign visitors through Vlora Port 2000-2004 Visitor type

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Albanians Foreigners Total

45,314 986 46,300

44,820 1,080 45,900

44,884 1,239 46,123

44,844 1,206 46,050

43,985 1,190 44,175

Source: Vlora Port Authority

Figure 3.3: Arrivals of Albanians and foreign visitors through Vlora Port 2000-2004 50000 45000 40000 35000 30000 25000

Albanians

20000

Foreign

15000 10000 5000 0 2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

Source: Vlora Port Statistics, 2005

Table 3.3: Visitor arrivals in Himara 2004 (sea and land) Visitor type Albanians Foreigners Total

No. of visitors 35,000 3,000 38,000

Source: Himara Mayor’s Office, Dept of Tourism

104


Tourism Development

Figure 3.4: Forecast of local and foreign tourist arrivals in the Southern coast areas until 2020 Tourists

300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000

Foreign

100,000

Local

50,000

-

2004

2010

2015

2020

Source: Gunaratnam, 2004

3.1.2. Analysis of clients 3.1.2.1. Tourists staying for 7-14 days Presently, almost all the tourists (except for about 3% who are from overseas) are from Albania, Kosovo or FYROM. There are about 107,000 tourists who stay overnight, while the average stay is 7 to 14 days (109,000 tourists in 2004 staying 5-14 days, see Table 3.4). They are almost exclusively interested in beach tourism. Based on past data, this tourist population will grow at rates that will fill all the capacity of rooms whether private dwellings or small hotels. The more affluent tourists would fill the hotels, but hotels are not found at all locations although a considerable number of hotels have been built. The projections are based on the rate of housing and hotels built to accommodate tourists (Table 3.4). According to this forecast, tourist population could double over the next 15 years and the growth could be sustainable. It is expected that the share of tourist staying overnight in the total tourism arrivals will increase in that period (Figure 3.5). Table 3.4: Tourists (foreign and local) who stay 5-14 days and projections until 2020 1996 Saranda Lukova Piqeras Borsch Qeparo Dhermi Himara Vuno/Palasa Orikum Vlora Total

na na na na na na na na na na

2004 23,320 2,867 1,370 4,375 1,875 3,000 9,375 4,375 6,250 52,500 109,307

2010 40,994 3,126 1,494 5,171 2,406 5,095 16,117 4,874 7,387 75,001 161,665

2015 49,894 3,240 1,540 5,817 2,682 5,990 18,636 5,311 8,310 109,624 211,046

2020 53,154 3,292 1,565 6,093 2,828 6,606 20,277 5,484 8,724 141,625 249,647

Source: Gunaratnam, 2004

105


PAP/RAC â&#x20AC;&#x201C; SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Interim Report

3.1.2.2. Day tourists At present, the visitors coming from Corfu for the day buy their ticket at around 34 Euros, and spend between 14 and 20 Euros in Albania because the ground operators do not offer more than entry to the archaeological site of Butrinti and lunch. The shops are usually closed when the visitors return to Saranda. There are very few opportunities to spend money and the only people who do real business are the tour-operators. To get more money, the locals will have to improve their offer. Figure 3.5: Day vs. overnight tourists

400,000 350,000 300,000 tourist 250,000 numbers 200,000

Day-tourist Staying

150,000 100,000 50,000 0 2004

2010

2015

2020

Source: Gunaratnam, 2004

3.1.2.3. Foreign Tourists According to the World Bank study (2004), the forecast for foreign tourists until 2020 shows an increase from 2% share in 2004 to 21% share in 2020 (Figure 3.6). This doesn't look so dramatic, but the actual growth will largely depend on the tourism development strategy chosen and the measures used for its implementation. Figure 3.6: Percentage of foreign tourists vs. all staying tourists

25% 21% 19%

20% 16% 15%

10%

5%

2%

0% 2004

2010

Source: Gunaratnam, 2004

106

2015

2020


Tourism Development

According to the forecasts, it is evident that the largest number of foreign tourists are expected to stay in Saranda and Vlora (over 60% of the total), while the smaller settlements will take the remaining 40%. The foreign tourists' arrivals are expected to grow up to almost 110,000 individuals, but the number of tourists staying 5-14 days is expected to be 44,000 (40% of the total arrivals) (Table 3.5). Table 3.5: Foreign tourists estimated to stay overnight

Saranda Lukova Piqeras Borsch Qeparo Dhermi Himara Vuno/Palasa Orikum Vlora Total

2004

2010

2015

2020

0 0 0 0 0 197 210 0 0 2,500 2,907

8,211 172 82 285 298 1,787 4,499 149 407 5,892 21,783

12,425 261 125 431 451 2,705 6,808 225 616 9,918 33,964

15,760 331 158 547 572 3,431 8,635 286 781 13,522 44,023

Source: Gunaratnam, 2004

The above forecasts seem to be quite conservative, and not as high compared to the forecasts prepared for the neighbouring countries. If this scenario is materialised, the tourism will be the major industry in the region but not necessarily of the proportions commensurate with its natural assets. The structure of tourists will remain relatively simple (day tourists and 1-2 weeks staying tourists), while the Albanian tourists will remain dominant, albeit with the gradually diminishing share. Therefore, it is obvious that a bolder strategy will have to be proposed.

3.2. Tourism assets of the Southern Albanian Coast The major goal is to build a new tourism destination. To do that, the following assets are needed: ƒ an image to attract the tourists; ƒ stock of accommodation facilities to attract the operators; ƒ long season to get a good return for the investors; ƒ choice of activities to make the visitors spend their money in the Albanian Riviera; and ƒ good accessibility at a low price.

3.2.1. The image of the Albanian tourist product The Southern Albanian Coastal Region has no reputation beyond its traditional markets (Albanians, Kosovars and residents of FYROM of Albanian origin). Few people know the customer-promise of this destination and there is probably an a priori negative attitude among foreign tourists due to its history. A good deal of efforts at promotion has to be done to build an image that would put this region on the tourist map of the Mediterranean. This will then be the flag under which this destination is going to fight at the international market. Its image must be recognisable and affirm a strong identity as a destination in front of Corfu, which has already a very strong image (as well as neighbouring Croatia, but also Montenegro, which is growing stronger). A marketing positioning has to be chosen by the decision makers. This is one of the most important concerns for the future.

107


PAP/RAC â&#x20AC;&#x201C; SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Interim Report

3.2.2. Analysis of current accommodation facilities Tourism economy is mainly focused on accommodation facilities (Table 3.6). This is where capital is invested, and revenues and jobs are generated. This region is just at the beginning of its tourism development, but we can already speak of a capacity of around 6,000 beds. Most of them are not at an international level of comfort. Vlora is an industrial town where business needs have influenced the adaptation of tourism facilities: hotels with all business amenities, meeting rooms, internet, etc. According to the Vlora Chamber of Commerce, there were about 1,200 beds in 2004. Tourism facilities are clearly concentrated in Saranda and its immediate surroundings. According to the Saranda Hotel Association, 75 hotels are in operation in Saranda. They account for 1,170 rooms and about 2,000 beds. The average situation is 24 rooms in a 3-star hotel. The majority of these hotels are small and belong to individual Albanian investors. This does not provide for nearly adequate promotion capacity on international markets. There are about 350 employees, only 20% of which are registered and socially insured, according to the information we got during the April field mission. Table 3.6: Accommodation facilities (hotels, apart-hotels and bungalows) Place

Vlora Llogara Palase Dhermiu Himara Saranda Ksamili Total

Accommodation facilities

Rooms

Beds

2001

2004

2001

2004

2001

2004

% growth

20 1 0 3 8 44 8 2 ,085

33 2 1 10 8 89 16 2,163

323 16 0 33 0 468 129 2,970

566 28 10 119 86 832 97 3,739

611 64 0 75 110 971 254 4,089

1,191 98 36 300 212 2,223 180 6,244

+ 95 + 53 + 300 + 93 + 129 - 29 + 103

Source: The Vlora Regional Administration, 2001; Vlora Region Profile, 2004; Vlora Chamber of Commerce and Industry.

In addition to the registered 6,200 beds, there are about 500 flats to rent, representing about 2,000 additional beds. These flats are not licensed and are creating an unfair practice to the hotels. But the demand is clearly increasing for this type of accommodation. Between 2001 and 2004, the stock of beds has increased by 103%. But the occupancy rates have dropped these last years because of the difficulties encountered by the economy as a whole, the redistribution in consumption practices, and the Albanese rush to invest in their own lodging. The average occupation rate of 35% is below break-even level. The average investment for a 3-star hotel is 11,000 USD per bed with a price of the land of 15 USD per sq m, if the land belongs to the commune, and of 100 USD per sq m for privately owned land. The pay-back period was about 5 years in 2001, and has increased to 7 years in 2005. For seasonal hotels (over 16 rooms and under 7 employees), which are open 4 to 5 months, the operational fees rose to about 2,000 USD a year excluding taxes and depreciation. The salaries represent less than 30%. Average prices per room in a 3-star hotel rose from 35 to 60 USD. For the hotels open all year round, the operational fees are more than 5,000 USD. The major concerns of the tourism sector in the large settlements, Vlora and Saranda, are the following:

108


Tourism Development

ƒ infrastructure problems, meaning lack of adequate access roads, which will act as a deterrent as soon as Croatia and Montenegro improve theirs; ƒ lack of control of illegal building; ƒ lack of control over grading of accommodation; ƒ lack of architectural guidelines; ƒ lack of a clear strategy of the MOTAT; and ƒ lack of public land to be sold for pilot projects at reasonable prices, etc. Besides Saranda and Vlora, some sites are developing on a small scale. They have accumulated about 700 tourism beds: ƒ

The tourist village of Llogara in the National Park between Vlora and Palase at 1,000 m above the sea level covers 1.1 ha in a pine forest and was opened in 1993. It consists of 16 wooden houses with 64 beds. Each chalet has two double rooms, WC, shower, TV and mini-bar. There is a restaurant, while an indoor pool and a spa are under construction. This is a good example of what can be done for “nature tourism” around trekking and sporting activities. Prices are 68 Euros per night.

ƒ

At the Dhermiu beach, a hotel belonging to the workers’ union and some small B&B are used mainly by weekenders and summer holiday makers from Tirana. As a whole, there are about 300 beds.

ƒ

Himara is already a small resort with 8 to 10 small hotels of less than 15 rooms each with a low comfort and some B&B. As a whole there are about 200 beds.

3.2.3. Long season The climate is very moderate but, as in Corfu, the season lasts a maximum of 5 to 6 months, from Easter time to the All Saints’ Day. In the mid summer, sea breezes keep the average temperatures down to 25-30°C which is ideal. If it were possible to keep the season reasonably long, the investors and operators could expect a reasonable return on their investments.

3.2.4. Activities offered to tourists People will come in summer for sun and beaches, in spring and in autumn more for sun and discovery of the landscapes and the cultural sites. It should be kept in mind, however, that there are some differences between the markets: the Latin tourists are eager to discover and have fun in town, while the northerners are somehow more inclined to be beach users. Four main types of occupation present today in the study area could be listed: ƒ

Going to a town to do shopping (handicraft mainly), hang around the streets, eat in a typical restaurant, have fun at night (casino, night club…). Saranda is clearly the leader for this type of occupation, but a visit to Corfu could be on the agenda as well;

ƒ

Sightseeing of the landscapes and the old villages along the scenic route to Dhermiu. But this is certainly no “things to see, things to visit, things to do, things to buy” type of concept. Everybody in a family has to find something corresponding to his interest;

ƒ

Visiting cultural events and heritage sites, but adequate visitors’ centre, guides and interpretation centres are missing; and

ƒ

Recreation and sport activities: recreation parks, aqualand, golf, beach games, sailing, diving are still to be desired.

The main attractions to be developed in the area are: ƒ Saranda, in the first place, as the main urban tourist centre;

109


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

ƒ the archaeological site of Butrinti; ƒ Finiqi and Gjirokastra as old and traditional settlements; and ƒ the coast to Dhermiu with the views on the sea and the old villages most of them being, however, in a dilapidated condition. A special attraction for tourists is the cultural background and assets of Albania. The most significant monuments and archaeological sites are located outside the urban centres. Major ancient city sites such as Amantia, Orikum, Butrinti and Phonice are in relatively remote positions with only small village settlements associated with them. Ottoman and orthodox monuments, namely castles and churches, which form the bulk of the registered monuments, are mostly related to minor settlements with no or little historic value. The rest of the registered monuments are historic houses in different locations. In fact, in Albania only the two “Museum Cities”, Berat and Gjirokastra, both located outside the Southern Coast, are the settlements that have a historic value as a whole. But, in total, the assets are not outstanding compared to other countries in the Mediterranean region. The cultural heritage of the southern coast is important for the values connected to its identity and roots. In the zone from the Vjosa river to Saranda, there are signs of the existence of different cultures which settled there: beginning with early Illyrian vestiges, Greek civilization, with the Epiriot influence, the Romans at the climax of the Romanisation of the Mediterranean. The cities of Vlora, Himara and Saranda are endowed with easily accessible heritage assets. Historic data and cultural heritage of Vlora prove that this area has been one of the most prosperous on the Albanian coast. There are three museums: the Independence Museum, located in a historic building from the 19th century that had served as the Residence of the Provisional Government of Vlora in 1912-13. The History Museum, located in the town centre, where archaeological, historical objects, and testimonies from the Medieval period to the National Renaissance and recent periods are kept. The Ethnographical Museum is also located in the town centre and has served as the Patriotic Club “Laberia”. There are objects of ethnographic value from the 16th-19th centuries, as well as working objects in metals, wood, stone, and the characteristic local household equipment. The Saranda area includes the administrative districts of Saranda and Delvina town and four municipalities: Aliko, Finiqi, Mesopotam and Vergo. The absolute eminence of the district is the rich archaeological zone of Butrinti and Finiqi. In the city, there are historic monuments, such as the Lekuresi Castle, the Venera Temple, several mosaics, and the St. George’s Monastery in Ksamili. It also contains a number of sites of unique cultural, religious and historical value including: ƒ

A synagogue/basilica dating back to the 3rd century A.D. is the only synagogue in the Balkans that could be visited, and testifies the presence of one of the earliest Balkan Jewish communities;

ƒ

The remains and site of the Onchesmos Fort built by the Byzantine emperor Constantine II in the 4th century A.D.; and

ƒ

The Monastery of Forty Saints built in the 10th Century A.D.

The town of Himara is located along the road that connects Vlora with Saranda and has been over the centuries an unconquerable fortress of Albanian patriots. It comprises 7 villages from the Palase coast to Qeparo, rich with historical traces and finds, two important castles, several churches and a wonderful coast. The sustainability of tourism development depends to a large extent on environmental conservation. Sometimes this involves conservation of natural environments but not always.

110


Tourism Development

Man-made and transformed environments (i.e. terraced hills southwards to Ksamili and northwards to Borsh) may also be valued for tourism and recreation, and there may be a desire to preserve these in their pristine state. Findings of the Southern Coastal Zone: Priority Assessment Study (2004) revealed the following: ƒ

excellent basis for the development of tourism, since the natural environment of this region has remained almost untouched by the process of Albania's industrialisation;

ƒ

potential for the development of international rural tourism which could become competitive with other areas in the Mediterranean region (i.e., Greece, Croatia);

ƒ

a high level of biodiversity which necessitates adequate protection and integration in the region's tourism development opportunities; and

ƒ

a diverse cultural heritage in general, and archaeological sites in particular, make an excellent basis on which high-quality tourist attractions can be developed.

In middle-term, historical sites, antiquities and ruins must be adequately protected, studied and promoted as part of the general strategy of tourism development. The type of tourism industry varies significantly across the region – in and around Saranda, tourism (mainly foreign day tourists) is mainly heritage-cultural and beach tourism (mainly local overnight), while in and around Vlora it could be eco-tourism (Llogara National Park) and beach tourism. In all other cities in between it is mainly beach tourism. Although a part of the above cultural sites were exposed to vandalism during 1997 (i.e. WHS of Butrinti), the Albanian classical heritage should be projected as an integral component of the marketing strategy of the country. In the heritage asset mapping study (Integrated Coastal Management and Clean-up Program: Heritage Assets Mapping, SIM Spa - GICO Branch, iMED, 2005), it is emphasized that tourism based on natural and cultural heritage will, by its very nature, be more intrusive than other forms of tourism even if the number of tourists remains small. That is why it is particularly important to assess vulnerability at the outset so that the final products can be developed in a sustainable manner. The ultimate paradox would be for tourism to end up destroying the very basis that makes it attractive in the first place.

3.2.5. Accessibility Today, the study area is inaccessible by air, except through the Corfu airport, which is already saturated, the Tirana airport from which the access by road is really awkward and, just to mention it, the Saranda airstrip that is only 700 m long, and practically unusable. If the goal is to have, for example, about 20,000 beds in 10 years time, the study area will need a well dimensioned airport allowing for the “point to point” charter flights. The access by ferries from Southern Italy is possible only in Vlora. The most important entry point is the Saranda harbour, both as a main access to the study area and as a container for equipment for animation of the tourists, such as small cruise ships and yachts. The harbour is public property, and a master plan has determined its evolution until 2010. The terminal for the passengers coming from Corfu is extending its quay to 100 m to berth longer ships, and the freight traffic will be transferred at the end of 2005 to another location. In the winter time (end of October to beginning of May), there are 3 to 4 boats a day carrying 80 to 100 passengers and 4 to 5 cars, in summer about 10 ships a day. In winter, the ship’s depth could be less than 6 m but the third dock is going to be more than 8 m deep and up to 30 ships a day will be possible to berth. Although there are ideas about harbouring cruise ships, sea is at places only 4 to 5 m deep and a longer quay should be built. The cohabitation between ferry port and marina, like in Split and Ancona, will probably have to be reconsidered.

111


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

The road infrastructure is in a terrible condition. This will not attract tourists from the target markets of the Western and Southern Europe. The road access will be used by families from the Central Europe, Austria and Southern Germany in summer. The coastal road is very scenic one but represents mainly a tourism product not an access road. The access from Gjirokastra is probably to be studied seriously.

3.2.6. SWOT analysis Table 3.7 presents the SWOT analysis for tourism in the study area. It summarises the present situation and offers some indications for future development.

Table 3.7: SWOT analysis for tourism in the study area Strengths ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

New destination Beautiful natural scenery Density of heritage Butrinti National Park Climate Saranda as urban development pole Proximity of the main European markets Some niche products (bird watching, etc.) Proximity of Corfu and Greece A coast cleaned by South to North streams

Weaknesses ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

Opportunities ƒ ƒ

Tour operators eager to find new destinations Opening new markets in Central Europe

Threats ƒ

ƒ ƒ

112

Image inherited through the history of Albania Uncontrolled development in Saranda and around Ksamili Lack of strategic public land to trigger development Lack of clear vision of tourism as an economic sector Problems of accessibility Derelict villages Cultural sites to be put to tourism use Few professional licenses for hotels & restaurants Saranda is not Split or Dubrovnik, Butrinti is not Palmyra, and the Ionian Coast is not the Dalmatian coast

A wild competition between destinations around the Mediterranean Sea: public subsidies are given everywhere Croatia very aggressive with exceptional assets A too academic talk about eco-tourism: pragmatism needed


Tourism Development

3.3. Trends in Tourism Demand 3.3.1. The context of the Mediterranean markets: A tremendous increase of the number of tourists and beds The Mediterranean region represents one third of the international tourists arrivals in the world, offering about 6.5 millions beds. There are about 400,000 beds more “in the pipe” at the moment, which should be built up by 2015, including Morocco and the Red Sea as closer destinations comparable in price with Albania (Table 3.8). Table 3.8: Tourist arrivals and hotel capacities in the Mediterranean Country

International tourists arrivals

France Spain Italy Egypt Greece Turkey Croatia Tunisia Morocco Syria Cyprus Israel Malta

75,048,000 (2003) 52,500,000 (2003) 39,604,000 (2004) 6,400,000 (2003) 14,179,000 (2002) 17,500,000 (2004) 9,400,000 (2004) 5,114,000 (2003) 5,500,000 (2004) 3,400,000 (2001) 2,303,000 (2003) 1,500,000 (2004) 1,127,000 (2003)

Beds in hotels 1,200,000 1,300,000 1,700,000 273,000 630,000 650,000 100,000 222,000 115,000 35,000 85,000 90,000

Sources: Eurostat

Europe will remain for long the main tourism region in the world. It has 55% of the world tourism flows and will still be at around 50% in 2010 according to World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC). According to the World Tourism Organisation’s (WTO) forecasts, by the year 2020 Europe will remain the first tourism destination in the world, with 717 million tourists. The growth benefits should mainly go to the Eastern Mediterranean Europe, especially to Croatia, Turkey and Slovenia. The 21 countries of the Mediterranean region should receive 346 million tourists in 2020, which is about 22% of the tourists arrivals worldwide. Forecasts of international tourists arrivals in 2020 are the following (in ‘000): Albania (133), Bosnia and Herzegovina (444), Croatia (10,017), Greece (17,111), and Slovenia (3,128). According to WTTC, Montenegro will be the country with the highest growth rate (9.9% per year), followed by China (9.2%), India (8.6%), Reunion (8.3%), Croatia (7.8%), Sudan (7.7%), Vietnam (7.7%), Laos (7.6%), Czech (7.5%), Guadeloupe (7.2%).

3.3.2. Sun and sand beach tourism: The end of a model or a wave on which to surf? According to the WTO, beach tourism on the Mediterranean Sea is evaluated at 100 million arrivals per year. In Spain, Italy, Greece, France and Turkey, 85% of the total volume is concentrated. The expected figure in 2010 is 150 million. The tourism markets are and will remain led by beach tourism in the next decades, but the traditional Mediterranean areas are slackening with a product considered sometimes worn out and over exploited particularly by the European clientele. The tourists are looking for more authentic and original destinations and more unpolluted beaches. This may be a chance for the Ionian Coast destination.

113


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

In the Mediterranean region, two types of accommodation are developing, in addition to the beach tourism: ƒ

All-inclusive, in which all the services are paid in advance to the tour operator. Born in the Caribbean, this concept has a great success. The first world wide group in this field remains the Club Med with over 25,000 rooms. The clients are looking for a full range of activities and the destination looses importance. The clients swap easily from one to the other but are attached to a brand. The problem is that a very small share of the proceeds remains in the host country.

ƒ

Mixed product combining a circuit or a special interest in addition to a beach stay. This is attractive mainly to the middle and upper income clients.

3.3.3. Eco-tourism, nature-based tourism and sustainable tourism: Myth or reality? The terms of "sustainable tourism", "nature-based tourism" or "eco-tourism" are very trendy, but not always used in the right sense. Sustainable tourism is defined by the WTO as “…any kind of development, planning or tourism activity that respects and protects in a long term the natural, cultural and social resources, and that contributes in a positive and equitable way to the economic development and the blooming of individuals who live, work, or stay in these spaces”. So this should not be considered as a specific form of tourism, but as a general concern applicable to all forms of tourism development. This notion is not new: obviously, the tourism developments realised between 1960 and 1980 have not been conceived not to last! But during these last decades, the sensitiveness to the environment has grown, and the planning models respecting this objective have evolved (certainly, the Canary Islands planning would be totally different today!). Therefore, if we take that “sustainability” is a balance between: ƒ

The economic dimension, which is the conditio sine qua non of any tourism development strategy. If the tourism companies are not viable at the economic level, that is to say if the financial set-up does not allow a normal profitability of the invested capital, and if the exploitation is not on a long-term basis profit-making, the adventure will end there. This dimension obviously integrates the existence of a sufficient, sustainable and creditworthy demand. The task is to maximise the part of tourism expenses realised locally, relying on the know-how of international operators, particularly on hotel chains.

ƒ

The protection and development of the environment: it includes the carrying capacity of a site, arbitration between the different uses of scarce resources such as water (to be allocated between agriculture, tourism, and domestic needs). This dimension integrates the problems of planning and regulation of land occupancy, property protection and reserves making-up, treatment and recycling of solid and liquid waste, architectural integration and use of local materials.

ƒ

The social dimension integrates the notion of impacts on local population, in order to optimise the positive aspects (employment, training, improving of urban facilities, and development of leisure equipments), and to limit the negative aspects (sexual tourism, damage to local cultures, increase of prices level).

ƒ

The spiritual dimension: the meaning is not always very clear but, globally this is the respect of the local values, beliefs and culture.

Nature-based tourism is defined by WTO as a “…form of tourism in which the main purpose is the observation and the enjoyment of nature”. Most of these products are free (hiking, birdwatching, etc.), but there are also products sold by tour operators (guided hiking with bivouacs and luggage carrying, for example). The fact of paying assumes the service given

114


Tourism Development

and the possibility to see extraordinary things: it can be a scenic road, a national park with exceptional landscapes, fauna and flora. Essentially, in most of the countries these products are national parks. The protection of natural areas is secured: ƒ

by providing economic benefits to the host communities, to the bodies and administrations responsible for the protection of natural areas;

ƒ

by creating employment and income sources for local populations; and

ƒ

by making local inhabitants aware of the need to protect the natural and cultural assets.

According to the International Eco-tourism Society, eco-tourism is “…a responsible form of travel in natural settings which contributes to the environment protection and to the wellbeing of local populations”. The particular principles distinguishing eco-tourism and the larger notion of sustainable tourism are the following (WTO): ƒ

Eco-tourism gathers all forms of nature-based tourism, the main purpose of which is to observe and to enjoy the nature and the traditional cultures in the natural zones;

ƒ

It has education and interpretation role;

ƒ

It is generally organised, but not only, for limited groups by small and specialised local companies;

ƒ

Eco-tourism has low negative impacts on natural and socio-cultural environment;

ƒ

It favours the protection of natural areas;

ƒ

It includes the local and indigenous communities in its planning, its development and its exploitation, contributing to their well-being.

The range of eco-tourism products is very large. The main types of products are: ƒ guided or free hiking; ƒ discovery of cultural heritage; ƒ discovery of civilisations, cultural and gastronomic traditions; ƒ observation of fauna: big animals, birds, cetaceans; ƒ discovery of the endemic fauna and biodiversity; ƒ geology, volcanism, etc. Even if eco-tourism projects have been very trendy during these last years, “eco-tourists” represent only a small niche market at the moment: ƒ

According to the International Eco-tourism Society, about 30 million tourists bought an eco-tourism travel in 1998, that is to say about 5% of tourism arrivals in the world. Twenty percent of them came from the United States. This might be a very optimistic figure.

ƒ

This market segment grows quickly, particularly in countries in which natural heritage is the main asset, such as Kenya and Costa Rica. The WTO forecasts an increase of 20% per year during the next 10 years.

The eco-tourism consumers’ profile is the following: ƒ relatively well-off, educated and sensible to the environment. ƒ open-air life and nature discovery lovers. ƒ middle-aged, more than 30 years old. ƒ used to travel abroad. ƒ higher length of stay than the average. ƒ expenses higher by 10% than average. ƒ main motivation in the choice of a destination: the existence of protected areas. ƒ main motivation in the choice of an accommodation: respect of the environment.

115


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Canary Islands – Puerto Rico This is mass tourism

Seychelles Islands This is eco-tourism

116


Tourism Development

Canary Islands Old rehabilitated Village

Described in the above terms, eco-tourism seems to be the new "Eldorado". However, the following must be stressed: Â&#x192; concerns a small niche market; Â&#x192; creates very few jobs; and Â&#x192; is non profitable for a normal investor unless he is in a unique place (i.e. you can find "that" just there in the world) enabling to exert prices at a level of 500 or 600 Euros a day. What people usually call eco-tourism products are prosaically standard rural products. So is the Metsovo experience in Greece. The Gites de France in France have developed for 50 years in the rural regions based on refurbished old houses more to preserve the buildings than to bring money and, of course, to create jobs (most of the owners are retired people in the countryside).

3.3.4. Cultural tourism: A component of sun and beach tourism? Cultural tourism is composed of all cultural activities and experiences: not only monuments, heritage sites or facilities like museums, but it is also the approach to the lifestyle of local populations and all the components of the identity of a destination, the crafts industry, the gastronomy, the folklore, cultural events, etc. This form of tourism is difficult to quantify in

117


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

terms of arrivals because the cultural discovery is often one of the components of the travel. The World Tourism Organisation estimates that about 10% of tourist arrivals are motivated by cultural tourism, or between 60 and 70 million of arrivals. Many countries, which have first oriented their tourism development on sun and beach, have tried since a few years back to enrich their destination with cultural products. It is particularly the case of Spain and Tunisia. The cultural tourism lovers have the following profile: ƒ higher income than the average tourist; ƒ higher education level than the average tourist; ƒ higher length of stay than the average; ƒ accommodation in high quality hotels; ƒ high shopping expenses; ƒ generally between 45 and 60 years of age; ƒ used to travel abroad; ƒ constantly seeking new destinations. The Albanian Coast has a cultural background that is quite interesting. The archaeological site of Butrinti is of great interest. But, certainly, it is not Palmyra or Petra. It is reasonable to assume that it will come as a complement to a beach stay.

3.3.5. What makes a tourist destination sustainable? The key factors of success and sustainability of a destination are: ƒ

Rich range of products: a mono-product destination such as Tunisia for years is condemned to death if it does not find a diversification. It allows a variety of clienteles and avoids the risk of a mono-market.

ƒ

Tourism is a very capital-intensive sector. It is mainly real estate. It needs important investments the profitability of which is on a long term. This is not only a service sector.

ƒ

Tourism is led by international operators. They do and undo a destination. No destination can live without them. Morocco had chosen for 30 years not to encourage foreign operators and has remained a secondary zone destination in spite of its incredible potential. The New Deal has come since the Accor Group has bought a large number of hotels and the Government has appealed to foreign groups of developers. The wellknown brands bring their reputation and their know-how in promotion. Small local hotels cannot easily work on the markets.

ƒ

Tourism is a mixed economy. The public sector is completely involved in the development: it must fix the rules, assume the quality of environment, and preferably trigger, give the impulse to major developments by bringing public land and creating a favourable environment for investments.

The Albanian Coast is not that unique that it can become a real eco-tourism destination. Bed and breakfast in the deserted villages (provided the investors could be found!) will not be the trigger for development. It might come, though, some years after the destination has been launched. Albanian Coast as an eco-tourism destination could only be a friendly connotation but not a solid foundation for a serious tourism development policy.

118


Tourism Development

3.4. Potential demand for coastal tourism: What Model of Development for the Southern Albanian Coast? To decide on the model of development, the decision makers have to take into account four major parameters: ƒ the markets and the types of consumers they can possibly target and the consequences in terms of needs; ƒ the minimum capacity needed to be put on the map of destinations; ƒ the social and environmental acceptability; and ƒ the means they can afford meaning the allocation of resources to tourism, public triggers and incentives.

3.4.1. Targeted markets ƒ

The day trippers coming from Corfu and looking for an experience in a very little known country, and visiting Butrinti and Saranda.

ƒ

Middle-class Albanian population from Kosovo and FYROM looking for long summer holidays coming by road. In some years, when the roads have improved, Austrians and Germans (South Germany), Czechs, Hungarians, Bulgarians and Romanians will follow as soon as the access has become better and their buying power has increased.

ƒ

People flying to the Albanian Riviera: as soon as a proper airport, accessible to charter planes, has been built in Saranda it will be programmed by the tour operators, if the prices are kept competitive. This will attract mainly Germans and Scandinavians.

ƒ

People coming by sea: these are mainly Italians.

3.4.2. Critical mass that must be reached The critical mass is determined by the minimum number of tourists compatible with the management and marketing costs. The critical mass is: ƒ

The minimum number of beds necessary to be visible on the markets so as to launch a new destination like the Albanian Riviera.

ƒ

The minimum capacity for a good amortisation of infrastructure facilities like a new airport in Saranda, or organising a big event or re-lifting the promenade of Saranda.

ƒ

The only way to generate enough resources to invest in promotion is through the taxes paid for a stay. If we consider 0.5 Euros a night, 10,000 beds occupied 5 months a year at 60% as an average, that makes 450,000 Euros of budget for promotion and this is very little to make an impact. This tax must be higher.

Around 10,000 beds are considered to be a rock bottom quantity, while 20,000 is probably an optimum. We have to keep in mind that the Saranda region has more than 3,000 beds already and that the strategic plan forecasts 8,000 new beds. Therefore, achieving the total of 10,000-20,000 beds within a reasonable time should not be considered as a non viable objective. Obviously, the development will have to be phased but a minimum of 5,000 new beds will have to be placed on the market at the beginning.

3.4.3. Means for implementation A law for protecting the coast should be enforced like “La loi littoral” in France or "Ley de Costas" in Spain. A measure like a Decree for the Protection of Coastal Area in Croatia may be considered as a good model for a short term protection of the coast. .An institution like the “Conservatoire du Littoral” in France, as an operational body, would help implement it. At the

119


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

same time, a body should be in charge of tourism planning on the Albanian Riviera, managing the land that is still available. Pilot operations should be performed to give an example. It is very urgent, for instance, for the commune of Saranda to find a margin for manoeuvre. Without public land there is no way forward.

3.4.4. Types of tourism physical planning Five models of land-use planning for tourism can be identified. This list is neither scientific nor exhaustive, it simply aims at illustrating the purpose of the study of potential tourism development for the Southern Albanian Coastal Region: ƒ

The “all tourism” model with the building of very big new artificial towns both for permanent and seasonal residence. This is the example of Cancun, the Canary Islands or Hammamet.

ƒ

The “tourism resorts” model where one or a range of self-centred resorts are built, possibly in the middle of nowhere as far as the natural sites are adequate. This is Punta Cana, for instance with, big "carriers" (i.e. well known chains or operators) to trigger the development. More sophisticated investments always come after.

ƒ

The “residentialisation” model, such as Languedoc in France or the Pula region in Croatia. These secondary homes become more and more principal homes when the owners retire (for example, the French Riviera or Costa del Sol) and as new relations between leisure and work take place.

ƒ

The “urban tourism” model like the French Riviera with over 1 million permanent residents and life that attracts tourists all through the year for short breaks and congress and exhibitions business.

ƒ

The "eco-tourism" model: This has been discussed above.

3.4.5. Strategic recommendations From the point of view of creating an image of Albania as an important tourism destination it is obvious that tourism development should be concentrated close to the regional entry points and attractions, as well as pools of potential labour (such as Saranda and Butrinti). This “opportunistic” strategy will be in line with the major tourist market expectations including big tour operators and international investors which are to be the major driving forces behind the Albanian tourist development in the near future. However, other criteria, such as more equitable distribution of future development benefits, rising expectations of the population throughout the entire region, and natural advantages for development of complementary types of tourism along the southern coast, point towards the recommendation that, in addition to a concentrated type of tourism, this development should also be spread to other locations along the coast. Saranda is the urban centre that must be beautified and to which the Albanian Riviera has to cling. A master plan is very urgent and, meanwhile, destroying old houses and building over 3 floors should be forbidden. The general idea is to deviate the car flows from the centre of the town, restructure the promenade along the bay to animate it like the “ramblas” of Barcelona to allow “la passegiata”, protect the old mill to operate a recreational and cultural centre, recreate a market and solve the problem of the marina and the harbour. Eco-tourism as the solution is definitely a legitimate and qualitative trend of tourism. This is a goal to be achieved, but the elementary building rules are already so difficult to enforce in Albania that it is not realistic to speak only of eco-tourism. Eco-tourism in the Albanian case could only be a complement to more traditional types of tourism development. Therefore,

120


Tourism Development

part of the tourism strategy should support several pilot projects that could become the “window” for private developers. It is important to avoid false alternatives and moralizing advices about what is good (i.e. ecotourism) and what is bad (i.e. beach tourism or mass tourism). The question is to appreciate where to place the cursor to create wealth, respect the environment and limit the side effects. Seven key aspects must be given specific attention, and decisive actions should be taken for each of them: ƒ

Security of land property. This is the first concern. It is important to stress this aspect here although it is being elaborated in much more detail in Chapter 5.

ƒ

Easy accessibility. Good access road for the close emission markets that will drive to the Albanian Riviera (Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia, but also Austria and southern Germany), a modern airport for Western Europe markets, and ferries for Italy. Obviously, the airport of Corfu is not ideal and it is already saturated. There remains the project for the airport in Vlora which is too far unless the coastal road is left as a scenic road and a fast road is built behind the range of mountains, or if the airport of Joanina is improved and used for Saranda. The most obvious idea is an airport in Saranda (only a 700 m airstrip existing) with good prices for handling, and gas and open sky agreements, though the noise may be very important, and the effects on the birdlife over Butrinti has to be checked. Usually a minimum of 15,000 beds is required to justify an airport. The development will then take place on a one-hour drive isochrones from the airport. The coastal road from Vlora should be improved but remain scenic.

ƒ

Competitive financing opportunities. Hotels are financed in general with 70% in equity and 30% in loans (10 years at a rate of 8.5 to 9% in foreign currency, 15 years at a rate of 13 to 15% in leks).The flats are financed, at the same time, over 20 years if for ”personal use”. The investments for 10,000 beds represents about 100 million Euros to be financed 50% in equity, in risk over 25 to 30 years, and 50% in debt. Credits should be on 15 years with a differed redemption of 2 years, fixed rates for loans, flexibility in reimbursement according to the results of the year, eligibility according to the promotion budget. The public bodies will have to think about new techniques, like the creation of a fund specialised in tourism real estate funding, possibility for the insurance companies to invest in hotel properties, and the creation of a free zone near Saranda. What is sure is that investors, at least in the beginning, will be Albanians, and the operators should preferably be foreigners. An investor will not accept an investment under 25% internal rate of return to take into account the double risk of tourism and Albania.

ƒ

Clear product policy: positioning, price, promotion. The Albanian Riviera cannot afford an exclusive positioning as an eco-tourism destination. This is a niche market, where unique opportunities are needed. However, it does not trigger the demand. The Albanian Riviera is not an exceptional place compared to some other destinations around the Mediterranean, and its landscapes are what is already seen in most of the Mediterranean countries. It should be kept in mind that the supply creates the demand in tourism and the tour operators are always looking for new destinations. The European markets will be the main targets: they will come for beach and sun, but with a cultural component and niche products. The Albanian Riviera is a sun and sand beach destination that can be developed hopefully in a sustainable way i.e. environmentally friendly and integrating culture and heritage. The challenge is to implement very concrete measures understanding that the investors are eager to build quickly expecting a quick return on their investments. It is clear that, for some time, Albania will be a seasonal destination operating on a maximum of 4 to 5 months, like Corfu.

121


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

ƒ

Friendly legal and tax environment. One of the main concerns is land ownership, that is up to now unclear, blocks the transactions or encourages by-pass. This is the main deterrent for foreign investors. Flats to hire and time share will be a major concern, and a clear law has to be written. The categorisation of hotels is not enforced, which makes collective promotion very difficult. The major developments will need a modern legal and financial framework: BOT, Private Public Partnership, Private developers-investors and operators. There is not a unique recipe, but the public bodies must have a good knowledge of these techniques. The law N° 7665 dated 21-01-93 concerning the development of tourism priority areas actually founds the development of tourism and fixes the rules for investments in these areas. The conditions of this investment code have not varied since then, whereas newcomers on the market have arrived and proposed incredible incentives. An incentive code for tourism investments is necessary. For instance, Morocco sells the land for between 0.5 and 1 Euro per sq m, finances the infrastructures off-site (water, electricity, road, airport), subsidises the investors up to 25 Euros per sq m, exonerates them from custom rights on imported hotel equipment, exonerates VAT on the investment and taxes on benefits for the first 5 years, and 50% off from year 5 to 10. Egypt does even more and finances the empty seats on charter planes to decrease the risk of the tour-operators. Whether we like it or not, this is the way things are going on, and Albania will not avoid this competition.

ƒ

Upgrading professional training. The Austrian-funded training school for hotels in Saranda is of good quality but will have to do capacity building for as many as 10,000 jobs in a ten years comprising hotel jobs, but also ground operators, guides, etc.

ƒ

Good phasing. Begin with what is easy; trigger the dynamics by four priority projects: ƒ Urban planning operation in Saranda: beautification of Saranda that should become the centre of the Albanian Riviera and a pleasant town to discover, to do shopping, and to attend to cultural events. Car traffic should be diverted from the seafront which should be left for pedestrian use and cycling, while planting trees and flowers is a main concern. Of course, stopping high buildings, developing handicrafts and shops is a must if we want tourists to spend money. The historic monuments have to be enhanced, and a cinema and a cultural centre should be built in the old mill. The market has to be installed somewhere, to become a major attraction for tourists. What has been done in the citadel can be debated, but the restaurant enables to get a superb view of the region. ƒ Pilot development based on strategic public-owned land with big names to launch the destination. ƒ Put to tourism use the cultural heritage (Butrinti) and natural sites (Butrinti national park): visitor centres, interpretation centres … ƒ Protect the other sites and keep them difficult to reach so as to limit illegal construction. Borsh and Qeparo have to be planned at a horizon of 8 to 10 years (camping sites for the time being) and Palase in a long term.

122


4

Carrying Capacity of the Territory

4.1. Introduction: Definition of the carrying capacity As it has already been recognised in the ICZMP of 1995, the South Coastal Region's comparative advantages include favourable coastal climate and environment suitable for both, recreational and tourism activities, as well as specialised agricultural production. Local communities along the Ionian Coast expect to benefit significantly from tourism through new jobs, higher income, new investments and infrastructure development. Unfortunately tourism is also a large consumer of natural resources (land and particularly sea shorefront) and a producer of significant load of waste, often exceeding the carrying capacity of the ecosystems. Tourism activity also tends to consume the best, i.e. the most attractive and the most sensitive landscapes and sites. Many negative impacts of tourism development have already been experienced along the Albanian coast arising from uncontrolled urbanisation accompanied by inadequate infrastructure development, resulting in poor water quality, conversion of pristine and/or agricultural land into tourism facilities, discharges of untreated waste water to the sea, and terrestrial pollution caused by inappropriate disposal of solid waste. Setting capacity limits for sustainble tourism and other development activities along the Ionian Coast involves in particular a vision of regional development and specific decisions on tourism planning and management. In order to facilitate this visioning and inform the decision-making process, the concepts of territorial, environmental and tourism carrying capacity will be applied. As used in this report, Territorial Carrying Capacity is the widest in meaning and involves the level of population and development that can be sustained in an area without social, cultural, environmental and economic adverse impacts beyond an acceptable level. The territory in this definition is the reception space for all human activities and it reacts ‘negatively’ or ‘positively’ to them, according to its carrying capacity. Environmental Carrying Capacity involves the level of population or development that can be sustained in an area without environmental impacts beyond acceptable levels. Environmental Carrying Capacity, according to this definition, is one of the components of the territorial carrying capacity. Tourism Carrying Capacity can be defined as the level of tourism development (not necessarily always measured in the number of tourists) that can be sustained in an area without social, cultural, environmental and other adverse impacts beyond an acceptable level. For tourism applications, the concept of carrying capacity is more complex, given a wide range of environmental and socio-economic factors that interact at tourism destinations, and the fact that many of them depend on perception of both, host communities and tourists. Common approaches to the estimation of the territorial and tourism carrying capacity, relevant for the Ionian Coast, show a number of factors important to the concept: 1.

Environmental capacity. Ecological and physical factors and hazards provide constraints to the maximum numbers which can be accommodated, such as the capacity

123


PAP/RAC â&#x20AC;&#x201C; SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Interim Report

of land for development due to steep slopes or geological risks, capacity of species to withstand disturbance or assimilative capacity of the coastal sea to absorb pollutants. 2.

Social or psychological capacity. Relevant particularly in tourism planning - the origin and background of tourists determines the number of tourists or the level of crowding they consider acceptable. Perception and psychological factors relating to both the host community and the tourists are determinants.

3.

Infrastructure capacity. Current infrastructure (water supply systems, sewerage systems, transportation systems,â&#x20AC;Ś) are the short to medium-term limiters for tourist numbers.

4.

Management capacity. Relates to the numbers of tourists who (with their impacts) can be realistically managed. The key constraints are available institutional and human resources.

Environmental carrying capacity analysis is the means of controlling or guiding humanenvironment interactions through planning, in order to protect and enhance environmental quality and human health and welfare through avoiding environmental risks. These interactions can affect the environment and human welfare in the following ways: 1.

The environment poses certain natural hazards to human society.

2.

Society-generated pollution impacts environment and human health through the environment and undermines productive natural systems and ecosystems.

3.

Society exploits or depletes economically important natural resources, some of them at unsustainable rates.

Natural hazards include geological and hydrological hazards such as landslides, soil erosion and flooding. These hazards may be caused by natural elements, but human actions can exacerbate both the hazard and the risk by altering the natural system or locating developments in harm's way. Human-generated pollution affects environment and human health. In the case of human health risks the environment is a transfer medium. Natural resources and managed natural systems are critical for human subsistence, livelihood, and quality of life. Non-renewable resources, such as land and minerals, are subject to depletion. Sustainable management of productive "working landscapes," like agriculture, is necessary for continued development of renewable resources. The three mentioned dimensions of environmental carrying capacity and specific environmental subsystems at risk will be analysed in the following section.

4.2. Environmental Carrying Capacity Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is an important tool for integrating environmental considerations into the preparation of the Integrated Coastal Development Plan (ICD Plan) for the Southern Albanian Coastal Region. The SEA is undertaken as an integral part of the planning process and consistent with key principles of environmental sustainability including notions of carrying capacity. Accordingly, the analysis of environmental carrying capacity is an integral part of the wider objective of environmental sustainability assurance of the ICD Plan. The main documents considered within territorial planning and SEA process in this Report include:

124


Carrying Capacity of the Territory

ƒ

Directive 2001/42/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 June 2001 on the assessment of the effects of certain plans and programmes on the environment (EU-directive on SEA);

ƒ

Albanian Law No. 8990 on EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) of 23 January 2003 (for both EIA and SEA);

ƒ

World Bank guidelines on SEA.

Based on the important natural resources (biotic and abiotic) identified within the study area in the Chapter 1, the main environmental subsystems that may face impacts of future coastal development include: ƒ Spring water; ƒ Underground water; ƒ Coastal seawater; ƒ Soil; ƒ Air; ƒ Habitats & biodiversity (Environmentally Sensitive Areas); and ƒ Coastal landscape. The main spatial units at which the results of the carrying capacity analysis will be reported are coastal communes and municipalities, as listed below: ƒ Himara Commune; ƒ Lukova Commune; ƒ Saranda Municipality; ƒ Aliko Commune; ƒ Ksamili Commune; and ƒ Xarra Commune. The above sub-regional approach is deemed to provide sufficient spatial differentiation for assessment of environmental carrying capacity. For quantification of settlement and tourism development the total population number (including tourists) has been selected as the measuring unit. Consequently, the carrying capacity is expressed as acceptable population numbers for the given environmental subsystem (spring water, underground water, coastal seawater). However, not all environmental subsystems enable reasonable numeric estimates of carrying capacity. For these subsystems (habitats and landscape, for example) more qualitative assessments are appropriate and they have already been given in Chapter 1. In addition, a more detailed analysis of tourism development potential and carrying capacity is presented in the following section of this chapter. In addition to estimate of carrying capacity figures, a semi-quantitative and descriptive impact assessment will be carried out. The semi-quantitative evaluation will apply the impact notions and the corresponding numerical rankings as listed in the Table 4.1. Table 4.1: Impact ranks Impact magnitude No impact Negligible Minor (small or short-term) Moderate Major (significant or long-term) Severe (strong and long-term)

Impact ranking 0 1 2 3 4 5

125


PAP/RAC â&#x20AC;&#x201C; SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Interim Report

The carrying capacities considered as acceptable in this study report correspond to no impact (rank 0) or negligible impact (rank 1).

4.2.1. Spring water A detailed investigation of coastal spring water resources (Chapter 2.3.2. Water supply) has resulted in assured capacities as lined up in the Table 4.2. The calculation of potential for human water supply (water supply persons equivalent) is based on a specific water demand of 240 l/c/d as stipulated by the Albanian Governmental Decree No. 102 of 1992 (see Annex 5, chapter 3.2. Governmental Policy). The potential for human water supply corresponds to the carrying capacity of spring water resources. Table 4.2: Carrying capacities regarding coastal spring water resources Commune Himara Lukova Saranda Aliko Ksamili Xarra Total

Hydraulic capacity Q (l/s) 1,144 328 67 0 0 3 1,542

Daily quantity V (m3/d)

Carrying capacity (persons)

98,868 28,339 5,789 0 0 259 133,229

411,948 118,080 24,120 0 0 1,080 555,120

The evaluation of additional hinterland spring water resources (Chapter 2.3.2. Water supply) has resulted in carrying capacities as presented in the Table 4.3. Table 4.3: Carrying capacities regarding additional hinterland spring water resources Commune Blue Eye spring Buronja spring Total

Hydraulic capacity Q (l/s) 1,000 300 1,300

Daily quantity V (m3/d)

Carrying capacity (persons)

86,400 25,920 112,320

360,000 108,000 468,000

Impact analysis The exploitation of total assured spring water resources might affect the local flora around the tapped springs due to branching of water which was formerly available for plants. Due to the mainly karstic character of the coastal region this effect is envisaged only for a limited space around the spring and assessed as a negligible impact (rank 1). Impacts during the construction of spring tapping facilities and the respective pipelines for municipal water supply will require a separate project-specific environmental impact assessment, and are not subject to this study report.

4.2.2. Groundwater The evaluation of coastal groundwater resources (see Chapter 2.3.2. Water supply) has resulted in carrying capacities as listed in the Table 4.4.

126


Carrying Capacity of the Territory

Table 4.4: Carrying capacities regarding tapped coastal groundwater resources Commune

Tapped hydraulic capacity Q (l/s)

Himara Lukova Saranda Aliko Ksamili Xarra Total

0 0 97 30 0 0 127

Daily quantity V (m3/d)

Carrying capacity (persons)

0 0 8,381 2,592 0 0 10,973

0 0 34,920 10,800 0 0 45,720

Note: In the Table 4.4, only the capacities of the present groundwater tapping installations are listed. The total capacities of the coastal groundwater bodies (especially in the Aliko and Xarra communes) are considered significantly bigger. A quantification shall be performed through separate hydro-geological investigations and is not subject to this study report. For municipal water supply, spring water groundwater resources are exploited depending on the ease of availability. Therefore, carrying capacity can be expressed for total water resources comprising both spring and groundwater resources. The respective data for coastal communes are presented in the Table 4.5. Table 4.5: Carrying capacities regarding coastal spring water resources and tapped groundwater Commune

Hydraulic capacity Q (l/s)

Himara Lukova Saranda Aliko Ksamili Xarra Total

1,144 328 164 30 0 3 1,669

Daily quantity V (m3/d)

Carrying capacity (persons)

98,868 28,339 14,170 2,592 0 259 144,228

411,948 118,080 59,040 10,800 0 1,080 600,948

If additional hinterland water resources are included, the total carrying capacity of the coastal region adds up as listed in the Table 4.6. Table 4.6: Carrying capacities regarding summarised coastal and hinterland water resources Region Coastal resources - total Hinterland resources - total Total

Hydraulic capacity Q (l/s) 1,669 1,300 2,969

Daily quantity V (m3/d) 144,228 112,320 256,548

Carrying capacity (persons) 600,948 468,000 1,068,948

Impact assessment Impacts during the construction of the spring tapping facilities, well drilling and respective civil works for municipal water supply should be appraised by separate, project-specific

127


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

environmental impact assessments which are not subject of this study report. Possible impacts during the operational phase shall also be part of a project-specific environmental impact assessment.

4.2.3. Coastal seawater The impact on coastal seawater is assessed through wastewater pollution load discharged into the coastal sea from the coastal communes. The amount of pollution load which is deemed not to exceed an acceptable impact defines the carrying capacity relative to coastal seawater. In addition, impacts on coastal seawater can origin from non-point pollution sources due to leaching of agricultural chemicals and their drainage to water bodies. This phenomenon has been reported for the Butrunti Lake and is assessed to be close to the threshold of eutrophication. For all other areas of coastal region of concern, no indications of impacts from diffuse drainage of agricultural chemicals have been reported. However, this phenomenon might exist in some cases but, according to the currently available data, it is of minor significance. Since this issue only constitutes a minor impact on the coastal seawaters it will not be treated in this study report. In fact, the present assessment will restrain to wastewater generation and its impact on coastal waters. At present, there exists no wastewater treatment in any coastal settlement (mechanical treatment in the Himara town is unsatisfactory and run down). The current wastewater pollution assumptions are the following: ƒ Specific domestic organic load: 60 g BOD5/capita/day; ƒ Specific domestic Nitrogen load: 11 g TKN/capita/day; ƒ Specific domestic Phosphorous load: 1.8 g P/capita/day; ƒ Specific domestic suspended solids load: 55 g SS/capita/day; ƒ Wastewater without treatment is discharged into the sea by 100%. Certainly, at present, the municipal wastewaters do not discharge entirely into the sea due to partial soil infiltration from leaky septic tanks and untight sewers. The ratios of wastewater soil infiltration depend on specific infrastructure conditions in each settlement. The average infiltration ratio for one commune can not be determined precisely. The present estimate of carrying capacity follows the approach that 100% of the wastewater is discharged into the sea. Thus it considers the worst case scenario for coastal waters environment. Consequently, the estimate of carrying capacity lies on the secure side. Seasonal fluctuation of population is another important factor to consider in this calculation. Since in the coastal settlements a significant rate of seasonal migration for employment abroad or elsewhere in Albania is observed regularly, the total registered population is practically present only during summer months when they come for holidays and to visit their relatives. The number of really present persons beyond the summer season, called resident population, is markedly lower. The respective figures on communal level have been derived from reported migration ratios (see chapter 2.1.1.) and are listed in the Table 4.7.

128


Carrying Capacity of the Territory

Table 4.7: Registered and resident population in coastal communes Commune Himara Lukova Saranda Aliko 2) Ksamili Xarra Total

Population Migration ratio 1) registered 2004 (%) 10,697 8,911 34,226 3,353 7,124 6,811 71,122

Population resident 2004

68 62 52 52 67 64 61

3,423 3,386 16,428 1,609 2,351 2,452 29,650

1) according to Vlora Profile report (see Chapter 2.1.1.) 2) only the settlements Cuka and Berdenesh (location in coastal region)

For the estimate of carrying capacity, two periods of significantly different numbers of present persons are regarded. The first comprises the summer months July and August and is henceforth called peak season. The second period includes the rest of the year (September till June) and is further on called low season. Assumptions for peak season are the following: ƒ total registered population is present in coastal settlements; and ƒ 80% of annual tourists arrive in the peak season. Assumptions for low season are the following: ƒ only resident population is present in coastal settlements; and ƒ only 20% of annual tourists arrive in the low season.

4.2.3.1. Calculation of wastewater pollution loads Pollution loads generated by the registered population in the peak season calculated for each commune are presented in the Table 4.8. Table 4.8: Daily wastewater pollution loads generated by registered population (peak season 2004) Commune Himara Lukova Saranda Aliko Ksamili Xarra Total

Population BOD5 (kg/d) TKN (kg/d) registered 2004 10,697 8,911 34,226 3,353 7,124 6,811 71,122

642 535 2,054 201 427 409 4,268

118 98 376 37 78 75 782

P (kg/d) 19 16 62 6 13 12 128

SS (kg/d) 588 490 1,882 184 392 375 3,911

The generation of wastewater pollution loads corresponding to the resident population is presented in the Table 4.9. Figures describe the situation in the low season.

129


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Table 4.9: Daily wastewater pollution loads generated by resident population (low season 2004) Commune Himara Lukova Saranda Aliko Ksamili Xarra Total

Population resident 2004 3,423 3,386 16,428 1,609 2,351 2,452 29,649

BOD5 (kg/d) TKN (kg/d) 205 203 986 97 141 147 1,779

P (kg/d)

38 37 181 18 26 27 326

6 6 30 3 4 4 53

SS (kg/d) 188 186 904 89 129 135 1,631

Tourists staying 5-14 days (overnight tourists) in the coastal settlements will cause similar specific pollution loads complying with those of the resident population (1 p.e.). In contrast, day tourists cause minor specific pollution loads which are estimated at 50% of those generated by the resident population (0.5 p.e). The numbers of overnight tourists in the coastal communes and the corresponding pollution loads are presented in Table 4.10 and Table 4.11. For pollution load calculation, the tourists are distributed equally over the whole season. Assuming that overnight tourists stay 14 days, an average number of daily present tourists in the peak season (62 days) is calculated. Table 4.10: Overnight tourists – peak season 2004 Commune

Himara Lukova Saranda Aliko Ksamili Xarra Total

Overnight tourists 2004

Peak season ratio (%)

Overnight tourists-peak season 2004

Overnight tourists – daily average 1)

18,625 8,612 23,320 0 15,900 0 66,457

80 80 80 80 80 80

14,900 6,890 18,656 0 12,720 0 53,166

3,365 1,556 4,213 0 2,872 0 12,006

1)

overnight tourists (14 days stay) in peak season 2004 distributed over 62 days Source: Gunaratnam, 2004; Mayor of Ksamili, 2005

The pollution loads corresponding to the overnight tourists in the peak season are presented in the Table 4.11. Table 4.11: Pollution loads by overnight tourists (peak season 2004) Commune Himara Lukova Saranda Aliko Ksamili Xarra Total

130

Population BOD5 (kg/d) TKN (kg/d) registered 2004 3,365 1,556 4,213 0 2,872 0 12,005

202 93 253 0 172 0 720

37 17 46 0 32 0 132

P (kg/d)

SS (kg/d)

6 3 8 0 5 0 22

185 86 232 0 158 0 661


Carrying Capacity of the Territory

The amount of day tourists in the coastal communes and the corresponding pollution loads are presented in Table 4.12 and Table 4.13. Table 4.12: Day tourists – peak season 2004 Commune

Himara Lukova Saranda Aliko Ksamili 2) Xarra Total

Day tourists 2004

Peak season ratio (%)

Day touristspeak season 2004

Day tourists – daily average

21,200 0 24,100 0 136,800 1,000 183,100

80 80 80 80 80 80

16,960 0 19,280 0 109,440 800 146,480

274 0 311 0 1,765 13 2,363

2)

weekend data (15,200 per Sunday) Source: Gunaratnam, 2004; Mayor of Ksamili, 2005; Saranda Port Authority; Himara Mayor’s Office, Dept. of Tourism

The pollution loads corresponding to the day tourists in the peak season are shown in the Table 4.13. Table 4.13: Wastewater pollution loads by day tourists (peak season 2004) Commune Himara Lukova Saranda Aliko Ksamili Xarra Total

Day tourists Daily average 274 0 311 0 1,765 13 2,363

BOD5 (kg/d) TKN (kg/d) 8 0 9 0 53 0 70

2 0 2 0 10 0 14

P (kg/d) 0 0 0 0 2 0 2

SS (kg/d) 8 0 9 0 49 0 66

The pollution loads corresponding to the overnight tourists in the low season are shown in the Table 4.14. Table 4.14: Wastewater pollution loads by overnight tourists (low season 2004) Commune

Himara Lukova Saranda Aliko Ksamili Xarra Total

Overnight tourists Daily average 172 80 215 0 70 0 537

BOD5 (kg/d) TKN (kg/d)

10 5 13 0 4 0 32

2 1 2 0 1 0 6

P (kg/d)

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

SS (kg/d)

9 4 12 0 4 0 29

The pollution loads corresponding to the day tourists in the low season are shown in the Table 4.15.

131


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Table 4.15: Wastewater pollution loads by day tourists (low season 2004) Commune

Day tourists Daily average

Himara Lukova Saranda Aliko Ksamili Xarra Total

BOD5 (kg/d) TKN (kg/d)

14 0 16 0 16 0 46

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

P (kg/d)

SS (kg/d)

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0

4.2.3.2. Pollution load impact analysis relative to environmental carrying capacity The following tables provide an overview of wastewater pollution loads in both low and peak seasons for each coastal commune. Further, the data analyses combined with additional descriptive information will result in a quantitative estimate of environmental carrying capacity. Environmental carrying capacity relevant to wastewater generation will be expressed as the number of persons corresponding to the maximum acceptable pollution load. For the present impact assessment the notion “acceptable pollution load” complies with the pollution load causing only a negligible impact (rank 1) on coastal seawater. Municipality of Himara The total pollution loads for the low and peak seasons, including corresponding person equivalent (p.e.), are compiled in Table 4.16 – Table 4.18. Table 4.16: Himara commune wastewater pollution loads – summary 2004 Himara Commune

Persons 1)

Pollution loads – daily BOD5 (kg/d)

Low season Population – resident Overnight tourists Day tourists Total – low season Peak season Population – registered Overnight tourists Day tourists Total – peak season 1)

TKN (kg/d)

P (kg/d)

SS (kg/d)

3,423 172 14 3,609

205 10 0 215

38 2 0 40

6 0 0 6

188 9 0 197

10,697 3,365 274 14,336

642 202 8 852

118 37 2 157

19 6 0 56

588 185 8 781

daily average

As referred by municipal representatives, the typical smell of wastewater has been noticed on the Himara Bay beaches during the recent summer months. This detrimental phenomenon disappears rapidly after the peak season. Himara Bay is the coastal location most endangered by wastewater pollution in the whole Himara commune. In addition, due to its morphological shape as a bay, it represents a delimited marine space less affected by the adjacent coastal waters.

132


Carrying Capacity of the Territory

Inversely, one can presume that the Himara Bay waters have less influence on the coastal waters of the neighbouring settlements spreading to the north till Palasa, and to the south till Qeparoi. So it appears reasonable to carry out two separate investigations of pollution loads, one for the Himara town only, and another for the other settlements. Himara town Pollution loads discharged into Himara Bay are summarised in the Table 4.17. Table 4.17: Himara town wastewater pollution loads discharged into Himara Bay – summary 2004 Himara Town

Persons

Pollution loads – daily BOD5 (kg/d)

Low season Population – resident Overnight tourists Day tourists Total – low season Peak season Population – registered Overnight tourists Day tourists Total – peak season

TKN (kg/d)

P (kg/d)

SS (kg/d)

1,691 87 14 1,792

101 5 0 106

19 1 0 20

3 0 0 3

93 5 0 98

5,284 1,694 274 7,252

317 102 8 427

58 19 2 79

10 3 0 13

291 93 8 392

Himara commune settlements without Himara town: Pollution loads discharged from the settlements of Palase, Dhermi, Gjileke, Vuno, Ilias, Kudhes, Pilur, and Qeparo into the sea are summarised in the Table 4.18. Table 4.18: Wastewater pollution loads of the Himara commune settlements except for the Himara town discharged into the sea – summary 2004 Himara Commune settlements without Himara town Low season Population – resident Overnight tourists Day tourists Total – low season Peak season Population – registered Overnight tourists Day tourists Total – peak season

Persons

Pollution loads – daily BOD5 (kg/d)

TKN (kg/d)

P (kg/d)

SS (kg/d)

1,732 85 0 1,817

104 5 0 109

19 1 0 20

3 0 0 3

95 5 0 100

5,413 1,671 0 7,084

325 100 0 425

60 18 0 78

10 3 0 13

298 92 0 390

Impact assessment In low season in Himara town neither sewage odour generation nor any other perceptible deterioration of coastal seawater has been reported in Himara Bay. Furthermore, no indication of eutrophication has been reported. Therefore, the impact of wastewater pollution is assessed as negligible impact (rank 1).

133


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

The regular appearance of wastewater smell in Himara Bay during peak season represents an intermediate phenomenon and is assessed as moderate impact (rank 3). The corresponding pollution loads in peak season amount to four times the pollution loads in low season. The load corresponding to carrying capacity lies somewhere in between. There are two deliberations leading to the supposition that carrying capacity lies closer to the peak season loads than to those of low season. First, the wastewater smell vanishes soon after the end of the peak season. This indicates a quick self purification of the water body of the Himara Bay. The capacity of biological degradation of pollutants appears capable of lowering rapidly the wastewater impact under the threshold of human perception. If carrying capacity for pollution load lay closer to the pollution load of the low season, supposedly the self-purification process in the coastal water body would last significantly longer. Second, in the Himara Bay no signs of eutrophication have ever been observed. This points out that the marine biocenosis has not been affected substantially. However, the present expertise strives to provide a limiting value that would lie on the safe side. Therefore, the pollution load corresponding to the carrying capacity is determined in the middle between the low season and peak season pollution loads (i.e. 50% of the difference peak season – low season). The calculation results as follows: ƒ Peak season: sum BOD5 equals 427 kg/d; and ƒ Low season: sum BOD5 equals 107 kg/d. Carrying capacity load BOD5 = (427 – 107) x 0.5 + 107 = 267 kg/d. Further, the corresponding number of persons is calculated by the division of BOD5 load through specific BOD5 (i.e. 0.06 kg/c/d): ƒ Carrying capacity persons = 267 / 0.06 = 4,450 persons The carrying capacity data with regard to wastewater pollution of the Himara town discharged into the Himara Bay waters are summarised in the Table 4.19. Table 4.19: Himara Town – carrying capacity data regarding sewage pollution of coastal waters Himara Town

Persons

Pollution loads – daily BOD5 (kg/d)

Carrying capacity – loads Carrying capacity – persons

270 4,500 (rounded off)

TKN (kg/d)

P (kg/d)

SS (kg/d)

50

8

248

In the Himara commune settlements without Himara town, for the whole coastal waters, excluding the Himara Bay, no sewage smell generation, or any other perceptible water quality deterioration, or any indications of eutrophication have ever been reported. Therefore a negligible impact (rank 1) is assessed for all the settlements beyond the Himara town throughout the year. In addition, this conclusion points out that the carrying capacity or pollution load lies above the present peak season load. The precise figure can not be estimated by comparison to other load data since an upper reference value is missing. However, an alternative approach enables approximate appraisal of the dimension of the carrying capacity load. The deliberations refer to the self-purification of the water body along the coast. Since biological degradation takes place only in the water bodies just below the sea surface, the horizontal extension of the coastline might be a criterion for the capacity of biological self-

134


Carrying Capacity of the Territory

purification in the coastal water body. The width of the Himara Bay opening to the open sea is about 1.2 km. In comparison, the airline distance to Palasa at the northern edge of the Himara Bay is approximately 11.3 km. The respective distance to Borsh (district border to Lukova commune) at the southern edge of the Himara Bay is about 6.7 km. The stretch along Porto Palermo is excluded since this spot represents the typical shape of a coastal bay too. The total length of the two mostly straight coastal stretches facing the open sea adds up to 18 km (from Palase to Qeparo). Based on the assumption of a rough correlation between the coastal airline extension and self-purification capacity, the carrying capacity pollution load of the Himara settlements should be roughly calculated with respect to the ratio of coastal lengths. Comparing the coastal length of 1.2 km (Himara Bay) with 18 km (all other settlements except for Porto Palermo) the ratio is 15. According to the approach cited above, the carrying capacity pollution load of settlements is 15 times bigger than that of the Himara town. The respective figures are shown below: ƒ Carrying capacity load BOD5 Himara town = 270 kg/d ƒ Carrying capacity load BOD5 settlements = 270 x 15 ƒ Carrying capacity load BOD5 settlements = 4.050 kg/d Consequently, the corresponding number of persons is calculated by the division of BOD5 load through specific BOD5 (i.e. 0,06 kg/c/d). ƒ Carrying capacity persons = 4.050 / 0.06 = 67.500 persons Table 4.20: Himara commune settlements except for the Himara town – carrying capacity data regarding sewage pollution of coastal waters Himara Settlements Carrying capacity – loads Carrying capacity – persons

Persons

Pollution loads – daily BOD5 (kg/d)

TKN (kg/d)

P (kg/d)

SS (kg/d)

4,050

743

122

3,713

67,500

Finally, the carrying capacity for the whole Himara commune sums up as follows. ƒ Carrying capacity – Himara town

4,500 persons

ƒ Carrying capacity – Himara settlements

67,500 persons

ƒ Carrying capacity – Himara commune

72,000 persons

Comune of Lukova Total pollution loads for the low and peak seasons, including the corresponding person equivalent (p.e.), are presented in Table 4.21 and Table 4.22. There exist no reports about any perception of wastewater smell in the coastal seawaters of the Lukova commune, nor have been reported any signs of eutrophication in the respective seawater bodies. Microbiological analyses do not exist.

135


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Table 4.21: Lukova commune wastewater pollution loads – summary 2004 Lukova

Persons 1)

Pollution loads – daily BOD5 (kg/d)

Low season Population – resident Overnight tourists Day tourists Total – low season Peak season Population – registered Overnight tourists Day tourists Total – peak season 1)

TKN (kg/d)

P (kg/d)

SS (kg/d)

3,386 80 0 3,466

203 5 0 208

37 1 0 38

6 0 0 6

186 4 0 190

8,911 1,556 0 10,467

535 93 0 628

98 17 0 115

16 3 0 19

490 86 0 576

daily average

Impact assessment Since over the past years no effects in any season have been observed, the capability of the coastal water body for biological self-purification is deemed to be sufficient to eliminate wastewater pollution loads, even in the peak season. Consequently, the corresponding carrying capacity lies above the pollution data for the peak season. For an estimate of the carrying capacity threshold the approach of biological selfpurification capacity corresponding to the length of open coastline is applied. For a detailed explanation see the paragraph on the Himara settlements above. In the Lukova commune the air-line distance from the northern edge of the commune coastal area (Borsh) to the respective southern border (Kakome Bay) is 14 km. In the Himara commune the respective length of straight coastline amounts to 18 km. The corresponding carrying capacity accounts for 67,500 persons. Based on the ratio of coastal lengths the carrying capacity for Lukova commune is calculated as shown below. ƒ Straight coastline Himara settlements: 18 km ƒ Straight coastline Lukova commune: 14 km ƒ Carrying capacity Himara settlements: 67,500 persons ƒ Carrying capacity Lukova commune = 14 / 18 x 67,500 = 52,500 persons The precise figures are listed in the Table 4.22. Table 4.22: Lukova commune – carrying capacity data regarding sewage pollution to coastal waters Lukova

Persons

Pollution loads – daily BOD5 (kg/d)

Carrying capacity – loads Carrying capacity – persons

52,500

TKN (kg/d)

3,150 (rounded off)

578

P (kg/d)

SS (kg/d)

95

2,888

Municipality of Saranda and Commune of Alliko The total collected wastewater of the Saranda municipality is pumped to the Cuka channel which flows into the Saranda Bay. Wastewater of the adjacent Aliko commune is also drained into the Cuka channel. Eventually, the wastewaters of Saranda and Aliko are united in the Saranda Bay where they contribute to the impact on the coastal seawater. Therefore,

136


Carrying Capacity of the Territory

the Saranda and Aliko wastewater loads have to be assessed together. Due to this fact only one common carrying capacity pollution load including Aliko and Saranda can be defined reasonably. The estimate of the Aliko pollution load considers not only the settlements of Cuka and Berdenesh, located on the coast, but also the other villages in the hinterland. The total population of the Aliko commune amounts to 8,066 persons (2004). However, it must be noted that the pollution loads carried by the Cuka channel include loads from additional villages in the remote catchment area of the Cuka channel. These settlements might partially drain their wastewaters into the Cuka channel. The total wastewater pollution loads from the hinterland are not quantified here since the hinterland villages are not subject of the present study report. Consequently, the total carrying capacity of the Saranda Bay can not be identified. For the separate presentation of Aliko and Saranda wastewater pollution loads, the respective data including corresponding person equivalents (p.e.) are given in Table 4.23, Table 4.24 and Table 4.25. Table 4.23: Saranda commune wastewater pollution loads – summary 2004 Saranda

Persons 1)

Pollution loads – daily BOD5 (kg/d)

Low season Population – resident Overnight tourists Day tourists Total – low season Peak season Population – registered Overnight tourists Day tourists Total – peak season 1)

TKN (kg/d)

P (kg/d)

SS (kg/d)

16,428 215 16 16,659

986 13 0 999

181 2 0 183

30 0 0 30

904 12 0 916

34,226 4,213 311 38,750

2,054 253 9 2,316

376 46 2 424

62 8 0 70

1,882 232 9 2,123

daily average

Table 4.24: Aliko commune wastewater pollution loads – summary 2004 Persons 1)

Aliko

Pollution loads – daily BOD5 (kg/d)

Low season Population – resident Overnight tourists Day tourists Total – low season Peak season Population – registered Overnight tourists Day tourists Total – peak season 1)

TKN (kg/d)

P (kg/d)

SS (kg/d)

3,872 0 0 3,872

232 0 0 232

43 0 0 43

7 0 0 7

213 0 0 213

8,066 0 0 8,066

484 0 0 484

89 0 0 89

15 0 0 15

444 0 0 444

daily average

The sums of Aliko and Saranda wastewater pollution loads are listed in the Table 4.25. They represent the basis for carrying capacity estimate.

137


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Table 4.25: Saranda and Aliko commune wastewater pollution loads – summary 2004 Saranda and Aliko

Persons

Pollution loads – daily BOD5 (kg/d)

Low season Population – resident Overnight tourists Day tourists Total – low season Peak season Population – registered Overnight tourists Day tourists Total – peak season

TKN (kg/d)

P (kg/d)

SS (kg/d)

20,300 215 16 20,531

1,218 13 0 1,231

223 2 0 225

37 0 0 37

1,117 12 0 1,129

42,292 4,213 311 46,816

2,538 253 9 2,800

465 46 2 513

76 8 0 84

2,326 232 9 2,567

According to the document “National Diagnosis Analysis Report – Albania" (2003) the following indications of eutrophication have been observed in the Saranda Bay: ƒ habitat loss and fragmentation; ƒ reduction of Posidonia oceanica meadows over the past decades; ƒ increase of water turbidity over the past decades; ƒ observation of nitrophilous algae; ƒ significantly elevated contents of microbiological wastewater indicators (total coliforms, faecal coliforms, faecal streptococci); and ƒ seawater quality corresponding to category V of the river water quality classification according to UNECE. All of the above cited conditions are caused by long-term permanent wastewater discharge into the Saranda Bay. Impact assessment The rise of water turbidity and the reduction of Posidonia oceanica meadows over the past decades point out that eutrophication is ongoing, at least for this period. Furthermore, the appearance of nitrophilous algae indicates an advanced stage of eutrophication. Therefore, the present daily pollution loads for both low and peak seasons exceed markedly the carrying capacity load. The crucial question is in which recent period the eutrophication process has started. If this can be identified, the respective previous population data will enable a sound estimate of the carrying capacity. The formulation “over the past decades” in the "National Diagnosis Analysis Report – Albania" is interpreted roughly as the period between 20 and 40 years. Population data records of the Saranda municipality for this period are shown in the Table 4.26. Table 4.26: Population development – Saranda municipality Year 1960 1969 1979 1989 2004 1)

138

Population Saranda municipality 1) 6,616 8,805 13,095 19,000 34,226

according to the population study (Chapter 2.1.1.)


Carrying Capacity of the Territory

Tourist numbers are neglected due to the weak tourism in the former communist epoch. Assuming that eutrophication process has started 20 years ago at the latest, the population in 1983 accounts for 18,091 (NDA report year 2003 minus 20). This figure obviously exceeds the carrying capacity because it already initiated eutrophication. Applying the mean value of the regarded time space four decades, and assuming that eutrophication has begun in the period between 1973 and 1983, the threshold of the carrying capacity load is estimated to have appeared around the year 1973. The corresponding population amounts to 11,866 in Saranda. The estimate of the population in 1973 in Aliko commune is based on population data as shown in the Table 4.27. Table 4.27: Population development – Aliko commune

1)

Year

Population 1)

1950 1960 1969 1979 1989 2004

2,614 3,669 4,604 6,230 6,773 8,066

according to the population study (Chapter 2.1.1.)

Considering the population development presented in the table above, the respective population in 1973 accounts for 5,102 persons (calculation by linear regression). The total population of Saranda and Aliko in 1973 add up to 16,968 (rounded off to 17,000). This population figure is assessed as the carrying capacity for the Saranda Bay. The respective loads are summarised in the Table 4.28. Table 4.28: Saranda + Aliko: Carrying capacity data regarding sewage pollution to coastal waters Saranda + Aliko Carrying capacity – loads Carrying capacity – persons

Persons

Pollution loads – daily BOD5 (kg/d)

TKN (kg/d)

P (kg/d)

SS (kg/d)

1,020

187

31

935

17,000

The estimated carrying capacity of 17,000 persons accounts for only 40% of the registered population of 42,292 (Saranda and Aliko together) in the year 2004. Taking into account the tourists, the average population in the peak season adds up to 46,816. Only 36% of them fall within the estimated carrying capacity. This ratio highlights the extreme negative impact of wastewater pollution loads on the Saranda Bay. The requirement to define a carrying capacity for each particular commune can not be fulfilled because carrying capacity is related to one coastal water body which can not be subdivided into two separate parts for Saranda and Aliko. Therefore, all further considerations of the carrying capacity in Saranda have to include conditions in the Aliko commune as well. Since the coastal seawater of the Saranda Bay is affected seriously and permanently by wastewater affluent, a severe impact (rank 5) is determined.

139


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Commune of Ksamili The total pollution loads for the low and peak seasons, including the corresponding person equivalent (p.e.), are compiled in the Table 4.29. Table 4.29: Ksamili commune wastewater pollution loads – summary 2004 Ksamili

Persons 1)

Pollution loads – daily BOD5 (kg/d)

Low season Population – resident Overnight tourists Day tourists Total – low season Peak season Population – registered Overnight tourists Day tourists Total – peak season 1)

TKN (kg/d)

P (kg/d)

SS (kg/d)

2,351 70 16 2,437

141 4 0 145

26 1 0 27

4 0 0 4

129 4 0 133

7,124 2,872 1,765 11,761

427 172 53 654

78 32 10 120

13 5 2 20

392 158 49 599

daily average

According to the document “National Diagnosis Analysis Report – Albania", the following indications of eutrophication have been observed in the Ksamili area: ƒ reduction of Posidonia oceanica meadows over the past decades; ƒ increase of water turbidity; and ƒ municipality representatives' statement of seawater quality deterioration in summer. All of the above-cited conditions are caused by long-term permanent wastewater discharge into the coastal waters. Impact assessment Ksamili is the coastal commune with the largest discrepancy between population in the peak season and the low season showing a ratio of up to 4.8. A moderate impact (rank 3) is assigned to the situation during the peak season due to clearly recognisable water quality degradation which has repeatedly been confirmed by municipality representatives. It is obvious that in the peak season the pollution loads exceed the carrying capacity loads. However, the observed reduction of Posidonia oceanica meadows on the sea bottom close to Ksamili can not only be due to a rather short-term impact (July and August) of significantly elevated pollution load. The long-lasting changing of the maritime flora around Ksamili indicates that eutrophication takes place during the most part of the year. Based on this fact, the first impression is that even the low season pollution is above the threshold of the carrying capacity loads. Moreover, the increase of turbidity in the coastal water body is a rather long-term, continuous process caused by permanent influence of wastewater ingredients, whether suspended solids or nutrients, fostering algae growth. The steady elevated turbidity affirms the view that even during the low season pollution loads rise above the carrying capacity loads. Both indications of eutrophication are reported for the whole Saranda-Ksamili area. This suggests that eutrophication near Ksamili is at least partially effected by the pollution loads originating from the Saranda municipality and Aliko commune (Cuka channel).

140


Carrying Capacity of the Territory

Ksamili is located close to the Saranda Bay. The air-line distance across the sea is only about 6 km. Nevertheless, additional investigations on currents in the coastal waters must be performed in order to clarify the interrelation of the Saranda Bay and the Ksamili coastal waters. Presently, the rate of the Ksamili wastewater impact only on eutrophication can not be quantified through an interpretation of the above-cited observation data. In addition, data and information on the hydrological and chemical conditions in coastal waters near Saranda and Ksamili are too scarce to enable a derivation of any respectable findings. The approach to the estimate of the carrying capacity of the Ksamili Bay consists of a comparison of conditions in the Himara Bay with those in the Ksamili Bay. In addition, it has to be taken into consideration that Ksamili is located in the Ksamili Bay whose opening to the open sea is about 2.6 km wide, and whose depth is roughly 1.1 km. Due to these morphological characteristic the exchange of bay water with the open sea might be impeded. A comparison of the Ksamili Bay shape with that of the Himara Bay shows a ratio of width to depth of about 2.4 for the Ksamili Bay and a respective figure of 1.6 for the Himara Bay. Thus, physical prerequisites for water exchange are markedly more favourable in the Ksamili Bay than in the Himara Bay. From these facts the assumption is derived that the biological self-purification process in Ksamili is much better than in the Himara Bay. In addition, a rough estimate of surface area for both bays results in 2.9 km2 for the Ksamili Bay and in 1.0 km2 for the Himara Bay. Assuming that biological self-purification takes place mainly in the upper water layers of the sea, the depths of coastal waters are not relevant for the self purification potential. Therefore, the present estimate is based on the assumption that self purification capacity corresponds to the surface area of the bay. Taking the carrying capacity and the surface area of the Himara Bay as initial data, the correlation with the surface area of the Ksamili Bay shows that the carrying capacity for the Ksamili Bay is as follows. ƒ Himara Bay – carrying capacity: 4,500 persons ƒ Himara Bay – surface area: 1.0 km2 ƒ Ksamili Bay – surface area: 2.9 km2 ƒ Ksamili Bay – carrying capacity = 4,500 x 2.9 / 1.0 = 13,050 persons Since in Ksamili the water exchange with the open sea is more intensive than in the Himara Bay, which entails an increase of biological self-purification potential, the carrying capacity supposedly lies above the figure calculated. A rough estimate of this extent is performed through consideration of the ratios width/depth in both bays. As mentioned above, in the Himara Bay the ratio of width to depth is 1.6. The respective figure for the Ksamili Bay is 2.4. It is higher by 50% than the ratio for the Himara Bay. Regarding the geometric shape only the increase of the potential for water exchange would theoretically correlate with that difference of 50%. But what can not be included in the present calculation are the maritime hydrological conditions like sea currents, and meteorological influences e.g. water re-circulation by coastal winds. For this reason, and since the present estimate strives for a result on the secure side, only the mean calculated difference of 50% is implied. Thus, the final carrying capacity for the Ksamili Bay is calculated as follows. ƒ Ksamili Bay – carrying capacity final = 13,050 x 1.25 = 16,300 persons The respective carrying capacity pollution loads are shown in the Table 4.30.

141


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Table 4.30: Ksamili commune – carrying capacity data regarding sewage pollution of coastal waters Ksamili

Persons

Carrying capacity – loads Carrying capacity – persons

Pollution loads – daily BOD5 (kg/d)

TKN (kg/d)

P (kg/d)

SS (kg/d)

978

179

29

897

16,300

Reported temporary increased generation of wastewater in the peak season corresponds to short-term population increase up to 30,000 persons over summer weekends (data source: Mayor of Ksamili). This figure exceeds by far the estimated carrying capacity of 16,300 persons. However, the information on wastewater odour generation is too scarce and vague with regard to the time and space of occurrence. Therefore, it has not been used for carrying capacity estimate. In case the pollution loads to Saranda Bay are reduced, the possible negative impact on Ksamili coastal waters might diminish. As a consequence the carrying capacity for Ksamili could probably increase. The identification of the respective value shall be subject to separate future assessments. Commune of Xarra The total pollution loads for the low and peak seasons, including the corresponding person equivalent (p.e.), are presented in Table 4.31 and Table 4.32. Table 4.31: Xarra commune wastewater pollution loads – summary 2004 Saranda and Aliko

Persons 1)

Pollution loads – daily BOD5 (kg/d)

Low season Population – resident Overnight tourists Day tourists Total – low season Peak season Population – registered Overnight tourists Day tourists Total – peak season 1)

TKN (kg/d)

P (kg/d)

SS (kg/d)

20,300 215 16 20,531

1,218 13 0 1,231

223 2 0 225

37 0 0 37

1,117 12 0 1,129

42,292 4,213 311 46,816

2,538 253 9 2,800

465 46 2 513

76 8 0 84

2,326 232 9 2,567

daily average

Collected wastewaters are drained to the Butrinti channel which opens to the sea. Since there is a projecting peninsula between the estuary of the Butrinti channel and the Ksamili Bay, it is unlikely that the Xarra wastewater pollution loads cause an impact on the Ksamili coastal waters. There exists no information about any deterioration of the coastal waters around the estuary of the Butrinti channel. Impact assessment Since there are no reports about degradation of the coastal water quality or any information about eutrophication around the estuary of the Butrinti channel, the condition of the Xarra commune wastewaters is assessed as having a negligible impact (rank 1).

142


Carrying Capacity of the Territory

The Butrinti channel opens to a coastal bay where water exchange with the open sea is restricted due to the morphological features. The resulting reduced self-purification potential is a limiting factor for the carrying capacity. The estimate of carrying capacity is carried out in analogy with the Ksamili Bay. A comparison of the morphological structures of the Butrinti estuary bay (corresponding to Xarra) with those of Himara is presented below. ƒ Himara Bay – carrying capacity: 4,500 persons ƒ Himara Bay – surface area: 1.0 km2 ƒ Butrinti channel estuary bay – surface area: 2.0 km2 ƒ Butrinti channel estuary bay – carrying capacity = 4,500 x 2.0 / 1.0 = 9,000 persons It must be noted that the shape of the Butrinti channel estuary bay presents specific morphological features like islands and narrow lagoons which are more susceptible to pollution loads. These facts might reduce the carrying capacity on small spatial levels. The assessment of carrying capacities for limited spaces are not subject of this report but shall be performed during future appraisals for specific land-use planning. The carrying capacity, as identified above, and the respective pollution loads are shown in the Table 4.32. Table 4.32: Xarra commune – carrying capacity data regarding sewage pollution of coastal waters Xarra

Persons

Pollution loads – daily BOD5 (kg/d)

Carrying capacity – loads Carrying capacity – persons

9,000

TKN (kg/d)

540 (rounded off)

P (kg/d)

SS (kg/d)

16

495

99

4.2.3.3. Summary of carrying capacities relative to coastal seawater Table 4.33 provides an overview of carrying capacities relative to the coastal seawaters as identified above for coastal communes. Additionally, the respective ranks of environmental impact due to wastewater disposal are listed. Data presented in the table above indicate clearly that for the total of coastal communes the carrying capacity of coastal seawater is sufficient for the registered population. Only in Saranda and Aliko communes the situation is precarious since already the present registered population exceeds the carrying capacity by 150%. Table 4.33: Carrying capacities and wastewater impacts – coastal communes summary Commune

Himara Lukova Saranda and Aliko Ksamili Xarra Total

Carrying capacity 72,000 52,500 17,000 16,300 9,000 166,800

Population registered 2004 10,697 8,911 42,292 7,124 6,811 75,835

Population – peak season 2004 14,335 10,467 46,816 11,761 6,824 90,203

Impact ranking relative to wastewater 3 1 5 3 1

143


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

However, in some other communes, several spots of local increased pollution (e.g. Himara Bay and Ksamili Bay) already show moderate negative impacts. Future mitigation measures should focus on those areas. The main finding is that, especially in the Saranda commune, it is necessary to take measures for mitigation of wastewater impact on the coastal seawaters. In addition, wastewater drainage to the Cuka channel from the villages in the hinterland has to be addressed within future examinations. This is deemed as a prerequisite to meet the goals of future protection of the coastal seawaters environment. This requirement applies to both village and tourism development.

4.2.3.4. Carrying capacities in case of wastewater impact mitigation measures A scenario providing wastewater impact mitigation measures is described in this section. The scenario includes an estimate of enhanced carrying capacities and an assessment of margins for village and tourism development. Mitigation measures will include rehabilitation of the existing and provision of additional infrastructure for wastewater collection and treatment. For coastal settlements, both municipal and individual solutions are proposed depending on specific spatial conditions at the settlements level. Appropriate technical concepts are described in the Chapter 2.3.3. and the Annex 6 of this report. The proposed scope of mitigation measures is based on the legal requirements of the respective legislation of the European Union (Council Directive 91/271/EEC of 21 May 1991 concerning urban waste-water treatment - shortly called “EU wastewater directive 91/271”). Mitigation measures are quantified in terms of reduction of pollution loads. The respective relevant parameters in this directive 91/271 listed below: ƒ Biological Oxygen demand at 20°C – BOD5; ƒ Chemical Oxygen demand – COD; ƒ Total suspended solids – TSS; ƒ Phosphorous total – P; ƒ Nitrogen total – TKN. The parameter COD is more suitable for the assessment of non-biodegradable organic wastewater ingredients. These hardly appear in the study-area wastewater owing to a negligible amount of industrial wastewater originating from the coastal communes. Therefore the parameter COD is not regarded in the present section. The EU wastewater directive 91/271 also distinguishes between sensitive areas and less sensitive areas. For sensitive areas the requirements for pollution load reduction are more stringent than for less sensitive areas. The criteria for identification of sensitive areas are described in the directive's Annex II A, (a). One crucial issue is the question if the regarded water body is eutrophic or endangered to become eutrophic. Referring to the criteria of the directive the following communes or respective spatial parts are defined as sensitive areas. ƒ Himara Bay (The Himara Bay has to be assessed as a separate spatial unit within the Himara commune. It does not make sense to define an average appraisal for the total Himara commune); ƒ Saranda and Aliko (Since the wastewater of Aliko is eventually drained into the Saranda Bay via the Cuka channel, it is considered together with Saranda); ƒ Ksamili; ƒ Xarra.

144


Carrying Capacity of the Territory

Referring to the requirements of the EU wastewater directive , the following communes or respective spatial parts are appraised as less sensitive areas. ƒ Himara commune except for the Himara Bay; and ƒ Lukova commune. The requirements for the effluents after wastewater treatment and the required limiting values for pollution load reduction are shown in Table 4.34 and Table 4.35. Figures refer to the EU wastewater directive 91/271, Annex I, Table 1 (less sensitive areas) and Table 2 (sensitive areas). Table 4.34: Wastewater treatment requirements for less sensitive areas according to EU wastewater directive 91/271, Annex I, Table 1 Parameter BOD5 SS

Concentration – effluent

Minimum percentage of reduction 1)

25 mg/l 35 mg/l

70-90% 90%

1)

Reduction in relation to the load of the influent Note: For less sensitive areas the values for concentration or for percentage of reduction in the table above shall apply.

Table 4.35: Wastewater treatment requirements for sensitive areas according to EU wastewater directive 91/271, Annex I, Table 2 Parameter P TKN 1)

Concentration – effluent 2 mg/l 15 mg/l

Minimum percentage of reduction 1) 80% 70-80%

Reduction in relation to the load of the influent

The carrying capacities related to reduced pollution loads are further on called carrying capacities for mitigation scenario. For the scenario with mitigation measures, the pollution load reductions, according to the requirements of the EU wastewater directive 91/271, are considered. For the identification of the respective carrying capacities only the loads of BOD5 need to be regarded. The present calculation for less sensitive areas and for sensitive areas assumes a BOD5 - reduction ratio of 70% which is the least stringent one according to the EU wastewater directive 91/271, Annex I, Table 1. For sensitive areas the separate calculation of Nitrogen load reduction is not needed because, according to the EU wastewater directive 91/271, Annex I, Table 2, the parameter TKN must be reduced in the same ratio as BOD5 (reduction by 70%). The evaluation of load reduction in sensitive areas follows the option of Nitrogen load reduction, although the EU wastewater directive 91/271 enables also the variant of Phosphorus load reduction. The approach of Nitrogen reduction has been chosen deliberately. It reflects better the present practice of advanced wastewater treatment in the EU member countries. There exist numerous examples where treatment plants are equipped with removal of BOD5 and Nitrogen only, whereas the reduction of Phosphorus is often realised as a further treatment step with lower priority than Nitrogen removal. The calculation of carrying capacity for mitigation scenario is based on a reduced specific domestic organic load and on the carrying capacity pollution loads as identified in the text above. For coastal communes except Saranda, a load reduction of 70% is assumed with regard to the EU wastewater directive 91/271.

145


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

For Saranda, a load reduction of 83% is considered since this is the designed BOD5reduction of the ongoing WWTP project for Saranda (for details see Annex 6). ƒ Specific domestic organic load, BOD5: 0.06 kg/c/d The results of the organic load reduction are shown for each municipality in the Table 4.36. Table 4.36: Carrying capacity for mitigation scenario Commune

Carrying Carrying capacity Specific BOD5 Carrying capacity for BOD5capacity pollution loads – reduction rate – reduced mitigation scenario (persons) BOD5 (kg/d) (kg/c/d) (persons)

Himara Lukova Saranda 1) Aliko Ksamili Xarra Total

72,000 52,500 13,000 4,000 16,300 9,000 166,800

4,320 3,150 780 240 978 540 10,008

70 70 83 70 70 70

0.018 0.018 0.010 0.018 0.018 0.018

240,000 175,000 76,471 13,333 54,333 30,000 589,137

1) Due to different pollution reduction ratios in Saranda and Aliko, the carrying capacity for mitigation scenario must be calculated separately. For this purpose, carrying capacity is divided according to the population ratio of Saranda to Aliko. For further deliberations the carrying capacity figures of both communes are united again.

Since carrying capacities for mitigation scenario apply for future periods, the population forecast for 2015 will further on be considered for the respective comparisons. Population figures forecast for 2015, according to the population estimate in Chapter 2.1.1., are listed in the Table 4.37. Table 4.37: Population forecast of 2015 Commune Himara Lukova Saranda Aliko Ksamili Xarra Total

Population forecast 2015 12,100 9,700 50,400 7,647 10,500 9,500 99,847

The carrying capacities for mitigation scenario are compared with the coastal communes' population forecast for 2015. Table 4.38: Carrying capacities for mitigation scenario compared with population forecast 2015 Commune

Himara Lukova Saranda + Aliko Ksamili Xarra Total

146

Population forecast Carrying capacity for 2015 mitigation scenario (rounded off)

12,100 9,700 58,047 10,500 9,500 99,847

240,000 175,000 90,000 54,000 30,000 589,000

Ratio Carrying capacity for mitigation scenario to population 2015 19.8 18.0 1.6 5.1 3.2 5.9


Carrying Capacity of the Territory

The figures presented in the Table 4.38 show clearly that carrying capacities for mitigation scenario in most communes exceed the future estimated population (2015) by a at least threefold (Xarra) and up to twentyfold (Himara). Only for the Saranda – Aliko area the carrying capacity for mitigation scenario figure is closer to the future population (ratio 1.6). Thus, the free margin for future village and tourism development appears limited. Accordingly, for the area Saranda – Aliko, special attention shall be paid to wastewater impacts on the Saranda Bay in the framework of future tourism development in the Saranda commune. In contrast, the carrying capacities for mitigation scenario in all other communes but Saranda provide a sufficiently wide range for future village and tourism development. Based on the data listed above, it is not probable that wastewater generation in all coastal communes will entail a constraint to future village and tourism development. For Ksamili, the ratio of carrying capacity for mitigation to estimated population in 2015 is about 3. This figure indicates a possible constraint to future village and tourism development in Ksamili. At closer view, it is obvious that Ksamili must be assessed in conjunction with Saranda and Aliko due to the steady influence from the Saranda Bay. Thus, if pollution load to the Saranda Bay decreases significantly, the impact on the Ksamili coastal waters will presumably be reduced, which will, in turn, involve a rise of carrying capacity for mitigation scenario. A quantitative assessment can not be provided from the currently available information, but shall be a subject to future investigations. However, the marked impact of the Saranda pollution loads on the Ksamili coastal waters highlights the regional importance of the ongoing project for wastewater treatment in Saranda.

4.2.4. Soil In the following text the environmental carrying capacity in relation to solid waste impacts is denominated carrying capacity – solid waste. Impacts on soils due to village and tourism development are caused by: ƒ solid waste disposal; ƒ wastewater infiltration; and ƒ civil works activities. Solid waste in coastal communes consists mainly of domestic waste, and construction waste. Construction waste has less impact on soil but affects more the coastal landscape. It will be discussed in a respective section afterwards. The present practice of uncontrolled deposit of domestic solid waste at numerous locations all over the coastal area (see Chapter 2.3.4.) enables leaching of soluble pollutants by storm water and subsequent seepage into the underground. With regard to environmental impact, two categories of soluble pollutants are distinguished: biodegradable and non-biodegradable substances. The biodegradable ones origin mainly from organic domestic waste, whereas the nonbiodegradable ones include a wide range of organic and inorganic substances (i.e. resistant organic compounds, toxic organic compounds, heavy metals) being part of commonly used technical products (e.g. lubricants, paints, batteries, etc.). The biodegradable substances represent lesser danger than the non-biodegradable ones since a certain self-purification capacity exists in the upper soil layers with microbiological biocoenosis. Theoretically, a certain amount of tolerated pollution load and the respective carrying capacity could be estimated. In practice, this is impossible due to several framework conditions as, for example, surface slope, terrain morphology, geological underground structure, hydro-geological parameters, climatic and micro-climatic conditions, etc. Further,

147


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

each of these parameters show various features at small spatial level. For the consideration of all these items in the framework of a quantitative assessment a huge amount of data would be required. Therefore, an estimate of a respective carrying capacity at the level of individual communes is not realistic and will not be performed in this study. The non-biodegradable substances are more precarious for soil environment since they can be accumulated in a long term. In time this process can lead to a concentration which could affect the soil suitability for agriculture. Preventative measures to avoid a priori the accumulation of harmful substances comply with the policy of the European Union for the protection of agricultural soils. They shall be recommended for the terrains in the coastal communes too. Therefore, no dislocation of any pollutant from the solid waste into soils shall be accepted. From this viewpoint, the present solid waste disposal practice in all coastal communes leads to the conclusion that the respective carrying capacity is zero. ƒ Present carrying capacity – solid waste (state 2004) = 0 (zero) persons

4.2.4.1. Carrying capacities in case of mitigation measures for solid waste impact Preventative measures for soils, as briefly mentioned above, further on called “mitigation measures”, are outlined for the coastal communes in this section. The definition of a carrying capacity for solid waste postulates the provision of reliable safeguards for permanent soil protection. One appropriate safeguard is the controlled final solid waste disposal in a state-of-the-art landfill. Constructive components like base sealing, collection and treatment of landfill seepage water, will prevent the displacement of harmful matter into the underground. Presently, there are two designed landfill projects to meet these requirements for the whole coastal region. These are the construction of a landfill near the settlement of Vunoi, and of another one near the village of Bajkaj (see Annex 7 to this report). If these projects are implemented, the carrying capacity related to solid waste will correspond to the designed landfill volumes. A rough estimate of designed volumes can presently be based on the draft concepts of the two landfills which are illustrated in the World Bank document “Pre-Feasibility Study and Solid Waste Management Plan for Southern Albania – Draft Final Report, Component 2, Annex 7 and Annex 8”. The volume data derived from the draft concepts are listed below.

4.2.4.2. Vunoi site Geometric dimensions for the calculation of the designed landfill volume are extracted from the draft in Annex 8 of the above mentioned World Bank document. The data interpretation results in a landfill volume of about 74,000 m3. However, the drawing in the document is only schematic and probably does not illustrate the precise alignment and extension of the envisaged landfill components. Therefore, the real volume of the future landfill might differ slightly from the present figure. Nevertheless, it appears appropriate for the assessment of the landfill life span before its closure due to complete filling up. The calculation is presented below. The designed Vunoi landfill is envisaged for the disposal of domestic solid waste of the Himara commune and Borshi (Lukova commune). For the assessment of the annual quantity of solid waste generation, two scenarios of population development are considered:

148


Carrying Capacity of the Territory

ƒ Scenario 1: population registered in 2004 remains stable; and ƒ Scenario 2: population by 2015 according to the population study in this report. For specific solid waste generation the following values have been identified (data according to the World Bank document “Pre-feasibility Study and Solid Waste Management Plan for Southern Albania, 2005 – Component 3”): ƒ Saranda town: 1.4 kg/c/d; ƒ Himara town: 0.95 kg/c/d; and ƒ Lukova village: 0.42 kg/c/d. For comparison: Albania average 0.70 kg/c/d. The figures for the Saranda town and Lukova village differ significantly but they share the common experience of the European Union countries which shows that in towns the specific generation of domestic solid waste is higher than in rural regions. However, the dimension of the difference strikes. Whereas the value for the Saranda town of 1.4 kg/c/d appears reasonable in comparison to the data for other urban areas of the European Union, the value of 0.42 kg/c/d for Lukova is remarkably low and seems doubtful. The figure for the Himara town of 0.95 kg/c/d appears realistic, even if it is higher than the Albania average of 0.7 kg/c/d. However, the present assessment will follow the findings of the World Bank study cited above, and apply the respective data for the Saranda and Himara towns and the Lukova village. For the remaining communes the Albania an average of 0.7 kg/c/d will be considered since no site-specific data are available. Considering the fact that usually in small villages the specific generation of domestic solid waste is lower than in urban areas the respective data for the small settlements like e.g. Palasa or Ilias might be lower than the Albania average. However, through this approach the result of the present assessment will lie on the secure side. Carrying capacity assessment for Vunoi landfill – Scenario 1 Catchment area of Vunoi landfill includes the Himara commune and Borshi. The number of population of the interested area registered in 2004 is presented in the Table 4.39: Table 4.39: Vunoi landfill: registered population 2004 (Scenario 1) Catchment area – Vunoi landfill Himara commune Borshi Total

Population registered 2004 10,697 1,280 11,977

The prediction of the quantity of solid waste generation for the Scenario 1 is shown in the Table 4.40. The mass values for annual solid waste must be converted into volume data. Thereby exist two options for the final deposit on the landfill. The first considers the density of loose solid waste as it is unloaded from the waste transportation vehicle. In this case, the solid waste density amounts to 0.15 ton/m3. This specific value has been identified for the coastal communes and is cited in the World Bank document “Pre-feasibility Study and Solid Waste Management Plan for Southern Albania, 2005 – Component 3”.

149


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Table 4.40: Annual quantity of solid waste dumped on the Vunoi landfill (Scenario 1) Catchment area – Vunoi landfill

Population registered Specific solid waste 2004 2004 (kg/c/d)

Palase Dhermi Gjileke Vuno Ilias Himara town Kudhes Pilur Qeparo Borsh Total

408 620 935 475 110 5,284 868 497 1,500 1,280 11,977

Solid waste 2004 (ton/year)

0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.95 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70

104 158 239 121 28 1,832 222 127 383 327 3,541

The second option takes into account the possibility of compaction of solid waste by a heavy wheel loader, a bulldozer, an excavator, or another heavy vehicle directly on the landfill. By this treatment the density of the solid waste incorporated in the landfill can be increased to 0.8 ton/m3. This value complies with the long-term experience of landfill operation in the countries of the European Union. Through compaction of solid waste on the landfill the volume of deposit can be reduced and the period until the landfill is filled up (operation period) can be extended remarkably. In the following text both options are investigated and the respective operation periods are calculated for the Vunoi landfill: ƒ Option 1: Deposit of loose solid waste – density 0.15 ton/m3; ƒ Option 2: Compaction of solid waste on the landfill – density 0.80 ton/m3. Table 4.41: Vunoi landfill operation periods depending on solid waste density (Scenario 1)

Option 1 Option 2

Solid waste mass annual (2004) (ton/year)

Solid waste density without compaction (ton/m3)

Solid waste density after compaction (ton/m3)

3,542 3,542

0.15 ---

--0.80

Solid waste – Landfill volume capacity annual (2004) (m3) (m3/year) 23,615 4,428

74,000 74,000

Landfill operation period (year) 3.1 16.7

The figures presented in the Table 4.41 point out clearly the crucial need for compaction of solid waste on the landfill. Without compaction, the landfill would be filled up after an operation period of about 3 years. Thus, the option 1 would represent only a short-term solution for solid waste disposal in the Himara commune. However, the first cost estimate for the landfill construction and operation has included the purchase of a bulldozer as landfill equipment (see World Bank document “Pre-Feasibility Study and Solid Waste Management Plan for Southern Albania – Draft Final Report, Component 2, Annex 8). Therefore, the option 2 enabling a landfill operation period of about 17 years is deemed realistic. Anyway, the period of 17 years represents only a medium-term solution for solid waste disposal in the Himara commune. Concerning the carrying capacity for solid waste, a respective value must be related to a definite time period due to the limited landfill capacity. Since the present study report

150


Carrying Capacity of the Territory

considers a time horizon till the year 2015, the time period related to the carrying capacity for solid waste is defined by 10 years (2005 to 2015). Assuming that the option 2 will be realised, the carrying capacity for solid waste is calculated in the following way: the landfill capacity is divided by the assumed operation period of 10 years resulting in an annual solid waste volume. This is divided by the average annual specific solid waste generation in the catchment area of the Vunoi landfill. The result is the number of persons corresponding to carrying capacity for solid waste, as presented in the Table 4.42. Table 4.42: Average annual specific solid waste generation – catchment area of Vunoi landfill (Scenario 1, Option 2) Solid waste generation volume – annual (m3/year) 4,428

Population in landfill catchment area

Average specific solid waste generation (m3/year/capita)

11,977

0.37

Taken the landfill operation period of 10 years and the average specific solid waste generation as identified above, the corresponding number of persons is calculated as shown in the Table 4.43. Table 4.43: Persons corresponding to 10 years Vunoi landfill operation (Scenario 1, Option 2) Landfill capacity Time period Solid waste (m3) landfill operation deposit annual (year) (m3/year) 74,000

10

7,400

Average specific solid waste generation (m3/year/capita)

Persons relative to annual solid waste deposit (persons)

0.37

20,016

The carrying capacity for solid waste corresponds to the persons covered by the landfill capacity over a period of 10 years and results in 20,016 persons (20,000 rounded off). ƒ Carrying capacity for solid waste Vunoi landfill, Scenario 1, Option 2: 20,000 persons Subsequently, the analogue calculation is carried out for the Vunoi landfill – Scenario 2. Catchment area for Vunoi landfill is Himara commune and Borshi. The Vunoi landfill catchment area population forecast for the year 2015 is presented in the Table 4.44. Table 4.44: Vunoi landfill: registered population 2015 (Scenario 2) Catchment area – Vunoi landfill Himara commune Borshi Total

Population forecast 2015 12,100 1,393 13,493

The prediction of the quantity of solid waste generation for the Scenario 2 is presented in the Table 4.45.

151


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Table 4.45: Annual quantity of solid waste dumped on Vunoi landfill (Scenario 2) Catchment area – Vunoi landfill

Population forecast 2015

Palase Dhermi Gjileke Vuno Ilias Himara town Kudhes Pilur Qeparo Borsh Total

Specific solid waste 2015 (kg/c/d)

462 701 1,058 537 124 5,977 982 562 1,697 1,393 13,493

Solid waste 2015 (ton/year)

0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.95 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70

118 179 270 137 32 2,073 251 144 434 356 3,994

The conversion from mass data of annual solid waste generation into volume data is listed in the Table 4.46. Table 4.46: Vunoi landfill operation periods depending on solid waste density (Scenario 2)

Option 1 Option 2

Solid waste mass annual (2004) (ton/year)

Solid waste density without compaction (ton/m3)

Solid waste density after compaction (ton/m3)

3,993 3,993

0.15 ---

--0.80

Solid waste – Landfill volume capacity annual (2004) (m3) (m3/year) 26,620 4,991

74,000 74,000

Landfill operation period (year) 2.8 14.8

The landfill operation periods, as identified in the table above, are slightly shorter than for the Scenario 1 due to the envisaged increase in population. As in the case of Scenario 1, the option of final solid waste deposit without compaction leads to a landfill operation period of less than 3 years which is absolutely unacceptable. The only realistic landfill operation policy has to provide solid waste compaction on the landfill and follow the Scenario 2. The respective carrying capacity for solid waste is deduced as follows. The average annual specific solid waste generation is calculated in the same way as for the Scenario 1 (see Table 4.47). Table 4.47: Vunoi landfill: average annual specific solid waste generation (Scenario 2, Option 2) Solid waste generation volume – annual (m3/year) 4,991

Population in landfill catchment area 13,493

Average specific solid waste generation (m3/year/capita) 0.37

The number of persons corresponding to 10 years of landfill operation is calculated as for the Scenario 1. The result is shown in the Table 4.48.

152


Carrying Capacity of the Territory

Table 4.48: Persons corresponding to 10 years of Vunoi landfill operation (Scenario 2, Option 2) Landfill capacity Time period Solid waste (m3) landfill operation deposit annual (year) (m3/year) 74,000

10

7,400

Average specific solid waste generation (m3/year/capita)

Persons relative to annual solid waste deposit (persons)

0.37

20,005

The carrying capacity for solid waste corresponds to the persons covered by the landfill capacity over a period of 10 years and results in 20,005 persons (20,000 rounded off). Theoretically, the number should be exactly equal to that of the Scenario 1 since the specific waste generation has not changed in any settlement. The slight difference of 11 persons is caused by rounding errors during the calculation. ƒ Carrying capacity for solid waste Vunoi landfill, Scenario 2, Option 2: 20,000 persons

4.2.4.3. Bajkaj landfill Geometric dimensions for the calculation of the designed landfill volume are extracted from the draft presented in the Annex 7 of the World Bank document “Pre-Feasibility Study and Solid Waste Management Plan for Southern Albania – Draft Final Report, Component 2”. The data interpretation results in a landfill volume of about 145,000 m3. Similarly to Annex 8 (Vunoi landfill), the drawing in Annex 7 is only schematic and probably does not illustrate the precise alignment and extension of the envisaged landfill components. Therefore, the real volume of the future landfill might differ slightly from the present figure. Nevertheless, it appears suitable for a rough assessment of the landfill life span before its closure due to complete filling up. The respective calculation is analogous to the Vunoi landfill and is presented below. The catchment area of the designed Bajkaj landfill is envisaged to comprehend the following communes: Lukova (except Borshi), Saranda, Aliko, Ksamili and Xarra. As for the Himara commune (Vunoi landfill) the assessment of annual quantity of solid waste generation is carried out for the population scenarios 1 and 2. The number of the Bajkaj landfill catchment area population registered in 2004 is presented in the Table 4.49. Table 4.49: Bajkaj landfill catchment area population registered in 2004 (Scenario 1) Catchment area – Bajkaj landfill Lukova (except Borshi) Saranda Aliko Ksamili Xarra Total

Population registered 2004 7,631 34,226 8,066 7,124 6,811 63,858

The prediction for the quantity of solid waste generation for the Scenario 1 is presented in the Table 4.50.

153


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Table 4.50: Annual quantity of solid waste dumped on the Bajkaj landfill (Scenario 1) Catchment area: Bajkaj landfill Lukova village Nivice-Bubar Piqeras Sasaj Perparim Corraj Fterre Qazim Pali Saranda town Metoq Gjashta Shelegar Aliko Ksamili Xarra Total

Population registered 2004

Specific solid waste 2004 (kg/c/d)

2,266 959 1,140 288 1,234 267 291 1,186 29,805 1,801 2,343 277 8,066 7,124 6,811 63,858

0.42 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 1.40 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70

Solid waste 2004 (ton/year) 347 245 291 74 315 68 74 303 15,230 460 599 71 2,061 1,820 1,740 23,698

The conversion of mass data into volume figures and the subsequent determination of respective landfill period are carried out in analogy with the assessment of the Vunoi landfill, taking into consideration density options 1 and 2.

Table 4.51: Bajkaj landfill operation periods depending on solid waste density (Scenario 1) Solid waste mass annual (2004)" (ton/year) Option 1 Option 2

23,698 23,698

Solid waste density without compaction" (ton/m3) 0.15 ---

Solid waste density after compaction" (ton/m3) --0.80

Solid waste – Landfill volume capacity annual (2004) (m3) (m3/year) 157,995 29,624

145,000 145,000

Landfill operation period (year) 0.9 4.9

The figures shown in the Table 4.51 highlight precisely that solid waste deposit without compaction is absolutely unrealistic. In that case the landfill would be filled up within a year. But even option 2 points out that the Bajkaj landfill, with an estimated maximum operation period of five years, will only represent a short-term solution for solid waste disposal of the concerned coastal communes. The Bajkaj landfill operation period for the population Scenario 1 is estimated at about five years and covers only one half of the time horizon of 10 years for the present coastal development study. The crucial consequence is that even the present registered population massively exceeds the respective carrying capacity for solid waste. For a clear comparison, the precise figure of carrying capacity is calculated below in the same way as for the Vunoi landfill.

154


Carrying Capacity of the Territory

Carrying capacity assessment for Bajkaj landfill – Scenario 1 Considering the landfill operation period of 10 years and the average specific solid waste generation as identified in the Table 4.52, the corresponding number of persons is calculated as shown in the Table 4.53.

Table 4.52: Bajkaj landfill: average annual specific solid waste generation (Scenario 1, Option 2) Solid waste generation volume – annual (m3/year)

Population in landfill catchment area

29,624

Average specific solid waste generation (m3/year/capita)

63,858

0.46

Table 4.53: Persons corresponding to 10 years of Bajkaj landfill operation (Scenario 1, Option 2) Landfill capacity Time period Solid waste (m3) landfill operation deposit annual (year) (m3/year) 145,000

10

Average specific solid waste generation (m3/year/capita)

14,500

Persons relative to annual solid waste deposit (persons)

0.46

31,256

The carrying capacity for solid waste corresponds to the persons covered by the landfill capacity over a period of 10 years and results in 31,256 persons (31,300 rounded off). ƒ Carrying capacity for solid waste – Bajkaj landfill, Scenario 1,Option 2: 31,300 persons Since the Bajkaj landfill covers solid waste disposal for the communes of Lukova, Saranda, Aliko, Ksamili, and Xarra, the respective carrying capacity is assigned to these communes. The comparison with the population registered in 2004 is presented in the Table 4.54. Table 4.54: Carrying capacity for solid waste for the catchment area of the Bajkaj landfill (Scenario 1, Option 2) Catchment area – Bajkaj landfill Lukova (except Borshi) Saranda Aliko Ksamili Xarra Total

Population registered 2004

Carrying capacity – solid waste

7,631 34,226 8,066 7,124 6,811 63,858

31,300

Referring to the figures shown in the above table, the carrying capacity for solid waste for the Scenario 1 amounts to the needs of only 49% of the population of the catchment area of the Bajkaj landfill.

155


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Carrying capacity assessment for Bajkaj landfill – Scenario 2 The Bajkaj landfill catchment area population forecast for the year 2015 is presented in the Table 4.55. Table 4.55: Bajkaj landfill catchment area population forecast for the year 2015 (Svenario 2) Catchment area - Bajkaj landfill

Population forecast 2015

Lukova (except Borshi) Saranda Aliko Ksamili Xarra Total

8,307 50,400 7,647 10,500 9,500 86,354

The prediction of the quantity of solid waste generation for the Scenario 2 is presented in the Table 4.56. Table 4.56: Annual quantity of solid waste dumped on the Bajkaj landfill (Scenario 2) Catchment area – Bajkaj landfill Lukova (except Borshi) Metoq Gjashta Saranda Shelegar Aliko Ksamili Xarra Total

Population forecast 2015

Specific solid waste 2015 (kg/c/d)

8,307 2,652 3,450 43,890 408 7,647 10,500 9,500 86,354

0.70 0.70 0.70 1.40 0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70

Solid waste 2015 (ton/year) 2,122 678 882 22,428 104 1,954 2,683 2,427 33,278

The conversion from mass data of annual solid waste generation into volume data is listed in the Table 4.57. Table 4.57: Bajkaj landfill operation periods depending on solid waste density (Scenario 2) Solid waste mass annual (2004)" (ton/year) Option 1 Option 2

33,278 33,278

Solid waste density without compaction" (ton/m3) 0.15 ---

Solid waste density after compaction" (ton/m3) --0.80

Solid waste – Landfill volume capacity annual (2004) (m3) (m3/year) 221,848 41,597

145,000 145,000

Landfill operation period (year) 0.7 3.5

It is obvious that the Scenario 2, Option 1, with a landfill operation period of less than one year is absolutely unacceptable. Therefore, only Option 2 is taken into consideration in the calculation of carrying capacity presented below.

156


Carrying Capacity of the Territory

Carrying capacity for Bajkaj landfill – Scenario 2, Option 2 The average annual specific solid waste generation is calculated in analogy to Scenario 1 (Table 4.58). Table 4.58: Average annual specific solid waste generation – catchment area of Bajkaj landfill (Scenario 2, Option 2) Solid waste generation volume (annual) (m3/year)

Population in landfill catchment area

41,597

Average specific solid waste generation (m3/year/capita)

86,354

0.48

The number of persons corresponding to 10 years of landfill operation is calculated as for the Scenario 1. The result is shown in the Table 4.59. Table 4.59: Persons corresponding to 10 years Bajkaj landfill operation (Scenario 2, Option 2) Landfill capacity Time period Solid waste (m3) landfill operation deposit annual (year) (m3/year) 145,000

10

Average specific solid waste generation (m3/year/capita)

14,500

Persons relative to annual solid waste deposit (persons)

0.48

30,102

The carrying capacity for solid waste corresponding to the persons covered by the landfill capacity over a period of 10 years accounts for 30,102 persons (30,100 rounded off). This figure differs slightly from that for the Scenario 1 due to the marginally increased average specific solid waste generation in the catchment area of the Bajkaj landfill. ƒ Carrying capacity for solid waste – Bajkaj landfill, Scenario 2, Option 2: 30,100 persons Since the Bajkaj landfill covers solid waste disposal for the communes Lukova, Saranda, Aliko, Ksamili, and Xarra, the respective carrying capacity is assigned to these communes. The comparison with the population forecast for 2015 is shown in the Table 4.60. Table 4.60: Carrying capacity – solid waste for catchment area of Bajkaj landfill (Scenario 2, Option 2) Catchment area – Bajkaj landfill Lukova (except Borshi) Saranda Aliko Ksamili Xarra Total

Population forecast 2015 8,307 50,400 7,647 10,500 9,500 86,354

Carrying capacity – solid waste

31,100

157


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Referring to the figures given in the above table, the carrying capacity for solid waste for the Scenario 2 amounts to only 36% of the envisaged population (2015) of the catchment area of the Bajkaj landfill. A final summary of carrying capacities for solid waste, Option 2 (solid waste compaction till a density of 0.80 ton /m3) is presented in the Table 4.61. Table 4.61: Overview of carrying capacities for solid waste in coastal region Catchment area relative to Vunoi landfill Bajkaj landfill Total – coastal region

Scenario 1 Population Carrying capacity – solid waste registered 2004 11,977 20,000 63,858 31,300 75,835 51,300

Scenario 2 Population forecast 2015 13,493 86,354 99,847

Carrying capacity – solid waste 20,000 30,100 50,100

The figures presented in the above table point out clearly that only for the catchment area of the Vunoi landfill the carrying capacity for solid waste is sufficient for both registered population of 2004 and the population forecast for 2015. It has to be noted that the free margin for tourism development is rather limited. In contrast, the carrying capacity for the catchment area of the Bajkaj landfill is much too small even to cover the present registered population of 2004, let alone the population forecast for 2015 as well as the tourism development. Regarding the total coastal region, the carrying capacity for solid waste is insufficient for both population scenarios showing a coverage rate of 68% for the registered population, dropping to 50% for the scenario of population forecast for 2015.

4.2.4.4. Conclusions and recommendations ƒ

The assessment of capacities of the designed landfills at the sites of Vunoi and Bajkaj in the coastal region has been based on conceptual design data given in the World Bank document “Pre-Feasibility Study and Solid Waste Management Plan for Southern Albania – Draft Final Report, Component 2, Annex 7 and Annex 8”.

ƒ

The detailed examination of present (2004) and future (2015) solid waste generation in the coastal communes, and the comparison with capacities of both designed landfills at the sites of Vunoi and Bajkaj point out that the present envisaged investments are largely insufficient to enable a reliable protection of the coastal environment. In addition, the examination indicates that the limited and unsatisfactory carrying capacity for solid waste represents a crucial constraint for a sustainable future village and tourism development.

ƒ

In addition to the designed landfills close to the settlements of Vunoi and Bajkaj, further investments for the extension of solid waste disposal capacities have to be undertaken in order to enhance the carrying capacity for solid waste to a dimension which will enable a sustainable protection of soils and underground water resources, as well as of the landscape. With regard to the population forecast for 2015, a duplication of the total landfill capacities of Vunoi and Bajkaj has to be provided in order to cover only the predicted village development.

ƒ

The necessity of further landfill capacities to cover solid waste generation by tourism will be assessed on the basis of tourism development estimate in particular coastal

158


Carrying Capacity of the Territory

communes. This investigation will be subject to settlement-specific land-use planning and can not be performed at the present stage of development study. ƒ

Civil works activities will take place in the framework of village and tourism development. They will affect coastal terrain in terms of (a) natural soil sealing, (b) landscape deterioration, (c) decrease of vegetation cover, (d) cutting down of habitats, and (e) uncontrolled disposal of construction waste.

ƒ

The soil sealing will gradually prevent storm water infiltration into soils and thus enhance the rate of surface run-off. As a consequence, the recharge of groundwater will be diminished and the peaks of flooding can be increased. The amount of these detrimental effects depends strongly on terrain-specific surface and underground conditions at a very small spatial level (particular village, brook catchment area), and often varies significantly in the coastal regions of concern. Therefore, a quantitative assessment for individual communes could theoretically be done, but would need a large quantity of data and information relative to the terrain. These are not available and, consequently, an impact estimate on communal level is not practicable. As a result, the respective carrying capacity can not be identified.

ƒ

An assessment of civil works activities impact on the environment can reasonably be performed only at the level of closely limited areas and small spatial units, such as individual settlements, coastal bays, beach sections, etc. The conclusion is that the identification of the carrying capacity relevant to civil works activities will be subject to SEA procedure in course of future land-use planning.

4.2.5. Air Impacts on air due to village and tourism development can be caused by: ƒ gaseous pollution; and ƒ dust generation. Gaseous pollution in the coastal region, generated along with village and tourism development, mainly consists of exhaust fumes from motor vehicles. The respective amounts depend on the regional economic development and on tourism characteristics (arrival by private cars, ships, etc.). At the present stage of development study the amount of gaseous pollution generation can not be estimated precisely. A quantitative assessment and the definition of the corresponding carrying capacities are more feasible at small spatial levels, such as individual settlements, and will not be conducted for all of the coastal communes. Thus, estimates of carrying capacities will be conducted together with the SEA process, in parallel to specific land-use planning, and are not subject of this report. Temporary anthropogenic dust generation is caused by civil works activities, whereas permanent or periodical dust generation is probably due to uncontrolled solid waste deposits. These problems are discussed in the above section dealing with impacts on soil, and will not be treated in detail here. Briefly, the conclusion is that, due to various spatial conditions of the coastal region, the carrying capacities relative to dust generation can not be reasonably estimated for all of the communes. In fact, they have to be estimated at a small-scale level and are more appropriate for specific land-use planning.

4.2.6. Habitats & biodiversity Carrying capacities in terms of maximum acceptable number of present persons depends on manifold parameters, such as:

159


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

ƒ type of tourism activities; ƒ mode of development (compact or dispersed); ƒ traffic density; ƒ sensitivity of species; and ƒ terrain morphology. Due to the number of parameters relevant for the impact, an estimate of carrying capacity is not practicable at this stage of development study. It is deemed more suitable to perform respective impact assessments in parallel to local land-use planning in the next stages of this project.

4.2.7. Coastal landscape Village and tourism development can cause impacts on the coastal landscape through civil works for the extension of settlements and through opening up of the terrain. Various parameters are decisive for impact severity, such as: ƒ visibility of buildings; ƒ dominant or modest appearance in the terrain; ƒ spatial extension of settlements; ƒ specific adaptation to landscape elements; etc. In a coastal region, impact assessment has to consider particular landscape units determined by topography, morphology, vegetation, settlement structure, river basins, etc. Consequently, several impact assessments at a smaller spatial level will enable identification of the respective carrying capacities. These will be added up to the total commune-specific carrying capacities. The individual impact assessments have to be performed together with specific land-use planning, and are not relevant for the present stage of regional development study. Thus, carrying capacities for tcoastal communes will be identified during the elaboration of detailed land-use plans for tourist development sites and individual beach sections.

4.2.8. Carrying capacities summary Quantified carrying capacities related to four main environmental subsystems calculated above are presented below for coastal communes and municipalities (Table 4.62 – Table 4.68). Carrying capacities according to soil are related to the catchment areas of the designed landfills, and are presented below, after the commune-specific data compilation. Table 4.62: Himara municipality – carrying capacities Environmental domain

Carrying capacity 1) (persons)

Spring water + tapped groundwater Coastal seawater Coastal seawater for mitigation scenario Soil Population registered 2004 Population forecast 2015

412,000 72,000 240,000 According to designed landfill capacities 10,697 12,100

1)

160

Figures rounded to hundred


Carrying Capacity of the Territory

Table 4.63: Lukova commune – carrying capacities Environmental domain

Carrying capacity 1) (persons)

Spring water + tapped groundwater Coastal seawater Coastal seawater for mitigation scenario Soil Population registered 2004 Population forecast 2015

118,100 52,500 175,000 According to designed landfill capacities 8,911 9,700

1)

Figures rounded to hundred

Table 4.64: Saranda municipality – carrying capacities Environmental domain

Carrying capacity 1) (persons)

Spring water + tapped groundwater Coastal seawater 2) Coastal seawater for mitigation scenario 2) Soil Population registered 2004 Population forecast 2015

59,000 17,000 90,000 According to designed landfill capacities 34,226 50,400

1) 2)

Figures rounded to hundred Saranda + Aliko

Table 4.65: Aliko commune – carrying capacities Environmental domain

Carrying capacity 1) (persons)

Spring water + tapped groundwater Coastal seawater Coastal seawater for mitigation scenario Soil Population registered 2004 Population forecast 2015

10,800 See Saranda See Saranda According to designed landfill capacities 8,066 10,800

1)

Figures rounded to hundred

Table 4.66: Ksamili commune – carrying capacities Environmental domain

Carrying capacity 1) (persons)

Spring water + tapped groundwater Coastal seawater Coastal seawater for mitigation scenario Soil Population registered 2004 Population forecast 2015

0 16,300 54,000 According to designed landfill capacities 7,124 10,500

1)

Figures rounded to hundred

Table 4.67: Xarra commune – carrying capacities Environmental domain Spring water + tapped groundwater Coastal seawater Coastal seawater for mitigation scenario Soil Population registered 2004 Population forecast 2015

Carrying capacity (persons) 1,080 9,000 30,000 According to designed landfill capacities 6,811 9,500

161


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Table 4.68: Carrying capacities according to designed landfill capacities Catchment area relative to

Vunoi landfill Bajkaj landfill Total – coastal region

Scenario 1 Population registered 2004 11,977 63,858 75,835

Carrying capacity – solid waste 20,000 31,300 51,300

Scenario 2 Population forecast 2015 13,493 86,354 99,847

Carrying capacity – solid waste 20,000 30,100 50,100

4.2.9. Summarised findings ƒ

At the present stage of the coastal development study and plan, the identified data for commune-specific environmental carrying capacities highlight clearly that soils and their carrying capacities in relation to pollution by solid waste disposal constitute a serious limiting factor for village and tourism development.

ƒ

The coastal soils carrying capacities correlate with the reduction of impacts from inadequately planned (at the present moment) solid waste disposal. Thus, for the environmental subsystem “soil” the carrying capacity depends mostly on the provision of sufficient state-of-the-art solid waste disposal capacities. The implementation of designed landfill projects at the Vunoi and Bajkaj sites will only create sufficient carrying capacities for about 50% of the population forecasted for 2015. Therefore, additional landfill capacities or such of equivalent solid waste disposal technologies have to be provided having at least the same size as the Vunoi and Bajkaj sites. This is assessed as the minimum measure for an environmentally sustainable village development. The demand for additional landfill capacities to cater for tourism development has to be dealt with in the framework of future site-specific land-use planning.

ƒ

The coastal seawater carrying capacities correlate with wastewater impacts from the coastal settlements. The present situation shows that the carrying capacity for the Saranda-Aliko area is largely insufficient, whereas the carrying capacities of the remaining communes conspicuously cater for both the present population and the tourists in the peak season. Currently, the summarised carrying capacities of the coastal communes amount to about the twice the population registered in the coastal region.

ƒ

Assuming the mitigation measures are taken through satisfactory wastewater treatment according to the respective legislation of the European Union, the average total carrying capacity of the coastal region will be extended to about six times the population number forecasted for 2015. The carrying capacities of all individual communes except for Saranda and Aliko will exceed the respective population forecasts at least three times. Only in the Saranda-Aliko area the situation is different since the carrying capacity will exceed the forecasted population number by only about 60%.

ƒ

For the environmental subsystems “air”, “habitats & biodiversity” and “coastal landscapes” no specific numeric data of carrying capacities have been estimated at this stage. Following the gradual procedure of SEA the identification of precise data will be subject of site-specific land-use planning and investigations during the detailed-planning stage.

ƒ

With regard to the iterative process of SEA, some future environmental considerations for specific land uses and developments might possibly result in lower carrying capacities than the ones presented in the summary above. In this case the limiting factors for development have to be re-defined.

162


Carrying Capacity of the Territory

4.3. Carrying capacity and tourism development potential analysis 4.3.1. Tourism and environmental carrying capacity The tourism carrying capacity, as calculated in this study, considers a wide scope of environmental issues and is a part of environmental carrying capacity as identified above in this chapter. It will be assessed for each coastal commune and expressed through the maximum number of daily present tourists which will not affect the environmental sustainability in long term. The corresponding SEA (Strategic Environmental Assessment) must not exceed the degree negligible impact (rank 1). The tourism carrying capacity at the commune level is derived from the commune-specific environmental carrying capacity, as follows: ƒ Environmental carrying capacity; ƒ Population registered (2004); ƒ Tourism carrying capacity. The number of registered population is identical to the maximum local population number. Due to traditional annual migration, in the coastal communes it is only present in the peak season (July and August). Environmental subsystems included in the assessment of environmental carrying capacity are listed below. ƒ spring water + tapped groundwater; ƒ coastal seawater; ƒ coastal seawater for mitigation scenario; ƒ soil; ƒ air; ƒ habitats and biodiversity; and ƒ coastal landscapes. The Coastal Seawater for Mitigation scenario refers to wastewater treatment according to the legal requirements of the European Union (i.e. EU Wastewater Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC) in all coastal communes. For details see section 6.2.3. in this chapter. At the present stage of the development study precise data on environmental carrying capacity have been identified only for the domains of: (1) spring and tapped groundwater, (2) coastal seawater, (3) coastal seawater for mitigation scenario, and (4) soil. The respective assessment for the issues (5) air, (6) habitats and biodiversity, and (7) coastal landscapes will be subject of future specific land-use planning. The existing commune-specific data for environmental carrying capacity, as estimated in the respective chapter, are presented in the Table 4.69 together with the registered population of 2004 and population forecasted for 2015. It is obvious that the carrying capacity relative to soils is the crucial limiting factor for tourism development. The present situation of soils and the respective conditions of solid waste disposal do not provide any range for tourism carrying capacity. Shortages of spring and tapped groundwater carrying capacities in Ksamili and Xarra can easily be compensated by supply from adjacent communes (for details see chapter 2.3.2.1.).

163


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Table 4.69: Environmental carrying capacities identified at municipality/commune level Commune

Population registered 2004

Himara Lukova Saranda 1) Aliko Ksamili Xarra Total 1)

10,697 8,911 34,226 8,066 7,124 6,811 75,835

Population Environmental carrying capacity (persons) forecast 2015 Springs water & Coastal Coastal seawater Soils tapped groundwater

12,100 9,700 50,400 7,647 10,500 9,500 99,847

412,000 118,100 59,000 10,800 0 1,100 601,000

seawater

72,000 52,500 17,000 see Saranda 16,300 9,000 166,800

for mitigation scenario

240,000 175,000 90,000 see Saranda 54,000 30,000 589,500

20,000 31,300

51,300

Saranda + Aliko for figures of coastal seawater and coastal seawater for mitigation scenario

Coastal seawater environmental carrying capacities are derived from the wastewater impact originating from the coastal communes. They correspond to the present wastewater disposal practice which, in fact, does not imply any pollution load reduction (see chapter 2.3.3. and Annex 6). The respective tourism carrying capacities are presented in the Table 4.70, together with the registered population (2004). Table 4.70: Tourism carrying capacities related to present coastal seawater environment (2004) Commune

Environmental carrying capacity – coastal seawater

Himara Lukova Saranda 1) Aliko Ksamili Xarra Total

72,000 52,500 17,000 see Saranda 16,300 9,000 166,800

1) 2)

Population registered 2004 10,697 8,911 34,226 8,066 7,124 6,811 75,835

Tourism carrying capacity 61,303 43,589 0 0 9,176 2,189 116,2572)

Saranda + Aliko This total figure doesn't take in consideration the "negative" results of Saranda and Aliko

The figures in the above table point out clearly that in all the communes except for Saranda and Aliko there exist sufficient free margins for tourism carrying capacity. In Ksamili, the range is limited and presently exceeded on some weekends in the peak season. For Himara and Lukova, there exist the largest margins of tourism carrying capacity by far of all coastal communes. In the Table 4.71, the average tourist numbers in the peak season of 2004 are compared with the tourism carrying capacities of the communes regarding the population registered in 2004.

164


Carrying Capacity of the Territory

Table 4.71: Present tourists (peak season 2004) compared with tourism carrying capacities Commune

Tourists in peak season 2004 (daily average)

Himara Lukova Saranda 1) Aliko Ksamili Xarra Total 1) 2)

Tourism carrying capacity

3,638 1,556 4,524 13 4,637 13 14,381

61,303 43,589 0 0 9,176 2,189 116,2572)

Saranda + Aliko for figures of coastal seawater and coastal seawater for mitigation scenario This total figure doesn't take in consideration the "negative" results of Saranda and Aliko

The above figures show the constraints for tourism in the area of Saranda and Aliko. These conditions highlight once more the urgent need for the implementation of the designed wastewater treatment project in Saranda. Assuming sufficient wastewater treatment according to the respective legal requirements of the European Union (see chapter on environmental carrying capacity) is provided, the environmental carrying capacities of coastal seawater will increase considerably. The mitigation scenario will result in enhanced tourism carrying capacities, as presented in the Table 4.72. Table 4.72: Tourism carrying capacities for coastal seawater mitigation scenario Commune

Himara Lukova Saranda 1) Aliko Ksamili Xarra Total 1)

Environmental carrying capacity â&#x20AC;&#x201C; coastal seawater 240,000 175,000 90,000 see Saranda 54,000 30,000 589,500

Population registered 2004 12,100 9,700 50,400 7,647 10,500 9,500 99,847

Tourism carrying capacity for mitigation scenario 227,900 165,300 39,600 see Saranda 43,500 20,500 496,800

Saranda + Aliko

The tourism carrying capacity for the coastal seawater mitigation scenario is compared with the present daily average number of tourist in the peak season (Table 4.73). Table 4.73: Present tourists (peak season 2004) compared with tourism carrying capacities for the coastal seawater mitigation scenario Commune Himara Lukova Saranda 1) Aliko Ksamili Xarra Total

Tourists in peak season 2004 (daily average) 3,638 1,556 4,524 13 4,637 13 14,381

Tourism carrying capacity for mitigation scenario 227,900 165,300 39,600 see Saranda 43,500 20,500 496,800

1)

Saranda + Aliko Note for Aliko: Aliko commune has to be regarded in connection with Saranda since the wastewaters of both communes are eventually discharged into the Saranda Bay. Thus, a certain rate of Saranda tourism carrying capacity can be assigned to Aliko.

165


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Figures appearing in the Table 4.73 point out clearly that, in the case of satisfactory wastewater management, the tourism carrying capacities of all coastal communes exceed by far the present daily average number of tourists. For Aliko, it must be considered in connection with Saranda due to eventual wastewater disposal into the Saranda Bay. Thus, a part of the Saranda tourism carrying capacity can be attributed to Aliko. The Ksamili tourism carrying capacity for mitigation scenario depends on the respective carrying capacity. This issue has already been discussed comprehensively in the chapter on environmental carrying capacity. Shortly repeated, the coastal seawater environment of Ksamili is affected by the marine conditions of the Saranda Bay. Eutrophication and water quality deterioration in the Saranda Bay spread to the Ksamili coastal seawaters. Therefore, the implementation of the ongoing wastewater treatment project in Saranda (see Annex 6) is expected to reduce the impacts on the Ksamili coastal water and to improve the respective marine environmental conditions. As a result, the environmental carrying capacity, and consequently the tourism carrying capacity, will presumably increase considerably for Ksamili. A quantitative assessment will be based on a future study of water quality including chemical, microbiological and marine-biological parameters of the Ksamili coastal waters and of the Saranda Bay after the implementation of the designed wastewater treatment plant for Saranda. At present, a plausible estimate can not be performed since the marine conditions after the project implementation can not be anticipated. The present data on the tourism carrying capacities for mitigation scenario are based on assumed wastewater treatment according to Urban Wastewater Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC of the European Union. The respective requirements include the reduction of both BOD5 and Total Nitrogen load by 70%. For Saranda, the designed BOD5 reduction rate of 83% serves as a basis for the assessment of tourism carrying capacity. In the case of advanced wastewater treatment providing BOD5 reduction rate of 90%, Nitrogen reduction rate of 80% and, additionally, Phosphorus removal, the result will be further enhancement of environmental carrying capacities and the corresponding tourism carrying capacities. Facing the present poor state of wastewater treatment in the coastal communes, the advanced wastewater purification measures and the corresponding enhanced tourism carrying capacities appear realistic only for the long-term view. However, this option exists and will be borne in mind for long-term village and tourism development in the coastal communes. The present assessment of tourism carrying capacity considers only environmental issues and does not regard socio-economic, cultural or managerial aspects. Therefore, during the ongoing iterative SEA process including also non-environmental issues and the consultation of local population, the present data for tourism carrying capacities might be reduced at a later stage of land-use planning process.

4.3.2. Tourism development potential analysis 4.3.2.1. Land for tourism development: suitability analysis Two main types of demand for developable land for future development in the study area could be identified. The first one is “ordinary” development of the existing coastal villages and towns. This type of development is mostly fuelled by the population growth (made up of natural growth and immigration) and the growth of the non-tourism business sector in the

166


Carrying Capacity of the Territory

settlements. The location of this demand on macro scale is mostly known – within the present and future growth boundaries of the existing settlements. On micro scale it requires a detailed suitability analysis for each settlement, and it is the task of urban planning study for each settlement. The second one is the demand for tourism development. It is much more difficult to predict what amount of land designated for tourism is needed and what are the areas this type of development aims at, but the recent experience shows that tourism tends to consume the most attractive and the most sensitive landscapes and sites including the seashore itself. How to satisfy this demand in an environmentally, socially and economically sustainable way is one the key tasks of the new ICD Plan. Developable land is constrained by natural hazards associated with steep slopes and slope orientation (aspect), slope stability, flooding prone areas, stream beds and buffer areas or areas exposed to beach storm impacts (lowland coast). In addition, the presence of valuable natural resources, such as agricultural and forest lands which, in general, need protection, further reduces the land available for development. The analysis of land development constraints has been undertaken applying the methodology of land suitability analysis combined with the use of GIS technology. The ICD Study identified and mapped all important physical and environmental constraints including steep slopes, flood-prone areas and stream buffers, areas of geological hazard, environmentally sensitive areas and important resource lands such as agricultural and forest lands. Potentially developable lands are those undeveloped lands that were free of the mentioned “constraints”. The slope map shows the relative steepness of the land. Accurate slope mapping has been derived from topographic maps 1:25,000 by digitising the contour lines and developing a digital elevation model (DEM). The availability of digital elevation model data and GIS have simplified the process of producing slope maps and made possible different classifications and land suitability analysis. Another important landform feature, important in selecting potentially developable lands, is slope aspect or orientation. Again, the digital elevation model (DEM) and GIS tools have been used to generate this data layer and to overlay it with other data layers which depict different environmental features of the coastal territory. Slope and aspect analysis are shown in Maps 13 and 14. Although conversion of agricultural land may result in higher economic return from the land, at least in the short term, it can also irreversibly remove from agriculture highly productive soils that have taken centuries to develop. In many communities, agricultural land use is still an important contribution to the local economy and to the agrarian character that many communities would like to maintain. Furthermore, the expected development of tourism will certainly induce demand for agricultural produce thus generating additional jobs and income for local population (the analyses of the main economic development impacts on the local communities likely to accrue from tourism, is given in Annexes 1, 2 and 3). the agricultural land is shown in Maps 5 and 17. The maps present the constraints one by one rather than being combined to show a resulting development rating. This is often preferred in suitability studies so that the planning team or reviewer can see where specific constraints are located. Since all the analyses and mapping has been made using GIS, all the “constraint” maps can be easily manipulated (overlaid, intersected) by the planning team and also, more importantly, in the real time as a part of the participatory planning process at the national and local levels.

167


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

The described analysis, together with the additional criteria based on the findings from the landscape assessment (Chapter 1), has been used for the selection and delineation of a number of potential sites for tourism development, all presented on the Maps 12 and 18.

4.3.2.2. Detailed assessment of tourism development areas and sites The total of 62 sites have been selected as potential sites for tourism development in the Southern Albanian region. All 62 sites have been further analysed based on the detailed natural and landscape features, resources (natural and cultural) in need of protection, availability of access and infrastructure and tourism development potential in terms of type and quantity of tourism development. The results of this analysis are presented in Table 4.74 – Table 4.84. Figure 4.1: Tourism development areas and sites

Tourist Development Areas (TDA) 1 PALASA AREA 3 sites 2 DHERMI AREA 7 sites 3 VUNO AREA 6 sites 4 HIMARA AREA 14 sites 5 PORTO PALERMO AREA 1 site 6 QEPARO AREA 4 sites 7 BORSH AREA 1 site 8 LUKOVA AREA 11 sites 9 SARANDA AREA 8 sites 10 KSAMIL AREA 4 sites 11 BUTRINT CAPE STILLO AREA 2 sites tourist development sites

168


Carrying Capacity of the Territory

Table 4.74: Palasa area Description

The Palasa area comprises the small settlement of Palasa, located north of and above the scenic coastal road, and two beaches of considerable length, separated by a large and complex stream delta. The beaches are made up of small gravel mixed with sand. The northern beach is backed by an area of sparse maquis, whereas the southern beach is surrounded by woodlands and groves. The soils of the important delta are unstable by nature. The area is currently used as a hang gliding and camping site. Access and The Palasa area is accessible by road from Vlora through a mountain pass inside the Infrastructure national park of Llogara. The beach area can be accessed from the coastal road. Primary and secondary road networks must be improved or created. A new airport is proposed for Vlora which would make the Palasa area strategically close to a sea, land, and air port of call. No infrastructure exists on the beach sites. Specific measures The stream system should be protected against physical development, and the existing of protection maquis and groves should be preserved as much as possible as buffers, or used for low impact recreation. Accommodation facilities set back should be at least 100 meters from the shore, and should be located in the more stable soils area. Type of possible Dev site #1: The development of this site could entail a trails head eco lodge and tourism campground which would service the coastal hiking trail and provide foot access up the valley to the Llogara National Park, and to the Karaburun peninsula. Dev site #2: If the Palasa area becomes a high-density strategic site due to its proximity to Vlora, this site could be developed in a high-density carpet resort type development of no more that 2-3 storey structures stepping up the Faqja e Abjenbril from the beach to the Southeast of the Palasa stream delta. Dev site #3: Situated in a small valley, this green site with remains of ancient olive groves could become a very exclusive eco lodge, backed by the coastal hiking trail.

Table 4.75: Dhermi area Description

The traditional hillside village of Dhermi lies on the coastal scenic road, overlooking the coast below. The village includes well preserved traditional buildings and town structure, and around 30 religious structures. Dhermi was historically connected to the beach area by a cobblestone path which climbs a steep cliff face, with a small chapel situated on it. The traditional terraced olive groves are located in the valley backing the beach. The paved road that descends from the perched village down to the coast bisects the beach into two distinct areas: a long white small gravel beach on the left and a rocky shoreline to the right. The active beach area includes communist-era resort development and newer small-scale private hotels. The area is currently used as children's camps in the summer, and for local summer hotel tourism. Access and The town is accessible by the coastal road from Vlora through the Llogara Pass, and the Infrastructure beach area by the paved road descending from the village above. Existing infrastructure services the beach facilities, however, no sewage treatment facilities exist, other than leach pits. Specific measures The historic hillside village of Dhermi should be strictly preserved and rehabilitated including of protection the buildings, grounds, cultural sites, and layout of plazas and paths. The Dhermi canyon, the stream bed and riparian environment should be protected. The monastery grounds (Sta. Maria) overlooking the beach area should remain free from visual interference. The ancient olive groves and their stone dry wall terraces should be maintained and protected. The historic cobbled paths should be protected and remain as public access routes from the village to the beach. Type of possible Dev site #4: A small ecologically friendly camp grounds facility could be nestled into the tourism structure of the existing ancient olive groves and dry wall terraces to service the coastal hiking trail. Dev site #5: Could accommodate 1-3 storey low rise hotel development, either as individual sites or as a resort development site and could complement the existing structures along the Dhermi beach. Dev site #6: The villagers of Dhermi should receive government incentives for rehabilitation of the existing historic structures and their adaptation to small family bed and breakfast hotels, tourist shops, restaurants or other cultural heritage tourism based commercial enterprises. Dev site #7: Could accommodate 1-3 storey low rise hotel development, either as individual sites or as a resort development site and could complement the existing structures along the Dhermi beach. Construction should leave as much of the existing groves intact as possible. Dev sites #8 and #9: Good sites for 1-2 storey vacation villa development. Good views of

169


PAP/RAC â&#x20AC;&#x201C; SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Interim Report the sea and easy access from the coastal road. Dev sites #10 and #11: Good sites for 1-2 storey vacation villa development. Good views of the sea and easy access from the coastal road. The development should leave intact as much of the existing olive groves and terraces as possible to enhance the character of the development.

Table 4.76: Vuno area Description

The traditional hillside village of Vuno lies approximately 7 km south of Dhermi along the coastal road. The traditional architecture is relatively intact as is the structure of the village. Additions have been made where the coastal road passes through the village which are not in character with its traditional style. The village continues to the west of the coastal road and is connected by a traditional cobbled route to the historic stone terraced olive groves on the slopes below. A newer asphalted road leaves the coastal road just south of the village and winds through some of the olive groves down to the Jal beach. The beach is made of small gravel, and is divided into two areas by a rocky outcropping to the north. Several familyowned and run hotels line the shorefront and Jal is a popular local holiday destination. A Hoxha-era state hotel has been renovated on the southern cape defining the small Jal bay. Just to the north of the village, the Vuno canyon cuts through the landscape and exits through a narrow gorge to a sandy beach at the sea. A prehistoric dwelling cave is located in the canyon. Jal has not suffered as much as other localities in terms of illegal development. Access and Both sides of the bay are served by an unpaved road. The site is quite distant from the major Infrastructure hubs, and the narrow coastal road limits vehicular access. The beachfront hotels have limited water and electricity supply. Only leach pits exist as sewage disposal systems. Specific measures The traditional village architecture and town structure should be preserved as a coastal of protection asset. The cobbled path and the traditional olive groves deserve protection. The Vuno Canyon and its environs must be a strict preservation zone. The bluff and rocky islands to the north of the beach area should be protected against development and maintained as an undisturbed natural feature. The Gjipa beach, at the outlet of the Vuno canyon, was cited as an environmentally sensitive area by the Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan for Albania (BSAP). Type of possible Dev site #12: Good site for 1-2 storey vacation villa development. Good views of the sea. The tourism existing olive groves and terraces at the entrance to the site from the access road should be maintained as a green entrance area, characterising the site. Dev site #13: The villagers of Vuno should receive government incentives for rehabilitation of the existing historic structures and their adaptation to small family bed and breakfast hotels, tourist shops, restaurants or other cultural heritage tourism based commercial enterprises. Dev site #14: Hotel resort development on the hillsides surrounding the north cove of the Jal beach should be no more than three storeys in height and should incorporate and rehabilitate the existing historical structure at the rocky outcropping. Dev site #15: This site could be developed in a high-density carpet resort-type development of no more that 2-3 storey structures in the green areas to the back of the existing Jal beach. Dev site #16: The existing government hotel should be privatised and expanded as a resort site. Dev site #17: This valley, with good views of the sea, could be developed for vacation villas of no more than two storeys in height.

Table 4.77: Himara area Description

The Himara TDA includes the beaches of Livadhje, Himara, Spile and Llimani. The town lies approximately 5 km south of Vuno and is the administrative centre for the area. The coastal road passes by the old village site before descending to the present town centre. The road continues a further 1.5 km south to the Spile beach. The Livadhje beach is a very long, wide pebble beach, separated from the Himara beach by a rocky ridge with the old city and its ancient terraced olive groves above. The Spile and Himara beaches are essentially one long mixed sand and pebble beach separated by small rocky outcroppings, and backed by small family-owned hotel development. The Llimani beach, south of Himara, is a small isolated beach of high scenic value. The back of the Spile beach is open and contains small scattered fruit trees on stone terraces. Small-scale agriculture plots are found in the area. Access and All beaches, except Livadhje, are served by paved roads, and tourist establishments are to Infrastructure be found all around the bay. A dirt track provides access to Livadhje, and there is currently a single small-scale hotel to be found there. The area has limited water and an unreliable electricity supply. Only leach pits exist as the sewage disposal system. Specific measures The strategically located old village, with its castle site, deserves protection, rehabilitation,

170


Carrying Capacity of the Territory of protection

Type of possible tourism

and preservation as a cultural resource. The historic connection, by way of a cobbled path and an Ottoman-era bridge through the adjacent southern gorge, to the port below, deserves restoration and protection. The valley to the north contains stone terraced olive groves and springs, and should be kept as an open space amenity connecting the new town with the old village. Dev site #18: Suitable for infill construction of vacation villas of no more than 2 storeys in height. Dev site #19: The Livadhje beach area could be developed as a high-density carpet resort stepping up the green hillside to the rear of the beach and bounded by the topography of the site. Dev site #20: The villagers of Old Himara should receive government incentives for rehabilitation of existing historic residential structures and their adaptation to small family bed and breakfast hotels, tourist shops, restaurants or other cultural heritage tourism based commercial enterprises. The castle site includes several possible museums and religious structures that are in dire need of stabilisation, conservation, and rehabilitation to become magnets for visits to the area. Dev site #21: This site is suitable for infill construction of vacation villas of no more than 2 storeys in height with its good views of the old town of Himara and the sea. Dev site #22: A small ecologically friendly camp grounds facility could be nestled into the structure of the existing ancient olive groves and dry wall terraces to service the coastal hiking trail. Dev site #23: The residents of Piluri should receive government incentives to adapt their homes for family hosting services, for providing agriculture-based tourism initiatives, and to develop their traditional handicraft and agricultural products for sale to the tourism markets. Dev site #24: This site is above the coastal scenic road and would be suitable for the development of vacation apartments and villas of no more than three storeys in height. Dev site #25: As a finale to the development of the Himara coast, this site on the Spile beach, with its rise and hill to the south as a backdrop, could accommodate a high rise (max 12 storeys) 5 star hotel resort and development. Dev site #26: Sitting just below the coastal road, this site could accommodate vacation villas of up to 2 storeys in height. Dev site #27: On the Cape Spile with views of the sea, this site is suitable for vacation villa development of one storey in height. Dev site #28: This south-facing site at the Limani beach could be suitable for hotel resort development of no more than three storeys in height. Dev site #29: The area of the Vumblose abandoned military base would be suitable for development of vacation villas of no more than two stories in height with their magnificent views down to Himara and the sea. Dev site #30: This hilltop site, with beautiful views of Himara and the sea could accommodate vacation villa construction of no more than one storey in height.

Table 4.78: Porto Palermo area Description

The Porto Palermo bay lies approximately 1 km south of the Llimani beach. One of its most notable features is the Ali Pasha Castle located on a small peninsula in the centre of the bay. A small church is also located on the peninsula. The entire northern bay and shore are administered by the Navy, and include historic submarine caves which connect the open sea with the bay. Inside the northern bay is also a deepwater offloading jetty used to supply the naval base. The southern end of the bay has been used for some time now to moor fish farming cages. The area is know for its sweeping views of the sea and its enclosing capes at both ends. The coastline is rocky. Access and The coastal road passes very near the shoreline and a short unpaved road serves the Infrastructure peninsula. Electricity and water supply reach the naval base and one small restaurant located in the area. Specific measures The naval caves have historic significance and should be developed for public use. The Ali of protection Pasha castle is in very good conditions and deserves preservation and rehabilitation. The Porto Palermo bay was cited as an environmentally sensitive area by the Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan for Albania (BSAP). The fish farms may be impacting the fragile marine biology of the site and should be removed from the bay. Type of possible Dev site #31: The north end of the Porto Palermo bay is suitable for high-density carpet tourism resort development which would step up to the saddle in the north. The development could incorporate the rehabilitation of the existing abandoned communist-era corral structures as a regional handicrafts and agricultural products market.

171


PAP/RAC â&#x20AC;&#x201C; SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Interim Report

Table 4.79: Qeparo area Description

The Qeparo area includes an old traditional village built above a cliff on the southern side of the valley. The village is in good conditions but is depopulated to a great extent. Traditional olive groves with stone terraces are found to the north and south of the village. The old village is connected with the lower town by both a surfaced road and a historic cobbled path. The lower present-day town of Qeparo and the extensive agriculture plain in the valley delta date from the Hoxha era. The rocky beach is wide and long, and has a spring at the northern end. The southern end of the beach is backed by small-scale family hotels and residential areas. The southern section of the beach is easily accessible and is frequented by the local population. The northern section is backed by orchards and groves. The Qeparo stream valley is an agricultural resource extending inland to the village of Kudhes and beyond, including remnants of old farmsteads and stone terraces. The springfed stream hosts a riparian eco system. Access and The coastal road passes through the lower town. Electricity and water supply are sporadic Infrastructure and unreliable. Only leach pits exist as the sewage disposal system. A steep partially paved road connects the lower Qeparo with the old village above. The beaches are accessible by one newly paved and one unpaved road. Specific measures The old village of Qeparo is one of the best preserved examples of a hilltop defensible of protection coastal settlement, including ruins to the north. The architectural character of the village has not been compromised by new development. Strict preservation and rehabilitation of the village is required. The adjacent terraces, and their centuries old olive trees, should be preserved as open space amenities to the area. The agricultural groves and their still functioning irrigation aqueducts should be restored and maintained. The Qeparo stream valley and its riparian landscape should be protected. Type of possible Dev site #32: Kudhes, located at the interior of the Qeparo valley, has distant views of the tourism sea. The villagers of Kudhes should receive government incentives for rehabilitation of the existing historic structures and their adaptation to small family bed and breakfast hotels, family hosting facilities, tourist shops, restaurants or other cultural heritage tourism based commercial enterprises, and for sale of local handicrafts and agricultural products. Dev site #34: The villagers of Old Qeparo should receive government incentives for rehabilitation of the existing historic residential structures and their adaptation to small family bed and breakfast hotels, tourist shops, restaurants or other cultural heritage tourism based commercial enterprises. The manor site and religious structures are in dire need of stabilisation, conservation and rehabilitation to become magnets for visits to the area. Dev site #35: Small existing wetland area should be strictly preserved. It has potential for careful development into a natural resource site with its spring and the Qeparo stream bed as a point of interest along the coastal hiking trail. It could become a small local wildlife observation point. Dev site #36: This site could become an extension of the densely built up area of Qeparo located between the coastal road above and the beach below. It could be developed as a high-density carpet resort, oriented toward the sea and the Qeparo valley, stepping up the natural slope toward the existing development. It should not exceed two stories in height in order to blend in well with the form of the existing development in the area.

Table 4.80: Borsh area Description

The Borsh area is well known for its high volume springs, extensive olive groves, and one of the largest beaches of the Albanian Ionian coast. The olive groves are still in production and support a local processing plant. The main spring, in the centre of the town, is currently developed with a popular bar-restaurant, and later forms a picturesque waterfall leading to the plain below. The site includes many very old sycamore trees. The Borsh river is an extensive spring-fed watershed with a large agricultural valley at the back of the beach. Several hotels operate close to the beach, and the town above is populated mostly by local residents with only limited small-scale lodgings. The architectural character of Borsh does not represent a traditional village of historic significance, because it was developed on a new site, during the communist era. However, the old castle of Borsh, located on an adjacent promontory above, is significant and visible from the valley below. The Borsh stream passes through its large delta area and is bordered by autochthonous pink-flowering oleander. Access and The coastal road passes through the lower, communist-era town. Electricity and water supply Infrastructure are sporadic and unreliable. Only leach pits exist as the sewage disposal system. Specific measures The Borsh river watershed was cited as an environmentally sensitive area by the Biodiversity of protection Strategy and Action Plan for Albania (BSAP). The historic Borsh castle is an important cultural resource and should be afforded a protected status. Type of possible Dev site #37: The southern edge of the large agricultural valley of Borsh could be developed tourism with a high-density carpet resort not to exceed 3 storeys in height. The complex should step up the land rise in this area, and should not be located in the valley bottom.

172


Carrying Capacity of the Territory

Table 4.81: Lukova area Description

The Lukova area, in this report, includes a long segment of the coastline from north of Piqeres to south of Lukova, including the Bunec and Stylla beaches. In many areas the soils are unstable, and severe erosion of the earth banks above the beach can be noted. The coastal road passes through Piqeres. A section of old Piqeres, located on a finger ridge below the coastal road toward the sea, is traditional in character, and flanked by stone terraced olive groves. The character of the upper, Hoxha-era, town is typified by large communist blocks of apartments, located closer to the coastal road. The beaches below are small, sometimes sandy, undeveloped beaches interrupted by rock outcroppings and eroded soil banks. Some 3 km south of Piqeres, a side road provides access to the long beach at Bunec, a former military installation with a large sea pier currently still in use. Three large bunkers and other former military structures are located in the area adjacent to the beach. There are seasonal beach facilities in use during the summer. The long pebble beach continues to just north of Lukova. The Bunec site has a spring-fed stream located in the middle of the valley exiting to the sea just south of the large bunkers. The coastal road also passes through Lukova about 5 km south of Bunec. The area was once the site of a large-scale communist-era co-operative farm of citrus and olive groves known as the Terraces of Lukova. Numerous roads, trails, aqueducts, buildings and terraced landscapes remain from this former use, including a 3.5 km tunnel to the Palasa River valley and the continuation of the large aqueduct that once supplied water for irrigation of the groves of the area. The beach is backed by a complex of hills, ridges and promontories with olive trees and small low valleys with orange trees and other fruit-trees typical of the Mediterranean countries. This landscape pattern continues southwards to the Stylla beach where it then changes to sea-facing rocky slopes and grazing land, until the Krorez/Kakome area. The destroyed village of Hundecove sits on the southern hillside of the Stylla beach. It was bombed by the Germans and burned during the WWII. Access and The existing access is limited to unpaved agricultural roads near both Piqeres and Lukova. Infrastructure The Bunec beach is serviced by a paved road connecting the beach with the coastal scenic road above. There is also the access by boat to the existing pier. The Stylla beach has access by way of an older, narrow, gravel road connecting Shen Vasil with the beach area. The destroyed Hundecove village has an access road in very bad repair which once serviced the village. The villages are serviced by unreliable electricity and water supply, and have no sewage treatment facilities other than leach pits. The valleys and coves below Lukova have no infrastructure facilities. Specific measures The cultural landscape adjacent to Piqeres and Lukova with ancient stone terrace walls, olive of protection groves and other agricultural elements should be preserved. The remnants of the communist-era co-operative farm also have historic and landscape significance. The older historic portions of the ridge-top villages of Lukova and Piqeras, with their cobblestone streets, classic buildings, and small-scale village form have important architectural significance for the area and should be rehabilitated and preserved intact. There are also remnants of cobblestone paths that once connected the villages in this area with each other and each of them with the shores below, that could be converted into cultural/natural trails for visitors. Several ridges in the area create landform fingers reaching out toward the sea, and these ridge tops should be left undeveloped to maintain the natural character of the valleys they enclose. In some cases, these ridge tops were used during the Hoxha era for partisan monuments that have historic significance. Type of possible Dev site #38: This site, just under the main road in a green area, could be developed with tourism vacation villas not to exceed two storeys in height. The slight bowl shape of the site offers good views of the coast below, and although the soils below this site are highly unstable, the soils here seem to be able to carry low-rise construction although a detailed soils analysis should be carried out for the site. Dev site #39: This valley, with its citrus and olive groves and terraced landscape, could accommodate an eco lodge carefully built in the existing grove structure. This lodge could serve hikers along the coastal trail, as well as those tourists seeking a place of green relax for their vacation. Dev site #40: The traditional part of the village of Piqeres is below the main road and closest to the sea. Its isolated and small well defined ridge site lends itself to a village resort development, whereby all private owners would either be bought out or form a co-operative development so that the entire site could be rehabilitated as a single resort, maintaining the complete traditional character of a village. The alternative would be as suggested for Old Qeparo above. Dev site #41: The Bunec Beach Area could be developed with a high-density carpet resort development of 1-2 storeys, stepping up the hillsides surrounding the valley land form to the

173


PAP/RAC â&#x20AC;&#x201C; SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Interim Report back of the beach. Public access must be maintained to the beach area. Dev site #42: This valley, with its citrus and olive groves and its terraced landscape, could accommodate an eco lodge carefully built in the existing grove structure. This lodge could serve hikers along the coastal trail, as well as those tourists seeking a place of green relax for their vacation. Dev site #43: This small valley, with its citrus and olive groves and its terraced landscape, would be suitable for a campgrounds area carefully built into the existing grove structure. This facility would serve hikers along the coastal trail, in addition to others seeking camp facilities. Dev site #44: The traditional part of the village of Lukova is a good example of ridge-top traditional development and has not been compromised by new construction. The villagers of Old Lukova should receive government incentives for rehabilitation of the existing historic residential structures and their adaptation to small family bed and breakfast hotels, tourist shops, restaurants or other cultural heritage tourism based commercial enterprises. Dev site #45: This small valley, with its citrus and olive groves and its terraced landscape, would be suitable for a campgrounds area carefully built into the existing grove structure. This facility would serve hikers along the coastal trail, in addition to others seeking camp facilities. The proximity of an access road could perhaps suggest vehicular access and facilities for camping vehicles. Dev site #46: This green valley site would be suitable for development as a tourist village with detached one storey units built carefully into the landscape. Dev site #47: The double valley site at the Stylla beach could accommodate a high-density carpet resort type of development, leaving the surrounding ridges free of development to augment the isolated nature of the site. Dev site #48: The site of the destroyed village of Hundecove could become the site of a rebuilt traditional-style tourist village based on the footprint foundations of the site.

Table 4.82: Saranda area Description

Access and Infrastructure

174

The Saranda area in this report includes the coast from the Kakome Bay to the Cuka Channel area, including the town of Saranda. The Kakome Bay and Krorez beach areas, located approximately 17 km north of Saranda and 22 km south of Porto Palermo, are important features of the area. The Kakome Bay, a former army camp with a concrete jetty in poor conditions, is also the site of a historic monastery - Saint Maria. The beach at Kakome is a small pebble beach at the end of a deep slot bay. The Krorez beach, just north of Kakome, is a very scenic double beach with the remains of another monastery on a dramatic red bluff overlooking the sea. The beach back of this area is covered by typical Mediterranean vegetation and includes a forested area on the north, facing the slope of the Kakome valley. The landscape between Kakome and Saranda, including the Cape Qefali, is characterised by pristine sea facing slopes, dramatic rock features, and marine resources. The broad-leafed trees in this area include several stands of the endangered Holm Oak. The area has been used traditionally for grazing, and remains of shepherds' huts, small cheese factories, and other abandoned structures exist on the site. The coastline, as it approaches the northern sections of the town of Saranda, has been developed with 2 quarries and some illegal settlement in the village if Limion. The town of Saranda is a complex development of a major importance to the area. The coastline has suffered from urbanisation that is characterised by unsightly disturbance to the natural coastal landscape, and views from the sea contain unnatural fill banks and numerous construction areas. The port of Saranda is an important tourism link with the island of Corfu, and the commercial port is the point of call for many of the products imported into the area. The town, however, retains some of the charm of the communist-era promenade and resort destination, and still remains a tourist destination for Albanians and many visitors form Kosovo. Much of the historic architecture of Saranda has been lost with new unfinished construction dominating the character. There are some older buildings that remain however, such as an important archaeological site in the centre of the town, the remains of the Monastery of the 40 Saints, and the Lekursi castle on the hills above. New hotel development has recently been concentrated on the coastline between Saranda proper and the Cuka channel area, where the Bistrica river was diverted into the sea during the communist era. The Cuka area has two small settlements, Berdenesh and Cuka. The village of Cuka has some historic significance while Berdenesh is primarily a settlement of unsightly illegal buildings. Saranda is served by 3 ports: the main passenger ferry landing is in the centre of the town and handles commercial/industrial traffic as well. An older, Ottoman-era fishing port with an attractive jetty has been incorporated into the seaside promenade. The existing naval port to the north is also used as a commercial fishing port for larger boats and houses some small military ships docked at military piers. The scenic coastal road passes through the Gjashte pass to access Saranda and continues south toward Butrinti. The national highway connecting Saranda with the interior of the


Carrying Capacity of the Territory country and Tirana is scenic through the Butrinti watershed area and through the Muzine Pass. However, it is in poor repair with many potholes and damaged surfaces. The Saranda area is serviced by unreliable electric and water supply. Its landfill is located on the slopes of a sensitive aquifer area in the Butrinti watershed and on the scenic coastal road. Illegal dumping for kilometres before and after the landfill is a major eyesore along the coastal highway. Although a significant investment of international funds has upgraded the sewerage system, the major pumping station is often without electricity and so the collection of the sewage is diverted directly into the sea at the site of the main beaches of the town. When the pumping station is operational, the collected raw sewage is dumped into the Cuka channel with no treatment. A new airport is proposed for Saranda, which will make it an air, land, and sea strategic port of call. Specific measures The Cape Qefali/Kakome Bay area was cited as an environmentally sensitive area by the of protection Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan for Albania (BSAP). The Krorez Beach, one of the most scenic southern coastal beaches, should be excluded from any development and kept as a natural area with access only by sea. The priority sites demanding preservation and rehabilitation in Saranda are the seaside promenade, the seaside communist-era flour mill, the Onhezmus fort area and synagogue, the Monastery of the 40 Saints, and the Lekursi Castle with its remains of the surrounding destroyed Ottoman town. The Town of Saranda represents a range of complex issues for preservation, and a detailed study and evaluation is necessary for the area to address the full range of protection measures that are warranted. Type of possible Dev site #49: This site, above the Krorez beach, should remain without vehicular access but tourism could accommodate a campgrounds facility with tent sites only, and with no permanent structures, for hikers of the coastal trail and those arriving by sea wishing to overnight in a natural setting. Water and toilet facilities should be provided with a local sewage and grey water treatment package facility. The monastery and grounds on the bluff above the site should be rehabilitated, preserved and interpreted as a significant point of interest along the coastal trail. Dev site #50: The Kakome Bay site, with its deep valley, is a good site for a large-scale tourist resort facility, since there is adequate land which is buffered by natural form from a large impact on the visual qualities of the area both from the sea and from the national road. Dev site #51 and #52: The Rodhe beach valleys, in their pristine landscape setting, would be a good sites for upscale, high-density carpet style resort development and/or tourist village facilities of no more than three storeys in height. The resorts should step up the slopes of the valleys, leaving the central drainage areas open for landscape development and leaving the defining ridges free of development to foster a sense of isolation for each one of the sites. A new access road would have to be built from Saranda up its interior valley and down to the sites, not running parallel to the shoreline, to mitigate damage of the shoreline both physically and visually. Dev site #53: This deep narrow valley, defined by cliffs, could accommodate campgrounds servicing the coastal hiking trail and visitors to Saranda wanting a rugged experience in a natural area. It could be serviced by the same new access road mentioned above. Dev site #54: Campgrounds could also be situated in the afforested area above Saranda on the ridge, and located on the main route of the coastal hiking trail. This site is serviced by neglected old military roads which would need some upgrading. Dev site #55: The site to the north of the Cuka channel could accommodate a medium-rise (up to 8 storeys) hotel resort development. This site, along with site #56, create a visual finale to the Saranda bay and ask for an urban statement clearly defining it as the end of urban development. Dev site #56: The north-facing slopes of the Berdenesh mountain are truly dominant natural features closing the Saranda bay. This site could accommodate a high-rise resort hotel development as a strong visual finale to the bay. It is of utmost importance for all the land south of Dev site #56, up to and including the hill of the Monastery of St. George, to remain absolutely development free. This would leave a clear landscape break between the urban development of Saranda and the urban development of Ksamili at the ridges narrowest point separating the Butrinti lake from the Ionian sea.

Table 4.83: Ksamili area Description

The Ksamili area includes the narrow ridge separating the Butrinti watershed area from the Ionian sea, extending from Mt. Bernadesh in the north to the Cape Skales in the south. This strip of land has a very beautiful zone of rocky shoreline punctuated by sandy coves and bays, and includes islands covered in maritime pines at Ksamili. The beaches at Ksamili around the islands are picturesque and very popular with tourists from the Saranda area. The hill cover varies from good stands of developed maquis on the hills of the Monastery of St. George, and on sections of the Cape Skales, to remnants of the large olive and citrus

175


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report groves and their engineered earthen terraces from the communal farms established in the area during the Hoxha years, to large areas burned regularly for their grasses for grazing herds in the area of Mount Bernadesh and to the south. The town of Ksamili is located at the entrance to the Butrinti National Park, and lies approximately 18 km south of Saranda along the coastal road. The zone has been recently overbuilt, often with illegal structures, and is facing domestic pollution coming from the “village” (complex of buildings) with consequent disappearance of animal species living on the rocks in the surf zone (limpets), disappearance of octopuses, and development of green seaweeds characteristic of a desalination of sea water. The lakeside of the town includes several mussel harvesting stations and the remains of wetlands. The Cape Skales is especially attractive owing to its location directly on the Straits of Corfu and its views of the island. Access and The Ksamili area is serviced by few small docks used by tourist boats ferrying passengers to Infrastructure Saranda, the islands and to some of the remote beaches during the tourist season. The inland lakeside areas include small fishing docks. The paved coastal road runs the length of the area connecting Saranda with the Butrinti National Park. The road to Butrinti between Berdenesh and Ksamili is winding and narrow, and difficult for busses to negotiate, as is the continuation of the road through the Park to the ferry landing at the Vivari channel. Spur roads exit right and left from the coastal road accessing small docks on the side of the Butrinti lake and small beaches, coves and illegal settlements to the seaside. These tracks are mostly gravelled and unpaved. The area is serviced by unreliable electricity and water supply. Garbage is dumped in an ad hoc way in the whole of the area, including at the entrance to the National Park. The only sewage systems existing in the area are leach pits. Specific measures The entire hill housing the St. George Monastery, the Dema wall and the lush stands of of protection maquis should be protected from any development other than low-impact upgrading of access. The illegal building in the area should be removed immediately. Any hotel structures should keep a distance of at least 200 metres from the shoreline at the Ksamili bay. The shoreline will have to be protected from any construction. The remains of citrus and olive groves should be protected. The wetlands located on the Butrinti lakeside of Ksamili should be protected from further degradation, and restoration of these areas should be undertaken. Any envisaged development must integrate its own sewage treatment stations. Type of possible Dev site #57 and #58: The western reaches of the Cape Dema should be developed with a tourism high-density carpet type resort contributing to the strategic weight needed in the south by contributing a large number of beds. The development should sit comfortably on the slopes of the landscape and not exceed three storeys in height. Dev site #59: Likewise, this site to the north of the Ksamili islands and at the heart of the larger Ksamili bay area, should be developed with a high-density carpet type resort for the same reasons mentioned above. Dev site #60: This site on the westernmost reaches of the Cape Skales is made up of northern and southern zones. The northern zone should see high-density carpet type resort development as the visual finale to the southern side of the Ksamili bay. However, the southern zone, which approaches the Vivari channel and the pass to the Alinura bay, should be developed in a less dense tourist village type of construction with some detached units and respecting the existing vegetation on the site as much as possible. Neither development must approach the southern and eastern ridgelines so as not to encroach on the view sheds of the Butrinti National Park.

Table 4.84: Butrinti area and Cape Stillo Description

176

The Butrinti Area, for the purposes of this report, includes the view shed of the primary archaeological site at the Butrinti National Park, the Vivari channel and estuary, Butrinti lake, the Vrina Plains, and the villages and lands in the Butrinti watershed closest to the Park. A large portion of this area was declared a National Park in 2000, including the main archaeological site and 25 square kilometres of a surrounding buffer that are noted for their high biodiversity and variety of natural landscapes. As a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1991, the site is one of the major tourist attractions of the southern Albania. It is also the focus of continuing archaeological research, environmental conservation, and represents one of the most progressive examples of park management in Albania today. It is one of the few national parks in the country that have an administrative office, in-house staff of specialists, and ranger staff dedicated to enforcement and tourism activities. Cultural activities, such as the annual theatre festival, highlight the resources of the Butrinti Park domestically and to foreign visitors. The wetlands of the Butrinti watershed have been recognized by the RASMSAR Convention as being internationally significant, and a larger area surrounding the national park has been identified for conservation management to protect the wetlands and biodiversity habitats. This RASMSAR area, including all of the Lake Butrinti, the Ksamili peninsula from the Cuka


Carrying Capacity of the Territory area, and the entire associated Ionian coastline has yet to have implemented any real management plan, but new projects for this fiscal year have identified the preparation of an environmental management plan as a key objective. The villages around the park are typically small agricultural enclaves that continue to farm property in and around the National Park boundaries. New olive, citrus and grape areas have been planted around the Lake Bufi, and watermelons are grown each year in the Vrina Plains. Biodiversity conservation projects scheduled to begin this year have identified best practice farming initiatives to control fertilizer loads in the area and other improved farming strategies. Eco-tourism projects in the past 2 years have started boat tours in the Vivari channel, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;bed & breakfastâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; lodging in the villages, and handicrafts sales at the Park. The Cape Stillo juts towards Corfu just before the coast turns east and becomes Greece. It has been traditionally used as grazing lands and has therefore been periodically burned off by shepherds, leaving only sparse widely spaced trees on most of the cape. Some areas of denser maquis can be found on the steeper slopes above the sea, the Vivari channel, and the Pavllo river. The coastline is rugged with three small wooded islands off the southern coast near the Greek border. The south-facing bay is bisected by the Greek border, and there are aquaculture fish farms on the Greek side of the border. The area is crisscrossed by shepherds' trails, and has several watering ponds for flocks and many corral areas for flocks. The remains of what may be a prehistoric settlement are found on the hilltop nearest the Vivari channel. The crests and parts of the coast host abandoned bunkers and other military structures, and have magnificent views of the Corfu channel. The inaccessibility and isolation of the Cape has kept the sea pristine and extremely clear along the coast. Specific measures UNESCO, the National Park Management, various NGO's and Albanian ministries are of protection involved in specific and ongoing measures of protection for the Butrinti area. Management, now established at the Park, is starting to develop strategies for the conservation of the larger RAMSAR area. Specific initiatives have begun to extend the National Park to include the area of the Stillo peninsula. Past and ongoing projects are directed at eco-tourism and environmental conservation, while other institutes manage the conservation of monuments and cultural resources. All of the efforts have varying degrees of effectiveness, but protection of resources is well recognised nationally and internationally. The Butrinti Park was cited as an environmentally sensitive area by the Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan for Albania (BSAP). The Cape is proposed as an addition to the larger area of the Butrinti National Park, and was cited as an environmentally sensitive area by the Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan for Albania (BSAP). The pristine nature of the area should be maintained. Any continuation of grazing in the area should be balanced with a no-burn policy. Access and Access to the Butrinti area is limited to the narrow road previously mentioned in the Ksamili Infrastructure TDA description. Boat access is possible via the Vivari channel, but is seldom used. Longrange plans for visitor access call for a visitorsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; centre, parking, and shuttle busses from the village of Ksamili. The Park itself has only one hotel-bar next to the entrance to the main archaeological site. Electricity at the main site is limited to an extension of the power service of the hotel. Water is brought by trucks to a large cistern in the Castle for restrooms so infrastructure facilities are very limited at the main park site. The Cape Stillo is far from any main road and has access limited to foot. An Italian-era road once provided access from Shkala to the ridge, but is severely degraded and impassable by vehicle. Electricity and water were once supplied to the military structures on the crests, but are no longer functional. No functional infrastructure exists today on the Cape. New access to the proposed park development must be minimal, ecologically sensitive, and visually sensitive since it will fall within the view shed of the Butrinti National Park. Type of possible Dev site #61: An eco lodge and horse ranch could be sited in the existing west-facing cove tourism taking advantage of the existing herding ponds and corrals. The paths on the cape could become part of the hiking trails and horse riding trails network of the Park. Dev site #62: Environmentally friendly campgrounds could be sited in the southernmost cove facing the sea. Both these facilities should service the Butrinti National Park and be managed by the Park administration.

177


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

4.4. Coastal Trail Trails and footpaths for hiking within the coastal zone represent an opportunity for recreation and other activities that will promote eco-tourism for the region. There are numerous existing trails along the coast, but few of them are currently used for recreation. Tour guides and outdoor recreation providers are just now recognizing the potential for hiking, back-packing, nature and environmental trails for the international specialty tourism market. Generally, there has been little interest among the Albanian population for such forms of recreation, but the agrarian lifestyle of the past has created many existing footpaths that could now be converted into a very complete system of trails without extensive investment. Many such trails exist in the coastal region, as in other places throughout Albania, for numerous reasons: ƒ

Urbanization – last century’s donkey tracks and dirt roads connecting remote villages to one another have not been upgraded to vehicle roads as the population moves to larger cities for jobs. Many of the more remote villages are quickly becoming abandoned.

ƒ

Communist Era Agricultural Activities – large agricultural centers and cooperative farms established under communism have been privatized or abandoned. An extensive infrastructure of access trails, dirt roads, aqueducts and terraced landscapes remain along the coast such as the area of “The Terraces of Lukova.”

ƒ

Communist Era Coastal Defenses - late in the communist period the government installed an extensive system of concrete bunkers throughout Albania – predominantly one person defensive structures. It is said that there was a bunker for every citizen of the country. Bunkers were built along the entire southern coast connected by trenches and an adjacent trail. Much of this network of trails and bunkers remains in place throughout the country.

ƒ

Livestock Grazing – goat and sheep herding are a long tradition of Albanian culture and it is still practiced in the mountains and along the coast. Shepards are one of the few remaining users of many of the existing trails in the area.

The trails and footpaths that remain today, although seldom used for their original purposes, are in and of themselves a cultural resource. There is practically a continuous trail route immediately adjacent to the entire coastline from Butrint to the Karaburin as a result of the bunker defense system. At least one tour guide in Saranda is now marketing treks along this trail as a guided tour. There are missing sections and it is not developed to the extent that it can be used as a self-guided trail, but it connects numerous scenic beaches and cultural/historical sites of interest. Side trails can be found to inland sites such as the fortified villages of Old Qeparo and Old Himara. There are currently no facilities for hikers or for camping, and no signage to orient visitors, but the trail route is in place and could be developed into an extensive low-impact eco-tourism facility. (For Coastal trail alignment, see Map 12.)

4.5. Carrying capacity: Conclusions and recommendations ƒ

A variety of limiting factors can be investigated in carrying capacity studies depending on local conditions. Factors that can determine the territorial carrying capacity of the study area, or its ability to support growth, include the total developable land area (excluding the areas of steep slopes, and landslide and flooding zones), water resources limitations, coastal seawater assimilative capacity to absorb pollutants, and environmentally sensitive areas and quality coastal landscapes.

178


Carrying Capacity of the Territory

ƒ

The applied carrying capacity analysis depends on two determinant factors: first, the level of adverse effect that is "unacceptable", and second, the threshold of population or development at which that level is reached. The approach is complicated by two considerations. The first is that determining what is "unacceptable" or what a community is willing to put up with in terms of the effects of population growth, is largely based on the values of the community. Thus, determining the human carrying capacity, although it is based on certain scientific information, is ultimately a value judgment, requiring community involvement through the planning and political process. The answer to the question what level of adverse effect is "unacceptable" will gradually come also through the adoption of the European standards and the EU accession process.

ƒ

A second complicating consideration is that some limiting factors are fixed and others are flexible. The “fixed” components refer to the capacity of the natural systems expressed occasionally as ecological capacity, assimilative capacity, etc. They cannot be manipulated easily by human action and to the extent that these limits can be estimated they should be carefully observed and respected as such. The “flexible” factors refer primarily to infrastructure systems. Human intervention can increase the population and other limits for these factors, as well as the given level of acceptable quality. Increasing the territorial and environmental carrying capacity can occur in two ways. First, the capacity of some limiting factors can be expanded, for example by importing water or building a waste water treatment plant. Second, the effect each additional person has on the factors of interest can be reduced (a) by changing behaviour to a more conserving lifestyle (recycling of communal waste or lowering water consumption), or (b) by technological improvements (e.g., water conservation devices, land-use designs that reduce runoff). Both factors will be dealt with in more detail at the ICD planning stage through environmental planning and management standards and guidelines.

ƒ

It can be concluded that the impact on the environment is not just a matter of population levels. It also depends on the level of affluence of that population (as measured by the impact per person associated with consumption), and on the mitigation of impact that technology provides.

ƒ

Carrying capacity is a difficult but important concept, because it implies limits and stimulates discussion on those limits. There continues to be a demand for numeric estimates of carrying capacity – as they have been calculated earlier in this chapter. They will be useful inputs providing a framework for orientation for the planning team and decision makers on the Albanian side in considering different development scenarios for the Ioanian Coast. However, single figures on the maximum number of inhabitants or tourists that can be allowed, or how many rooms are allowed to be built, should be taken with caution.

ƒ

While most applications of the territorial and tourism carrying capacity have been based on acceptable population/tourists thresholds, more recent attempts have recognised that the overall objective is to control not population/tourists numbers per se, but rather their effect on the specific environmental factors or resources of interest.

ƒ

Accordingly, using impact thresholds or limits of acceptable change, instead of population/tourists limits, will become the basis for carrying capacity considerations (in particular environmental ones) at the detailed planning stage. At this stage a number of important territorial components and resources identified in previous chapters will be selected, including environmental (sea water quality, agricultural land, landscape changes, noise, etc.), human-built infrastructure (water supply, sewerage capacity, road capacity, etc.) or community perceptions (visual quality, congestion, social impacts, etc.).

179


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

ƒ

For each component, one or more indicators will be identified that measure the quality of the component. For example, for the variable sea water quality, an indicator may be the concentration of a specific pollutant, water clarity measured by the Secchi disk test, dissolved oxygen content, or all three.

ƒ

"Carrying capacity" as a management tool is in itself a "synthetic" indicator since it includes numerous elements and factors that have an influence on the evolution of the territory, but its analysis is focused on the quantitative monitoring of the users, and this is what differentiates it from the usual indicators (status indicators) which monitor the resources.

180


5

Coastal Development Pressures: Policy Response

The Albanian authorities at central, regional and local levels have employed considerable efforts to control coastal development. These efforts were certainly commensurate with the means they had at their disposal. However, the situation in the coastal area of the Southern Region still looks critical. What is worse, the things seem somehow to be getting out of hand recently, at least judging by the growth of the illegal housing in some “hot spot” areas, where it is becoming definitely unsustainable. This is certainly jeopardising the opportunities for sustainable development of the Southern Albanian Region. This chapter will concentrate on several critical issues and present the authorities’ policy response to these issues. At the end of the chapter, some urgent measures that need to be taken immediately, even before the development strategy is decided upon and implemented, will be proposed. The aim of these measures will be to assist the authorities in momentarily halting some negative development processes and creating the badly needed “breathing” space before a major development step forward is made.

5.1. Development and land-use planning The current state of coastal development and land-use planning and management are the most critical among the issues identified so far in the Southern Albanian Coastal Region. It is further complicated by the fact that major expectations of the population in the future to find the way out of the difficult situation they are in today, seem to be largely related to the land issues. Namely, in the absence of a coherent development strategy, the issue of land property and solutions offered by land compensation and restitution looks to them like the only viable option at the moment.

5.1.1. Land-use planning system 5.1.1.1. Legal and institutional context for land-use planning The Law No. 8405 on Urban Planning (adopted in 1993 and amended in 1998, 2000, and 2003) has defined the key planning levels and relevant responsibilities of the State and local governments. The main statutory planning documents are: ƒ Regional planning studies; ƒ Master plans; ƒ General adjustment plans; ƒ Urban planning studies; and ƒ Partial urban planning studies. In the 2003 Law amendments, Strategic plans and Action plans were introduced. The Council of Territory Adjustment of the Republic of Albania (CTARA) is the highest land-use planning body chaired by the Prime Minister. CTARA approves regional planning studies, master plans for areas larger than 10 hectares and/or for tourist zone development, general

181


PAP/RAC â&#x20AC;&#x201C; SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Interim Report

adjustment plans of cities over 10,000 inhabitants, partial urban studies on city centres for cities with a population of over 50,000 inhabitants, partial urban planning studies (within towns) larger than 15 hectares and building permits for important buildings in city centres. The Law also establishes councils for territorial adjustment (CTAs) and urban planning units, both at regional (Vlora is one of 12 Albanian regions) and local levels (municipalities and communes). Furthermore, Law No. 7665 (1993) Concerning the Development of Tourism Priority Areas provides broad powers to the Tourism Development Council (of the Ministry or Territorial Adjustment and Tourism - MOTAT). It has the right to approve or restrict the demands of physical or juridical persons concerning the issuance of permission for stimulated activities as well as to consider any construction permission, authorisation for business development, etc., that will be given or has already been given by local or central organs for non-tourism activities within a stimulated area. This is done in order to verify whether these activities suit the purposes of the establishment of the stimulated area. The Law on Urban Planning and Law 9304 On Legalization and Urban Planning of Informal Zones, are the two main legal acts dealing with the illegal construction and informal settlements in Albania. According to the first Law, buildings without permits are considered illegal and mortgaging or registration of these buildings in immovable property registers is prohibited. Law 9304 On Legalisation and Urban Planning of Informal Zones, was passed in order to address the problem of the significant number of informal settlements and illegal constructions throughout the country. A unit has been created within the MOTAT to coordinate the efforts and draft urban planning studies for the informal zones. Urban planning units at the local government level check the factual status of the constructions, update survey plans in the field for the illegal housing constructions and assist in drafting the requirements for creating the urban planning studies. Citizens are obliged to declare the illegal construction they have finished and the surface area occupied within a period of 3 months from the entry into force of the law (by 23 March 2005). Within one year after the approval of the urban planning study for the informal zone, they have to submit the complete technical and legal documentation. The National Urban Planning Institute (ISPU) is a State enterprise, established in 1995, financed by the State. The Institute has two sections: one for urban and rural development and another for tourist development. It has three groups: for norms and techniques, for green area studies and projects, and for infrastructure. The Institute is the only public body in this field of activity. The main beneficiaries of the Institute are central and local governments by getting the studies and plans for free. The ISPU can prepare regulatory plans for municipalities or communes, which want such work but have no capacity (human or financial) to carry it out. The Construction Police, founded officially in 1998, had actually been functioning since 1993 as the Department of Building Control and Expertise within the present Ministry of Territorial Adjustment and Tourism. Its General Director is appointed directly by the Prime Minister, while the Deputy Director is appointed by the Minister of Territorial Adjustment and Tourism. About 60% of the fines obtained go to the State budget, while 40% remains for the Police needs.

182


Coastal Development Pressures: Policy Response

5.1.1.2. Key planning issues Main issues related to land development in Albania, which already have (as registered in previous chapters) or may have important consequences for coastal resources and their future sustainable use, include: ƒ

loss of coastal natural resources and valuable landscapes including the accompanying biological resources;

ƒ

inadequate urbanisation including sprawl development, speculative and illegal building; and

ƒ

lack of infrastructure and poor sanitation standards.

An underlying issue (discussed in more detail in the following sections on development impact fees) is reaffirmation and full protection of private land ownership rights that have not yet been balanced with the introduction of appropriate land policies and impact fees (usually as part of the land-use planning system) to protect public interests in settlements (public spaces: streets, parking, greenery, open and recreation spaces). Another important issue is a notorious lack of rule of law. This is why, at the moment, the development of new laws is much less a problem than their implementation and enforcement. This, in turn, is the result of lack of institutional and administrative capacity, weak enforcement procedures and, more than anything else, lack of political will to tackle this issue (as reported, the votes of illegal builders are often more important than of those who are advocating ordered development and protection of resources). 5.1.1.2.1. Illegal building The chaotic migration toward coastal areas resulted in uncontrolled expansion of the existing settlements (ribbon development in southern coastal suburbs of Himara and Saranda, or the entire Ksamili village area being the best examples). Coastal municipalities and communes were not ready to control this pressure by providing regulatory plans and serviced buildable land. The result was large-scale illegal building (part of these buildings and zones – those built against the planning studies or outside yellow lines – have been identified using digital ortho photos taken by satellite in May 2005 and digitised yellow lines) which was further facilitated by the lack of capacity of the local-level Construction Police offices. As reported (during the meeting in the Saranda Construction Police office), they are seriously understaffed, lacking equipment and training for efficient work. It is also important to emphasise the dominant nature of the illegal building phenomenon identified in the Southern coast (also common to the coastal areas of other transition economies in the region, such as Croatia and Montenegro). Large share of illegal building around urban centres in inland Albania is by its very nature generated by poverty - it started through “survival” motivated migrations and home building for own family purposes, usually step by step. Most of the new illegal coastal developments consist of rather large buildings erected at once and intended for real estate market. This qualifies them as speculative undertakings and requires different and, by all means, much firmer response. A related serious problem, reported as common within the urban areas of Himara and Saranda, is illegal building of a type when building permit has been issued but developer does not respect the allowed building size (maximum building footprint and height). Another important issue, particularly in a country where respect for laws is still to be developed, is transparency and clear criteria in dealing with illegal buildings. As reported, such criteria do not always exist (as reported in Himara and Saranda). Some building may be

183


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

demolished and another one nearby may not. The result is lack of trust in the legal system which may compromise the otherwise needed measure of strict law enforcement. Illegal construction, in addition to other negative impacts, most often leads to sprawl development. As opposed to the compact settlement schemes, sprawl is wasteful on valuable coastal land and resources. Furthermore, it makes provision of infrastructure much more expensive. Phasing and clustering of the development would reduce the area that has to be equipped with the infrastructure, which makes this task cheaper and, therefore, doable. 5.1.1.2.2. Quality of built environment and development (impact) fees Generally speaking, “development impact fees” are financial contributions (i.e., money, land, etc.) imposed by communities on developers or builders to pay for capital improvements within the community, which are necessary to service/accommodate the new development. Such improvements usually include streets and roads, curbs and gutters, sidewalks and street trees, water systems, fire hydrants, sewer and drainage lines, street lighting, and in some instances, open spaces (parks, playgrounds and recreation facilities). To ensure fairness, impact fees can only be assessed (1) for capital improvements that are a direct consequence of the new development, and (2) in an amount not exceeding the proportionate share required to serve the new development. In other words, a developer cannot be required to pay a disproportionate share of improvements The developer of a proposed development pays the impact fee, although the developer will (unless the developer is the future owner or operator of the facility, which is quite often in Albania), as a practical matter, pass the costs of these fees onto the purchaser of the developed property. The local government examines the proposed development, determines what facilities will be required to sustain the desired level of service, and charges the developer a fee to cover a portion of the cost of the needed system improvements. Most of the new urban and suburban development in Saranda, Himara and Ksamili takes place on the land which is not subdivided (according to a detailed plan, when it exists) or equipped with basic infrastructure utilities. It is obvious that these communities have either underestimated their actual growth or failed to engage in long-range, fiscal planning for capital improvements. Accordingly, because these municipalities have not adequately planned for growth and other sources are limited, they need additional sources of revenue (e.g., development fees) to fund those capital improvements that are necessary to accommodate growth. It would be reasonable for the relevant Law (presently Urban Planning Law) to provide for the option that developers install, at their expense, the improvements necessary for a full range of urban services in the new subdivisions, particularly when they develop a whole subdivision or tourist development zone. Also, a performance bond or similar obligation (guarantee) would be usually required as assurance that improvements will be installed in accordance with the local government requirements. While the introduction of realistic development fees may be a sensitive issue in many localities of Albania, this should not be the case with coastal development where the price of land excludes anyway the lower-income social groups. In addition, if necessary for some specific reason, a local government may allow an exemption for local low-income housing. It is important to distinguish between the different types of development, in the case of the Southern Albanian Coast particularly between secondary homes development and tourist development as business activity, which provides jobs and income as well as increases the local tax base. If local governments have some freedom in calculating and collecting the

184


Coastal Development Pressures: Policy Response

development impact fee it may also become a growth management tool by means of which a local government may promote or slow down a certain type of development. The present system based on the development fees calculated as percentage of construction cost does not reflect the real (high) value of the coastal land. According to the Urban Planning Law, Article 51, “…the natural and juridical person, prior of receipt of construction permit must pay 1% of the investment value according to the object cost estimation sheet. This fund will be deposited for financing of urban planning studies of the local government. Additionally, a natural and juridical person, prior of construction permit receipt, must pay for the use of the existing water supply, sewerage, energy, telephony, roads, etc. network as follows below: ƒ 5% of the investment value according to the cost estimation when the object is constructed inside the town bordering lines; ƒ 2% of the investment values according to the cost estimation when the object is constructed outside the town bordering lines”. According to the Law amendment, Article 51 is re-worded providing that “…prior to obtaining the construction license, the respective physical or legal entity is obligated to make a payment of 1 per cent of the total amount of the bill of quantities. This payment shall be deposited in a fund to be used by the local government for city planning studies. Also, the physical or legal entity is obligated to pay prior to receiving the construction license 1 per cent of the total amount of the bill of quantities for the exploitation of the existing engineering network of the water supply system, pipes, electricity grid, telephone lines, road network, etc. The amount is part of a fund to be used by local governments for the rehabilitation of such infrastructure networks. Payment is effected immediately at the finance section at the Council of the Region, or the finance section at the first category municipality, upon submission of written authorisation by the technical secretariat of the Committee of Territorial Regulation of the Republic of Albania. Construction license is issued only after proof of payment is included in the construction file.” This amount should be increased to reflect the real value of the improvements to be made, or it may be expressed through a formula with the land value as a variable. Based on Croatian experience, on average it may be in the range of 75 – 150 US$ per square meter of building gross floor area for lower density coastal development. An important feature of a system of well-defined impact fee charges is the knowledge that all developers, big and small, will be treated equitably. Furthermore, developers have a right to know that the projects for which they have paid impact fees will be built. Local governments should be required to maintain suitable fund accounting to assure that impact fees are used for the uses intended (according to the information provided, in Himara, this is the case). 5.1.1.2.3. Planning profession Under the socialist system the planner’s role was not to control the private sector in response to democratic demands but to replace these elements with the state policy. Today, planners cannot be free agents. They are not operating in vacuum but within a complex political situation at central and local government levels. Unfortunately, most of these levels in Albania today see planning as an activity which imposes unnecessary restrictions on the property market and on individual citizens’ freedom. In addition, most of the planning activities are still following a traditional top-down approach to planning “for people” which is based on the idea that the planner “knows best” (the role of ISPU and drafting of municipal/commune land-use plans). At the same time planners are not trained for planning

185


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

in the market dominated environment, so the lack of expertise related to urban land policies, environmental management tools as well as public participation and dispute resolution techniques is obvious (the experience with consultation process in Saranda proves this very well, for more details see Annexes 15 and 16). Therefore, planning profession and planning schools capacity building for new challenges is an important issue that the planning system of Albania should deal with. 5.1.1.2.4. Information management and GIS in environmental and territorial planning Territorial planning at all levels requires a broad range of information, including census and population data, economic data, environmental data and data on infrastructure. Much of this information is obtained from primary and secondary sources, field investigation or local knowledge. Computerised information systems such as Geographical Information System (GIS) are used to store, analyse, present or map information. Most of the institutions, including the Land Use Institute, the National Planning Institute and the Military Cartographic Institute, use GIS technologies. However, no digital information was presented or made available at the National Planning Institute (the hard copy outputs, though, show that computerised systems are being used as a drafting tool). Given the fact that majority of the institutions use ESRI GIS products (mostly ArcView 3.2a) and AutoCAD as drawing tool, the compatibility is not an issue. This is more so owing to the fact that most of the GIS software products are compatible and exchange of information is made easy. While working on the ICD Study, the consultant identified a number of issues that need to be dealt with in the future in order to facilitate and improve the use of GIS technologies: ƒ

Metadata (data about data) standards should be established describing the contents, quality, source, condition, availability and other characteristics of spatial data, and enabling future users to locate and understand them. They will also help maintain an institution investment in data, avoid duplication of efforts, and facilitate data transfer. In designing metadata standards a good starting point is to follow the national standards and to consider some of the existing international standards.

ƒ

Although analogue spatial data (mostly hard copy maps) are not today the only data source for GIS database development, the existence of a good quality analogue information base is an important prerequisite for the establishment of GIS databases. Reportedly, it is necessary to perform a detailed inventory of a state of the analogue as well as digital databases, and to stimulate their updating for some areas and topics, as appropriate.

ƒ

More skilled GIS users come from rather closed scientific circles (University or institutes) who use GIS at the level of individual projects and in-house developed, single disciplinary spatial databases. There is very little “spill-over” to the planning profession.

ƒ

When developing a multi-user, comprehensive information system such as GIS to be used by coastal planners and managers, it is necessary to develop geographic culture through good quality educational programmes at university level, as well as through training programmes for both those who will build the systems and those who will just use it (unfortunately, this component, training on GIS and its application in coastal planning, is not part of this Project).

5.1.1.2.5. Participatory planning Participatory approaches in Albanian land-use planning practice are in the infancy. Lots of efforts are needed to give meaningfulness to public participation. For example, simple and clearly presented information on the purpose, adoption procedure and the contents of the land-use plans. At present, the citizens are mostly passive receivers of hardly

186


Coastal Development Pressures: Policy Response

understandable information or information of which they lack even minimum previous knowledge that would enable them to take a more active role in the plan preparation. In addition, presently not all interest groups have representatives who can speak knowledgeably for their interests. Often it is far easier to organise small but identifiable groups with personal economic interests (typically developers and landowners) to influence policy decisions than to mobilise larger and less identifiable segments of the society that share a more general public interest (in particular when these are more concerned with their jobs and basic income). Participatory workshop in Saranda (May 19) showed lack of real participatory practice as well as misunderstanding of Coastal Stakeholder Committee (CSC) as decision-making body which will need to reach consensus on key planning issues. Instead, CSC was meant to carry out consultation process in an organised way and to sustain participatory planning principles after the Project is completed. An additional meeting will be held to set up the CSC and clarify its role as a body, which will facilitate communication with different interest groups. This will enable them to be heard, learning together about the region but also providing invaluable local knowledge, identifying and discussing issues, looking for solutions but not pushing for them â&#x20AC;&#x201C; rather reporting facts, views and different suggestions. 5.1.1.2.6. Key coastal issues: DPSIR framework Table 5.1: Key coastal issues DPSIR analysis Driving Force Demand for coastal real estate development, planning system enforcement problems, migration towards the coast

Pressure

State

Coastal urbanization without or against plans, growing consumption and waste generation

High rate of haphazard and illegal building, illegal dumping of material excavated during construction, illegal filling of the sea Unplanned or poorly planned development with limited public spaces (roads, greenery), parking and infrastructure, occupied seashore (ribbon development), encroachment to high quality coastal landscapes (natural and cultural), Buildings of inappropriate size, improper infill development, building against intensity regulation

Impact Loss of resources (natural, land, scenic landscape), mid and long term loss of property value, loss of tourism potential

Response Measures for balanced regional, in particular rural development in the coastal hinterland, agricultural policies Regional and local land use plans, planning hierarchy, infrastructure development, Planning and environmental management capacity building Law amendments on public infrastructure cost recovery, designation of coastal protected area,

5.1.2. Review and evaluation of land-use plans 5.1.2.1. Review This review took into consideration all the planning documents for the coastal area of the Vlora Region (as of April 2005) that have been provided by the Territorial Planning Directorate of MOTAT. Most of the documents are approved (some of them are in the process of approval) by CTARA:

187


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

1.

“Adjusted plan for the Ksamili urban settlement”, approved by the decision of NTAC Nr. 4, date 18.12.2004 (not yet confirmed)

2.

“Adjustment plan for Janjari village”, approved by the decision of NTAC Nr. 5, date 18.12.2004 (not yet confirmed)

3.

“Urban study of the Saranda town centre”, approved by the decision of NTAC Nr. 1, date 11.09.2004 (not yet confirmed)

4.

“Urban study for the area from Hotel Turizmi to Cuka Channel – Saranda”, approved by the decision of NTAC Nr. 3, date 19.02.1999 (11)

5.

“Extension of the Saranda town border line”, approved by the decision of NTAC Nr. 33, date 01.12.1998 (10)

6.

“Construction permit for the object tourist ensemble in Aliko Commune at Lekuresi Hill”, approved by the decision of NTAC Nr. 05, date 03.12.2003 (29)

7.

“Site and construction permission for the tourist village in the tourist area LukovaKakome, with investor “Riviera” Ltd. and tour operator “Club Mediterranee”, approved by the decision of NTAC Nr. 02, date 23.06.2004 (Sh. Kote)

8.

“Adjustment plan of Orikumi town”, approved by the decision of NTAC Nr. 05, date 23.06.2004 (Sh. Kote)

9.

“Site and construction permit for the tourist village in the Plot Nr. 5 and Nr. 6/A, as well as the linking area, in the Ksamili tourist site, with investor “Boiken” Ltd. based on the revised urban study”, approved by the decision of NTAC Nr. 11, date 23.06.2004 (Sh. Kote)

10. “Partial urban study and construction site in the Plot Nr. 10 in Ksamili Commune”, approved by the decision of NTAC Nr. 03, date 01.08.2003 (not yet confirmed) 11. “ToRs for design task and organisation of the competition for the Southern Coast Study”, approved by the decision of NTAC Nr. 05, date 31.01.2004 (32) 12. “ToRs for the design task and partially urban study of the tourist development Lukova – Kakome pilot area”, approved by the decision of NTAC Nr. 04, date 01.08.2003 (27) 13. “Urban study for the protection and development of the Saranda – Ksamili coastal area”, approved by the decision of NTAC Nr. 01, date 21.04.2001 (14) 14. “Decision of the NTAC Nr. 10, date 18.06.2003 “The annulation of the Plots to be constructed with tourist structures in the territory of the Butrinti National Park” (26) 15. “Decision of the NTAC Nr. 02, date 30.10.2002 “The ToRs of urban design in the area from Kepi i Skales to Kepi i Stillos, for elite tourism” (21) 16. “Partial urban study and construction site for the Ksamili tourist village”, approved by the decision of NTAC Nr. 83, date 19.06.1997 (08) 17. “Technical project for the tourist port in Orikum – Vlora”, approved by the decision of NTAC Nr. 07, date 11.01.1996 (04) 18. “Urban study for the Ksamili tourist village”, approved by the decision of NTAC Nr. 14, date 11.01.1996 (04) 19. “Urban study for the Llogara tourist site”, approved by the decision of NTAC Nr. 04, date 11.01.1996 (03) 20. “Plan for the development and environmental protection of the Butrinti area”, approved by the decision of NTAC Nr. 01, date 13.01.1995 (02/1) 21. “Construction permit for tourist village, hotel and golf court and tourist port in Butrinti area”, approved by the decision of NTAC Nr. 17, date 02.06.1995 (Archive)

188


Coastal Development Pressures: Policy Response

22. “Construction permit for tourist village in Arameras - Saranda”, approved by the decision of NTAC Nr. 16, date 02.06.1995 (02/1) 23. Decision of the NTAC Nr. 38 date 23.08.1994 “Removal of two territories foreseen for tourist development in Ksamili area” Three decisions relate to terms of references for the planning studies, two decisions are actually amendments (revisions) of the previous decisions. Five decisions include construction permits. Two of them are from the year 1995 and it is unclear how they can still be on the list. There is no map on which all the decisions with the relevant boundaries are presented. Since not all decisions include maps, it is difficult to follow and easily understand the development control process as exercised by CTARA and other bodies participating in the process. The role of terms of references (ToR) as the first step in the planning process is unclear and inconsistently applied. For example, for the tourist village in the area Lukova-Kakome the ToR for the “design task and partial urban study” was approved in 2003 but then the “site and construction permit” for the tourist village was approved in 2004. For most of the other plans and projects no ToRs have been approved. Some plans overlap without formally recognising it. For example, “Urban study for the Ksamili tourist village” (No 18 from the above list), approved in 1996 was revised by the Master plan Saranda – Cape Stillo from the year 2000 (National Park instead of tourist village). Obviously no action was taken to amend the former plan. Then the most recent “Adjusted plan for the Ksamili urban settlement”, (No 1), is not in line with the Master plan Saranda – Cape Stillo from the year 2000. The former proposes tourist development for the zone which is designated as a National Park zone in the latter. Furthermore, "Urban study for the area from Hotel Turizmi to Cuka Channel – Saranda” (No. 4 in the above list), approved in 1999 has been revised with the Saranda master plan without formally recognising it. Coastal Zone Management Plan of 1995 was formally adopted in the year 2002, but again it is unclear in which way it is being implemented and in what way, if any, it would influence the lower-level planning documents. As a result of the analysis and comparison of CTARA approved planning documents, the following general issues of the planning and development control system can be identified: ƒ

the hierarchy of the planning documents is not precisely established and as a consequence it is unclear which document is binding for the other;

ƒ

the formal contents and presentation of the planning documents, particularly cartographic component and required base maps, are not unified to an extent which would enable easy comparison, specially of the planning documents of same level;

ƒ

the whole development control system is not elaborated enough to cover different situations (new plan of the same level partly overlaps with the existing one; higher-level plan is amended and it makes it necessary to amend the lower-level plans, which is not always done; procedures for plan revision and partly or fully cancelling or repealing the plan);

ƒ

yellow lines (boundaries of the buildable areas) are mostly old and drawn on the base maps which are not adequate and not easily comparable with the zoning maps of the approved plans; and

ƒ

legal document on which important development control competencies are based, such as Decision no. 88 dated 01. 03. 1993 on Designation of tourism priority areas, is not accompanied by clear geographic boundaries presented on a map (or it has not been possible to obtain such a map).

189


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

5.1.2.2. Assessment The brief assessment that follows is based on the following criteria: a)

Land-use standards or how much they provide for suitable neighbourhoods with adequate streets, utilities and appropriate building sites as well as open space and public facilities (parks and recreation, schools): ƒ land-use type and intensity (distinction between residential tourism and commercial tourism); ƒ street layout and its geometric standards (minimum width, sidewalks, street trees); ƒ topography and street layout (way streets are related to the topography, grades of streets, access to or from arterial and collector streets, left-turn lane); and ƒ reservation of land for public needs (school sites, parks, recreation, seashore promenades and open spaces, public access to the seashore).

b)

The design standards (building regulations) or how much they ensure that development will be designed, arranged, and constructed in an orderly, safe, and visually harmonious manner, and reflect the basic character of the development site and its immediate surroundings as well as the nature of the proposed use for the site: ƒ the relationship of the development to natural features, retention of natural vegetation, minimal alteration of natural topography excessive excavations; ƒ access and circulation systems; ƒ minimum off-street parking requirements; ƒ mitigation of storm-water drainage and flooding (filling of the stream beds); ƒ arrangement and orientation of buildings and amenities in relation to each other and to neighbouring streets; and ƒ landscaping and vegetation preservation,

Main quantified indicators are: ƒ minimum plot size; ƒ buildability ratio; ƒ gross floor area ratio; ƒ maximum height allowed; ƒ maximum number of floors; ƒ street setback (distance from the front plot line and the building line); ƒ minimum front plot line width; ƒ side setback, rear setback; ƒ vegetation standards and permeability ratio; and ƒ design standards specific to land use

.

5.1.2.2.1. Himara The Himara town plan is still in a draft form (not yet submitted for approval). The total area is around 85 ha. The only available zoning map designates all zones as residential with the density regulation defined through maximum height: ƒ one zone of 30 ha, 4-5 floors maximum height; ƒ two zones with total area of 22 ha, 3-4 floors maximum height; and ƒ one zone of 33 ha, 2-3 floors maximum height.

190


Coastal Development Pressures: Policy Response

No reservation of land for public needs (except street network) has been made but partial studies for some parts will be prepared. The way the street network is presented is, at this stage, graphically inconsistent, and some parts are very schematic. In general, street layout takes care of the topography. Street profiles have not been defined. The hierarchy of the streets (residential, collector) is not clear enough (at least the street width does not indicate it). The way how the streets are integrated with the existing and proposed system of arterials has not been visible from the presented maps. Some intersections, as they are presented, are not designed in a way to enable safe traffic (poor visibility). Boundaries between zones do not correspond to the street system and it is unclear how to apply maximum height when zone boundary crosses the plot. For some parts this plan requires more detailed partial urbanistic studies to be prepared (these plans will define setbacks and building lines). As reported, buildability will be 30 to 50%. Parking standards have not yet been defined. 5.1.2.2.2. Lukova The plan analysed is the “Site and construction permit for the tourist village in the tourist area Lukova-Kakome” with investor “Riviera” Ltd. and tour operator “Club Mediterranee”. It was approved by the decision of CTARA Nr. 02 of 23 June 2004. The whole complex consists of two zones stretching along the coastline between the Lukova village and Kakome bay. Total area is around 160 ha (100 ha + 60 ha) with the average width of 350-400 m. The central and southern parts are characterised by moderate slopes (20-30%), while the northern section is dominated by undulating hills of similar slope. The zoning differentiates elite villas further from the sea on larger plots (boundaries not defined on the available graphics, average plot size can be estimated at 2000 m2), smaller villas closer to the shoreline, attached villas (for both plots around 500 m2) and apartment villas. In addition, six hotels, a social centre, and sports and recreation facilities (pools, tennis) have been planned together with two marinas very poorly designed. The height of the buildings varies between 2 and 4 floors. There are no parking spaces and not all plots have car access. The street network is schematic and not at all elaborated enough for the construction permit stage. Some parts of the street network do not take enough care of the topography (streets perpendicular to the coastline with grade between 20-30%). As reported, the textual part is very brief (just 2 pages) although the proposed development is one of the largest on the Ionian coast of Albania (capacity can be estimated at between 5,000 and 10,000 beds), and would certainly require precise environmental protection measures. No infrastructure plans were presented. 5.1.2.2.3. Saranda Comments have been made based on the version from August 2004. An amended version of the plan was completed but has been unavailable to the consultant. Urbanistic study of Saranda city has been drafted under ToR defined by the National Council for Territorial Adjustment. The draft of the study is completed, and 30-day public commenting period (reportedly, some unclear/misleading maps and physical models were presented) ended on 20 August 2004. As it seems to pave the way for the legalisation of the current massive intensification of urbanisation and expansion of urban sprawl in the coastal area, the study raised concerns of the Urban Planning and Tourism Departments of the Saranda Municipality. Based on

191


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

comments obtained and internal review process, the two departments elaborated comprehensive comments that reflect well the key environmental and urban issues identified during the mission. It further on requires a postponement of the decision on the study by at least 6 months, and extensive public consultations on the proposed study. This seems as a good idea, for at least the following two reasons. First, as Saranda is the main tourist centre of the region, its development has far reaching consequences for the whole region, both physically, and as development model for the rest of the region. Consequently, it is definitely worthwhile to “spend” another six months, if it is rather clear that additional discussion and clarification could significantly improve the proposed study. Second, the proposed period will also provide time for elaboration of SEA report (which has not been prepared so far) thus illustrating challenges and benefits, and providing on-the-job training in the integration of SEA into the planning process. What follows is the summary of the comments prepared by the Urban Planning and Tourism Departments of the Saranda Municipality. The most fundamental comment questions the very vision of the tourism development in Saranda that is implicitly conveyed by the study proposals. Is the massive urbanisation, with large envisaged increase in population, and even greater increase in tourist accommodation facilities, implemented by building a large number of modern 10-floor hotels really the best long-term option for tourism and general development of Saranda and its surrounding area? Isn’t the development of the special-interest tourism (including cultural heritage, environmental and adventure tourism) a more suited vision for Saranda, taking into account its great potential for this kind of tourism, and the fact that, while the special-interest tourism is presently the fastest growing sector of tourism, mass tourism is every year increasingly hard to sell on the saturated global market? The rest of the comments are more technical, and relate to the issue of healthy, aesthetically appealing and functionally sound urbanisation, as opposed to the shortsighted development, which in the near future generates expensive and sometimes irreparable problems, decreased quality of life for the citizens, and lost attractiveness for the visitors. These comments/suggestions for improvements include: ƒ

land-use prescriptions based on the sound analysis of future needs, and not one which just legalised the present development requirements which usually just try to maximise short-term profit;

ƒ

development which identifies and preserves its cultural and natural heritage, which is important in general, however, especially important when the area has ambitions to build its development around the tourism sector;

ƒ

sufficient public open space;

ƒ

streets and roads which are well adapted to the area’s geomorphology, of appropriate size, making a network which can support the functional structure of the city;

ƒ

well-thought solution for the shoreline and coastal space next to it, as this is always the most limited and valuable resource of a coastal area;

ƒ

prediction and allocation of space for future public facilities, whose development should be harmonised with the development of the residential and retail commercial (hotels, restaurants, shops) areas;

ƒ

planning which does not necessarily legalise all illegal buildings in the area, but solves the issue of illegal buildings by consistently applying clearly defined criteria for acceptability and unacceptability;

192


Coastal Development Pressures: Policy Response

ƒ

phasing plan, which provides guidelines for logical, orderly and organised growth, by securing public infrastructure, minimising environmental impacts associated with construction, clustering new growth in specified areas;

ƒ

finally, planning based on the wide stakeholder and community participation, which secures a sense of common vision, ownership over the plan, and willingness to comply with the plan prescriptions.

5.1.2.2.4. Ksamili The plan analysed is the “Adjusted plan for the Ksamili urban settlement”, which was approved by the decision of CTARA Nr. 4 on 18 December 2004, but not yet confirmed. The main purpose of this plan is to legalise the existing situation (mostly illegal development). The Plan covers an area of approximately 150 ha. A land-use map designates zones of different purposes including the land for all the main public needs (school, small medical facilities, sports and recreation, park and botanical garden). Building setback of 100 m has been established (in some southern parts of the village the existing buildings are closer to the shoreline). The density of residential zones has been defined through maximum height, mostly 2-3 floors with small areas where 4-5 floor buildings are allowed. The main tourist development zone (27 ha) is planned in an area designated as a park by the Master plan Saranda – Cape Stillo. This indicates an unclear hierarchical relationship between the planning documents. The way the street network is presented is schematic as in most of the plans reviewed. A basic hierarchy of the streets exists (the main arterial being the Saranda – Butrinti road cutting the village) but the rest of the street network is limited mainly to the collector streets, while most of the residential access streets and driveways are not defined. This may become a serious issue in the implementation stage, or this Plan requires more detailed partial urbanistic studies to be prepared in the future (if this is the case the boundaries of these plans should have been defined in this Plan). Some intersections, as presented, are not designed in a way to enable safe traffic. The main quantified indicators for residential development include minimum plot size of 500 m2 and buildability of 24%, minimum front plot line width 7-10m (it is unclear how these parameters will influence the legalisation process). Street setback (distance from the front plot line and the building line), side setback or vegetation standards have not been defined. For the main arterial (Saranda – Butrinti road) the street trees are planned. There are no offstreet parking requirements. The Plan contains detailed infrastructure plans. 5.1.2.2.5. Ksamili tourism development zone The plan analysed is the “Site and construction permit for the tourist village in the Plot Nr. 5 and Nr. 6/A, as well as the linking area, in the Ksamili tourist site, with investor “Boiken” Ltd. based on the revised urban study”, which was approved by the decision of CTARA Nr. 11, on 23 June 2004. The plan is made for the zones 5 and 6/a, together with the green area in between, as the whole resort will be a fenced area. The plan respects the coastal belt as unbuildable zone. The urbanistic parameters / indicators – 20% of the built area, 45% of the green area, 15% for the public/social services, 6% for sport/recreation areas, appropriate road network and parking lots – are acceptable for the tourist resort kind of development. Besides that, the plan

193


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

appropriately defines and strictly respects the maximum height of building. The maximum allowed height is two floors above the ground, i.e. 3 floors, where the terrain inclination is above 30%. In general, the development depicted by the plan is acceptable in terms of built form and environmental impacts, while the problem may be the share of summer homes (residential development) as opposed to commercial tourism development (the one which is more beneficial in bringing new jobs and tax income). 5.1.2.2.6. Conclusions Most of the plans reviewed can not secure built environment which is functional, safe and visually harmonious, or which provides needed public facilities and spaces. There are few important obstacles for achieving this objective, including: ƒ

lack of appreciation for principles of good urban design, environmental planning and particularly public spaces;

ƒ

lack of planning skills to elaborate good planning principles and ideas into development ordinances and precise, quantified development standards and building regulations;

ƒ

even if both of the above conditions are met, the plans may become wishful thinking instead of good planning; the cause may be the lack of instruments for cost recovery of public investment for urban infrastructure and open spaces through participation of private capital (development impact fees);

ƒ

lack of development control and enforcement (including effective Construction Police supported by clear political will to stop illegal construction) to implement good and well elaborated plans; and

ƒ

even when all the previous issues are solved there is a need for clear land ownership and functioning immovable property registries for legal development, to start (particularly the one involving foreign investors).

5.1.2.3. Land-use plans and tourism development From the point of view of tourism development, an early preparation of individual projects for a number of locations may preclude the possibility to develop a territory-wide strategy, particularly in view of the following factors: ƒ scarcity of available public land; ƒ wide diversity of the sites identified by the consultant as suitable for tourism development; ƒ existence of a broad range of tourism development options according to each site suitability and present conditions with regard to existing buildings and infrastructure; and ƒ expected economic benefits from tourism, It is of the utmost importance to keep all options open for all sites identified on the shore (see Maps 12 and 18), in order to allow for the correct tourism development mix to be implemented. This will allow each site to be developed to the maximum of its potential and to balance the Albania tourism offer in the most profitable way, i.e. to target the highest possible end clientele each site can accommodate and satisfy. The present "pocket approach" (such as planning documents and development projects presented in previous sections) may run against this objective. It must also be noted that there is a direct positive causal relationship between the income generated per hectare of tourism development (and per bed) and the land-use regulations

194


Coastal Development Pressures: Policy Response

prevailing in and in the vicinity of the tourism developments. Recent examples in Mallorca and Cyprus where measures were taken to drastically amend the land-use regulations to upgrade quality standards, as well as efforts made in that sense in Croatia stem from this equation between land use and profit. As in other transition economies, increased mobility and rise of purchasing power induced strong demand for property acquisition in the coastal area. These properties are in the most cases secondary residencies that do not provide needed new jobs or income. Since the landuse and building regulations are not precise enough, this type of development often happens in the areas intended for tourism development (a right land-use mix is then corrupted). The end result is loss of valuable resources for tourism development. In addition, given the preferences and taste with regard to the real estate properties at this moment, a lot of substandard developments take place in the Southern Coastal Region (lack of public spaces, parking facilities or greenery). For the above reasons it is important to keep the existing land-use plans frozen until the new Integrated Coastal Development Plan is completed. This also includes detailed land-use recommendations based on the most suitable and profitable tourism development options proposed for each site and new legal provisions introduced (new Planning Law and possible urgent measures proposed below).

5.2. Nature protection The Nature Protection Department of the Ministry of Environment (MOE) has the ambition to influence the development process in the direction of environmentally friendly development based on the conservation of natural resources, by using various levels of nature protection as an instrument. This ambition is clearly reflected in the 1999 Biodiversity Strategy Action Plan (BSAP), which proposes an increase of the areas with some level of protection, from todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 5.8% to 14% within the next short-term period, with 25% as the long-term objective for the year 2020. As regards the level of biodiversity / landscape conservation awareness, BSAP is rather ambiguous. The need for conservation is strongly supported in theory, but, when it comes to practice, there is a lack of implementation and recognition of conservation needs from other sectors. Inadequate information and inappropriate communication flow (if there is one, it is top-down), a lack of co-operation with both government and the other authorities, and a very limited involvement of local authorities and citizens in the decision-making process are important conservation and protection issues. Although the need to protect valuable natural and cultural assets is generally recognised by local authorities and the general public, when it comes to practice, landowners and other users often have a negative attitude towards protection (examples of Karaburun and Butrinti). This can be, at least partly, attributed to the strictly regulative approach, which imposes only constraints on property or use. Neither incentives nor other easement mechanisms are presently used to secure protection of natural, scenic or cultural values. Two by far largest protected areas in the southern coast are the Butrinti National Park and Karaburun area (presently including the Llogara National Park but proposed to be extended) by the BSAP.

5.2.1. Butrinti National Park The Butrinti National Park (BNP) has benefited from a wealth of planning and development studies since 1991 as a result of its status as the only UNESCO World Heritage Site in

195


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Albania. The most recent of such planning efforts, entitled BNP Development Study, was published in September 2002. It was produced by the Institute of World Archaeology based in the UK, and prepared in collaboration with the Albanian Ministry of Culture, the BNP Board and staff, the Butrinti Foundation and others. It was preceded by a BNP Management Plan – 2000 to 2005, produced in a similar collaboration, as well as landscape master plans, ecotourism plans, monument conservation plans and a variety of specialised reports. The recent development study is a good compilation of the important aspects from the previous studies, and it presents a framework that highlights the complex set of issues surrounding the future of Butrinti – cultural monuments and archaeology, natural resources conservation, tourism, legal framework, and institutional development. The development study sets out a series of development proposals for the national park based on short-term and long-term goals taken from the previous management plan. It has been criticised as falling short of a comprehensive development plan for Butrinti, and failing to identify a practical, detailed strategy for achieving the development proposals it advocates. The development study has not been adopted as an official document for the park by the BNP board, but it does serve to identify the broad scope of complex issues surrounding the future of the park, and it provides a vision of the future that illustrates some important alternatives for visitation, conservation, and development. A more comprehensive development and management plan for the park is proposed to be prepared in 2005/06 as a component of the same ICZMP project that is sponsoring this integrated coastal zone plan. This BNP plan update is committed to incorporating issues of regional management, so that policy is extended to the RAMSAR watershed protection area that surrounds the park. Despite the extent of planning undertaken for Butrinti, on the ground the visitor experience appears little changed over the last 5 years since the site was made a national park. There is still no visitor centre, the park entrance looks much the same, the ticket office is a thatch roof shepherds hut, and there are no interpretive signs on the monuments at the main archaeological site. On the positive side, the resource remains intact and is now well protected, there is a stable and growing administrative structure operating the park, and development proposals of golf courses and tourist resorts once planned for the area are a reduced threat. The park has maintained its unique landscape character during this period and improvements, although not grand in scale, are built by local craftsmen rather than ordered from some international catalogue due to funding constraints. Even though the changes proposed by the 2002 development study appear to be only slowly progressing, a surprising number of initiatives cited by the study are in some phase of implementation. To some extent, the problem of achieving a more visible progress may be related to the fact that the two most important development goals, as stated in the 2000 Management Plan, appear to be in conflict: Goal #1 says Butrinti should be developed as a world class site, and Goal #2 says that the park should retain the undeveloped nature of its setting. Whatever the source of disagreement, it is clear that there is often only limited consensus on how the park should be developed in the future. The 2002 Development Study is generally based on the assumption that the nature and volume of visitation at Butrinti will dramatically change by 2010. Similar forecasts were made in the early 1990’s after the site was made a World Heritage Site, and again in 2000 with the publication of the management plan. Such an increase in visitors to the park simply has not occurred. The visitor numbers have steadily increased since the year 2000, but the type of visitors has remained the same, and the reported visitor numbers were actually down in 2004. The primary category of foreign

196


Coastal Development Pressures: Policy Response

visitors is still organised day trips from Corfu, and domestic visitor numbers remain greater than international visitors. Conflicting visitor trends make agreement on the level of future development versus the desire to maintain the Butrinti’s special landscape character an ongoing source of discussion between planners, administrators and the community. The sporadic funding problems of capital improvement strategies dependent upon international donors also contribute to the slow progress of expensive infrastructure projects such as visitor centres. Nonetheless, many of the proposals cited in the 2002 Development Study are slowly being implemented. A new handicrafts shop and boat tours were started last season. The museum in the acropolis castle is scheduled to be reopened this July, and feasibility studies for improved visitor entry and circulation are ongoing. New projects for environmental conservation and biodiversity are planned to start this fall funded by a World Bank & GEF consortium, and construction of environmental trails this spring will encourage visitors to spend more time in the larger park.

5.2.2. Karaburun area The proclamation and management plan for the first marine and coastal National Park of Llogara-Karaburun area, including the Llogara National Park - Rreza e Kanalit-Dukat-Orikumi Lagoon – Karaburun Peninsula and Sazani Island has been identified as a priority action by many recent environmental policy documents of the Government of Albania, such as BSAP National Report (2002), BSAP (1999), Coastal Area Management Programme (1996) ICZMP (1995), and the report “Specially Protected Areas and implementation of the SPA Protocol” for Albania (1996). As a contracting party to many international conventions, Albania is committed to create an effective system for the administration of its coast. An important part of this system is the creation of a network of protected areas, including coastal and marine parks. The Ministry of the Environment, in co-operation with the Ministry of Agriculture and Food and other in-line Ministries, will fully support the implementation of the management plan of the LlogaraKaraburun area, and will take any measure to ensure legal and institutional arrangements that will make possible the conservation and sustainable use of natural and biological resources of wetland and coastal ecosystems of the site. Among the achievements of the MedWetCoast project, the management plan is one of the key activities, guaranteeing the success of the project outcome. The Management Plan provides a framework to conserve and enhance the special qualities of the site and sets out to secure the varied biodiversity found within its boundaries so that they can be enjoyed by the present and future generations. The plan also seeks to engage the site’s resident population in the management and decision-making process in order that local people can benefit in terms of sustainable livelihood development, and securing a future for their own communities. The Management Plan recognises that the resident community, local businesses, outside agencies, NGOs, voluntary bodies and individuals will have very significant parts to play in the successful implementation of the Plan, and that the proposed Management Board and the Protected Area (PA) Administration will need to work very closely with them, since their commitment is crucial to its success. It must also be widely accepted that successful conservation activities within the site can only be achieved with the local communities support. They and the PA Administration must work together to achieve the Management Plans aims and objectives. This Plan provides the opportunity to: ƒ

take stock of the changes affecting the Site, especially in the light of the major political and social changes that have occurred in recent years;

197


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

ƒ

to assess the implications of extending the Llogara National Park, in light of the new legislation concerning the protected areas of Albania;

ƒ

to develop a clear vision of the Site that is to be passed on to future generations;

ƒ

to provide a framework of policies and actions that will support that vision;

ƒ

to improve collaboration and consultation with the wide range of national and international agencies and organisations concerned with protected areas and the conservation of biodiversity as a whole.

5.3. Land ownership and restitution1 The principle of restitution and compensation to former owners, whose property was confiscated in the Communist era, was added to the Albanian legislation in 1993 after the programmes of farmland distribution and housing privatisation had already been underway.2 Thus, the laws had to deal with the problem of resolving conflicting claims between new owners (those who gained rights under the post-1991 privatisation legislation) and former owners. The initial restitution compensation laws provided for the grant of alternative land or financial compensation, rather than restitution of the actual property, for several categories of land. This included all agricultural land, already subject to distribution under law 7501, On Land.3 For housing, the law allowed the restitution of land with the house, if it existed without substantial change since 1945. In such cases the rights of the persons in occupancy would be adjusted either by granting them a lease to continue possession, or by organising alternative housing with assistance from the state. Urban land could also be given in restitution, subject to separate ownership of a building standing on it. The provisions in the 1993 Restitution and Compensation Laws proved unsatisfactory because a majority of the families claiming restitution were to be assigned an alternative land grant or financial compensation. Meanwhile, the proponents of restitution also began to focus their attention on the tourism zones, as potential areas from which grants of alternative land could be drawn. In the end, the compensation process was never implemented and former owner claims remain unfulfilled. The laws relating to restitution and compensation must be read in the context of the constitutional provisions concerning the right to private property. The current Constitution of the Republic of Albania includes stronger properly provisions. The fact that the Constitution guarantees private property has been interpreted by some to guarantee full restitution of or compensation for all property owned prior to 1945. However, other interpretations do not read this guarantee as broadly. The Constitution must be interpreted to give effect to the European Convention on Human Rights, which has been ratified by the Republic of Albania. The European Court on Human Rights (ECHR) has a significant case law that is relevant to the restitution/compensation issue in Albania. The most significant is the fact that the ECHR determined that there is no absolute right of restitution. In addition, the Court has ruled that the State enjoys a wide margin of discretion in assessing the appropriate level of

1

Compiled from Legal Assessment: Demolitions and Involuntary Resettlement Issues in Albania, Draft, 2005, prepared by Kathrine M. Kelm 2 Law no. 7698 dated I5 April 1993, On Restitution and Compensation of Former Property Owners and Law No. 7699, dated 21 April, 1003 On Compensating Former Owners for the Value of Agricultural Land. 3 Law no. 7501 of 19 July 1991, On Land

198


Coastal Development Pressures: Policy Response

compensation and in estimating the value of the property. There is no guarantee of full compensation in all circumstances, because legitimate objectives of the public interest may call for an amount, which is less than full market value. Furthermore, in terms of assessing the scale of compensation to be provided to those entitled to it, the European Court has developed methods of calculation primarily in cases concerning interference with property rights. While this approach is based on "market value", this is the market value of the property that could have been negotiated in a sale as of the date of the wrong. Thus, Albania's commitment to compensate former owners at the current full market value is beyond the requirements under the ECHR. The Law 9235 aims at regulating the restitution/compensation of immovable property expropriated, nationalised, or confiscated with legal, sub-legal acts, criminal decisions of courts, or taken in any other unjust manner after 29 November 1944. It sets forth the procedures based on which the restitution and compensation of property will be done. The law recognises the Law 7501 on privatisation, as well as other post-1991 privatisation laws. Thus, there is still no restitution of agricultural land. An amendment that limits the compensation of agricultural land to 60 ha. was proposed and approved at the last moment without a full debate. The law establishes the State Committee on Restitution and Compensation of Property (State Committee) and 12 Local Commissions in each Qark to adjudicate restitution and compensation claims. An administrative appeal process has been added and a new valuation method for compensation, based on current market value, will be approved by the Assembly. The law requires all new claims to be submitted by 15 September 2005, and the request to review the existing claims must have been filed by 15 March 2005. The intention of the law is to allow one year and six months, respectively, for the expropriated subject to compile and submit their documentation and requests. However, the implementation of the law is behind schedule, and several deadlines have passed. The failure to appoint the Local Commissions and hire staff at the State Committee level within the deadlines defined in the law means that the institution is not prepared to serve the citizens as required. An amendment to the law was presented to the Parliament in April 2005 to extend the deadlines by one year but the amendment has not yet been placed on the Parliamentary Committee agenda for review.

5.3.1. Valuation Methodology One of the most important implementing regulations is the methodology for valuation of land for compensation purposes. Since the current law is much more important from the point of view of compensation, the methodology is a crucial component to the proper implementation of the law. There is no official estimate of the state land available for compensation in-kind, but information produced through the First Registration process under the former USAID-funded registration project indicates that much of the remaining state land is located in remote mountain areas, or was refused because unproductive or environmentally damaged. These types of property are unacceptable for use as compensation. Thus, it is likely that the provisions for compensation other than alternative property, most likely cash, will be required in order to resolve the majority of claims. Finally, the method used for calculating the value of the land and the corresponding compensation will have a significant impact on the state budget. The state budget will bear the burden in two ways: first through direct payments for cash compensation over the 10year period defined in the law, and also, the revenues that would normally come in from the

199


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

sales of property through privatisation will be absent because that property will have to be used for compensation in-kind. The prices that result from the valuation methodology are extremely high and the state will be obliged to finance an extremely high compensation package.

5.3.2. Restitution/Compensation and Tourism Development Land ownership along the coastal strip is still disputed with the Government, and is proving to be a critical constraint to development. The unresolved issues of restitution and compensation are particularly problematic along the Vlora - Saranda coastline, and have prevented the process of First Registration of Immovable Property from being completed.4 Restitution/compensation is of particular relevance to the development of the tourism sector and will have an impact on this Project as well as the whole World Bank Integrated Coastal Zone Management and Clean-up Project (ICZMCP). The policy of the Government to avoid restitution of forests and pastures along the coastline has resulted in local opposition to much of the development in those zones. The dispute over the development right of the Nivica/Kakome Bay area is just one example of local opposition to the Government allocation of privatisation and concession agreements to outsiders. With respect to the main Project area, the Vlora-Saranda coastline, the following are some observations on land ownership and the local population's disputes with the Government: ƒ

Each village is unique in how it has or has not implemented the land reform process, so it is very difficult to make broad generalisations. The vast majority of villages seem to have reached a consensus that the Law 7501 is unacceptable given the peculiarities of small-holdings, absence of large landlords, perspective of tourist development rather than agricultural production, and for historical reasons.

ƒ

The presence of “new” families, families that were transferred to the area under the socialist regime to work in the cooperatives, complicates the dynamics within the villages. The villages seem united in the belief that complete restitution is the only solution, and seem very reluctant to compromise, especially with regard to the "new" families that have formal rights under Law 7501. The reluctance to accommodate "new" families will complicate the possibility of finding a compromise solution to the issue.

ƒ

Local citizens claim that numerous abuses have been done with the land distribution and privatisation process. Although individual cases have not been researched, there appears to be evidence to support the claim. The 2 main forms of abuse are: ƒ Failure to restitute forests and pastures, either by changing the classification of forests and pastures (which are subject to restitution) to agricultural land (which must be divided according to Law 7501), or simply not processing the restitution claim; and ƒ Vertetim i Faktit5 court decisions that conflict with historical ownership data.

ƒ

In 2004, the village of Palase implemented a local initiative where the village is setting up a new Land Commission and issuing new ownership documentation based on ancestral

4

First Registration is the process of surveying, mapping and legal registration of immovable property and is the basis for creating the Immovable Property Registration System. First registration is the only manner by which legal rights to property are registered and guaranteed. 5 A Vertetim i Faktit (ViF) is a declaratory judgement issued by a court, a factual declaration of ownership. A person can claim ownership of property by presenting 3 witnesses to the court to verify the ownership. The 1994 Civil Code states that ViF can no longer be used as proof of ownership for legal registration purposes but gift and sales transactions can confuse the issue.

200


Coastal Development Pressures: Policy Response

rights and historical boundaries. Most villages have documents from 1957-1959 that show the ancestral land parcels each family "gave" to the cooperatives. Based on this documentation, Palase is issuing new Tapis (land allocation documents). However, it is unlikely that this new division will be approved by central government institutions. ƒ

First Registration is complete in only 1 village, Qeparo, while all other contracts had to be cancelled under the former USAID Land Registration Project. The Qeparo Village Elder claimed that 93% of the population is happy with the Law 7501 land division process and subsequent First Registration but a group of villagers disputed the statistic. The villagers also highlighted the use of force by masked police that were sent to Qeparo to subdue the unrest over First Registration activities in 2003.

Thus, it is clear that restitution/compensation issues must be resolved in the area, and the local government and population must be active in the development plans, otherwise opposition to the ICZMCP and other development initiatives will persist.

5.4. Coastal management Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) should not be confused with the spatial planning, although the latter is still one of the most powerful instruments to regulate coastal development in many countries, Albania included. Unfortunately, in many countries the use of spatial planning extends only to the coastline, while the coastal waters usually remain outside its realm, and are being either non-regulated or regulated by many un-coordinated stakeholders.

5.4.1 Why does coastal management matter? The essence of ICM is the integration of the terrestrial and marine coastal realms. This fact is most easily justified by having in mind the benefits each one of these realms gains from being in the vicinity of each other, as well as the interplay of their resources. Many terrestrial facilities (hotels, residences, recreation) positively benefit from the vicinity of the sea, while the quality of the sea almost exclusively depends on the way the terrestrial activities are being managed. Unfortunately, the legal and institutional solutions in many countries fail to recognise the need for integration. The coastline is the boundary between the line ministries’ jurisdictions (regulatory “split”). The terrestrial domain is almost exclusively under the jurisdiction of the planning ministry and is regulated by the law on spatial planning (or Urban Planning Law in Albania), which integrates some sectoral interests. The marine domain’s management is usually regulated by the “resource”-based ministries (fisheries, maritime affairs, culture, and environment), and it is usually managed as a single resource management domain. The need to merge these two realms has given birth to the new discipline: Integrated Coastal Management. The basic principles of ICM that are the following: ƒ

coastal zone is managed as a space for sustainable development respecting the environment and taking in consideration its carrying capacity;

ƒ

interaction and interdependence between the land and the sea are permanently taken in consideration;

ƒ

an equilibrium should be established between the protection of natural resources and socio-economic development of the coastal zone;

ƒ

a co-ordination between all administrative levels should be established;

ƒ

environmental protection should be integrated in national and local plans and programmes;

201


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

ƒ

coastal land uses should be compatible among themselves, and priority should be given to public services and professional activities that directly depend on the coastal location; etc.

5.4.2. Some proposals for Integrated Coastal Management in Albania As a first step towards establishing a system of integrated coastal management in Albania, two sets of measures should be considered: the legal and institutional ones. If actions are taken soon, this could help create the basis for a more sustainable coastal management leading towards more efficient protection and rational use of coastal resources. Two legal measures could be proposed, one short-term, the other longer-term: a decree on coastal areas, and a coastal law. The decree on the protection of coastal areas is a temporary measure, which could immediately stop the negative coastal development. Being a decree, it could be adopted by the Government, and doesn’t have to pass through the Parliament, where it could raise an unnecessary debate. There are several examples of this measure in the Mediterranean countries (Croatia, Italy-Sardinia). In these cases, the decree has proven to be a timely and efficient measure. On the negative side, it should be stressed that the decree has to be a temporary and short-term measure only, because in the long term it basically hampers the development and may force people to start acting against its intentions. The decree has to be very clearly written and lead to no misinterpretations. The decree has to lead soon after to the coastal law. A number of Mediterranean countries have already adopted the coastal law, the most recent example being the State of Israel. In that country the coastal development pressures are strong, and the adoption of the law was preceded by long discussions. The coastal law regulates precisely the conditions for coastal development, including: ƒ definition of the setback area; ƒ identification and delimitation, outside the specially protected areas, of natural areas in which urban development and other activities are prohibited; ƒ limiting linear extension of urban development along the coast; ƒ avoiding creation of new roads along the coast; ƒ securing free access to the coastline; etc. The law should be followed by a number of regulatory measures aimed at its implementation. However, there might be some negative aspects related to the coastal law, such as: ƒ

the preparation and adoption of the law could be a lengthy process, possibly at odds with the unregulated coastal development that has its own dynamics;

ƒ

there might be an institutional clash about who will be responsible for the law’s enforcement: the MOTAT or the Ministry of the Environment;

ƒ

there might be a lack of resources for its implementation;

ƒ

there might be difficulties in integrating this law’s provision with the provisions of the Law on Urban (sic!) Planning; etc.

The institutional arrangement for ICM is a crucial element in its implementation. It is considered that, very often, lack of an appropriate institutional arrangement and a rivalry or non-existence of integration among line ministries might be the cause of grave coastal environmental problems. An appropriate coastal body should have the principal task of reconciling the conflicting interests among the users of the coastal resources. Several solutions at the national level are known in the international ICM practice: coastal authority, agency, and committee.

202


Coastal Development Pressures: Policy Response

The coastal authority is the most solid type of institutional arrangement. It has strong executive power for decision making, means to enforce the law (it could even have a sort of police), a judicial role for enacting regulations and directives, standards and procedure enforcement and arbitration, and a high position in the government hierarchy, securing that coastal issues come to the government agenda. It could even have the market role, allocating funds, offering incentives or subsidies. The negative sides are its high cost, lack of trained manpower, the fact that it is operating mainly by “pressuring” coastal users to abide to the regulations, i.e. by being “reactive”, lack of integrating power to reach consensus among coastal users, and competition among line ministries who will be “responsible” for it. The coastal agency is a “softer” solution than an authority. Although it is usually within the jurisdiction of a certain ministry, its role should be to facilitate bringing together various agencies (partners) involved in ICM and stimulating a dialogue among them. It is not a regulatory body, but could heave means at its disposal to monitor the situation on the coast, such as an inspection service. It does not have a judicial or market role as the authority. On the negative side, it could still be costly, the appropriate workforce may not exist, and it may take years to be created, there might be a rivalry among ministries to take control over the agency, there may be some confusion regarding the role of the agency as a semiindependent body, etc. Finally, the coastal management committee is a really “soft” solution. It should involve all the stakeholders participating in coastal management, including the national and local governments, NGOs, private sectors and professional associations. It should primarily have a co-ordinating role in helping achieve consensus on the use of coastal resources including land for urbanisation, coastal water, fresh water resources, natural areas, historic heritage, protected areas and other. Such a committee could be established on a voluntary or on a statutory basis. It should meet regularly and could have the following functions in guiding the ICM process: review major development proposals, take decisions on these proposals, define the functions of the participating bodies in the decision-making process and ensure public involvement, and assist in revenue raising and allocation of funds. Coastal committees could reaffirm the role of Coastal Managers, as the persons that would have to ensure the creation and effective operation of such committees. The most recent and positive example is Israel, where such a committee has been established at the national level after the Coastal Law was adopted in summer 2004. The Coastal Stakeholders Committee (CSC), that has been proposed in this project, as a form of the local ICM forum, could be taken as a seed for such institutional solution. The positive side of such a solution is a relatively low cost, secured participation of a wide range of coastal stakeholders, responsibility to be exercised after a voluntary agreement on the use of coastal resources has been reached, lack of “turf” wars between line ministries, and increased awareness on the coastal issues. On the negative side the following could be mentioned: lack of statutory powers, poor enforcement mechanisms, and relatively slow reaction in the time of crisis.

5.5. Recommendations: Coastal planning urgent measures The analysis of physical, environmental, social and legal context, presented in this Study, aimed at identifying the key obstacles and opportunities in achieving sustainable coastal development objectives. However, given the urgency of some of the issues identified, relevant recommendations need to be translated into precise measures aimed at stopping unacceptable coastal development practices. This primarily refers to a high demand and pressure for real estate development (in particular in the vicinity of the settlements or in the

203


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

areas with basic road access) and is often carried out as illegal building. Given the value and development potential of endangered coastal land and natural resources, the proposed measures should be considered as a crisis management response and the legal form of their possible implementation can be a governmental decree (see Annex 10 for similar examples from Croatia and Italy-Sardinia). The main reason for the proposed approach is efficiency – the fast pace of the mentioned development practices, destructive for coastal resources, as opposed to the time needed for a “regular” policy response through planning efforts (ICD Study and Plan and other more detailed land-use planning documents) and possible legal and institutional changes (coastal institution and specific coastal legislation). It should be pointed out that the recommendations that follow are not fully comprehensive in terms of the future regional development. Rather they are formulated having in mind the usual scope of territorial development planning and the legal and institutional context which provides instruments for implementation of the territorial development plans. This is why some of the recommendations and proposed measures are ICD Plan-specific while others are more “systemic”, but of a great general importance and very relevant for ICD Plan implementation. Accordingly, given the scale of uncontrolled and illegal building along the coast, as well as the present ineffectiveness in dealing with this issue, the following urgent measures are recommended: 1.

Coastal belt of 1,000 m should be proclaimed as protected coastal area (PCA) of particular significance and interest for the State.

2.

Immediate measures to improve effectiveness of construction police with particular emphasis on the PCA - basic equipment should be provided including vehicles, digital cameras, GPSs and personal computers, as well as training on the efficient work methods (digital aerial photos are a useful and affordable source of baseline information in tracking, identifying and reporting illegal building). In addition, clear criteria and procedures, specific and more stringent for the PCA, should be developed with regard to the illegal building demolition.

3.

Any construction of residential or tourist buildings within the PCA can take place only after adoption of a detailed regulatory plan (partial urban planning studies) approved by the Regional Council for Territory Adjustment. The only exemption may be in-fill development within an urbanised, serviced area. The key aim of a detailed regulatory plan is to define the system of open public spaces including the road/street network and adequate infrastructure services in scale 1:1,000 or 1:2,000. It is important that this plan allows for some flexibility while prescribing the main parameters, such as minimum lot size, maximum building footprint and floor area ratio, height and parking standards. Approval should confirm that the detailed regulatory plan was prepared in line with the higher-level planning documents (regional/territorial development plan such as ICD Plan and, if applicable, urban master plan).

4.

Construction of residential or tourist buildings within the PCA can take place only after the open public spaces including the road/street corridors with communal infrastructure and greenery areas are subdivided (legally established parcels) according to the approved detailed regulatory plan.

5.

Within the residential and tourist development land uses outside urban areas no residential development or development of tourist accommodation facilities should be allowed in the 100 m coastal belt. Within this 100 m belt, the allowed interventions include: open public spaces such as recreation areas, playgrounds, seafront

204


Coastal Development Pressures: Policy Response

promenades and beaches, tourist catering and entertainment facilities, and coastal infrastructure (ports, dry marinas). The only exception can be residential development or development of tourist accommodation facilities within the marinas. If and where necessary, the regional-level planning document such as ICD Plan can define this building setback 6.

Measures to limit or stop real estate development within the tourist development zones â&#x20AC;&#x201C; it is important to significantly limit building of apartments which are most often intended to be sold, as separate units, on the real estate market. Problem comes from the fact that apartments, as a specific type of tourism accommodation facility, are indistinguishable in the physical form from residential development. This is why developers easily get building permits for apartment buildings as tourist facilities but after building them they are easily sold on real estate market. To avoid this, each planning document should clearly indicate the amount of apartment (residential) buildings within each tourist development zone.

7.

Given the importance and special State protection granted to PCA, any future illegal building within the PCA should be proclaimed criminal act. Since at first sight this may sound as a very strict measure, it is important to emphasise the dominant nature of this phenomenon. As opposed to mainly social illegal building from the past, most of the new illegal coastal developments (seen and heard about during the mission) are speculative in nature and intended for real estate market. A related important issue is illegal building of a type where a building permit has been issued but the developer does not respect the allowed building size (maximum footprint and height).

All the proposed urgent measures can be temporary in nature. Most of them can be built into the TDSP or become the responsibility of the coastal authority and coastal legislation. An important dilemma remains with regard to the most appropriate form of regulating the coastal legal matters â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a separate piece of legislation or extended land-use planning system. Recommendations relating to the preparation of the Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan are short term, given the expected time frame for ICDSP preparation. They include: 1.

The issue of compatibility between the Urban Planning Law and Basic Law may be resolved through shared responsibility planning and hierarchical (partly nested) system of regional and local land-use plans. This means that a regional plan is drafted (or coordinated) by the regional planning unit with full participation of the municipalities and communes. A hierarchical system of land-use plans would certainly provide for respecting the inherent logic of, for example, need for tourism or infrastructure planning at regional level, and at the same time allow for local participation in dealing with community development issues at local levels. In this way the regional plan (ICDSP) will become a source of criteria for local land-use plans approval, instead of the presently mostly discretionary rights of the members of regional CTAs. In other words, local plan approval would mean that it has been prepared respecting the relevant elements of the regional plan agreed upon during the participatory regional planning process. The same relationship between the regional plan and national spatial development strategy will be established once the national strategy is approved.

2.

The regional-level planning units should become the main intermediary between the national and local levels in charge of land-use planning. ICDSP should be an important on-the-job training for the regional planning unit in Vlora. Training should particularly cover the land-use planning methodology (including environmental and tourism planning) and relevant good practices, implementation instruments, sectoral co-ordination, public participation, dispute resolution and information management (GIS). Significant

205


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

involvement of the Albanian counterparts from all relevant institutions is essential (this was one of the main drawbacks of the CZM Planning process in 1994-96). 3.

Measures should be introduced to control spreading of settlements alongshore (coastal ribbon development) which is often being done through legal land-use plans (buildable land or “yellow line” extension) of municipalities and communes. Regional-level land-use planning documents such as ICDSP should provide clear criteria, preferably quantified, based on the size of the existing buildable land, the share of already developed land within it, and realistic population and tourism development forecasts. Such a measure should protect the coastal belt from sprawl development, balance the supply and demand of buildable land and make provision of urban infrastructure services more cost effective.

4.

ICDSP, in order to ensure the most practical assistance, should provide a vertical system of territorial planning documents harmonised among them. The first planning tier is regional (scale 1:50,000), covering the whole area, through designation of environmentally sensitive areas, main land/sea uses and infrastructure. Local-level planning (scale 1:10,000) should provide examples of tourism and community planning. The most detailed tier may deal with site planning and building regulations (1:2,000).

Two important recommendations for the implementation of coastal plans and policies deal with the Urban planning law and introduction of a new “coastal tax”: 1.

Land-use planning law amendments in terms of introduction of effective land policies for settlements. The key aim is a timely provision of serviced land and public spaces within settlements in which costs recovery through participation of private capital is crucial. This is one of the key prerequisites for the functioning of land-use planning system at the implementation level. This proposal is of a general significance for the effective planning system. However, as opposed to dealing with powerful coastal developers, it should be carefully applied in an average Albanian settlement where provision of housing for poor may require additional sensitivity in tackling this problem (see section on Development Impact Fee)

2.

Another relevant topic which has not been addressed so far is betterment levy (tax) on land owners and developers in the coastal area who benefit from an increase in land value because of a planning decision (and not because of any effort of the landowner), or land-use change (for example, agricultural or pasture land zoned as residential or land for tourism development would vastly increase in value). A possible option is to treat any gains made as a result of the planning decision in the coastal area as capital gain and to tax it. In a situation when local authorities have no realistic sources to finance nature protection, and when environmental quality standards set by national policies require even additional funds, some sort of betterment levy seems as one of the very few realistic sources of revenue to be introduced and earmarked for these purposes. In addition, such a tax brings more equity among coastal landowners and may relax some landowner pressure. Perhaps a good solution would be to establish a regional coastal fund (based on this tax), transparently managed and intended solely for compensation of landowners in protected and other sensitive areas.

206


6

Development Vision for the Southern Albanian Coastal Region

This Chapter elaborates a framework development strategy for the Southern Albanian Coastal Region, in particular for its coastal zone where the development pressures as well as development opportunities are their greatest. The first 2 chapters have provided a thorough analysis of all major development pressures in the region. At every possible occasion the development trends were presented, so that a feeling could be grasped what might be expected in the region if the current trends are continued. The third chapter tackles the issue of tourism, presenting in very bold terms what might be expected and what should be done if viable tourism concept is to be developed in the region, considering the wider socioeconomic environment in the neighbouring countries. The fourth chapter is particularly important because it sets the stage for the development vision by calculating, wherever possible in quantitative terms, the environmental carrying capacity of the territory. Using this innovative approach successfully here, an important assessment of the capacities that should not be crossed if sustainable development is to be materialised along the Ionian Coast, has been made. On the basis of the assessment, the preliminary identification of all the potential tourist sites has been made. Finally, the response of the responsible authorities to the current problems has been analysed and recommendations for urgent measures have been made. What follows below is the elaboration of a strategy that should be worked out in detail during the next stage of this project - the land-use planning stage.

6.1. Demographic trends The key demographic trend of the Ionian Coast is geographical mobility of labour, as one of the important responses to the lack of employment. This feature is common for Albania as a whole, where during the period 1997-2001 each year 8-10% of Albanian males aged between 15 and 34 were part of the employment-related emigration, mostly to Greece and Italy. It is estimated that the average wage earnings are about three times higher than the earnings in the jobs engaged in prior to emigration. The savings of the emigrants are mostly repatriated to Albania and the vast majority of migrants (66-79%) express strong willingness to return to Albania. The emigration trend is reflected in the Vlora Region Profile (2003). In the Himara Municipality the resident population in 2001 is reported to be 3,214 while the registered population in 2000 is quoted as 10,057. The difference is attributed to temporary emigration. Likewise, in the Municipality of Saranda the corresponding population figures are 15,259 and 31,571 respectively. Together, Himara and Saranda, while the registered population is reported to be 41,628, 23,155 (56%) seem to be working abroad as migrant labour at least for a large part of the year. According to the Vlora Profile Report, the difference between the resident and the registered population for the whole area is 36,516, implying a percentage of migrant population of 58%. The growth of the registered population between 1989-2004 is shown to be equal to about 55% (more than doubling of the population). The highest growth is shown to be in the Saranda Municipality and Ksamili, both urban areas.

207


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

If the annual natural population growth rate (population forecast made for the Study) between 1.5-2.0% (slowly decreasing) is adopted, then the population of the Study Area in 2015 (excluding Orikumi) will be around 100,000 (Table 6.1). Table 6.1: Natural Population Growth Forecast (2004 – 2015)* Nr.

Municipality / Commune

1 2 3 4 5 6

Himara Lukova Saranda Aliko Ksamili Xarra Total

2004 10,697 8,911 34,226 3,353 7,124 6,811 71,122

2015 12,100 9,700 50,400 7,650 10,500 9,500 99,850

* Based on the average growth rates

The issue that remains, however, is the permanent resident population of the area being the base for the available labour force. Assuming that the temporary migrant population will be potentially participating in the area’s labour force when employment is generated, the labour pool will be close to 60,000 (60% of the population) posing no problem, from the point of view of numbers, to support tourism development. If half of the labour force is available for employment in the tourism sector (both direct employment in the accommodation sector and the indirectly generated broad service sector), the number of tourist beds that may be supported would by far exceed the planned level of development for the foreseeable future. Service skills will, however, be the main constraint for the development of tourism industry.

6.2. Preferred economic structure As explained in Chapter 2.1.2, the economic structure of the area is held back by several factors which may be summarised as follows: ƒ

It has a ‘dual’ structure, a small urban economy focused on the town of Saranda, and a subsistence rural economy in the rest of the area;

ƒ

It has a small production base and small local market. The urban economy is too small to support a strong production base comprising manufacturing and service activities, while the rural economy in the villages, crippled by depopulation, an ageing labour force and a small resident population, is family based and produces only for part of the local market, as many agricultural goods are imported from other areas and abroad.

ƒ

It has very weak links between the urban and the rural economies; neither has the capacity to become a leading sector and create demand for the other and generate the required income and employment opportunities, hence its dependence on remittances from the labour force working abroad.

ƒ

It has, so far, not developed the capacity to utilise its advantages as a coastal economy based on the rich environmental and heritage resources.

Future economic growth of the Study Area can only be achieved by creating an economic structure with a strong production sector and consumption demand. The limited size of the local market clearly implies that the future economic structure with an increased production and consumption capacity cannot be built by domestic (endogenous) demand sources but by stimulating external demand, such as tourism which is capable of generating demand for construction, services, local manufacturing and agriculture.

208


Development Vision for the Southern Albanian Coastal Region

Tourism, being a composite economic activity, can provide the missing element and act as the focus (prime mover) in building an integrated ‘coastal economic structure’ in the study area. The main characteristics of the coastal economy will include the following: ƒ

New productive investment in the construction of tourism accommodation and other facilities in selected urban and rural locations making possible external consumption spending in tourism services;

ƒ

Inter-sectoral multiplier effects building up both the urban and the rural sectors. Tourism will fuel direct spending by the tourist visitors in the core urban tourism areas and indirect spending by the local labour force earning wages in the construction sector spreading across the various sectors of the coastal economy including financial services, transport, small-scale manufacturing, crop and animal agricultural products, village services, etc. in the rural areas.

ƒ

Tourism-generated demand for local manufacturing in the rural economy, like traditional furniture, handicrafts and processed agricultural goods (wine, dairy products, etc.) in Himara and other village communities.

ƒ

Demand for environmental quality (incorporating areas of biodiversity, lakes, parks, forests, etc. in the development process) leading to their protection (such as Butrinti Lake) and marketing as main diversifying elements in the local tourism product.

ƒ

Demand for local traditional heritage buildings, houses and monuments in several places (such as in the old Himara village), likewise leading to their protection, improvement and tourism marketing;

ƒ

Creation of market-based incentives for environmental management of heritage and coastal biodiversity sites as an integral part of the coastal economy, rather than the economy being a threat to the such environmental sites;

ƒ

Inclusion of local communities in development as active agents in the production and supply of tourism services.

ƒ

Social benefits arising from and accruing to village-based tourism through opportunities for local communities investing in small-scale accommodation, traditional furniture and food production and processing facilities, making possible the inclusion of local communities, now facing the threat of disintegration, in the regeneration effort.

Evidently, the success of tourism in fulfilling the role of the prime mover towards integrated economic development in the Ionian Coast will depend on the building type, scale, quality, ownership and location of tourism development. This means that tourism development should be planned according to the identified resource base, economic and social needs and environmental carrying capacity of the coastal area and the opportunities and constraints of each locality for fulfilling best the preferred future economic structure. A major issue is the distribution of tourism development and the role of tourism zoning not only as an ‘allocator’ of land but primarily as an instrument in balanced economic and social development.

6.3. Development vision The main challenge of the Regional Government is to improve the quality of life of all citizens, to ensure sufficient economic growth, and particularly to create opportunities for people who have previously been excluded from participating in the economy, most of them emigrating for this reason to neighbouring countries. In order to succeed it needs to develop infrastructure, attract investors, manage population and encourage local businesses. The Ionian Coast, framed by two national parks, is one of the jewels in Albania’s network of natural areas. The natural beauty of the area, its relatively mild climate, intriguing cultural

209


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

heritage and the range of recreational activities that can be undertaken there, if accompanied by an easy access and the choice of accommodation facilities, may make it a magnet for international and domestic tourists. Accordingly, tourism has been identified as one of the sectors with the best potential for economic growth. After an initial phase of uncontrolled growth in the South, the tourism business has stagnated recently, and the challenge of Integrated Coastal Development (ICD) Plan is to present a fresh and exciting image of tourism for this Region. There is a clear recognition that the lack of a cohesive strategic regional plan (in addition to a notorious lack of rule of law) has enabled uncontrolled growth and inhibited sustainable development of the Ionain Coast, particularly tourism development and investment, and resulted in mixed messages being communicated across this important sector. If the Ionian Coast is to function as a well-integrated tourism destination, there will need to be a better integration of development initiatives, including all aspects of the tourism system (i.e. demand, supply and support factors). The best way to achieve this is through the ICD Plan with the strong tourism development component, and with strong links to national initiatives and programmes in the neighbouring regions. One of the key issues in reaching development and zoning strategy consensus is in managing the tensions between: ƒ

the expectations for quick growth, mostly based on tourism development, along the whole coast,

ƒ

the need for preservation of large coastal stretches including numerous valuable environments and landscapes, and

ƒ

the need for gradual development of costly infrastructure which obviously defers development of certain localities.

The ICD Study has incorporated the analysis of available data, trend forecasting, option development and consultation with the national, regional and local stakeholders. Importantly, it recognises and addresses many of the identified shortcomings of the existing land-use planning system and statutory planning documents developed within it. The analysis so far has indicated that there are a number of critical issues that should be taken care of when developing strategies for the Ionian Coast. They can be summarised as follows: Critical Issue 1:

Conservation of Natural and Cultural Values Increased pressure from tourism and residential development threatens the significant natural and cultural values of the region, including both terrestrial and marine environments and ecosystems, requiring the integration of environmental principles into development decision-making.

Critical Issue 2: Improving Inadequate Infrastructure and Related Environmental Issues Inadequate, in many areas inexistent, infrastructure to meet the existing and forecast residential and tourist needs along the Ionian Coast (in particular sewage collection and treatment, solid waste disposal, water supply and transportation system) needs gradual, phased development.

210


Development Vision for the Southern Albanian Coastal Region

Critical Issue 3: Sustaining small and medium-size communities Regionally uneven population growth, particularly the declining and ageing populations in outlying northern areas with high emigration rates, requires the minimum level of development growth, that is the lowest level necessary for sustaining local communities and reversing the present migration trends.

Critical Issue 4: Development of Tourism within Diversified Economy Tourism should not be permitted to become an over-dominant regional economic sector agriculture and fisheries with related industries, strong service sector, in particular trade, combined with tourist businesses, provide the best balance of diversity.

Critical Issue 5: Supporting Tourism Development Tourism is a mixed economy which requires full involvement of the public sector by fixing the rules, ensuring the quality of environment and preferably triggering off a critical mass of development by bringing public land and infrastructure, as well as creating a favourable environment for investments.

Critical Issue 6: Controlled Development Increased pressure from tourism and residential development, weak law enforcement and inadequate infrastructure impact upon the coastal environment, residential amenity and traditional character of the settlements and require urgent measures.

Critical Issue 7: Quality Development and Rehabilitation of Areas of Uncontrolled Development Physical development should respect the limits of the carrying capacity of the territory. Although, overall, the margin for growth along the Ionian Coast is relatively large, there are a few critical areas where additional care should be taken (solid waste, waste water). Quality development also means respect for the natural and cultural values of the landscape forms that are providing a characteristic stamp to the region.

DEVELOPMENT VISION

The Ionian Coast becomes an important Mediterranean tourist destination, known for the protection of its environments, natural and cultural heritage and identity, with tourism sector well integrated into diversified regional economy which will ensure prosperity and wellbeing for all its population.

211


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

6.3.1. Principles and objectives of coastal planning and development Taking into consideration the key coastal resources and environments identified in previous chapters as well as critical issues, the following principles and objectives for coastal planning and development are proposed:

a) Protection of significant environmental features ƒ

coastal and marine features of ecological, geological, geomorphological, cultural, landscape and historical significance will be protected.

ƒ

coastal habitats, terrestrial and marine, and the associated native flora and fauna will be protected

ƒ

parts of the coast should remain hardly accessible to protect and retain the areas with a sense of remoteness and exploration.

ƒ

a well managed system of representative coastal parks and reserves should be developed, with local communities involved in the protection and management of sites.

b) Sustainable use of natural coastal resources Sustainable use of natural coastal resources, in line with environmental carrying capacity identified, meaning that: ƒ

coastal seawater quality will be protected primarily through infrastructure development (proponents of development in non-sewerage-served areas will demonstrate no adverse impacts on receiving coastal waters while reviews will be carried out in sewerage-served areas to ensure that the existing sewerage systems have sufficient capacity),

ƒ

the amount of coastal development should be in line with the available water resources (spring and groundwater)

ƒ

planning for solid waste disposal is one of the critical prerequisites for any new development and a key measure to protect coastal lands and soils from pollution,

ƒ

conversion of economically productive land, such as agricultural and forest lands, to urban uses should be minimised,

ƒ

priority should be given to ameliorating the areas that have the most significant negative environmental impact on coastal resources.

c) Suitable development on the coast Suitable coastal development is development that: ƒ

results in increased public benefit, having regard for environmental, social and economic implications,

ƒ

is sensitively sited and designed, in particular regarding the coastline (set back from the coast as far as practicable in line with sensitivity assessments), taking care to avoid sprawling, auto-dependent land-use patterns,

ƒ

minimises public risk by avoiding development in environmentally hazardous areas (geological risks such as land-sliding or flooding),

ƒ

facilitates multiple use of sites and existing infrastructure, without resulting in over-use,

ƒ

facilitates improvements of the existing improper or illegal developments that have poor environmental performance (provision of infrastructure), and

ƒ

is consistent with the requirements of coastal planning strategies and plans, and relevant planning schemes.

212


Development Vision for the Southern Albanian Coastal Region

Key means in applying the above principles and objectives is ICM including, in particular, statutory land-use planning system, environmental management system and sectoral regulation accompanied by the strict enforcement and effective monitoring and evaluation. ICM should be implemented through an improved institutional and legal system at national, and particularly regional and local levels (see Chapter 5.4).

6.3.2. Development on the coast: Zoning strategy Zoning strategy is the next step in the plan making process in which the above principles and objectives for land development and conservation should be further developed and translated into regional spatial structure of activities and land and marine uses, as well as areas excluded from development. In other words, zoning strategy helps translate the verbal development principles into a geographically specific representation. Practical purpose of the zoning strategy options is to help the Client and decision-makers to make their choice according to the impacts, positive or negative, of each option.

6.3.2.1. Urban/rural development Saranda is bound to acquire a major importance within the settlement hierarchy and the spatial organisation of the region. Its functions can be described as follows: ƒ

Transport and Traffic Hub. The city will become the coast’s main air and sea port of entry with the construction of the planned airport and of the ferry terminal. These two major infrastructure investments are essential to bring in tourists. Both will call for road and urban infrastructure creation to avoid bottleneck effects for airport- and port-generated traffic, and bypass the city centre, these must be taken into account in the Saranda Master Plan.

ƒ

Service centre. The southern coast "capital" is not up to its role as the main service provider for the area between Karaburun and the border with Greece. Among them those falling within the scope of the State, such as Health (there is a hospital in Saranda, with an international staff, which can deal with any medical emergency; however, patients with serious injuries or illnesses are transferred to hospitals on Corfu or in Ioannina), Education, and Higher Education, are necessary to endow Saranda with the capacities and knowledge-base of a regional capital. The quality of health care in a given region is always mentioned in tourism guides and is a non-negligible factor of choice for a destination. Other services to be upgraded and/or put into place include international banking with change and ATM facilities

ƒ

Urban Centre. Amenities and attractions offered by the cities and towns within a tourism region contribute to its attractiveness. At present, Saranda is virtually devoid of any shopping, entertainment, or cultural offer. A weak demand for these services explains the situation. The fact remains, however, that in an effort to get ahead of future demand, the municipality, the Chamber of Commerce and other local business and professional associations should endeavour to stimulate the creation of such activities. The built environment is crucial for the pull of a city, if Saranda does not want to be bypassed by tourists and travellers going directly to their final destinations. The city must preserve what remains of its pre-1945 buildings and houses and restore all of them, amend its master plan to curb sprawl, forbid extension toward the East, designate zones according to use and function, and establish design standards.

Saranda is a virtual competitor to Vlora, and lack of spatial and functional planning at the national scale may lead to sterile and costly competition between the two cities with risks of wasteful redundancies. Saranda must be clearly designated as the main tourism port of entry

213


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

– the gate to the Ionian Riviera – and as a tourism-geared tertiary activity and service centre, whilst Vlora should develop primary and secondary activities as well its fishing and cargo port activities. The extraordinary city of Girokaster must be included in the tourism offer and its historical and urban/architectural capital preserved and enhanced with extra care. The city must emphasise and develop its cultural offer and encourage the creation of a high-quality lodging and dining offer and cultural events. Himara is second in importance. The city of Himara has an important role to play as "capital" of the Porto Palermo-Palase sub-region. The only other coastal city, Himara and its region offer a different experience than the southern half of the coast, this identity being marked by traditional way of life, mix of sea and country activities and an exceptional architectural heritage. These assets must be correctly preserved and enhanced: agriculture revitalisation, development of fishing, boat building and repair activities, absolute preservation of coast and country landscapes are prerequisites. In addition to boating and fishing, Himara must also develop services and adapt its tourism offer to international standards. A master plan taking into account preservation and tourism development imperatives – they are the same – as well as housing needs must be rapidly developed. Dhermi, Old Himara, Qeparo, Borsh, and Lukova are five traditional villages. They are architectural treasure and should be considered as such by the relevant national and local authorities: they are to be used as anchors for tourism development. Mismanagement of this capital would lead to either secluded developments with no spill-over effect or low-return developments. A specific Traditional Villages Restoration and Revitalization Program for the preparation of master plans must be put into place. It should include protected perimeters and detailed design standards and specific restoration and revitalisation activities including investment plans. Infrastructure investments will contribute to the revitalisation of traditional activities and will allow to develop artefacts business, B&B and boutique hotel in these villages. Vrina, Shendelli, and Xarra villages concentrate most social issues from health conditions to illiteracy, substandard housing and unemployment, to environmental degradation. No clear benefit stems from the vicinity of the Butrinti Park. For these settlements a specific social and infrastructure program must be designed and implemented including participation of these communities in the Park management and protection activities. Ksamili is about to become the example of a missed opportunity within the settlement scheme of the coast: endowed with some of the most valuable coastal sites and landscapes of the southern section of the Ionian Coast. Unfortunately, the area has been seriously damaged by chaotic and illegal developments to the point that a number of spots are almost irreparably lost for high-return tourism development. A number of immediate measures should be implemented, namely: provision of adequate infrastructure, demolition of all new illegal buildings, freezing of all on-going and planned developments.

6.3.2.2. Tourism development Tourism is the single most important development sector for the Ionian Coast. A scenario of its potential development pattern and spatial distribution for the ten or twenty year future is the key question the zoning strategy should provide answer to. Tourism development zoning strategy requires analysis of different zoning options or models through a multi-criteria analysis. The inputs for the analysis are provided in previous chapters, primarily through environmental and tourism carrying capacity assessment and land suitability analysis. The building blocks of the analysis are 11 Tourism Development Areas (TDAs), comprising 62 development sites (see Map 12 and 18), analysed in detail in

214


Development Vision for the Southern Albanian Coastal Region

Chapter 4. In each option, every one of the 11 sites is given an estimated capacity (new beds on top of the existing ones) and one of the following qualifiers (types of tourism development): ƒ

Strategic TDA – S, where the development is a trigger for the whole Ionian Riviera development and must be exemplary. Most of the development sites within such an area should remain tools in the hands of the public bodies to show the example and drive a virtuous development.

ƒ

Major TDA – M, where a quick major development can be achieved because it has already begun and the development potential is high.

ƒ

Dominantly eco-tourism development area – E, is an exclusive low-capacity site, like an old village or an exceptional scenic site, that bears the image of the region, is fragile and must be very carefully developed.

ƒ

Deferred TDA – D, is an area to be possibly built in the future (due to the present limited accessibility and lack of infrastructure) and has to be protected against speculation and wild construction (keep it out of accessibility, build campgrounds, …)

ƒ

Area excluded from development or preservation area - P is protected from all construction (natural reserve, national park, cultural site, remote undeveloped areas, …).

The impact of each option has been assessed on the basis of 6 criteria: ƒ

C1 - Economic long-term impact (LT), i.e. sustainable long-term economic (added value for the country) and social (creation of jobs) spin off for tourism development.

ƒ

C2 - Economic short-term impact (ST) i.e. give the priority to the short-term impact because of the urgency.

ƒ

C3 - Impact on environment (E) i.e. landscapes, sea pollution, etc.

ƒ

C4 – Costs for infrastructure (I) i.e. necessity of building expensive roads, creating solid and liquid waste treatment plants

ƒ

C5 - Impact on visibility on the markets (IM) i.e. a critical accommodation capacity to be put on the map of destinations.

ƒ

C6 – Social and political acceptability (S/P) i.e.: balance between the areas, land ownership,

Each criterion has been scored as follows: ƒ Positive impact: 1=low; 2=medium; 3=high. ƒ Negative impact: -1=low; -2=medium; -3=high.

Option 0 – No Action In this option there is no development plan. It is left to the individual investor to develop freely, for bad or for good. Every potential site will probably be built sooner or later. This is the way Ksamili and Saranda have developed. The Butrinti National Park is protected, as well as Palase because of the difficult access, and Porto Palermo that belongs to the State and, as such, will remain protected.

215


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Table 6.2: Option 0 TDA Palase Dhermi Vuno Himara Porto Palermo Qeparo Borsh Lukova Saranda / Kakome Ksamili Butrinti TOTAL

Type D (inaccessible) E E E D (State owned) M M E S S P

Number of beds 0 500 100 800 0 1,000 1,000 500 2,000 2,500 0 8,400

Option 1 – Concentrated, 1 anchor The development is anchored on one “magnet” that is Saranda, Ksamili and Butrinti. This option surfs on the facts of Corfu proximity, Saranda with all the urban amenities, the airport and ferry port, and the proximity of the Park. This option is pragmatic because it is already on-going, and it concentrates the side effects on one spot so as to keep most of the other areas unspoilt. It costs much less than other options in terms of public infrastructure, but Saranda and Ksamili need extensive rehabilitation and beautification programmes. Table 6.3: Option 1 TDA Palase Dhermi Vuno Himara Porto Palermo Qeparo Borsh Lukova Saranda / Kakome Ksamili Butrinti TOTAL

Type D E E E M/P but D D D E S S E/P

Number of beds 0 200 0 800 0 0 0 500 2,500 5,000 500 9,500

Option 2 – Concentrated 2 anchors Two main anchors are developed at the same time. The critical mass has to be reached on both sites: the Southern part as in Option 1 from Saranda airport/ferry port, and the Northern part from Vlora. The in-between area is left to eco-tourism. This may be a realistic option if appropriate investors are found and the State is ready to assist in developing the primary infrastructure.

216


Development Vision for the Southern Albanian Coastal Region

Table 6.4: Option 2 TDA

Type

Palase Dhermi Vuno Himara Porto Palermo Qeparo Borsh Lukova Saranda / Kakome Ksamili Butrinti TOTAL

S M E M D D D D/E S S E/P (park)

Number of beds 5,000 500 200 800 0 0 0 500 2,500 5,000 500 14,500

Option 3 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Concentrated 3 anchors The development is distributed between 3 main anchors (Palase/Dhermi, Himara/Porto Palermo and Saranda/Ksamili) so as to get a good territorial balance. This may be a risky option to begin with, due to high cost of infrastructure development to cover all three areas unless sufficient financing can be secured. On the long run this option may be acceptable. Table 6.5: Option 3 TDA Palase Dhermi Vuno Himara Porto Palermo Qeparo Borsh Lukova Saranda / Kakome Ksamili Butrinti TOTAL

Type S M E S M/P D D D/E S S E/P

Number of beds 5,000 500 200 2,000 500 0 0 500 2,500 5,000 500 16,700

Option 4 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Ribbon development This is the most common tourism development scheme that can be seen in most of the tourist seaside destinations. The development can be planned but each area is expecting to get its share. While this option may be socially and politically correct it is difficult to implement in a controlled way and not very environmentally friendly. The end result is likely to be similar to the Option 0.

217


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Table 6.6: Option 4 TDA

Type

Palase Dhermi Vuno Himara Porto Palermo Qeparo Borsh Lukova Saranda / Kakome Ksamili Butrinti TOTAL

Number of beds S S M S M/P S S M S S E/P

5,000 2,500 300 3,500 1,000 2,500 5,000 1,500 2,500 5,000 500 29,300

Table 6.7: Final score Impacts C1 - long-term economic impact C2 - short-term economic impact C3 - potential environmental impact C4 - cost of infrastructure C5 - market visibility impact C6 - socio-political acceptability Total score

Option 0 0 1 -3 0 -1 2 -1

Option 1 2 3 0 -1 3 1 8

Option 2 3 3 -1 -2 2 2 7

Option 3 3 3 -1 -3 2 3 7

Option 4 2 2 -2 -3 1 3 3

The scoring exercise indicates that in the long run, probably, there are only three options for tourism development zoning. ƒ “No action” option; ƒ “Ribbon development” option; and ƒ “Anchors” option. No action option (option 0) has a negative score which means that in ten years from now the situation will be worse than today. Although the public investment will be marginal, the overall societal cost will be extremely high. The sprawl, mostly illegal, will be the dominant form of physical development and the quality of architecture will be extremely poor. Because of the lack of the basic infrastructure, while the population pressure will remain high, the quality of environment will deteriorate dramatically. The limits of carrying capacity, which are today still leaving some room for manoeuvre, will be exceeded. The tourist attraction of the Ionian Coast will be seriously diminished. Economically, while some short-term benefits could be expected, by the end of the ten-ear period they could be significantly reduced, leaving the population without the expected economic benefits. Socially, after a short period of reversed migration, towards the end of the planning period a new emigration wave could be expected. The Ribbon development (Option 4) is the result of a conscious and planned tourism development effort. It results in the highest number of beds in the area, most of which are located very close to the coastline. However, it entails a very high cost of infrastructure investment because it is spread all over the coastal region. This option usually starts with a number of smaller resorts and hotels, located close to each other. It should be emphasised that this option does not mean that all Ionian coastline will be developed. Since this option is

218


Development Vision for the Southern Albanian Coastal Region

a planned one, protected and environmentally sensitive areas like Karaburun and Butrinti will be excluded, but all or most of the 62 analysed development sites would probably be built in the foreseeable future. This development pattern assumes lower densities but with higher percentage of the artificial coastline occupied by development. This option implies development of needed infrastructure, so the state of the environment will not deteriorate. However, this option may reduce the attractiveness of the landscape and the whole tourist territory which, in turn, may diminish the rate of return for investments. From the social and political standpoint it may be acceptable because the benefits may be spread over the entire coastal region. The Anchors option means â&#x20AC;&#x153;conservation by concentrationâ&#x20AC;? where the most suitable areas are developed at somewhat higher densities, while the remaining coastal areas are left mostly in the natural state or with very low impact, eco-tourism type of development. Given the concentrated nature of development, the provision of infrastructure is more efficient and less costly per bed, although the initial overall investment may be high. These options ensure a better quality of the environment and easier control of the entire development process. Short-term economic impacts are good owing to critical mass of tourism supply which will also benefit the marketing image of the area. On the long term, economic impacts are supposed to be sustainable given the good prospects for maintained environmental quality. The most likely implementation of the anchors option entails the first stage in which one anchor (Saranda and Ksamili tourist development areas) is developed (initial Option 1). The advantage of this concept is that, at least at the first stage, the risk of spoiling the environment is diminished while the whole development control system may be established and tested on an area which has already experienced strong development pressure and where quite large stretches of coast have been spoiled by improper development in the past. It consolidates the existing, already on-going development, with lower public investments in infrastructure, with an additional advantage of proximity to the regionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s main entry points (Saranda airport and ferry port). Another benefit of this option is the proximity of the urban area with its amenities and available labour force. The initially conceived Options 2 and 3 have approximately the same score as the Option 1. The Option 2 creates two anchors, Palase/Dhermi and Saranda/Ksamili. Palase/Dhermi is accessible from Vlora making use of the Vlora port and airport as entry points. The Option 3, with the new anchor around Himara, needs rehabilitation of the existing coastal road. Both options require a second solid waste disposal site, as well as wastewater treatment plant, which means much higher initial costs for infrastructure. The Option 2, and particularly the Option 3 provide a better balance in terms of distribution of development benefits, which will make this option socially more acceptable. The initial Options 1, 2 and 3 are, as a matter of fact, a way of phasing the anchors development more than contrasted scenarios (Options 0 and 4). If tourism develops, it will begin with zoning Option 1 to continue with Option 2 and finish, hopefully if resources are available, with the option 3 after some years.

219


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

220


Annexes Annex 1: Possible Economic Benefits from Tourism – Case of Himara Annex 2: Possible Economic Benefits from Tourism – Case of Ksamil Annex 3: Possible Economic Benefits from Tourism – Case of Palasa – Lukova Annex 4: Registered Cultural Heritage in the Southern Coastal Region (Law 9048/2003) Annex 5: Water Supply Background Information Annex 6: Liquid Waste Background Information Annex 7: Solid Wastes Background Information Annex 8: Tourism Development and Territorial Planning – Cyprus Annex 9: Tourism Development: Comparison of Destinations and Strategies Annex 10: Coastal Planning and Management Policies – Croatia and Sardinia, Italy Annex 11: Assessment of Previous Reports Annex 12: Fish Catch in Year 2004 Annex 13: DPSIR Analysis for Water Supply, Wastewater And Solid Waste Annex 14: EU Legislation and its Relevance for Infrastructure Planning Annex 15: Consultation and Participatory Planning Process – First Meeting Annex 16: Consultation and Participatory Planning Process – Follow-Up

221


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

222


Annex

1

Possible Economic Benefits from Tourism â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Case of Himara Basic data (estimates based on local information sources) Resident population

3,214, 643 households (registered population 10,057)

Area of agricultural land (ha) Non- agricultural sector

110 restaurants, cafes and shops (increasing to 375 in the two-month summer season), employing 160 persons (increasing to 570 in the two-month summer season) in this sector, and 143 jobs in the public administration sector Estimated annual income from local sources UDS 772,000 (USD 100 per month per household) Estimated annual flow of remittances USD 1,544,000 (USD 200 average per month per household) Total estimated annual income from both USD 2,316,000 sources Estimated amount remaining in the local USD 463,000 (20%), rest being spent outside the local economy economy. Area of TDZ (ha) 51 Potential tourist beds 1,600 (app. 30 beds per gross ha) Gross area 51 ha Net development area 28 ha (55%), 30% given for infrastructure and 15% public open space. Net development area 280,000 m2 Land utilization ratio (plot ration) 20% Potential built floor space 56,000 m2 (280,000 x 20%) Number of beds 1,600 (56,000 m2 / 35 m2 per bed gross) Number of houses needed if a third of the 93 (1,600 / 3 x 35 m2 / 200 m2) beds will be provided in empty village houses Estimated development cost USD 22,400,000 (1,600 beds x 35m2 x UDS 400) Labour force requirements (job generation) Construction at least about 1,600 full time Direct service staff in accommodation about 400 (1,600 / 4) Indirect labour demand in other sectors about 400

223


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Estimated gross income generation A. Estimated consumption: Estimated bed-nights 256,000 (1,600 beds x 200 days x 0.80 occupancy) Vegetables

Fruits

Milk

Cheese

Meat

25,600 kg 25,600 kg 64,000 lt 25,600 kg 38,400 kg (0.10 kg pp pd) (0.10 kg pp pd) (0.25 lt pp pd) (0.10 kg pp pd) (0.15 kg pp pd) Total estimated annual agricultural consumption demand for the "core farm products" 180,000 kg – excluding demand for other farm and non-farm products (wine, handicrafts, furniture, etc.)

B. Estimated gross farm income in USD from consumption demand of ‘core’ local farm products (USD 662,400) Vegetables

Fruits

Milk

Cheese

Meat

64,000 51,200 96,000 76,800 153,600 (2.5 per kg) (2.0 per kg) (1.5 per lt) (3.0 per kg) (4.0 per kg) Estimated gross annual farm income: USD 441,600, plus, say, 50% gross income from other farm and non-farm products (wine, handicrafts, furniture, etc.): Total estimated income USD 662,400

C. Estimated gross annual income excluding accommodation revenues USD 6,000,000 Construction sector 5,600,000 Assuming 50% of construction investment (22,400,000 USD) will be wages and 50% of that will be spent in local economy

Farm and farm- Service sector related income 662,400

Total

2,800,000 9,062,400 Assuming 400 direct jobs in (say, 9,000,000) tourism accommodation and 400 indirectly generated other service jobs earning an average of USD 300 per month

D. Estimated gross annual accommodation income (USD 19,200,000) ƒ

USD 19,200,000 (256,000 bed nights x USD 75)

E. Total estimated gross income (farm, non farm and accommodation) ƒ

USD 28,200,000 (USD 19,200,000 plus 9,000,000)

Public sector income from construction tax: 392,000 USD (1,600 x 35m2 x 7.0 UDS), not including further construction generated through the ‘multiplier’. On the basis of above analysis is estimated that approximately USD 28,200,000 annual gross income (in constant prices) may be generated from tourism from the phased development of 1,600 beds (about USD 19.2 million gross from accommodation and about USD 9.0 million gross from agricultural and other related consumption demand.

224


Annex 1

Estimated local annual income from tourism in Himara (million USD) Estimated Local income now (2005) A. Local income without tourism development - local demand only (income growth assumed at 10% per year) B. With tourism development ƒ Local income generated by local demand ƒ Local income with tourism demand C. Total income Ratio of income growth ‘with’ tourism over ‘without’ tourism (C / A)

2010 2015 2020 (533 beds) (1,066 beds) (1,600 beds)

1.5 *

2.0

2.7

3.6

1.5 *

2.00

2.7

3.6

0

9.0

18.0

28.2

1.5 *

11.0

20.7

31.8

1 :1

5.5 : 1

7.6 : 1

8.8 : 1

* Note: Mid point between locally produced income of USD 0.7 million and estimated local income with remittances USD 2.3 million

225


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

226


Annex

2

Possible Economic Benefits from Tourism – Case of Ksamil Basic data (estimates based on local information sources) Resident population

2,000, 450 households (registered population 7,500)

Area of agricultural land (ha) Non-agricultural sector Estimated annual income from local sources Estimated annual flow of remittances

245 1086 UDS 810,000 (USD 150 per month per household) USD 1,080,000 (USD 200 average per month per household) USD 1,890,000

Total estimated annual income from both sources Estimated amount remaining in the local economy Area of TDZ (ha) Potential tourist beds

Estimated development cost Labour force requirements (job generation)

USD 378,000 (20%), rest being spent outside the local economy. 152 (15 Ksamili north, 91 Ksamili Centre, 46 Ksamili south) 6,000 (app. 40 beds per gross ha) Gross area 152 ha Net development area 84 ha (55%), 30% given for infrastructure and 15% public open space. Net development area 840,000 m2 Land utilization ratio (plot ration) 25% Potential built floor space 210,000 m2 (840,000 x 25%) Number of beds 6,000 (210,000 m2 / 35 m2 per bed gross) USD 84,000,000 (6,000 beds x 35m2 x UDS 400) Construction at least about 6,000 full time Direct service staff in accommodation about 1,500 (6,000 / 4) Indirect labour demand in other sectors about 1,500

Estimated gross income generation A. Estimated consumption: Estimated bed-nights 960,000 (6,000 beds x 200 days x 0.80 occupancy) Vegetables

Fruits

Milk

Cheese

Meat

96,000 kg 96,000 kg 240,000 lt 96,000 kg 144,000 kg (0.10 kg pp pd) (0.10 kg pp pd) (0.25 lt pp pd) (0.10 kg pp pd) (0.15 kg pp pd) Total estimated annual agricultural consumption demand for the ‘core farm products’ 591,000 kg – excluding demand for other farm and non-farm products (wine, handicrafts, furniture, etc.)

227


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

B. Estimated gross farm income in USD from consumption demand of ‘core’ local farm products (USD 2,484,000) Vegetables

Fruits

Milk

Cheese

Meat

240,000 192,000 360,000 288,000 576,000 (2.5 per kg) (2.0 per kg) (1.5 per lt) (3.0 per kg) (4.0 per kg) Estimated gross annual farm income: USD 1,656,000, plus, say, 50% gross income from other farm and non-farm products (wine, handicrafts, furniture, etc.): Total estimated income USD 2,484,000

C. Estimated gross annual income excluding accommodation revenues USD 6,000,000 Construction sector 21,000,000 Assuming 50% of construction investment (84,000,000 USD) will be wages and 50% of that will be spent in local economy

Farm and farm- Service sector related income 2,484,000

Total

10,800,000 34,284,000 Assuming 1,500 direct jobs in (say, 34,000,000) tourism accommodation and 1,500 indirectly generated other service jobs earning an average of USD 300 per month

D. Estimated gross annual accommodation income (USD 19,200,000) ƒ

USD 72,000,000 (960,000 bed nights x USD 75)

E. Total estimated gross income (farm, non farm and accommodation) ƒ

USD 106,000,000 (USD 72,000,000 plus 34,000,000)

Public sector income from construction tax: USD 1,470,000 (6,000 x 35m2 x 7.0 UDS), not including further construction generated through the ‘multiplier’. On the basis of the above analysis it is estimated that approximately USD 106.0 million annual gross income (in constant prices) may be generated from tourism from the phased development of 6,000 beds (about USD 72.0 million gross from accommodation and about USD 34.0 gross from agricultural and other related consumption demand).

228


Annex 2

Estimated local annual income from tourism in Ksamili (million USD) Estimated 2010 2015 2020 Local income (2,000 beds) (4,000 beds) (6,000 beds) now (2005) A. Local income without tourism development - local demand only (income growth assumed at 10% per year) B. With tourism development ƒ Local income generated by local demand ƒ Local income with tourism demand C. Total income Ratio of income growth ‘with’ tourism over ‘without’ tourism (C / A)

1.3 *

1.8

2.4

3.3

1.3 *

1.8

2.4

3.3

0

35.0

71.0

106.0

36.8 20.4 : 1

73.4 30.6 : 1

109.3 33.1 : 1

1.5 * 1 :1

* Note: Mid point between locally produced income of USD 0.8 million and estimated local income with remittances USD 1.9 million

229


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

230


Annex

3

Possible Economic Benefits from Tourism – Case of Palasa – Lukova Basic data (estimates based on local information sources) Resident population

4,500, 1,000 households (registered population 810,000)

Area of agricultural land (ha) Non- agricultural sector Estimated annual income from local sources Estimated annual flow of remittances

2332 6788 UDS 1,200,000 (USD 100 per month per household) USD 1,800,000 (USD 150 average per month per household) USD 3,000,000

Total estimated annual income from both sources Estimated amount remaining in the local economy Area of TDZ (ha) Potential tourist beds

Estimated development cost Labour force requirements (job generation)

USD 378,000 (20%), rest being spent outside the local economy. 304 (95 Palase, 97 Dermi, 13 Jala 20 Qeparo, 53 Borshi, 26 Lukova) 4,770 (app. 16 beds per gross ha) Gross area 304 ha Net development area 167 ha (55%), 30% given for infrastructure and 15% public open space. Net development area 1,670,000 m2 Land utilization ratio (plot ration) 10% Potential built floor space 167,000 m2 (1,670,000 x 10%) Number of beds 4,770 (167,000 m2 / 35 m2 per bed gross) USD 66,780,000 (4,770 beds x 35m2 x UDS 400) Construction at least about 4,770 full time Direct service staff in accommodation about 1,200 (4,770 / 4) Indirect labour demand in other sectors about 1,200

Estimated gross income generation A. Estimated consumption: Estimated bed-nights 763,200 (4,770 beds x 200 days x 0.80 occupancy) Vegetables

Fruits

Milk

Cheese

Meat

76,320 kg 76,320 kg 190,800 lt 76,320 kg 114,480 kg (0.10 kg pp pd) (0.10 kg pp pd) (0.25 lt pp pd) (0.10 kg pp pd) (0.15 kg pp pd) Total estimated annual agricultural consumption demand for the ‘core farm products’ 591,000 kg – excluding demand for other farm and non-farm products (wine, handicrafts, furniture, etc.)

231


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

B. Estimated gross farm income in USD from consumption demand of ‘core’ local farm products (USD 1,974,780) Vegetables

Fruits

Milk

Cheese

Meat

190,800 152,640 286,200 228,960 457,920 (2.5 per kg) (2.0 per kg) (1.5 per lt) (3.0 per kg) (4.0 per kg) Estimated gross annual farm income: USD 1,316,520, plus, say, 50% gross income from other farm and non-farm products (wine, handicrafts, furniture, etc.): Total estimated income USD 1,974,780

C. Estimated gross annual income excluding accommodation revenues USD 6,000,000 Construction sector 16,695,000 Assuming 50% of construction investment (66,780,000 USD) will be wages and 50% of that will be spent in local economy

Farm and farm- Service sector related income 1,975,000

Total

8,640,000 27,310,000 Assuming 1,200 direct jobs in (say, 27,000,000) tourism accommodation and 1,200 indirectly generated other service jobs earning an average of USD 300 per month

D. Estimated gross annual accommodation income (USD 19,200,000) ƒ

USD 57,240,000 (763,200 bed nights x USD 75)

E. Total estimated gross income (farm, non farm and accommodation) ƒ

USD 84,240,000 (USD 57,240,000 plus 27,000,000)

Public sector income from construction tax: USD 1,168,650 (4,770 x 35m2 x 7.0 UDS), not including further construction generated through the ‘multiplier’. On the basis of the above analysis it is estimated that approximately USD 84.2 million annual gross income (in constant prices) may be generated from tourism from the phased development of 4,770 beds by year 2025 (about USD 57.2 million gross from accommodation and about USD 27.0 gross from agricultural and other related consumption demand).

232


Annex 3

Estimated local annual income from tourism in Palase – Lukova (million USD) Estimated 2010 2015 Local income (1,200 beds) (2,400 beds) now (2005) A. Local income without tourism development - local demand only (income growth assumed at 10% per year) B. With tourism development ƒ Local income generated by local demand ƒ Local income with tourism demand C. Total income Ratio of income growth ‘with’ tourism over ‘without’ tourism (C / A)

2020 (3,600 beds)**

2.0*

2.5

3.5

4.7

2.0*

2.5

3.5

4.7

0

21.0

42.0

63.0

23.5 9.5 : 1

45.5 13.0 : 1

2.0 * 1 :1

67.7 14.5 : 1

* Note: Mid point between locally produced income of USD 1.2 million and estimated local income with remittances USD 3.0 million ** The development of 4,770 beds will be achieved by the year 2025.

233


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

234


Annex

4

Registered Cultural Heritage in the Southern Coastal Region (Law 9048/2003) Source: Albania: Integrated Coastal Management and clean-up Program, Heritage Assets Mapping, SIM Spa, GICO Branch, iMED, March 2005

Poor

Medium

Good

Poor

Medium

Good

Cultural range Age

Low

Typology

Medium

Location

High

Actual Visitors Accessibility to Status of interest to the public, and preservation visit custody service

Description of the Monument

REGISTERED MONUMENTS IN VLORA DISTRICT 1 Oricum, 2 Amantia 3 Armen Mavrova 4

Archaeological site Archaeological site Archaeological site Castle

Classical age Classical age Classical age Classical age

Castle

Ottoman

6 Vranisht Castle 7 Ceria, Brataj Castle Himara Castle 8

Ottoman Ottoman Ottoman

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Ottoman Ottoman

5

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27

Kanina

Tragjas Castle Porto Palermo Castle Ilias Castle Triport Castle&black wall Smokthina Castle Terbac Castle Qeparo' Castle Vlora Castle remains (Pamvarsia) Gramata Ancient graffiti Velca Cave Spile, Himara Cave Tragjas Cave Tragjas Tumulu Brataj Bridge Frenku, Bridge Gjorme Ceraj, Brataj Remains of the bridge Feruni, Dukat Aqueduct Vranisht Aqueduct Zvernec St. Maria monastery

28 Dhermi 29 Qeparo 30 Pashaliman Himara 31 32

Himara

Church of Panaia St. Dimitro church Church of Marmiro St. Sergji & Baku church St. Maria of Athalit church

Classic Classic Classic Prehistoric Byzantine

IV - BC / II - AD V - BC IV - BC VBC(Olimpias) V - BC / VI-XVI - AD XVI-XVII - AD IV - BC IV - BC / KV< XVI -AD XVI - XVII - AD XVII - XIX - AD V - BC IV - BC IV / III BC IV / III BC V - BC V - VI - AD

Classic Prehistoric Prehistoric Prehistoric Prehistoric Mediaeval Mediaeval

IV - BC VI - BC VI - BC VII-V - BC VI - BC XVIII - AD XVIII - AD

Classic

IV - BC

Modern Modern Byzantine Byzantine Byzantine Byzantine Byzantine

1888 XIX - AD XVII - XVIII AD XVIII - AD XVIII - AD XVIII - AD XVII - AD

Byzantine

XVII - AD

235


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

33 Himara Vuno 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57

Dhermi Vuno Vuno Dhermi Armen Himara Brataj Vlora Mesaplik Vuno Gjorm Brataj Mavrove Armen Drashovice Dhermi Qeparo Dhermi Kanine Himare Kanine Vuno Vuno

Tragjas i vjeter 59 Qeparo Vuno 60 58

61 62 63

Gumenice Dhermi Dhermi

64 Amenice 65 Dhermi 66 Vlora 67 Vlora 68 Vlora 69 70 71 72

Vlora Ramice Vuno Vlora

73 74 75 76

Terbac Gjoni Dushkarak Dukat

77 Rrexhepaj

236

All Saints church Byzantine St. Spiridhonit Byzantine church St. Ipapandio church Byzantine St. Michele church Byzantine Mesodhia church Byzantine St. Stefano church Byzantine St. Nikollo church Byzantine Remains of the St. Byzantine Andrea church Remains of the St. Byzantine Giorgio church Mosque of Muradie MOSQUE Mosaic Classic St. Sotira church Byzantine House of B. Abazi Local tradition House of P. Derit Local tradition House of Q. Zeres Local tradition House of R. Kesajt Local tradition House of B. Gjokes Local tradition House of Ll. Zhupa Local tradition House of M. Gjikes Local tradition House of S. Zhupa Local tradition House of Sh. Begaj Local tradition House of Llazari Local tradition House of K. Hamzes Local tradition House of Sh. Kotes Local tradition House of O. Local tradition Kasnecit Ruins of the village Local tradition House of Ali Pasha Ottoman Fortified house Ottoman (kulla) Fortified house Local tradition (kulla) Fortified house Local tradition (kulla) of Vreto Fortified house Local tradition (kulla) Kumi House of E. Haderi Local tradition Ceiling in the Local tradition P.Gjikopulli house J.Gokart street Local tradition J.Qemali memorial Modern J Qemali Modern Government villa H. Xhelo house Modern F.Elmazit house Modern Brothers Nushi house Modern House at 34, Modern Drashovice street Museum Modern House ofl. Local tradition M. Xhelili Local tradition Castle of D.Aliu Ottoman Thermal bldg.

Classical age

XVIII - AD XVIII - AD XVIII - AD XIV - AD XVIII - AD XII - AD XVI - AD XIII-XVI - AD XIV - AD XV-XVI - AD VI - AD XIV - AD XIX - AD XIX - AD XIX - AD XIX - AD XIX - AD XIX - AD XIX - AD XIX - AD XIX - AD XIX - AD XIX - AD XIX - AD XIX - AD XVIII-XIX - AD XVIII-XIX - AD XVIII-XIX - AD XVIII-XIX - AD XVIII-XIX - AD XVIII-XIX - AD XIX - AD XIX XIX XIX XIX XX XX XIX XX XX XIX XIX XVIII XIX II/III

Poor

Medium

Good

Poor

Medium

Good

Cultural range Age

Low

Typology

Medium

Location

High

Actual Visitors Accessibility to Status of interest to the public, and preservation visit custody service

Description of the Monument


Annex 4

Poor

Medium

Good

Poor

Medium

Good

Cultural range Age

Low

Typology

Medium

Location

High

Actual Visitors Accessibility to Status of interest to the public, and preservation visit custody service

Description of the Monument

REGISTERED MONUMENTS IN SARANDA AND DELVINA DISTRICT 1 Butrinti 2 Foeniche 3 Karoq 4 5 6 7

Zminec Vrina Mehalle Vivar Butrinti 8 Karoq 9 Ciflik 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22

40 41 42 43

VIII/VII/III BC V - BC V/VI - BC

Classical age Ottoman Ottoman Ottoman

V/VI - BC XVII/XVIII XVIII/XIX XVII/XVIII

Ilias castle Castle Castle Castle Castle Castle Castle Castle Castle Castle remains Bardha castle Wall Ancient wall's remains Ancient wall's remains Bridge

Classical Classical Classical Classical Classical Classical Classical Classical Ottoman Classical Classical Classical Classical Classical

IV - BC

Ottoman

XVI

Bridge

Ottoman

XVIII

Bridge of Cerkovine Bridge Bridge Jezir Bridge of Cina Bridge Jezir Remains of the aqueduct Pllake Spring Dhrovian Water wells Vergo Cemetery Konispol Quarry Dema St. Giorgio Monastery Krorez St. Maria Monastery Kakome St. Maria Monastery Saranda 40 Saints church, remains Mesopotam St Nicolas church Dhiver St Nicolas church Mavrodhiver, St. Maria church Dhiver Leshnice e Church and Siperme Monastery of St. Atanasios

Ottoman Ottoman Ottoman Ottoman Ottoman Classical

XIX XVIII XVIII XVIII XVII II/III

Modern Classical Classical Byzantine

XIX XVII II/II IV XIII

Byzantine Byzantine Classical

XIII XIII VI

Byzantine Byzantine Byzantine

XI XV XIV - XVI - AD

Byzantine

XVII - AD

Malcan Vagalat Vergo Borsh Karalibej Kalivo Qesarat Mursi Delvina Saranda Borsh Dema Cuka

24 Upper Leshnice 25 LowerLeshnic e 26 Theologo 27 Tatzat 28 Tatzat 29 Tatzat 30 Rrezome 31 Xarra

37 38 39

Classical age Classical age Classical age

V/VI - BC V/VI - BC XVII - AD V - BC V - BC V - BC IV - BC IV - BC V - BC V - BC IV - BC XVII/XIX II/IV V - BC IV - BC IV - BC

23 Undecone

32 33 34 35 36

Archaeological site Archaeological site Urban centre of Paleomastros Riperesit castle Ali Pasha castle Ali Pasha castle Ali Pasha castle

St. Giovanni castle Classical Cuka & Ajtoit castle Classical

237


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

44 Kardhika 45 Kardhiq 46 Piqeras 47 Melcan 48 Pece 49 Theologo, Cerkovice 50 Leshnice e Siperme 51 Dhrovian i Siperm 52 Sopik 53 Metoq 54 DoberLivadhia 55 Ciflik 56 KamenicePalavi 57 Senica 58 BogasVagalat 59 Kostar 60 Dhiver 61 Rusanj 62 Saranda 63 64 Delvine 65 Kamenice 66 Carraj 67 Dhrovian i Siperm 68 Dhrovian i Siperm 69 Dhrovian i Siperm 70 Sirakat 71 Rusan 72 Pece 73 74 Rumance 75 76 Rabulle 77 Leshnice e Poshteme 78 Tatzat 79 Tatzat 80 Janjar

238

Church and Byzantine monastery of the St. Trinity Church and Byzantine Monastery of St. Maria Church and Byzantine Monastery of St. Maria St. Maria church Byzantine St. Atanasios church Byzantine Tower of the Byzantine Monastery St. Giorgio church Byzantine

XIV - XV - AD

St. Nicolas church

Byzantine

XVI - AD

St. Atanasios church Byzantine Temple Classical Temple Classical

XVII - AD V - AD V - AD

Remains of the Church Remains of the Church Cave Cave of St. Marena

Byzantine

XV - AD

Byzantine

XV - AD

Middleage Middleage

XIII - AD XII-XIII - AD

Cave Cave of St. Giorgio Mosque of St. Giorgio Alessio Mosaic near to the post office Mosaic of the 1 May quarter Quarter L. Malo Remains of the village House of Gj. Gjipalit House of V. Zhupes

Middleage Middleage Ottoman

XII - AD XII - AD XVI - AD

Classical

VI - AD

Classical

VI - AD

Ottoman Local tradition

XVII-XVIII - AD XV-XVI - AD

Local tradition Local tradition

XVIII-XIX - AD XVIII-XIX - AD

House of E. Local tradition Kocolenit House of K. Agores Local tradition

XVIII-XIX - AD

House of F. Konomit Local tradition House of A. Dizdari Local tradition House of A. Llocit Local tradition House of G. Papait Local tradition House of K. Local tradition Mitropolit House of Vagalat Local tradition House of G. Kocinit Local tradition House of P. Shekes Local tradition

XVIII-XIX - AD XVIII-XIX - AD XVIII-XIX - AD XVIII-XIX - AD XVIII-XIX - AD

House of Xh. Xhenko Local tradition Sh. Xhengo house Local tradition Remains of fortified Local tradition house

XIV - XV - AD XIV - AD XIV - XV - AD XVI - AD XVI - AD XVI - AD

XVIII-XIX - AD

XVIII-XIX - AD XVIII-XIX - AD XVIII-XIX - AD XVIII-XIX - AD XVIII/XIX XVIII/XIX

Poor

Medium

Good

Poor

Medium

Good

Cultural range Age

Low

Typology

Medium

Location

High

Actual Visitors Accessibility to Status of interest to the public, and preservation visit custody service

Description of the Monument


Annex 4

Local tradition Local tradition Local tradition Local tradition Local tradition Local tradition Local tradition Ottoman Byzantine

XVIII/XIX XVIII/XIX XVIII/XIX XVIII/XIX XVIII/XIX XVIII/XIX XVIII/XIX XVIII/XIX XIV

Poor

Konispol Konispol Konispol Konispol Konispol Senice Markat Likurs Delvina

Medium

XVIII/XIX XVIII/XIX XVIII/XIX XVIII/XIX XVIII/XIX XVIII/XIX XVIII/XIX XVIII/XIX

Good

Local tradition Local tradition Local tradition Local tradition Local tradition Local tradition Local tradition Local tradition

89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97

R. Omer house A. Shereti house A. Myrto house Sh. Xhemalit house Lamce house H.Tako house B. Zenuni house Kocini brothers house A. Takes house Hospital H. Osmani house M. Goxhai house D. Omeri School E. Myrto house Castle St. John church

Poor

Dishat Dushar Shales Shales Shales Konispol Konispol Konispol

Medium

81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88

Good

Cultural range Age

Low

Typology

Medium

Location

High

Actual Visitors Accessibility to Status of interest to the public, and preservation visit custody service

Description of the Monument

239


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

240


Annex

5

Water Supply Background Information The assessment of water resources and present water supply facilities covers the Southern coastal region between Karaburuni Peninsula in the North and Butrinti channel in the South. Settlements and areas treated in this chapter are listed below ranked according to their location from North to South: Karaburuni Peninsula, Palasa, Dhermiu, Ilias, Vunoi, Himara, Pilur, Porto Palermo, Qeparoi, Borshi, Piqeras, Lukova, Kakome Bay, Saranda, Ksamili. Since Karaburuni Peninsula has been dedicated to be a protected area and to be excluded from future development it will not be subject of this chapter.

1.

Water resources

1.1. General overview Due to hydrological and hydro-geological conditions within the study area the watershed boundary between Karaburuni peninsula and Saranda takes course along the coastal mountains parallel to the coastline. The mountainous coast is characterised by carbonic stone and porous structure. Rock shows high permeability and due to high slopes surface water run off is very fast. For these reasons rivers and brooks show significant seasonal flow variations and temporarily they fall dry. However, underground gravel deposits form large groundwater recharge zones. Subsurface water resources are very rich and disposable throughout the year. As a whole they are widely sufficient for the water supply purposes of present settlements in the region as well as for future local and tourism development. Nevertheless an assessment of the potential of available water resources and of present water supply facilities is performed for each particular village as listed above. The hydrological and hydro-geological conditions in the region of Ksamil and Lake Butrinti enable abundant subsurface water resources. In this area appear quaternary gravel deposits of significant thickness forming aquifers with substantial groundwater resources of high quality. Those are widely sufficient for present and future water supply of settlements an tourism facilities. In the coastal region between Karaburuni and Saranda appear several karst springs of which some are exploited for water supply. Other methods of groundwater capture are pit-type wells for shallow groundwater (8-10 m beneath ground surface) and drilled wells for deeper aquifers. In the region of Ksamil municipality and Lake Butrinti water is drawn from groundwater which is captured through drilled wells. An additional water supply option presently applied is the collection of stormwater and itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s intermediate storage in subsurface cisterns made of concrete. This method is often practiced by particular residential houses. Collected stormwater is spent for washing purposes whereas spring and groundwater is used for consumption. For seasonal irrigation both water types are spent.

241


PAP/RAC â&#x20AC;&#x201C; SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Interim Report

1.2. Regional exploitation or water resources for water supply A schematic overview of present municipal water supply in the region and of envisaged future supply concepts is represented in Map 10. Depending on hydro-geological and settlement specific conditions the following techniques are applied for water exploitation within the study area.

1. Drilled well Applied for exploitation of deep groundwater resources, mostly operated by municipality, water is pumped into an elevated reservoir for intermediate storage and provision of constant pressure in distribution network

2. Pit-type well Concrete shaft, mostly 10-12 m deep depending on groundwater level, water is pumped to elevated reservoir of municipality or to that of particular private houses (metal tank on the roof).

3. Spring tapping a) for municipal supply: springs in the hinterland of the coast 2-5 km distant from particular villages (see Map 10), water discharges by gravity trough pipe to village, then network distribution. b) for private supply: springs close to detached houses, tapping mostly consists of a simple construction through tube laid in water-bearing soil layer and enclosed by gravel packing, water flows by gravity to consumer dwelling

4. Stormwater collection Stormwater is collected on roofs of residential houses, storage takes place in subsurface concrete cisterns

2.

Thematic information on the situation and condition of water supply facilities and management

2.1. Institutional issues There exist water utilities and respective associations in villages along Southern coast. Whereas in former times they had been operated by the state presently the responsibility is transferred to the municipalities. This decentralisation process probably shall be finished till 2006 and is part of the National Water and Wastewater Plan.

2.2. Operational management Operational management is mostly insufficient. Due to the lack of water meters on customers side water is not billed according to real consumption but on basis of monthly lump-sums for specific customer categories (e.g. families, small enterprises). The consequence is wide spread waste of water. For instance it has been reported that taps are often left running effecting an increase of specific water consumption. For operational management strengthening first priority is assigned to installation of water meters to enable customer specific recording of water consumption. Further, a tariff structure adapted to local income and economic conditions must be established.

242


Annex 5

An indispensable element of water supply operation is continuous monitoring and maintenance of facilities. Presently respective activities are scarce and insufficient. For future monitoring and maintenance a work plan must be elaborated for each water utility. Accompanying technical training for must be performed in order to establish skilled personnel for water utility staff.

2.3. Networks Similar to the overall Albanian situation in the respective coastal village's water mains, distribution networks and plumbing within houses are often in defective state. The consequence is high water losses of sometimes up to 60-70% (e.g. Saranda) forming a significant high specific demand of about 500 l/cd. Since no water meters are installed in most networks damages and bursts are difficult to localise. The installation of water meters is one prerequisite to identify bursts and damages in mains and distribution networks. Subsequent network rehabilitation is necessary to reduce losses and to enhance supply reliability. Water reservoirs are mostly too small and can not fulfil their requirements for sufficient balance of water resources delivery and actual demand. Thus, site-specific assessment of storage capacities must be carried out. If needed works for increase of storage capacities must be performed.

3.

Future perspectives

3.1. Site specific assessment for purpose of tourism Master Planning (1996) The following table provides an overview to the origin of water supply, to the present state of water supply facilities and to the present water demand in particular settlements (data refer to Tourism Masterplan 1996). Additionally, deliberations and design data of future projects for water supply extension are listed (figures refer to planning by national authorities). Water supply in coastal settlements â&#x20AC;&#x201C; overview

Present (2005)

Future (2025)

Settlement

Origin

Present state

Palasa Dhermiu Ilias Vuno Himara Pilur Kudhes Porto Palermo Qeparo Borsh Lukova/ Piqeras Saranda

local spring local spring local spring local spring groundwater local spring local spring Himara groundwater Borshi spring Borshi spring local spring groundwater (Vrioni wells), local spring (Navarica spring) groundwater (Cuka well)

unsatisfactory unsatisfactory unsatisfactory unsatisfactory unsatisfactory unsatisfactory unsatisfactory unsatisfactory unsatisfactory unsatisfactory unsatisfactory unsatisfactory

8 4 1 3 13 1 2 1 5 n.d. 10 590

n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d. 80 4,7 5,7 8,3 n.d. n.d. n.d. n.d

unsatisfactory

20

30

Ksamil

Demand (l/s)

Demand (l/s)

Origin

local spring local spring local spring local spring Buronja spring Buronja spring Buronja spring Buronja spring Buronja spring Borshi spring local spring groundwater, local spring groundwater

243


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

3.2. Governmental policy In 1992 the Albanian government issued a decree (Decree No. 102) aimed to reduce the specific domestic water demand to a rate of 150 litres per capita and day (l/cd). This goal diverges markedly from the actual specific municipal water demand level of about 500 l/cd. The reason for that outstanding figure are the significant high water losses up to 60-70% and the customers waste of water due to missing metering. The reduction of water losses through rehabilitation of supply facilities is an issue of high priority. It is a prerequisite to cover the future regional water demand of both local population and tourism. According to the Decree No. 102 for the estimate of water demand the specific domestic water consumption of 150 l/cd is applied. Taking into account an institutional and commercial consumption rate of 40 l/cd the equivalent specific municipal demand rises to 190 l/cd. This characteristic data is used for a rough assessment of theoretical water supply capacity in settlements. The assessment does not consider the water use for irrigation.

Remarks: ƒ

Storm water collection for washing purposes is widely practiced in the above mentioned settlements and thus reducing the real equivalent specific water demand. Therefore below cited supply capacities represent the rather lower estimate and lie on the secure side.

ƒ

In small villages the equivalent specific water demand is lower than 190 l/cd due to the minor rate of commercial and institutional water consumption. This is an additional reason why supply capacities estimates lie on the secure side.

ƒ

Due to frequent water shortage municipal water distribution is only few hours per day in operation. In this time customers fill up their private water tanks on the roofs. By this way customers mitigate water supply shortage. Nevertheless these circumstances do not comply with present EU standards for satisfactory municipal water supply. The objective is reliable and sufficient 24 hour water supply by municipal facilities.

ƒ

Water extracted from private pit-type wells often shows reduced quality due to sewage infiltration (leaky septic tanks). Site specific water analysis in needed. For improved water quality and enhanced supply reliability it is generally recommended to close individual wells, to extend municipal water supply system and to connect consumers to distribution network. However, the decision for individual water supply (private spring or well) of for connection to the municipal network must be based on case specific assessment.

3.3. Analysis of the situation – present and forecasts – for the cities and villages included in the study area Palasa ƒ capacity of present local spring is widely sufficient for present population, ƒ supply capacity: 3,600 persons ƒ high losses in distribution network effect partial supply shortage, ƒ present reservoir of 100m3 is of too less storage capacity, age of reservoir is 28 years and of outworn state, ƒ in summer water supply in 6 hours per day, 2 hours in the morning, 2 hours at noon, 2 hours in the evening, reason is water shortage,

244


Annex 5

ƒ 70% of households are supplied through yard taps, only few are equipped with own connections, ƒ Problems: lack of attitude for self organisation, missing support through responsible authority

Dhermiu ƒ capacity of present local spring is widely sufficient for present population, ƒ supply capacity: 1,800 persons ƒ in summer temporary water supply during the day, reason is water shortage, situation similar to Palasa,

Ilias ƒ capacity of present local spring is widely sufficient for present population, ƒ supply capacity: 450 persons ƒ high losses due to defective network, therefore partial water shortage

Vuno ƒ capacity of present local spring is widely sufficient for present population, ƒ supply capacity: 2,300 persons ƒ high losses due to defective network, therefore partial water shortage

Himara Present water supply 1. Potami Spring, capacity >100 l/s ƒ for water supply of Himara Town, ƒ capacity is widely sufficient for present population, ƒ location at Southern edge of Himara town in settlement, approximately 80 m distant from the coastline, at the very foot of the inland hill (see Map 10), ƒ tapping of the spring through a pit-type well, depth 5 m, constructed of concrete, ƒ water exploitation by 2 pumps each 25 l/s capacity (1 for operation, 1 for back-up), ƒ water is pumped to the elevated Reservoir-1 (V=5,000 m3) located 100 m above the spring, ƒ water is slightly mixed through salty water infiltrating from the close sea, ƒ salt concentration is unobjectionable for human consumption, ƒ but salty taste is noticeable, thus water quality is derogated, ƒ Reservoir-1 supplies around 500 families, ƒ water distribution takes place through municipal network, ƒ normally water is available only three times a day for two hours a time, ƒ water shortage occurs during July, August due to water use for irrigation, 2. Well on hill of Old Himara ƒ for water supply of Old Himara only (200 families) ƒ water is pumped to the Reservoir-2 (V=200 m3) on top of Old Himara hill, ƒ water quality is good (better than Potami spring), ƒ water is distributed through local network

245


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

3. Private wells ƒ for private water supply of particular residential houses outside of Himara town and Old Himara, ƒ pit-type wells, 10-12 m deep depending on groundwater level, ƒ water often polluted by untreated sewage (leaky septic tanks) 4. Private spring tapping ƒ for private water supply of particular residential houses located in sloped terrain on the perimeter of Himara, ƒ simple construction of spring tapping through tube laid in water-bearing soil layer and enclosed by gravel packing 5. Stormwater collection ƒ stormwater is collected on roofs of residential houses, ƒ storage in subsurface concrete cisterns, water is only used for washing purposes There are no water meters installed on customer's side. Thus, water losses are unknown. No fees are requested from the customer. Wasting of water has been reported.

Summary – Himara Old Himara:

water supply is satisfactory

Himara town:

water supply is of sufficient quantity but of unsatisfactory quality,

Himara town perimeter:

water supply is unsatisfactory regarding quantity and quality,

Future concepts An existing water supply project (preliminary stage) initiated by National authorities envisages a common water supply system for Himara town and the adjacent villages Qeparo, Pilur, Kudhes as well as the few dwellings in the Bay Porto Palermo. The project includes the construction of a new reservoir (V= 5,000m3) in Himara and the capture of the Buronja Spring (capacity 300 l/s min.) in the hinterland of Queparo (see Map 10). The minimum capacity of Buronja spring of 300 l/s is widely sufficient to cover the water demand of the villages concerned by the project. The project intends the construction of a water main from the Buronja spring to Porto Palermo. In between branch lines are constructed to Pilur and Kudhes. From Porto Palermo the main is aligned along the coast till Himara. For water delivery two pumping stations are designed. For water storage and pressure regulation four reservoirs will be arranged, one at Pilur, the second at Kudhes, the third and fourth ones at Himara. A project alternative shows the extension of the water main towards North in order to connect the villages Vunoi and Ilias to the network. A schematic overview to the project is represented in Map 10. From the viewpoint of supply security this project (in both variants) would realise a remarkable improvement of municipal water supply since Buronja spring capacity is widely enough to cover the water demand of all villages on the coast from Llogara to Saranda. Based on the acquired equivalent specific water demand of 190 l/cd and 300 l/s minimum

246


Annex 5

capacity of Buronja spring a theoretical number of 136,000 persons could be supplied with potable water.

Pilur ƒ capacity of present local spring is not sufficient for present population. ƒ theoretical supply capacity: 450 persons ƒ needs: connection to future supply system of Himara (see Map 10)

Kudhes ƒ capacity of present local spring is not sufficient for present population. ƒ theoretical supply capacity: 900 persons ƒ needs: connection to future supply system of Himara (see Map 10)

Porto Palermo ƒ water supply is of sufficient quantity but unsatisfactory regarding quality (present connection to system of Himara town – Potami spring)

Qeparoi ƒ water extracted from Borshi spring, combined distribution network with Borshi, water storage in elevated reservoir, ƒ Capacity of Borshi spring widely sufficient ƒ present water supply system is not sufficient for present population (high losses, irrigation in summer) ƒ supply capacity: 2,300 persons ƒ needs. connection to future supply system of Himara (see Map 10)

Borshi ƒ capacity of present local spring is widely sufficient for present population

Lukova /Piqeras ƒ capacity of present local spring is widely sufficient for present population

Kakome Bay ƒ capacity of nearby local spring is widely sufficient for future tourism

Saranda Existing ƒ

Two resources are exploited: ƒ Navarica spring, 13 km east from Saranda town, capacity 240 – 360 m3/day ƒ two wells close to village Vrioni, 4 km east from Saranda, capacity 350 m3/day (constant), water is of good quality

ƒ

Total supply capacity: 590 m3/s min.

ƒ

From Navarica spring water flows by gravity to one reservoir at village Gjashta 1 km east from Saranda town. From Vrioni wells water is pumped to reservoir at Gjashta

ƒ

Gjashta reservoir capacity = 2,000 m3

247


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Present water delivery to customers by distribution network covering Saranda town, the villages Vrioni, Gjashta and Metoqi in the East and being limited by the adjacent hills in the North. One of the key problems is total loss of 70% (estimate since no water meters are installed on customers side). The consequence is temporary water shortage, therefore water is delivered only some hours per day. Water utility has divided Saranda urban area in several supply districts for which water is provided sequentially. Average supply period endures 6 hours/day for each supply district. In summer supply period lasts less than 6 hours. Customers store water in private metal tanks on the roofs of their house. Water tanks are filled up during hours when water is available. By this way water shortage is mitigated. In addition, significant pressure fluctuations in the distribution network, high pressure causes frequent bursts of private water tanks. Thus waste of water is increased and shortage is enhanced.

Future development (A) Project “Water Utilities Management Support” ƒ funded by World Bank and European Investment Bank (EIB) ƒ comprehends measures for water and wastewater disposal ƒ one project part includes the rehabilitation of water supply system of Saranda town, implemented by the German water utility “Berlin Wasser”, project start 2003, contract period 5 years, investigations and studies are envisaged for 2 years, physical investments shall start 2005. Project packages: ƒ Transmission main Navarica spring–Sarranda: installation water meters at 3 villages presently supplied ƒ Vrioni wells: investment in electricity supply for pumping station in order to enhance reliability of water delivery (construction of a direct electric feeding line from Saranda substation to Vrioni pumping station) ƒ Saranda town: installation of 1700 water meters in distribution network on side of (a) private customers and of (b) small and medium enterprises. In 2005 installation in lower part of the town (higher present losses), in 2006 installation in other parts of the town ƒ Distribution network will be split in two areas, one including the low parts of the town, the second covering the upper areas. (B) Extension of distribution network (by municipal water utility) ƒ connection of settlements on the bottom of hills in the West of Saranda town ƒ extension till Cuka channel in the South ƒ connection of 8 villages along the transmission main Navarica spring-Gjashta reservoir (C) Concept “Blue Eyes Spring” for water supply of Southern coast and Apulia (Italy) The Blue Eyes Spring is located in the hinterland some kilometres Southeast from Saranda on the way to Girokaster. Total capacity amounts to 13-22 m3/s. The Blue Eyes Spring water supply concept envisages the partial exploitation of 4-5 m3/s, the construction of a transmission main along the Coast from Saranda till Karaburuni peninsula. From that’s very western point a pipeline should cross the Ionian Sea to Southern Italy where the water would

248


Annex 5

be used for water supply. The concept includes an option for branching 0.7 m3/s in total for contribution to Saranda network and for the water supply of all villages along the coast between Saranda and Karaburuni peninsula. The “Blue Eyes Spring” concept is still on the stage of feasibility study and no decision for project start nor for detailed design has been taken until now. Therefore it is only a possible long term option for water supply enhancement in Saranda and the coastal villages in the North. Constraints: ƒ Presently no sufficient financing for network extension ƒ Additional studies required before physical network extension Project financing by (a) municipality Saranda, (b) National Government (50%), (c) grants from 5 private local Banks. Additional financial sources are sought, World Bank requests private driven investments (realistic option since private sector grows rapidly whereas public sector agitates slower).

Ksamili Present situation The existing water supply system is fed from groundwater resources along Bistrica river and consists of following components. ƒ

1 drilled well ƒ located on the Northern bank of Cuka channel (see Map 10) ƒ depth 70 m ƒ capacity 30 l/s ƒ constructed 1995-1996 by a Dutch company ƒ water is of sufficient quality

ƒ

1 transmission main well – Ksamil residential areas (see Map 10) ƒ aligned mostly along the road Saranda – Ksamil ƒ length 8,5 km

ƒ

1 elevated reservoir (V = 700 m3) ƒ located beside the road approximately 5,8 km South of Cuka channel (see Map 10) ƒ distribution network in Ksamil residential areas

Only a part of households is connected to the municipal network. Others not connected draw water from public taps fed by the network. In theory the drilled well at Cuka channel has wide enough capacity to cover the demand of present 8,900 registered inhabitants. But due to permanent shortage of electricity supply the submersible pump delivers only 1 hour/day which is much too less to cover the needs of present population. Another consequence is that the reservoir is only partially filled up to 400 m3. Therefore water shortage occurs often. Water losses amount to 30-40% of (according to feasibility study by Dutch company) and increase water shortage. Water storage in private metal water tanks installed on roofs mitigates temporary water shortage. During tourist season the number of present persons daily increases to 30,000 which exceeds far the present water supply capacity.

249


PAP/RAC â&#x20AC;&#x201C; SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Interim Report

Summarising water supply system is insufficient regarding quantity bur satisfactory in relation to quality.

Future measures First priority is the enhancement of electricity supply capacity and reliability for the submersible pump in the drilled well. Thereby supply capacity will increase to 13,600 persons. For first relief the municipality plans to install a second submersible pump in the well. This option shall be assessed for cost-efficiency since friction losses in transmission main will increase. Municipality intends to construct a second drilled well 100-m distant from the existing one. This plan shall include the verification of transmission main capacity and the consideration of additional reservoir volumes. For demand peaks (30,000 persons by the day) the provision of sufficient reservoir volumes shall be deliberated. Capacity shall be based on detailed assessment of visitor's frequency and specific water demand.

250


Annex

6

Liquid Waste Background Information This chapter gives an overview of present site specific situation and of future concepts for liquid waste disposal. Liquid waste dealt with in this study comprehends wastewater consisting of domestic, commercial/industrial and institutional wastewater. Data and information origin from (a) field mission investigation 01 April – 06 April 2005 and from (b) World Bank document “Wastewater Management and Integrated Planning for Albania’s Coastal Zone Study – Draft Final Report”.

1.

Present liquid waste disposal in the region

1.1. Sewerage systems In total view within the study region the present practice of wastewater disposal is widely unsatisfactory. Only in Saranda town there exists a sewerage system of sufficient capacity and covering the most part of urban area. Among coastal villages only in Himara a part of sewage is collected and discharged from residential areas. All other villages do not have any functioning wastewater collection network. Sewage is evacuated to the karstic ground either directly or through septic tanks of mostly unsatisfactory state.

1.2. Sewage treatment Collective treatment In all coastal settlements including Saranda town presently there exists no wastewater treatment. Sewage is disposed untreated to the environment either directly to the sea (Himara, Saranda) or dispersed to the environment by diffuse percolation into karstic ground effecting pollution of underground water resources and finally of the coastal seawaters. The only sewerage system in Himara covers only the core area of town whereas in the perimeter as well as in all other coastal villages and in detached settlements there is no sewer network existing.

Individual installations; pits and septic tanks In most places, wastewater is partially discharged to septic tanks on private properties, which in the best case represent an underground concrete basin closed by a concrete cover equal with ground surface. In the septic tank sedimentation of solid phase takes place and trough an overflow the liquid phase is released to adjacent karstic underground. No partial filtration by slow percolation takes place due to the rocky subsoil character and the missing of sandy, humus or silt soil layers. The trickling of wastewater into karstic ground does not even effect a partial mechanical purification. Periodically the collected solid phase is removed from septic tank and finally deposited apart from residential zones. Since there are no treatment plants for overtaking solid wastewater phase it is dumped somewhere in the environment where it effects pollution to soil, to

251


PAP/RAC â&#x20AC;&#x201C; SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Interim Report

groundwater, to water supply downstream and often to atmosphere through spreading disagreeable odours. Further, these deposits effect flies breeding and the whole situation is unsanitary and a risk for human health. However, it occurs frequently that septic tanks on private properties consist only of a simple pit in the ground without any sealing or dense construction elements. Collected wastewater trickles into adjacent karstic underground and often effects groundwater pollution whereas open wastewater surface in the pit causes odour charges to the atmosphere. Both circumstances represent a permanent danger for the health of nearby inhabitants. In numerous cases this situation is even worsened since dug wells for water supply are often located close to these so-called septic tanks and persons permanently consume contaminated water. It is obvious that such conditions are absolutely unacceptable for local population. Further, the present practice of wastewater disposal is a serious obstacle for future tourism development since first it deteriorates quality of coastal seawater, second it pollutes water resources for consumption purposes, third it causes odour problems and forth it increases the danger of diseases.

1.3. Seasonal pollution fluctuation Due to local summer tourism the number of present persons in the months June, July and august increases by about 150% in some villages. Since there are absolutely no data on water pollution parameter available for the coastal region unless for Vlora and Saranda the assessment contamination is more descriptive than through precise analyses figures. But referring to explanations of municipal stakeholders in most recent years during summer months on the beaches a remarkable reduction of seawater quality has occurred and smell of wastewater was noticeable. It origins from increased domestic wastewater's and from sewage discharges of restaurants. As a finding of observations in recent years there exists a tendency of water quality deterioration on the beaches during summer months. In order to reverse this trend and to avoid pollution of aqueous environment in future a functioning infrastructure for wastewater collection and treatment must be provided. This includes rehabilitation of existing facilities as well as construction of new ones for extension of wastewater collection networks and for provision of sufficient wastewater treatment capacities.

2.

Future projects and perspectives

2.1. Description and discussion on potential technologies to be applied Classic treatment plant From the viewpoint of economics, of purification efficiency and of operation reliability the best solution is the in-situ construction of one big classic treatment plant for all coastal villages. The reason is that overall specific treatment costs decrease with the rise of number of persons connected to it. Since the wastewater collection network is the prerequisite for treatment the specific network costs (sewerage costs/ PE connected) must be regarded for conceptual planning of treatment plants. Due to the morphological structure of coastal region and due to the long distances between some villages it is obviously not economic to construct a long collection sewer connecting all

252


Annex 6

settlements. Beside the huge financial amount for construction such a system would need remarkable efforts for operation and maintenance. For small villages located comparatively close to each other the provision of one collection network discharging in one common treatment plant might be a reasonable solution. The alternative would be the realisation of several separate collection networks and the respective number of treatment plants. However, this is a question of particular project planning and has to be answered with regard to specific local conditions.

Prefabricated compact treatment plant For detached houses and for small settlements of low density located remote to the next village the construction of a classic treatment plant will be not reasonable. Specific construction costs will increase inadequately. Further, down from a certain level of PE load the operational performance of a classic plant might not be suitable and the provision of a prefabricated compact treatment plant will be a better solution. They are suitable for capacities from one single household till the range of one small settlement. Specific figures about treatment capacities for preference of the prefabricated option are deliberately not mentioned here since data differ in dependence on fabricate and specific local conditions (climate, wastewater flow fluctuation, wastewater characteristics, installation conditions). At any rate the ranges for reasonable application of the classic or the prefabricated compact solution overlap and the final decision for one option will depend on local framework conditions. In the concerned coastal region one argument for a prefabricated treatment plant is the quick installation and the quick environmental benefit in terms of pollution reduction. The long term planning process, which is normal for complex sewerage systems comprehending several settlements, is avoided. Construction works are much shorter. For the present situation the most convincing reason is that goal of environmental pollution reduction can be achieved in short-term view for some parts of coastal settlements. This solution is better than to wait for a complex regional treatment concept, which needs many years for preparation. In other words, an immediate partial reduction of environmental pollution is better than no reduction of pollution for the next future. This approach is in line with governmental policy for coastal wastewater disposal. Classical treatment plants are the long-term objective, local small-scale solutions are strived for intermediate option. Besides, it shall be noted that the quick option of prefabricated compact plant does not exclude the longterm common regional or municipal treatment concept.

Septic tanks The advantage of septic tanks are low costs, long service life and stable operation. The disadvantage consists of limited purification efficiency due to only mechanical treatment. Since in many cases for detached houses and settlements the prefabricated treatment plants can not be financed the alternative option still is the septic tank. Total costs are lower than for prefabricated plants, the method is accepted in the region and operation is independent on energy supply. However, existing septic tanks frequently show insufficient construction state, timeworn condition and widely unsatisfactory functioning. In many cases present facilities must either be rehabilitated or closed-up and replaced by new constructions. The decision for the more suitable option must be reached by case specific technical and cost related assessment.

253


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Since septic tanks only enable mechanical treatment the purification efficiency is always below that of prefabricated treatment plants. Therefore from the viewpoint of pollution load reduction they are a worse solution than prefabricated treatment plants. Otherwise, considering the limited financial means for water infrastructure they will effect a partial improvement instead of leaving the wastewater situation as it exists. If the choice is between prefabricated treatment plants and septic tanks the decision shall be based on financial, socio-economic and site specific energy supply related conditions. From the viewpoint of environmental protection the prefabricated option shall prevail. Further, total costs (for construction and operation) must be covered. Additional prerequisites are skilled personnel for operation and maintenance as well as the stakeholder's acceptance for long term care. An additional precondition is the reliable availability of energy supply for continuous operation. If one of these requirements is not assured a septic tank might be the better solution in the whole view.

Options for tourism facilities Since tourism facilities generate wastewater only seasonally, their inclusion in the municipal treatment plant must be investigated for suitability. The alternative is the provision of separate treatment solutions for tourist infrastructure or the implementation of modular concepts for variation of treatment capacities on demand (i.e. start-up of second treatment line in tourist season). The decision must be taken with regard to the ratio of tourists/local population, to topographic conditions, to considerations for treatment plant operation, etc.. For instance the beach nearby Dhermiu village is a place of potential tourism development. In summer season tourists on the beach might be as many as local inhabitants which approximately will double wastewater generation. Wastewater generated on the beach can be treated in separate prefabricated compact treatment plants, which will be operated only during summer season. The alternative was the delivery of wastewater to a future treatment plant of Dhermiu village. The decision will be based on detailed assessment of site specific conditions, environmental considerations and on economic deliberations. Similar questions will arise in other locations of potential tourism development, which are placed markedly distant from existing residential areas e.g. Kakome Bay or Jal beach. At any rate the decision for the choice of treatment concept is the decision of conceptual design for each municipality. In this context it has to be noted that nowadays the purification efficiency of prefabricated compact treatment plants reaches similar level as classic in-situ constructed plants. One advantage of prefabricated compact plants is the reliable and economic operation in smallscale pollution load. Therefore they represent a considerable option for (1) tourism facilities as well as for (2) remote single houses and (3) detached settlements.

2.2. Saranda on going project There is an ongoing wastewater project called “Wastewater Management Master Plan Saranda”, which main characteristics are: ƒ Financed by (a) European Investment Bank and (b) World Bank ; ƒ Financial amount: 4 Mio USD ; ƒ Designing company: “Berlin Wasser” (German water company). The project components are:

254


Annex 6

ƒ Constructed wetland (area 30,000 m2) close to the south bank of Cuka Channel about 1 km distant from the coast ƒ Main collector from Saranda wastewater pumping station to constructed wetland ƒ Mechanical and electrical equipment (M&E) for treatment system ƒ Discharge of treated wastewater by gravity to Butrinti Lake ƒ Design capacity: 60000 PE ƒ Design efficiency: 83% BOD5 reduction ƒ Design horizon for WWTP capacity: year 2022 ƒ Project status: detailed design finished, tendering for construction and site supervision is ongoing, Construction period envisaged 2 years. World Bank financing only constructed wetland and European Investment Bank financing main sewage collector (construction works and M&E equipment).

Project obstacles Municipality of Saranda will not agree with present design of WWTP outflow to Butrinti Lake (comment of Environmental Department Saranda). Aqueous ecosystem of Burundi Lake is sensitive and euthrophication has already been reported. Future charges through residual pollution loads from WWTP effluent will further endanger ecological balance. Alternative design would be to discharge WWTP effluent to Cuka Channel, which will finally evacuate residual pollution loads to the sea. The project consequence will be the need of an additional pumping station for effluent delivery and subsequent additional costs (for construction and operation of effluent pumping station). The discussion is still ongoing and a decision is missing.

2.3. Assessment and proposals in previous studies The following section provides information and proposals made in the “Wastewater Management and Integrated Planning for Albania’s Coastal Zone Study” (Government of Albania, financed by the World Bank, 2004)

Palasa Present state No sewerage neither treatment exist.

Needs ƒ

Construction of new collection network for dense residential area, close-up of septic tanks

ƒ

For detached houses connection to new municipal collection network or provision of separate treatment solution (prefabricated compact treatment plant or septic tank), decision based on site specific assessment

ƒ

Construction of wastewater treatment plant, 2 options: (a) separate treatment plant for Palasa, (b) common treatment plant together with Dhermiu

255


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Dhermiu Present state No sewerage neither treatment exist.

Needs ƒ

Construction of new collection network for dense residential area, close-up of septic tanks

ƒ

Construction of wastewater treatment plant, 2 options: (a) separate treatment plant for Dhermiu, (b) common treatment plant together with Palasa

ƒ

Provision of treatment for tourist facilities close to beach, variant options: (a) public toilets, sewer connection to municipal treatment plant, (b) public toilets, separate prefabricated compact treatment plant

Ilias Present state No sewerage neither treatment exist.

Needs ƒ

Construction of new collection network for dense residential area, close-up of septic tanks

ƒ

Construction of wastewater treatment plant, 2 options: (a) separate treatment plant for Ilias (eventually prefabricated compact plant), (b) common treatment plant together with Vunoi

ƒ

Prefabricated compact treatment plants or septic tanks for detached houses

Vuno (Jal) Present state No sewerage neither treatment exist.

Needs ƒ

Construction of new collection network for dense residential area, close-up of septic tanks

ƒ

Construction of wastewater treatment plant - 2 options: (a) separate treatment plant for Vunoi, (b) common treatment plant together with Ilias

ƒ

Prefabricated compact treatment plants or septic tanks for detached houses

ƒ

Treatment for tourism facilities on Jal beach: (a) separate solution (prefabricated compact plant), (b) sewer connection to municipal treatment

Himara Present state Since 1980 there exists a sewerage system in Himara town. It consists of concrete sewers the biggest of them showing diameter DN 300. Further, there is a simple mechanical

256


Annex 6

wastewater treatment consisting of several sedimentation basins made of concrete. From there wastewater is discharged to the sea. The collection network is of insufficient capacity and the partial purification in the sedimentation basins is far below the required rate of pollution reduction according to respective EU legislation. Therefore municipality strives for rehabilitation of existing sewerage system as well as for network extension in order to connect all residential areas to sewage collection network. Further, the present mechanical treatment basins shall be closed up and a new wastewater treatment plant with mechanical and biological stages shall be constructed. As new houses will be connected to the extended collection network existing septic tanks shall be closed up to stop pollution to soil and groundwater. For single houses with large distance from municipal agglomeration the connection to the sewerage system might be too expensive. The solution will be the installation of a separate prefabricated compact treatment plant, which is. However, the decision for such a separate option or for construction of one channel as connection to the municipal sewerage will be based on economic consideration of detailed design project. Municipality Himara assigns first priority to the improvement of wastewater disposal system since presently local population as well as tourism suffers already from the unpleasant impacts of existing wastewater disposal situation.

Old Himara Present state No sewerage neither treatment exist.

Needs ƒ

Construction of new collection network, connection to treatment plant of Himara town, close-up of septic tanks

ƒ

Prefabricated compact treatment plants for detached houses

ƒ

Treatment for tourism facilities downhill Old Himara: (a) separate solution (prefabricated compact plant), (b) sewer connection to municipal treatment

Porto Palermo Present state No sewerage neither treatment exist.

Needs ƒ

Construction of new collection network for existing settlement, close-up of septic tanks

ƒ

Provision of wastewater treatment - 2 options: (a) prefabricated compact plant for separate treatment, (b) sewer connection to treatment plant of Himara or Qeparoi

ƒ

Prefabricated compact treatment plants or septic tanks for detached houses

ƒ

For future tourism facilities separate treatment or sewer connection

257


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Pilur Present state No sewerage neither treatment exist.

Needs ƒ

Construction of new collection network, close-up of septic tanks

ƒ

Construction of wastewater treatment plant for Pilur only

ƒ

Prefabricated compact treatment plants or septic tanks for detached houses

Kudhes Present state No sewerage neither treatment exist.

Needs ƒ

Construction of new collection network for dense residential area, close-up of septic tanks

ƒ

Construction of wastewater treatment plant - 2 options: (a) separate treatment plant or septic tanks for Kudhes, (b) sewer connection to Qeparoi treatment plant

Qeparo Present state No sewerage neither treatment exist.

Needs ƒ

Construction of new collection network for dense residential area, close-up of septic tanks

ƒ

Construction of wastewater treatment plant, 2 options: (a) separate treatment plant for Ilias (eventually prefabricated compact plant), (b) common treatment plant together with Vunoi

ƒ

Prefabricated compact treatment plants or septic tank for detached houses

Borsh Present state No sewerage neither treatment exist.

Needs ƒ

Construction of new collection network for dense residential area, close-up of septic tanks

ƒ

Construction of wastewater treatment plant, 2 options: (a) separate treatment plant for Ilias (eventually prefabricated compact plant), (b) common treatment plant together with Vunoi

ƒ

Prefabricated compact treatment plants or septic tank for detached houses

258


Annex 6

Piqeras Present state No sewerage neither treatment exist.

Needs ƒ

Construction of new collection network for dense residential area, close-up of septic tanks

ƒ

Construction of separate wastewater treatment plant,

ƒ

Prefabricated compact treatment plants or septic tank for detached houses

ƒ

For tourism facilities on the beach public toilets and prefabricated compact treatment plants

Lukova Present state No sewerage neither treatment exist.

Needs ƒ

Construction of new collection network for dense residential area, close-up of septic tanks

ƒ

Construction of separate wastewater treatment plant

ƒ

Provision of prefabricated compact treatment plants or septic tank for detached houses

ƒ

For tourism facilities on the beach provision of public toilets and prefabricated compact treatment plants

Kakome Bay Present state Presently only few houses are there, no sewage treatment exists.

Needs ƒ

For future tourism facilities construction of collection network, provision of public toilets and prefabricated compact treatment plants

Saranda Present state Sewerage exists for most urban areas. In the perimeter some settlements are not covered by collection system. Collected wastewater flows to central wastewater pumping station located on the eastern edge of urban area near the coast. From the pumping station wastewater is delivered trough a pressure sewer to Cuka Channel and there discharged to the river, outlet point is about 400 m before the estuary. No wastewater treatment exists. Cuka channel transports total pollution load to Saranda Bay causing derogation of water quality. Stormwater of urban areas is presently discharged to the sea (Saranda Lagoon).

259


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Needs ƒ

Extension of sewerage network to all settlements on the perimeter of Saranda

ƒ

Construction of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)

Ksamil Present state No sewerage neither treatment exist. Sewage disposal is carried exclusively by septic tanks frequently only consisting of simple earth pits without any sealing to soil or any other construction elements. Therefore, permanent pollution to soil and groundwater takes place.

Needs ƒ

Construction of new collection network for dense residential area, close-up of septic tanks

ƒ

Construction of separate wastewater treatment plant,

ƒ

Prefabricated compact treatment plants for detached houses

ƒ

For tourism facilities on the beach public toilets and prefabricated compact treatment plants, sewer connection to municipal treatment plant shall be considered upon site specific conditions.

260


Annex

7

Solid Wastes Background Information This chapter gives an overview to present site specific situation and to future concepts of solid waste disposal. Data and information origin from (a) field mission investigation 01 April – 06 April 2005, from (b) World Bank document “Pre-feasibility study and Solid Waste Management Plan for Southern Albania - Draft Final Report, Component 2 (2005)” and from the same document, “Component 4 – Draft Preliminary Environmental Consequences (2005)”. This study has been prepared by the Dutch company “Solid Waste Consultancy AB

1.

Regional organization for Solid waste management

There exist four administrative units in the study region: (1) Saranda municipality, (2) Lukova commune, (3) Himara municipality and (4) Ksamil municipality. In total view within the study region the present practice of solid waste disposal is unsatisfactory and similar to the overall situation in Albania. Since uncontrolled solid waste deposits in the region and landfills of unsatisfactory state in Saranda and Himara municipality pollute groundwater resources they endanger the living conditions and health of local population. Further, frequent uncontrolled dump of solid waste and excavation material in residential areas affects directly optic scenery. These circumstances decrease the region’s eligibility for future tourism development. For these reasons high priority must be assigned to a solid waste disposal solutions which cover the requirements for three issues the environmental protection, the prevention of affects on living conditions of local inhabitants and the prevention of landscape’s optical derogation. The existing solid waste disposal systems and the respective future concepts of Saranda municipality, Lukova commune, Himare municipality and Ksamil municipality are described in detail as follows.

2.

Situation and perspectives for the 4 administrative units

2.1. Lukova commune Present In Lukova commune there exists no landfill neither an organised collection of solid waste. Presently solid waste is dumped on the banks of the road and to some extent burned locally. A certain part is transported to present Saranda landfill. Due to the lack of money improvements of solid waste disposal practice (collection containers, trucks for transportation) are impossible.

Future For future solid waste disposal Lukova commune envisages to join a regional approach and to transport all solid waste to future landfill of Saranda municipality.

261


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

2.2. Himara municipality Present In Himara municipality a simple type of waste collection system is in operation together with a dumpsite of unsatisfactory state located northeast of Himara town. It does not show any base sealing or any other rudimental construction elements of a landfill. The dumpsite is located in a place, which is often flooded causing unacceptable emissions to soil, groundwater and surface water. In the villages Dhermiu and Ilias there are uncontrolled landfills. In the other settlements of Himara municipality there is no central collection point for solid waste and waste is often found somewhere on the terrain. Presently the municipal budget enables the operation of solid waste collection and the maintenance of facilities and equipment in Himara town. Solid waste disposal services include (1) street cleaning, (2) beach cleaning in summer months and (3) waste deposit at existing dump site northeast of Himara town. But due to permanent pollution of environment Himara municipality strives for closing up the existing dumpsite and for establishing a new controlled landfill.

Future For future solid waste landfill a site close to Vunoi has been identified by World Bank “Prefeasibility Study and Solid Waste Management Plan for Southern Albania – Draft Final Report, Component 2”.

2.3. Saranda municipality Present In Saranda municipality a well organised municipal solid waste collection system effects the reliable removal of solid waste from the urban area. But the collected waste is dumped at a landfill which does not cover the requirements of the EU landfill directive and which effects permanent environmental pollution. Further, the uncontrolled disposal of excavation material in urban area is absolutely unacceptable. Solid waste collection catchment area: Saranda town, Gjashta village, Metoqi village and Ksamil municipality (since October 2004) Town cleaning components: (1) solid waste removal from urban area, (2) public toilets, (3) beach cleaning 12 months a year, (6,320 m2, from the port to Southern edge of Saranda Bay), (4) cleaning and maintenance of 2 public markets, (5) street washing 120 days during summer season, (6) solid waste collection in Ksamil, (7) solid waste disposal for Ksamil Collection technique: containers for solid waste dump by urban citizens are placed over urban areas (also in Ksamil 40 containers), periodically containers are emptied by solid waste trucks; collection does not include excavation material and construction waste; both are frequently deposited uncontrolled on the sloped urban coast and in the town perimeter, optic scenery of urban coast and area is markedly deteriorated; Deposit: trucks transport collected solid waste to the one existing controlled landfill north of Saranda town close to the right side of the road to Lukova

262


Annex 7

Landfill: simple dump site on the slope of a hill close to the right bank of the road SarandaLukova, dump site located about 7 km distant from Saranda on the dry bed of former Butrinti Lake; Â&#x192;

dump site dimensions: some 100 m long, 50 m wide and steep slopes reaching 20 m deep from street level;

Â&#x192;

dump site construction state by far not satisfactory referring to requirements for soil and groundwater protection, no bottom sealing, no collection of infiltration water, leachate infiltration into soil and groundwater, location close to river Kalases and close to settlements (impact through odour and dust).

Solid waste treatment: solid waste is dumped from the trucks, solid waste is covered with earth layer (to avoid removal of light solid waste faction by the wind); sometimes quick lime (CaO) is placed as cover layer on the waste (disinfection), landfill is continuously supervised since one year (after a severe fire has occurred) Recycling: presently separation of aluminium and iron is practiced, transportation to melting industry in Elbasan, further the separation of heavy plastics (but no PET bottles) has started due to an initiative of a company in Delvina, but plastic recycling has intermediately been stopped since the machine for granulation is defective. Future recycling policy: intention for recycling as much as possible, restart of plastic recycling, attempt for glass recycling (presently there is no market demand for recycled glass). Impact on tourism: Since tourism activities presumably will focus on coastal areas neither the present landfill nor the future envisaged landfill at Bajkaj will have even a minor impact on tourism. Above cited World Bank Pre-feasibility study and Solid Waste Management Plan for southern Albania â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Draft Final Report, Component 2 affirms that Bajkaj site is not visible from any location envisaged for future tourist presence. Odour and dust problems are assumed to be negligible due to the sufficient remote location in the hinterland. Only solid waste transportation by trucks might be perceived by tourists. But simple measures can mitigate this fact, i.e. the assignation of appropriate periods for transportation. In any case each future measure for improvement of solid waste disposal will diminish significantly the affects on tourism since the most serious impact is caused by the visible existence of uncontrolled dumped solid waste in areas of tourist presence.

Future The only present Saranda landfill shall be closed and replaced by a new one. Saranda municipality strives for one large landfill for Saranda, Ksamil and all coastal villages towards North till Palasa. From the economic viewpoint this regional approach is better than several local landfills for particular villages. The search for an appropriate new landfill site has already reached an advanced state but no approval by authorities has been given up to now.

2.4. Ksamili municipality Organization of the service In Ksamil municipality solid waste collection system works properly. Since autumn 2004 there is Cupertino between municipalities of Saranda and Ksamil in the solid waste sector. Saranda municipality makes available 40 containers for solid waste collection and has placed them over Ksamil residential areas. Further, the service of Saranda municipality

263


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

comprehends the periodic emptying of these containers and the solid waste transport to existing Saranda solid waste landfill including final deposit in the same place.

Excavation material In contrast to solid waste disposal, the present practice of excavation material disposal is far away from being satisfactory. Present intensive residential construction activities in Ksamil entail frequent small deposits of excavation material on private properties and along roads derogating the optic scenery of settlements. For disposal the municipality’s short-term approach is the intermediate remain of numerous deposits as they are and to use the material for later road construction works. Due to the present busy residential development this procedure appears to be reasonable. The long-term approach of municipality is final disposal on an inert landfill, which is envisaged together with Saranda municipality.

Landfill sites identification For possible solid waste dump on it’s own territory Ksamil municipality has already identified 3 locations and proposed them to Regional Council. Up to now none of these sites has been approved for landfill construction since geological conditions have been assessed as inappropriate. This is one reason why the regional approach as described is preferred. Second reason is limited space on municipal territory, which makes it almost impossible to operate a landfill without any impact on residents. The third reason is the predicted tourism development in Ksamil which will be very sensitive vis-à-vis a nearby landfill. A forth reason are the limited financial means of municipality, which do not cover the needs for construction and operation of an own landfill. For short term solution Ksamil municipality strives for ongoing co-operation with Saranda municipality and for continuing of solid waste disposal at present Saranda landfill. For mid term solution solid waste will be deposited on future Saranda landfill at Bajkaj site. For long term solution Ksamil will be incorporated in regional solid waste disposal system and eliminate it’s garbage through incineration plant in Vlora (see section 2.5.2 below). Since this option appears a scenario of far future the realistic option for the next future is deposit on new Saranda landfill at Bajkaj site.

Impact of project on tourism With regard to tourism development in Ksamil the option of solid waste disposal at one common landfill for Saranda and Ksamil (may it be the present one or may it be the future Bajkay site) should be preferred in comparison to separate landfills for Ksamil and Saranda. In case of one landfill the impact on environment (including residents and tourists) occurs just once instead of twice. Since for Bajkaj dump site (envisaged future Saranda landfill) environmental impact assessment has proceeded quite far (read World Bank document “Prefeasibility study and Solid Waste Management Plan for Southern Albania” – Component 4: Environmental Consequences) it is obvious that solid waste disposal at Bajkaj site will entail only negligible impacts on tourism in Ksamil. A further advantage of garbage disposal at Bajkaj dump site will be that for no further costly site investigation nor an additional environmental impact assessments have to be performed.

264


Annex 7

2.5. Long term and medium term solid waste disposal regional approach Policy and overview A regional solid waste disposal concept comprehending the districts of Vlora, Saranda and Delvina will be elaborated in co-operation of Albanian experts and the Italian company “Reggione Marke”. This concept envisages identification of 3-4 dumpsites in the cited districts and is the construction of an incineration plant in Vlora. There the residual solid waste (fraction after separation and recycling) of Saranda shall be treated thermally. Further the concept comprehends considerations on respective infrastructure at regional level, site visits of Albanian officials in Italy, specific training of personnel for operation of solid waste disposal and the establishment of regional agencies for solid waste disposal. A respective feasibility study has already been prepared by Italian experts (available at Vlora Regional Council). Since this regional scenario will be implemented in rather far future the intermediate (medium term) solution will be the identification of 1-2 landfill sites for solid waste disposal of Saranda and coastal villages. Vlora region is not included since it is already treated in another project. The Northern boundary of catchment area of Saranda district solid waste disposal is the Llogara pass.

Medium term landfill policy Future identified landfill sites The existing World Bank study (Pre-feasibility Study and Solid Waste Management Plan for Southern Albania – Draft Final Report, Component 2, 2005)”. has identified 2 possible landfill sites for a regional solid waste deposit. One site was selected for the Saranda and Lukova region called “Bajkaj”. The second site is envisaged for Himara region and named “Vunoi” (location see Map 10). Bajkaj landfill site: The site is located approximately 1.5 km north of the Bajkaj village which itself is about 8 km northeast of Saranda close to the left side of the road Saranda – Delvina. However, an official approval has not yet been submitted. Regional authority has ordered detailed geological and hydro-geological investigations as a condition for the final decision for landfill construction. Details about site assessment and construction costs are to be read in the above mentioned World Bank Pre-feasibility Study on Solid Waste. Vunoi landfill site: The location is close to the road from Himara to Vunoi 1 km far from Vunoi and 7 km distant to Himara (see Map 10). Vunoi site is envisaged only for future solid waste disposal of Himara municipality. Environmental impacts of future landfill sites For Bajkaj site a draft environmental impact assessment carried out in the respective World Bank study – Component 4 predicts for nearby settlements a moderate impact of noise and vibration due to periodic waste transportation by trucks. Odour charges can be reduced to a negligible amount trough specific mitigation measures. Also the negative effects on ground and surface water resources are estimated as negligible. Only the impact on landscape will be moderate since he landfill will be visible from Bajkaj village. In any case the affect on tourism activities will be negligible. For Vunoi site the draft environmental impact assessment estimates minor negative influences through traffic noise. The impacts on landscape can be reduced to a moderate

265


PAP/RAC â&#x20AC;&#x201C; SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Interim Report

rate by planting trees and other vegetation for hiding landfill structures. These measures for preserving regional optic scenery are recommended since tourist's activities will take place in the surrounding area of the landfill site. Impacts on groundwater and surface water resources are predicted as negligible. The new Vunoi landfill is only regarded as an intermediate midterm option. As best solution is assessed the solid waste incineration in Vlora. Landfill for excavation material Due to current extension of settlements big amounts of excavation material are generated. Present usual practice is to deposit them on along the coast or on private properties beside the new constructions. Numerous deposits of excavation material deteriorate the optic scenery through small heaps of earth and pebble stone spread over residential areas. For future controlled disposal of excavation material Saranda municipality together with Ksamil municipality envisages the implementation of a specific landfill for inert waste. Saranda and Ksamil municipality has already addressed their request to local government for (1) definition of a site for inert material landfill realisation, for (2) enforcement of a construction company for landfill implementation and (3) for government financial support to municipalities. Saranda and Ksamil municipality together strive for a regional approach for excavation material disposal.

266


Annex

8

Tourism Development and Territorial Planning – Cyprus Main statistics ƒ

Population: Approximately 800,000

ƒ

Length of coastline: The country has a total of 772 kilometres of shoreline, of which: ƒ 404 kilometres are inaccessible – in the Turkish occupied zone (52%); ƒ 72 kilometres also inaccessible for development falling within the British Military Bases (10%); and ƒ 296 kilometres within the area under Government control (38%).

Main Tourism sector Indicators (1990 – 2002) 1990 1,377,636 12.8 59,271 15,415 573.0

1995

2002

% change 1990-2002

Tourist arrivals (number of tourists) 2,100,000 2,418,233 average annual growth 4.8% Average length of stay (days) 11.5 11.1 absolute decline 13.3% Licensed beds in operation 78,427 94,466 average annual growth 3.9% Direct employment in the tourist sector 34,100 43,000 average annual growth 8.9% Revenue from tourism (million Cyprus Pounds) 810.0 1,136 (USD 2,525) annual average growth 5.8%

Source: Cyprus Tourism Organization, Annual report and Summary Statistics, 2003

The pressures for tourism development resulted in extensive building construction of buildings along the coast and evident deterioration of the visual and functional relationship between the coast and the inland area. The natural environment in the coastal areas, where tourist development has been concentrated, has been fundamentally transformed. The lack of a comprehensive planning law to exercise adequate control of spatial development (until 1990) allowed rapid and poorly controlled development and a consequent decline in the quality of the built environment. Prior to 1990 the zoning and building regulations allowed high buildings and building densities on the coast and limited provision for organised open public spaces, with a resulting reduction in beach area in front of the buildings (public access problems). The excessive population concentration in certain seaside areas increased sea pollution threats and pressures on the capacity of the beaches to accommodate recreation activity. The development of tourism concentrated in the coastal zone with a share of beds at 95% of the total, resulting in pressure on the coastal environment.

267


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Spatial Distribution of licensed tourist accommodation capacity 2002 Area Total Coastal Areas Inland Areas Nicosia (capital city – inland) Mountain Resorts Total Inland Areas Total

No of tourist beds 80,446 2,000 2,000 4,000 84,446

Share in % 95.2% 2.4% 2.4% 4.8% 100.0%

Source: Cyprus Tourism Organisation

Main planning policy on tourism The Cyprus tourism industry, while originally aiming to attract high income tourists, has gradually moved towards ‘mass tourism’ due to lack of proactive policies and ‘liberal’ approaches to the control of ‘informal sector’ tourism development (apartments being built for family housing rented out unofficially to low-budget tourism, thus creating a stock of parallel ‘informal tourism accommodation’). Tourist arrivals have been increasing but environmental quality and the length of stay are diminishing. Cyprus is now subject to strong competition from other similar destinations. Policy responses (outlined below) have come rather late. 1.

Spatial and product diversification of tourism development (greater emphasis on village tourism combined with cultural heritage settings and facilities). The Cyprus Tourism Organization has a special programme to encourage village tourism. It defines the villages eligible for financial assistance if and when projects are located there (within the traditional core of the village or adjacent to it. Assistance can reach up to 40% of the construction / renovation cost plus a smaller grant for equipment and furniture. Under the Town Planning Law tourism zones are designated in village areas for village tourism. For village tourism special building regulations apply.

2.

Provision of financial incentives (capital grants) for village tourism projects. Grants can be up to 40% of the construction cost. No land given unless in very special cases - not really practiced. All such projects are family owned businesses. So far there have been a few such projects and are doing well. No grants are given for enterprises (restaurants, handicrafts, although another programme does cover technical assistance for handicraft development.

3.

More strict density control in coastal tourism development zones. Over building, limited investment in facilities / landscaping caused loss of high income markets to competing destinations which in turn mainly brought this about.

4.

Plot ratios (density) have been reduced from about 57% to 25-30% (plot ratio is applied on the net land area after taking away about 25-30% of the project site for infrastructure, parking, open space roads, etc.)

5.

Strict control of building regulations stipulating minimum sizes of apartments (tourist villages and bungalows) – to maintain minimum standards of quality and control density per ha.

6.

All coastal areas (and tourist zones) are covered by land use plans stipulating site coverage, number of floors, building height and density (plot ratio) and areas for other related tourist facilities. The plans are either local plans 1:25,000 also showing plot details on 1: 5,000 with policy directions, or simple village zoning plans of the same scale without documentation. All plans stipulate site coverage (usually 15-25%) plot ratio, height and no of storeys (up to 2).

7.

Land policy (mainly for exacting land through conditions set for the issue of planning permissions) is an integral part of the planning law (on average about 25-30% of the land is given over for infrastructure).

268


Annex

9

Tourism Development: Comparison of Destinations and Strategies We present a benchmarking of some destinations that can be compared to The Albanian Riviera to identify the problems they have known and determine the good practices

Tourism in Croatia Source: National agency of statistics, Ministry of Tourism, Détente Consultants

Main indicators ƒ

9.4 millions International tourists in 2004, among which 8 millions of international tourists, i.e. 6% growth compared to 2003.

ƒ

48 millions of nights: 37% in Istria, 27% in Dalmatia, 23% in Kvarner, 7% in Dubrovnik, 7% in Zagreb, 7% in continental Croatia.

ƒ

96% of the tourists are on the coast or in Zagreb.

ƒ

Main clienteles: 26.8% of Germans, 12.9% of Italians, 11% of Czechs, 8.7% of Austrians, 4.6% of Hungarians, 3.6% of Dutch. French are bursting out with 400 000 pax in 2004 (x4 in 2 years)

ƒ

Average expense: 49€ per day in 2004 (+42% compared to 2001).

ƒ

Average length of stay: 8 to 14 nights.

ƒ

Hospitality capacity: 780.000 beds Hospitality capacity Number of beds Hotels Resorts Marinas Camping Private accommodation Others Total

100,000 54,000 55,000 195,000 320,000 58,000 780,000

Development model ƒ

A quick growth since the end of the war.

ƒ

Goal of the Ministry of Tourism: 11 millions tourists by 2010.

ƒ

Objective of developing the high quality offer: 100,000 more beds for a 250 millions Euros investment.

ƒ

Objective of sustainable tourism: development of one hundred small family 3-star hotels on the Dalmatian coast (funded by a Croatian company and USAID).

269


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

ƒ

Objective of diversification of the products (cruises, Robinson Crusoe tourism, beach festivals…) and clienteles and upgrading.

ƒ

Intensification of the communication to the well-off clienteles in France, Germany, Scandinavia and Britain: 43% growth of the communication budget

ƒ

Objective of privatization: the State still owns 35% of the hotels and shares in 145 tourism companies. The Croatian privatization fund has started invitation for tender in order to sell 31 state companies and the Kupari resort.

270


Annex 9

Weight of tourism ƒ

70% of tertiary sector (banks and insurance excluded), 40% of the export

Tourism in Turkey Source: Ministry of Tourism, Détente Consultants

Main indicators ƒ

17.5 millions of international arrivals in 2004, i.e. 25% growth compared to 2003.

ƒ

Antalya represents 34% of the international arrivals: 50% of Germans, 13% of Russians.

ƒ

Average length of stay: 6 nights.

ƒ

Hospitality capacity: 650,000 beds in hotels.

ƒ

Antalya hospitality capacity: 860 hotels and resorts, 235,000 beds

Development model ƒ

In the context of strong growth of Mediterranean destinations, the development of Antalya in the 70ies was based on mass tourism. In the 80ies, with the liberalization of the economy, the rhythm of investments in the tourism sector accelerated, as well as in the promotion of the country and the communication infrastructures.

ƒ

Mass tourism showed its side effects in the end 1990ies: overcapacity, high dependency on foreign tour operators, endangering of the natural resources… The Ministry of Tourism elaborated a plan of allocation of tourism in the whole Turkey and a strategy of diversification (cultural tourism, skiing, trekking, golf, horse riding).

ƒ

Today the main handicap of Turkey is the lack of diversification of the offer. Such a diversification could be a solution against the high seasonality and the development unbalanced between the different regions.

ƒ

Antalya developed two main alternative products to the sea and sun product: the golf (8 courses) and the business tourism (first congress centre in the country, 45.000 congress seats).

271


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

ƒ

The image of Turkey was built up through the promotion made by the tour operators. Their brochures present sea, sun and sand pictures, and give very few informations about the country and the other products. Consequently, for years, Turkey has not been a differentiated image among the sea and sun destinations.

ƒ

The Ministry of Tourism invested significantly in the promotion of the natural, cultural and sports products. The promotion budget in Germany in 2000 was 9.2 millions of Euros, compared to 3.5 millions in Spain and 1.8 million in France.

Tourism in Tunisia Source: Ministry of Tourism, Détente Consultants

Main indicators ƒ

5.1 millions of international tourists in 2003.

ƒ

25 millions of nights.

ƒ

Hammamet and Yasmine Hammamet represent 16% of the international tourist’s arrivals, i.e. 635,000 tourists and 6 millions of nights.

ƒ

Average length of stay: 5 nights.

ƒ

Hospitality capacity: 790 hotels, 220,000 beds.

ƒ

Hammamet and Yasmine Hammamet hospitality capacity: 105 hotels, 39,000 beds.

ƒ

The coast represents 93% of the hospitality capacity and 96% of the nights.

Development model ƒ

At the end of 50ies, Tunisia decided to develop tourism through the creation of specialized bodies (Hotel and tourism company of Tunisia in 1959 and Tourism land agency) and incentive laws.

ƒ

The development of tourism is spectacular: between 1962 and 1986, the number of hotels is multiplied by 6 and the number of beds by 24. The reasons of the success: low prices and the development of packages including the flights.

ƒ

At the moment, the tourism sector is stagnating: the developments strongly damaged the natural assets, without any integration of the hotels in the environment, and the product is almost exclusively sea and sun.

ƒ

The Ministry of Tourism is now working on a strategy of diversification (culture, golf, health, thalassotherapy, sports), and on the promotion of these new products, in particular of the cultural offer. A plan of revamping and upgrading of the hotels is also going on.

Club Med Tunisia: Oyyo

272


Annex 9

Tunisia: Monastir Marina

HĂ´tel 5* Hammamet â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Thalassotherapy

273


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Tunisia: Hammamet Yasmine – The worst and the best !

Port El KantaouiConstruction on the beach

Port El Kantaoui – The Marina Real Estate

274


Annex 9

Weight of tourism ƒ

Foreign currencies: 1.3 Billion Euros in 2003

ƒ

90 000 direct jobs and 300,000 indirect jobs

ƒ

Investments in Hammamet: + 35% between 1998 and 1999, 60% between 1999 and 2000.They concern accommodation (4, 5 ME in 2002), animations (0, 8 ME)

Tourism in Red Sea Egypt Source: Ministry of Tourism, Détente Consultants

Main indicators ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ

6 millions of international tourists in Egypt in 2003. Germany is the first market (14%), followed by Italy (13.5%), UK (7%) and France (5.5%) 1.2 million On the Red Sea, i.e. 13 millions of nights. Hospitality capacity: 273,000 beds in hotels. Hospitality capacity on the Red Sea: 55 hotels, 8,300 beds.

Development model ƒ

Since 1954, the Ministry of Tourism has been developing sea and sun tourism on the Red Sea.

ƒ

Since the end of 80ies, the Ministry of Tourism has been leading a voluntarist strategy of development of the tourism sector based on : ƒ The promotion of private investments through legal and fiscal incentives. ƒ The definition of 21 priority tourism lands on about 39 millions km². ƒ The strong international promotion of the destination through the Egyptian Tourism Authority and its 16 tourism offices in 9 countries. For instance, the promotion budget in Germany in 2000 was 8.7 millions of Euros, compared to 1.1 million in France. ƒ The privatization of part of the public hotels.

ƒ

Hospitality capacity is growing fast: an average of 10,000 new units every year, with a goal of 500,000 beds in order to receive 13 millions of tourists by 2017.

Sharm el Sheikh

275


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

276


Annex

10

Coastal Planning and Management Policies â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Croatia and Sardinia, Italy Croatia Spatial Planning law amendments and Governmental Decree on Coastal Protected Area Spatial Planning Law (adopted in 1994) in its article 45 prescribed preparation of a specific coastal act. In July 2004, Spatial Planning Law was amended and one of its provisions introduced Coastal Protected Area (PCA). In addition, 30 day deadline was given for preparation of the new coastal act. So, it took ten years and kilometres of coastline spoilt by inappropriate urbanisation (including sprawl development, speculative and illegal building, lack of infrastructure and poor sanitation standards, loss of natural and landscape resources) before the new coastal act, Governmental Decree on Development and Protection of Coastal Protected Area, has been adopted in September 2004. Spatial planning documents in Croatia are usually full of good and technically right goals and objectives. This proves to be insufficient. Croatia is, in this regard, in similar situation as other countries in transition, which are endowed with valuable coastal resources. It requires spatial planning system based on sustainable development principles but also accompanied with the implementable, clear and precise (as much as possible quantified) development control measures and regulations. In this regard, as an attempt to provide clear and precise development criteria and measures, the Decree has been an important step ahead. Unfortunately, some of these criteria are not clear enough and their implementation so far has been accompanied with numerous difficulties. The key provisions of the Decree include: 1.

Protected coastal area (PCA) has been proclaimed including the coastal belt of 1000m on mainland, all islands and 300m maritime belt (Spatial Planning Law, as amended of July 2004).

2.

Restrictive criteria for buildable land extension within the PCA in new local spatial plans have been introduced based on the percentage of built up land within the existing buildable land boundaries (i.e. if less than 80% of tourist development zones is built up no extension is allowed).

3.

Any construction of residential or tourist buildings within PCA can take place only after adoption of regulatory development plan approved by the County Planning Institute, State Development Control Office and Ministry. No construction can take place before the land for public spaces (streets, public facilities) has been allocated and equipped with basic infrastructure.

4.

New residential and tourist developments outside settlements are allowed outside 70m coastal belt. Within this 70m belt allowed interventions include open public spaces such as recreation areas, playgrounds, seafront promenades and beaches, tourist catering

277


PAP/RAC â&#x20AC;&#x201C; SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Interim Report

and entertainment facilities, and coastal infrastructure (ports, dry marinas and other uses which by their very nature require coastal location). 5.

Tourism development planning is no longer local level responsibility but is moved up to the county plans. All seven coastal county spatial plans are presently being amended by designating tourist development areas (Governmental decree prescribed definition of the area, capacity in terms of beds and berths as well as type of tourist development). Surprisingly, the Decree gave only one month to the county planning institutes to complete this task. This is by all means not enough time, specially given the importance of the tourism for economic development of the Adriatic area, sensitivity of the coastal environment as well as given the complexity and competitiveness of the sector nowadays.

Illegal building has been proclaimed as criminal act (from October 1 through the amendment of the Criminal Law), illegal buildings are not allowed to be connected to any utility (relevant utility entity is required to get approval from the Construction police that building is not illegal â&#x20AC;&#x201C; fines for not respecting this are very high, hundreds of buildings have been demolished in last 12 months).

Spatial planning system evolution towards Integrated Coastal Management Spatial planning vs. Integrated Coastal management Coastal spatial planning and management are not synonymous. Planning relates to the operation of the statutory planning system which has its basis in the Spatial Planning Law from 1994 (as amended). This legislation does not define specific role for planning in the coastal area and so far it has primarily been concerned with the development and use of land. The planning system in Croatia today can be an instrument to achieve some coastal management objectives through shaping and guiding development and land use through policies and proposals in spatial plans and through development control decisions. Management of the coastal area also involves matters not concerned with land use, arising from other local/regional authority functions/powers or sectors controlled by other authorities and bodies. In other words, spatial planning forms only one of a number of control and regulation systems in the coastal area, which are concerned with the "management" of a wide range of activities from port and harbour operations to mariculture and fisheries. Conversely, wide range of policies, decisions and management practices adopted by each of the bodies with a responsibility in the coastal area have a direct effect on planning objectives. Fighting sectoralism, or need for policy integration, is the single most important issue which can hardly be solved through the existing spatial planning instruments available in Croatia. Strong emphasis given to this issue shows the need for real power of the entities in charge of providing co-ordination and integration. However, the great majority of governments, including Croatian, are established along sectoral divisions, delivering services through different government agencies and departments. Taking this as a reality, actual day-to-day management of coastal resources in Croatia will, for most part, remain sectoral in the foreseeable future. What is to be integrated (co-ordinated, harmonised) is the policy planning process. To this end, power of the existing line agencies should be balanced with the real operational powers of co-ordinating bodies that presently do not exist in Croatia. Recently passed Governmental Decree and amended Spatial Planning Law, among others, have been an attempt to provide more powers in dealing with coastal issues. These powers are partly built into the Decree provisions and partly are given to the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Spatial Planning and Construction through the required approval

278


Annex 10

by the Ministry for any local plan (regulatory development plan and detailed development plan) within the Protected Coastal Area. An important consequence of the recent regulatory changes is less participatory local planning for which state shows lot of distrust. For example, tourism planning is no longer local responsibility and this change was mostly not well accepted by both, local communities and local authorities, especially on the islands. As a consequence of this change, people have become passive receivers of information on someone’s (county planning institutes and the Ministry) decisions on the topics of vital importance for their own lives. The result is one way, top-down communication, in which local knowledge and local experience will not be used enough in the planning process. The analysis of the spatial planning system in Croatia and its comparison with a typical ICM system provides some important findings: ƒ

Main coastal issues in Croatia are closely linked with urbanisation processes, so spatial planning system should obviously be the most responsible for regulating them. However, there are some in depth issues of importance for urbanisation processes as well as some other sectoral issues (sea use) which require consideration of instruments and measures which are uncommon to be dealt with through the existing spatial planning system.

ƒ

Conversely, over-reliance on spatial planning type of instruments including mostly regulatory “command and control” instruments (setback, criteria for buildable land extension, monofunctional land uses) proves to be ineffective, difficult to enforce or detrimental for other aspects of spatial planning (for example, lack of meaningful participation, due to low importance given to equity issues). There is a strong need for affirmative, supportive measures, subsidies, incentives and use of economic and fiscal instruments as correctives in market environment

ƒ

Analysing county spatial plans it becomes clear that principal question is not what should be done for sustainable coastal development – it is easy to create a “planner's dream” – but rather, how it should be done, and who should do it. In addition, the need to prioritise measures and actions, and to monitor and evaluate outcomes, cannot be overemphasised. Short-term, achievable actions are particularly important to demonstrate progress and ensure policy support.

ƒ

ICM might be an umbrella covering much wider range of policy instruments through coordination and integration of different sectors and authorities on which spatial planning system presently has limited or no influence. In dealing with wider range of policy issues and policy instruments coastal management requires much wider expertise comparing to the one available (on average) in county planning institutes. Such a wide expertise is often needed in addressing root causes of many coastal issues.

ICM system provides broader mandate and stronger horizontal co-ordinating mechanisms. However, introduction of such a strong mechanism (authority, commission) or giving additional powers to one part of the system, is certainly politically sensitive. The realities of political, economic, and social life of many countries may require a less ambitious beginning than full-scale ICM. In some cases, It may be possible to achieve the same goals through an existing framework of governance if the key purposes of ICM are incorporated in the existing institutional structure and process. Where government departments and agencies responsible for different sectors of the coastal area have the potential to co-operate and effectively co-ordinate their management activities, the result could be a program that is just as well integrated as a single ICM program where single authority takes the lead role.

279


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Spatial planning system towards ICM – summary of the key policy issues Policy aspect

Policy issues

Policy integration

Sectoralism, non coordinated policies, planning misconceptions and misunderstanding

Related issues

In depth issues/barriers

Unclear responsibilities, Traditional institutional dominance of “strong” sectors1 set-up, education, nonharmonized sectoral legislation and strategies Public participation Legally binding but formal, Too technical language2, lack of Average political passive reception of hardly clear issue analysis and policy culture, lack of trust in understandable responses, involvement at late state in general and information planning stages, lack of dispute lack of trust in resolution capacity, disregarded participatory planning equity (de)Centralization Small local units Lack of human and financial Overly fragmented (communes and resources, disproportional administrative system municipalities), lack of powers of higher levels (county (“decentralization for local capacity for and state approvals) centralization”), development planning3, counties are not lack of regional approach functional or physiographic regions, political sensitivity in changing administrative system Science to policy Lack of policy oriented Inconsistent local land use Education (neglected link information4 (i.e. plans, science agenda not policy needs), lack of biodiversity) for land use taking care for policy needs, modern management planning at local level access to information of science (applied science vs. fundamental research) Equity and land Unequal costs and benefits Development pressure, gains Lack of land policies ownership distribution5 (buildable for local elite's, neglect of public and alternative land, land use and interest, loss of trust in planning techniques (TDR), intensity), sprawl system in general limited knowledge development Implementability “Paper planning”, norm for Lack of implementation and Education of planers the sake of norm as enforcement capacity, lack of for market conditions, oppose to outcome and detailed policy elaboration (no lack of public policy issue driven approach, LogFrame type outputs), costly approach lack of clear and solutions, neglected monitoring measurable criteria and evaluation 1

– for example, Croatian Waters or Croatian Forests are much stronger partners than spatial planning institutions supposed to co-ordinate and regulate all development and conservation activities from a holistic perspective, 2 – the way of plan presentation is in fact an information barrier, even for those willing to participate, 3 – while fragmented administrative system is a barrier for regional planning or ecosystem approach or tourism destination planning, at this moment an intervention aimed at reducing the number of basic local units does not seem reasonable since citizens (or at least some of them) have found their local identity in these small communes and municipalities, and this can be the source of strong motivation for their participation in local government, 4 – for example, county plans have provisions that require preparation of biodiversity and landscape assessments and studies but do not provide any deadlines, do not identify institutions responsible or financial sources, 5 – for example, this creates an insurmountable barrier (at local level planning) if an area is to be protected or just designated as non-buildable because of its biodiversity or landscape features.

Governmental Decree and its future evolution By its very nature Governmental Decree should be a temporary policy instrument. According to the available information Spatial plan for Adriatic area is the most likely form of future regulation of coastal development and protection in Croatia. Its statutory contents and scope have not yet been defined. The new Plan should formulate clear national policy or strategy

280


Annex 10

for use of the coastal zone and define planning regime for the sea (marine planning). To some extent it will be difficult to avoid overlapping with county plans but at least such a unitary plan may provide more consistency in applying land/sea use criteria and criteria for definition of environmentally sensitive areas. An important motivation for designating environmentally sensitive areas is species protection, but other purposes might be protection of especially productive natural resources or scenic landscapes. These designations may be done in response to an international programme, such as UNESCO's Biosphere Reserves or the Ramsar Treaty for major wetlands, or they may be done by an independent national action (this would be in line with the National Spatial Planning Strategy). Anyhow, in order not to become another paper document new Spatial plan for Adriatic should provide clear development and protection criteria which will be implementable at lower planning levels. Another important task of the new Spatial plan for Adriatic will be state Infrastructure (including waste disposal) planning as one of the strongest environmental management tools in the hands of government. This Plan may also (re)define spatial extent of coastal area (presently defined by the Governmental Decree) based on more precise and better elaborated criteria. For planning purposes, it is likely that the broader area will be defined. A broad planning area will have the advantage that planners can look at all resource uses and economic and social factors that relate to coastal conservation. On the other hand, for resource management purposes the boundaries should be as narrow as feasible (the narrower the management area, the more power the management authority can expect to exercise).

Institutional framework co-ordinating mechanism By all means there is a strong need for an effective co-ordinating mechanism in coastal policy planning at county (regional) level. Bureaucracies in Croatia are designed for vertical communication while the co-ordination of activities common in dealing with coastal issues calls for horizontal communication. As it has been emphasised elsewhere in this report (Interviews with the stakeholders revealed the same), this co-ordination is presently formal, in terms of both, process and product. Practical policy co-ordination process at regional level takes place mostly during the preparation of county spatial plans. The co-ordination framework is defined by three key components: ƒ

legislation and regulations which define sectoral responsibilities and provide powers;

ƒ

individual (sectoral) policies and strategies which set the management context;

ƒ

linkages between authorities, planners, managers and users through which decisionmakers can take into account the views of other interests.

There is an obvious need to harmonize first two components with the spatial planning system legislation and strategies if the policy co-ordination process is to be effective. The product of the co-ordination process is common policies and plans. However, the form of this product is very important. Past coastal planning experience is full of general strategies and planning documents (“planners dreams”) that do not provide clear and measurable criteria. For example, the Logical Framework (LogFrame) Approach is designed to clearly present a policy, programme or plan (PPP) and monitor their performance (more on LogFrame in the following section). It is generally understood that there is no one "correct" way to organize, plan, and implement an ICM system or programme. Such a system or programme must be tailored to fit into the institutional and organizational environments of the countries or regions involved, including political and administrative structures, economic conditions, cultural and social traditions. Coastal areas and coastal resources in Croatia are particularly complex because of dispersal

281


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

of authority, unclear jurisdictions and the amount of highly valuable common property resources involved and any ICM system to be proposed must recognize this fact.

Regional/county planning institutes County Planning Institutes6 have been established in late ‘90s. On average they have 5-10 professionals, most of them architects and civil engineers. Their first major task was preparation of the first generation of county plans (most of them were completed in the period 2001-2002). Under the socialist system planner’s role was not to control the private sector in response to democratic demands but to replace these elements with state policy. Today spatial planners are operating within a complex political situation at central and local government levels. What additionally complicates things is a widespread perception of the spatial planning system (mostly by landowners and developers but to some extent local authorities as well) as a restrictive mechanism which limits their natural rights that market economy systems should guarantee. On the other hand, most of the spatial planners may claim two specific areas of competence – knowledge of the administrative systems of planning and a concern with urban design (whatsoever, such a knowledge, following from architectural background, has been codified and made exclusive bringing right to officially sign spatial plan). Type of knowledge, which is almost completely missing, is public policy analysis and planning. The consequence is difficulties or incapacity of planning profession, in a time of limited public resources, to formulate realistic and implementable spatial development strategies and policies. Most of the planning activities in Croatia still follow a traditional top-down approach to planning “for people” which is based on the idea that planner “knows best”. At the same time planners are not trained for planning in the market dominated environment, so the lack of expertise related to environmental and coastal management tools as well as social assessment, equity issues, public participation and dispute resolution techniques is obvious. It is often the case that too much power is given to technical experts mistakenly thought to be the only experts of complexity. Since there are important sociological dimensions in coastal policy making, it often leads to failures if dealing with coastal issues as strictly technical matters. Capacity building aimed at mentioned fields would be an important contribution to the quality of the county planning documents in the future.

Italy – Sardinia New Regulatory Framework to Support Sustainable Coastal Development in Sardinia The preservation of Sardinia's natural resources is a strategic objective for the development of the region. The protection of the environment, especially in the coastal areas is needed in order to avoid the risks associated with speculative investments in building activities. In the last decades, growth in the field of tourism has been registered mainly in activities correlated with exploitation of coastal areas, while deployment of internal zones has been comparatively scarce. The recently appointed regional government in Sardinia has deployed action to promote sustainable coastal development. The necessity to support a properly balanced

6

Average size of the 20 counties in Croatia corresponds to the area and population of Albanian 12 regions.

282


Annex 10

development of the whole region has been declared as one of the main goals by the new government. The Regional Government has shown willingness to tackle issues related to the protection of the environment at the highest level. One of its first acts has been the approval of “Urgent measures to safeguard and protect the landscape and environment in Sardinia”. This Act does not allow any kind of building activities within the coastal strip of 2000 meters from the sea for the next twelve months. Ordinary planning tools acting at the local level (Urban Planning Act) should include a Study on Environmental Compatibility with Landscape planning (Studio di compatibilità paesistico ambientale). The value of the above mentioned study is also that the PUC (Municipal Urban Plans), already approved, have to prepare this study. Sardinia’s Regional authorities have decided to engage all the expertise available in the Public Regional Administration to set up the “Regional Landscape Plan” and the related Sustainable Tourism Development Plan. A large conference was organised in order to enhance the amount of information available at the local level about the new regulatory framework. As local municipalities have direct responsibility for implementing the new regulation, the President of the Regional Government of Sardinia and the Deputies in charge of Regional Territory Management have presented in detail, the grounds of the legislative initiative with the aim of avoiding speculative actions. Mayors and local administrators also debated the issues linked to the sustainable development and economic activities of local communities. As expected, various reactions have been witnessed, from enthusiasm to complete disagreement. Discussion on Sustainable Development issues crosses political parties, local authorities and all stakeholders. Some actors are more sensitive on environmental protection aspects while others back development models based on established economic theories. The reactions provoked by this regulatory framework surely demonstrate the high relevance of the topic.

Key provisions from the Act (Legge regionale 25 Novembre 2004, n. 8) Art. 1 Regional landscape planning Within the 12 months from this law entering in force Regional Council shall adopt Regional Landscape Plan, RLP (Piano Paesaggistico Regionale) as a principal tool of regional territorial planning. This plan will provide a reference and co-ordination framework for a sustainable development of the entire regional territory and of regional, provincial and local planning acts.

Art. 2 Once the RLP has been approved the Council will ensure that lower level regional planning documents are harmonized with the RLP. In order to ensure homogeneity of planning instruments at all levels, the regional administration will secure systematic monitoring and comparison of all planning activities through the establishment of an observatory of urban planning and landscape quality (in collaboration with universities and other interested professional associations.

283


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Art. 3 Protection measures Until the RLP is approved, however, for a period not longer than 18 months, the following areas are covered by protection measures of preventing new construction activities which require building permits as well as new subdivision of buildable land: ƒ coastal areas within a strip of 2,000 m from the coastline, ƒ coastal areas within a strip of 500 m from the coastline, for smaller islands.

Art. 4 The areas excluded from the above are: ƒ

those belonging to the municipalities which have municipal urban plans approved by August 10, 2004, and on condition not to be modified,

ƒ

those belonging to the municipalities which have adopted municipal urban plans within 6 months from this law entering in force, under the condition to perform a landscape and environmental compatibility study.

Art. 5 All the municipal urban plans falling within the coastal strip of 2,000 m, have to contain the landscape and environmental compatibility study aimed at: ƒ

support the planning choices related to landscape and environmental resources,

ƒ

identify development and building regulations compatible with the state of environment and landscape character,

ƒ

define the guidelines for landscape and environmental compatibility studies to serve as the basis for elaboration of detailed plans.

Landscape and environmental compatibility studies are subject to scrutiny and approval of the Regional Council.

Art. 6 Tourist development zones (zone F) The volumetry of the tourist settlements allowed should not exceed 50% of the that allowed by the decree of the officer in charge of local self government, finances and urban planning.

284


Annex

11

Assessment of Previous Reports Albania (Southern) Coastal Zone Management Plan. UNEP/MAP/PAP/RAC, DMI. 1995 The Coastal Zone Management (CZM) Plan analysed the coastal resources and formulated objectives for their sustainable use, but it didn't develop any scenarios for the future. The CZM Plan proposed a correct development vision and sustainable development objectives but was overly optimistic with regard to the wider context and its impact on the future development. Strategies for tourism development were too optimistic and sophisticated for the existing infrastructure and time. It is a good resource analysis. The goal of CZM Plan is to preserve ecological integrity through establishing ecologically sustainable limits for resource use. Strategic objectives of the Plan (Phase 1): ƒ

to promote conservation of Albania's biodiversity, cultural heritage and coastal and marine-related tourism and ecotourism industry;

ƒ

to enhance employment creation opportunities and institutional capacity; and

ƒ

to recommend a series of investment projects that will "kick-start" the coastal economy.

The main objective of the Plan (Phase 2): ƒ

prepare conceptual management plan for the three coastal investment projects: Velipoja, Karaburuni and Saranda-Butrint; and

ƒ

to recommend investments.

Southern Coastal Zone: 1.

Northern planning zone - Karaburuni, Vlora Bay and Llogara

2.

Central planning zone - Llogara to Saranda

3.

Southern planning zone - Saranda to Butrint

Environmental Performance Review of Albania. UNECE. 2002 This review is a good resource analysis, and should be used for ICD Study and Plan. It points that tourism has great potential for development, but it doesn't deal with tourism. Coastal sites of Albania offer a great potential for development of tourism. Pressures on the coastal area are extremely high, such as: ƒ

Rapid urban coastal development: ƒ tendencies towards short-term profit against long-term conservation of coastal resources; ƒ recent events that have forced the hinterland population, particularly from the mountainous regions, to migrate towards the coast and to find new livelihoods very often at the expense of the coastal environment;

285


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

ƒ compensation schemes for land that have absorbed large tracts of the valuable coastal land; ƒ the non-existence of coastal plans and very little or no respect for them even when they do exist; ƒ the legacy of the former regime’s lack of respect for the environment resulting in the location of polluting industries in the most attractive coastal areas; and ƒ a general lack of human and financial resources for coastal management and law enforcement. ƒ

There are several obstacles that stand in the way of the creation and implementation of a strategy for sustainable coastal development, such as: ƒ The poor respect for enforcement authorities, resulting in a low level of law enforcement. ƒ The lack of co-ordination and integration among institutions and authorities responsible for coastal management. ƒ Coastal Zone Management is still not widely known, except in some institutional “pockets”. There is little knowledge of its benefits, methods, tools and techniques, and of the procedures and stakeholders that need to be involved. ƒ Illegal housing along the coast is widespread. ƒ There is a benevolent attitude towards haphazard tourism development and unsustainable resource exploitation. ƒ There is no developed monitoring system and a general lack of reliable data on marine and terrestrial ecosystems, as well as on pollution and other environmental problems. ƒ Public awareness of coastal environmental problems is generally very low. ƒ The use of economic instruments is underdeveloped.

A number of more detailed coastal projects in the Southern region should be developed for which international financing could then be sought (areas of Karaburuni Peninsula, Porto Palermo, Lakes Xamil and Butrint). The benefit of this recommendation is that it will provide the national authorities with a tool and a regulatory basis for the prevention of negative development along the coast, in particular urban sprawl and illegal construction, and better guide future development. The plans could also be considered as a strategy.

Recommendation 1: The Ministry of the Environment, together with the Ministry of Public Works, should stimulate the adoption and implementation of an Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan for the entire coastal region. The Plan should propose special measures to eradicate illegal building along the coast.

Recommendation 2: The Ministry of Environment should develop the appropriate legislation for Integrated Coastal Zone Management, including the relevant regulatory measures for its application.

286


Annex 11

Recommendation 3: The Ministry of Environment and the Ministry of Public Works should establish a special inter-ministerial Coastal Zone Management Committee, made up of members of the relevant ministries.

Recommendation 4: The Ministry of Environment should develop and implement appropriate instruments to achieve the sustainable management of coastal resources. Special importance should be given to the improvement of the monitoring systems, particularly regular monitoring of beach water quality.

Recommendation 5: The National Water Council, the Ministry of Public Works and the Ministry of Environment should work to improve wastewater treatment and solid waste management in large coastal cities, and prevent hazardous materials pollution, in order to reduce pollution in hot spots and along the coast. The first step in this endeavour could be the adoption of a waste management plan covering, in particular, the entire coastal region.

Recommendation 6: The Ministry of Public Works (Department for Tourism), assisted by the Ministry of Environment, should finalise and implement the Sustainable Tourism Development Plan, including the preparation of Carrying Capacity Assessments for the most attractive tourist locations.

Tourism Development Strategy 2002-2012. MoTAT. 2003 This Study is not dealing with resource analysis, but it identifies pre-conditions for tourism development. The Study indicates three types of tourism, which can also be considered as tourism strategies. These are: Sun and Beach Tourism; Special Interest Tourism; and Business and Congress Tourism. This Study represents good guidelines for implementing tourism strategy, but strategies have to be more detailed. Tourism Development Strategy describes the strategic concept of tourism development by giving strategic directions and the development of tourist products. The aim of the Strategy is to establish Albania as tourist destination within the Mediterranean in a way that is sustainable: culturally, socially, environmentally and economically. This Study points to: 1.

Concentration on prime settlements (Saranda, Borsh, Qeparo, Dhermi) which have highest development potential.

2.

Value-for-money pricing strategy.

3.

The tourism potential is accessed through a mix of Sun and Beach, Special Interest and Urban Tourism with their market importance changing over the year (short-term = focus on Niche Markets; short-term - medium-term = Special Interest and Business Tourism; long-term = Sun and Beach Tourism).

4.

Short-term main source markets: regional and national level; medium-term and longterm main source markets: Europe, America and Asia.

5.

Long-term target markets: price-oriented families between 28 to 45 years with children and young couples; adventure and sport-oriented singles; active, retired persons.

287


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

Outcome of the Study: 1.

Albania is recognised as tourist country and has competitive position in the international tourism market.

2.

The contribution of the tourism sector to the GDP is significant.

3.

Sustainability and awareness of environmental issues are major part of the tourism development strategy.

4.

Sustainable and environment-friendly tourism.

5.

Positive image of the country.

6.

Acceleration of economic and social development throughout the Southern Coast.

7.

Generation of jobs and income.

8.

Improvement of living conditions.

9.

Improvement of other sectors like: construction, transport, agriculture, food and souvenir industry.

Albania Integrated Coastal Area Management: Nautical Tourism Development Planning Study. J.A. Sciortino. 2004 The main objectives of this Study are to develop nautical tourism on a sustainable basis and to raise international public awareness of Albania's maritime tourist potential. The Study deals with nautical tourism development and recommendations for it. It identified 11 sites, with Vlora and Saranda as two main ports and described each site according to marine potential. The Study identifies 11 sites where nautical tourism should be developed: Vlora, Dhermi, Jal, Spile, Laman, Porto Palermo, Sasaj, Kakome, Saranda and Ksamil. 1.

The ports of Vlora and Saranda are identified as region's points of entry for foreign vessels and merit full marina facilities within the existing urban environment.

2.

The sites at Dhermi, Jal, Spile and Laman are very well suited for seasonal moorings with minimal shore facilities.

3.

The jetties at Sasaj and Kakome Bay may be utilised for nautical tourism by a simple refit of modular equipment.

4.

The fishing port at Saranda is suited for a launch and recover dry stack facility.

5.

The Bay of Ksamil is ideal for a small-limit marina to cater for small keel-less pleasure boats.

Issues raised: Lack of co-ordination between local government and other agencies in nautical matters; and lack of knowledge of modern marina concepts at local government level. Specific Recommendations to GoA: ƒ

to set up a Yachting Directorate to oversee the setting-up and the technical management of nautical tourism on a national basis;

ƒ

to effect coastline categorisation; and

ƒ

to initiate marketing surveys into expanding traffic patterns and regional demand for nautical tourism facilities.

Ecological impacts on Coastal Environment: ƒ visual intrusion on the landscape; ƒ the underwater footprint;

288


Annex 11

ƒ hydrodynamic regimes; ƒ impact of construction materials; ƒ cross-sectional design of structure; ƒ sewage; ƒ oily wastes; ƒ garbage; ƒ antifouling; ƒ indiscriminate anchoring; and ƒ vessel traffic management. Economy outcomes of the Study: ƒ offering new jobs in the marinas; ƒ people will migrate to coastal area; ƒ infrastructure building; ƒ increase of small-business activities; and ƒ revenue from foreign currency.

Southern Coastal Region: Priority Assessment Study and SEA as a Tool in Coastal Management in Albania. METAP/PAP. 2004 Priority Assessment Study investigates, maps and analyses state of the Southern Albanian Coast. It focuses on urbanisation and land use, environmental and nature protection, and land ownership. This Study is not dealing with tourism potential analysis, but it gives recommendations and suggestions for tourism development in general. It is a good resource analysis. This document suggests the three types of measures: ƒ

Urgent measures: ƒ proclamation of the coastal belt of 500 m as a protected coastal area (PCA); ƒ measures for improvement of effectiveness of construction; ƒ adoption of a regulatory plan; ƒ no residential or tourist accommodation development in a 100 m coastal belt; ƒ no real estate development within tourist development zones; and ƒ proclamation of illegal building as a criminal act.

ƒ

Short-term measures: ƒ preparation and adoption of Territorial Development Study and Plan (TDSP); ƒ TDSP should be important on-the-job-training; ƒ TDSP should provide criteria for measures to control spreading of settlements along the shore; and ƒ cultural and scenic landscapes should be applied in TDSP.

ƒ

Long-term measures

Tourism development is one of the key components of the forthcoming Territorial Development Study and Plan. Tourism development recommendations: 1.

Role of tourism in economy – need for balanced economic base;

289


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

2.

Avoid secondary residencies instead of tourism development;

3.

Policies should be directed toward quality, as well as quantity;

4.

Nature protection and tourism development can be compatible;

5.

Transportation sector must involve tourism implications in plans;

6.

Ordered development and public space provision;

7.

Placeness and authenticity are fundamental; and

8.

Tourism development should be appropriate to the setting.

Integrated Coastal Management and Clean-up Program: Heritage Assets Mapping. SIM Spa, GICO Branch, IMED. 2005 This document is a good analysis of cultural, historic and natural resources and state of tourism. The main issue of the document is tourism development, based on cultural and natural heritage. This document analyses tourism potential and gives a skelet for a sustainable tourism strategy. The tourist sector in Albania is not yet fully developed although margins for growth are enormous (and contribution to local and country economy enormous). For tourism development Cultural and Natural Heritage are precious assets in the highly competitive global tourism market. The main objective of the project is protecting Albania's coastal and marine natural resources and promoting sustainable tourism development. The project's aim is to involve coastal communities in participatory and land-use planning. The project focuses on: 1.

policy development, regulatory framework and capacity building;

2.

regional investments for: ƒ development and land-use planning and implementation; and ƒ improvement of environmental conditions and regional infrastructure for attracting private investments.

The Study points to three destinations from were most of the resources are accessible in an acceptable time/distance for a day-long visit: Saranda, Himara and Vlora. The most interesting sites to visit are Porto Palermo, Butrint and Oricum. All sites need: ƒ important interventions; ƒ available accommodation and adequate services for qualitative tourism; and ƒ identification of carrying capacity of potential sites. Positive outcomes of the Study are: ƒ new job opportunities; ƒ 3 growth poles in the economy – Saranda, Himara and Vlora; ƒ high income from tourism; ƒ small cities add significantly to the income from tourism; ƒ growth of production; ƒ increase of credit standing; ƒ increase of small and medium business activity;

290


Annex 11

ƒ increase of production; and ƒ increase of consumption. Negative outcome of the Study are: ƒ increase of pollution; ƒ increase of wastewater; and ƒ dramatical decline of water quality.

Pre-Feasibility Study and Solid Waste Management Plan in Albania. Solid Waste Consultancy B.V. 2005 This document presents a preliminary assessment of the environmental consequences of the Bakjaj and Vuno landfill sites. A qualitative/semi-quantitative analysis is provided per relevant environmental category. Specification of impacts related to the unique conditions of each site is presented. This is followed by impact significance rankings, which give a summary of the severity and significance of the overall impacts for each site. It also includes a discussion on possible mitigation measures. The application of standard mitigation measures will ensure that impacts and risks associated with a construction, operation and after-care phase are manageable and acceptable. Outcomes of the Study are: ƒ

no major environmental impacts are expected; and

ƒ

overall environmental consequences of the construction, operation and after-care of the Vuno and Bakjaj landfill sites will not impend further development of the project.

Wastewater Management and Integrated Planning for Albania’s Coastal Zone Study: Draft Final Report. Dr. Daniel Gunaratnam. 2005 This study focuses on the wastewater impacts on current socio-economic development, technical assistance needs, costing out existing degradation, remediation investments in wastewater collection/treatment and their benefits while proposing sustainable forms of income-generating tourist development. The primary motivation for this project is to upgrade the basic infrastructure for water supply, sanitation/sewerage and internal roads. The Study points out two growth poles in the economy of the region, Saranda and Vlora, with tourism as the most potential sector for the development of Albania. Pre-conditions for the development of the region are: ƒ

all levels of planning must accept principles of sustainable tourism;

ƒ

basic infrastructure;

ƒ

clarification of ownership of land and buildings;

ƒ

law and regulations on regional and national level; and

ƒ

regional and national stability.

Outcomes of the Study are: ƒ improve economic and social development; ƒ create thousands of jobs; ƒ create a positive image of the country as a tourism destination; ƒ revenue foreign currency; ƒ attract investment;

291


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

ƒ improve living conditions; ƒ reduce the seasonal migration; ƒ increase credit standing: ƒ increase small and medium business activity; ƒ increase production; ƒ increase consumption per capita; ƒ infrastructure building; and ƒ support culture development. Environmental risks of such development are large, namely: ƒ wastewater floods; ƒ coastal pollution (beaches); ƒ sea water pollution; and ƒ the lack of quality water.

292


Annex

12

Fish Catch in Year 2004 Fishery as commercial activity is based in Saranda and Vlora fishing harbours. The geographical distribution of the fleet shows that 31 vessels are based in Vlora and Saranda port is the last one with 28 authorised vessels. However, a number of small-scale vessels are part of the fishing activity along the southern coast mainly near Saranda and Himara coast. Data related to the fish catch in year 2004 and fishing activity:

293


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

294


Annex

13

DPSIR Analysis for Water Supply, Wastewater and Solid Waste Interrelation of infrastructure issues (1) water supply, (2) wastewater disposal and (3) solid waste disposal with local coastal conditions and future tourism development are roughly outlined by the DPSIR scheme below. Mitigation measures for above outlined impacts can be performed but must be enforced and monitored by authorities. Technical consulting and management advice will support the procedure bur the prerequisite is reliable national legislation and administration. Driving force/Pressure/State/Impact/Response analysis

Driving force

Pressure

Natural conditions

Water supply

Karstic underground Abundant ground water

Increased water demand Insufficient municipal water supply capacity Insufficient water supply facilities maintenance Private dug wells

resource Pristine coastal landscape

Development

Residential building Illegal constructions Seasonal tourism

Wastewater Increased di l wastewater generation Insufficient sewerage Inadequate septic tanks No sewage treatment

Solid waste disposal Uncontrolled solid waste dumps Inadequate municipal solid waste management

Response

State

Impact

Water supply Reduced water quality h

Inadequate cost recovery Missing metering High network losses Wastage of water

Wastewater karstic to i fil i underground

Pollution of dug wells Hygienic risks Unsanitary conditions Coastal waters Pollution

Derogated living conditions Hygienic risks Loss of tourism potential Derogated ecological resources Landscape disfigurement

Landscape Disturbance d i i of native fauna Beach pollution Hygienic risks Odour generation Dust dispersion

Infrastructure projects, management strengthening, personnel tra ining, legislation enforcement

DPSIR â&#x20AC;&#x201C; coastal water and waste

295


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

296


Annex

14

EU Legislation and its Relevance for Infrastructure Planning EU legislation and its relevance for infrastructure planning Regarding the European Union policy of sustainable development and environmental protection the present development of water supply, wastewater and solid waste infrastructure in the coastal region should consider the goals of respective European legislation. An overview of relevant EU directives is provided and eventual discrepancies between existing conditions in coastal region and legal requirements are outlined. Subsequently priorities for consideration of particular EU directives are proposed.

Relevant EU legislation 1.

Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC)

2.

Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive (91/271/EEC)

3.

Waste Framework Directive (75/442/EWG)

4.

Directive on the Landfills of Waste (1999/31/EG)

5.

Environmental Impact Assessment Directive (85/337/EEC)

6.

(Amendment 97/11/EC)

7.

SEA directive (2001/42/EC)

8.

Access to environmental Information Directive (90/313/EC)

9.

Reporting Directive (91/692/EEC)

10. Bathing Directive (76/160/EEC) 11. 6th Environmental Action Plan â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Environment 2010 12. The Habitat Directive (92/43/EWG) 13. Directive 80/778/EEC on the quality of water intended for human consumption 14. Directive 98/83/EEC on the quality of water intended for human consumption amending Directive 80/778/EEC 15. Directive 75/440/EEC on the quality of surface waters abstracted for drinking

Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) The principle objective of this Directive is the implementation of a framework (legal, administrative, organisational, technical, etc.) for the reliable protection of coastal and inland water resources (surface and underground). It postulates inter alia measures the long term reduction of pollution of water resources. Basically it must be noted that Albanian Government has already passed several specific legal acts and has further established administrative structures on national and regional level as stipulated by the Water Framework Directive. In this spirit the Directive requirements are partially covered. However, the enforcement of respective legislation is often missing.

297


PAP/RAC â&#x20AC;&#x201C; SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Interim Report

Additionally, on technical, organisational, operational and personnel level the prerequisites for performance mostly do not exist. Therefore in these domains manifold measures have to be realised in order to enable the achievement of all goals described in all 26 articles of the directive.

Water supply relevant EU directives (No. 12, 13, 14) Where municipal water supply is fed from karstic springs (e.g. Saranda) or deep underground aquifers (e.g. Ksamil, Cuka well 70 m depth) water quality has been reported to be satisfactory and presumably covers widely the requirements of respective EU Directives 80/778/EEC and 98/83/EEC. Nevertheless, the final proof must be based on chemical analyses, which presently are often missing. Waters abstracted from shallow private dug wells are frequently polluted due to close-by inappropriate wastewater soil infiltration. Therefore the respective EU Directives 80/778/EEC and 98/83/EEC are often not fulfilled by far. As this circumstance endangers human health directly and permanently high priority must be assigned to overcome this nuisance. Surface water exploited from rivers for municipal water supply (i.e. in Borshi) is of sufficient quality referring to reports of municipality representative. But for the confirmation that requirements of EU Directive 75/440/EEC are covered a consequent monitoring is needed. It does not exist yet. Presently a drinking water quality monitoring system exists only for few large towns in the region (e.g. Vlora). Thus, in most municipal water supply networks and in probably all private water supply facilities a reliable and impartial assessment of drinking water quality is not possible due to the lack of physical and chemical analyses. Article (12) of EU Directive 80/778/EEC stipulates explicitly a regular monitoring of drinking water quality. Thus, the respective organisational and operative institutions (laboratories, skilled personnel, and sampling time schedule) as well as specific equipment (in-situ gauges, vehicles and sampling devices) must be established in order to meet respective EU legislation. Since this will entail remarkable investments a gradual implementation of monitoring system is proposed focussing on most important institutional matters and quality parameter (e.g. sampling spots network, sampling time schedule, CSB, E.coli). By this way a mitigation of present unsatisfactory status can be achieved.

Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive (91/271/EEC) The purpose of this directive is to protect environment from harmful impacts of municipal wastewater. Regarding the present quality of coastal seawater and of shallow groundwater the objective of this directive is not fulfilled at all. In fact, there is a tendency of quality deterioration noticeable. The fundamental requirements of the directive are not covered in any coastal municipality. Considering present wastewater disposal practice (details see chapter 2.3.3.) and its direct threat to human health highest priority shall be assigned to improved wastewater treatment in all coastal municipalities.

Waste Framework Directive (75/442/EWG) One purpose as cited in article (4) is the disposal of solid waste without any danger to human health and without any deterioration of environment (water, atmosphere, soil, fauna,

298


Annex 14

vegetation, landscape, and odour). Regarding the present practice of solid waste disposal in coastal region (details see chapter 2.3.4.) it is obvious that this goal is not met at all. However, Albania has already passed respective National laws for handling garbage generated in municipalities. Similar to other domains on the one hand the enforcement of legislation is missing. On the other hand there is a remarkable lack of financial, technical, organisational, personnel and operational prerequisites for implementation of measures as required by the directive. With regard to continuous manifold environmental pollution, to derogation of human living conditions and to threat to human health due to present solid waste disposal practice high priority shall be assigned to achieve the objectives of the Waste Framework Directive.

Directive on the Landfills of Waste (1999/31/EG) The purpose of this directive is to construct, operate and close-up solid waste landfills in such a way that in long term view any pollution to groundwater, surface water, soil and atmosphere as well as any risks for human health are prevented. Further detailed technical standards for landfill construction and waste categories relative to danger potential are described. Present practice of solid waste disposal in coastal region shows clearly that the waste landfill requirements are not even partially covered. There exist concepts for mitigation of this unacceptable state such as the “Pre-feasibility Study and Solid Waste Management Plan for Southern Albania – Draft Final Report” edited by the World Bank. But to date this document has not even been approved by Albanian authority. For further steps to approach the goals of the landfill directive the official approval of existing projects is necessary. For final implementation sufficient financial means are the most crucial need. Since the fulfilment of this directive enables a significant improvement of environmental situation by only few specific projects high priority shall be assigned to that option.

Environmental Impact Assessment Directive (85/337/EEC) including amendment 97/11/EC) The requirements of this directive have already been adopted by national Albanian legislation. Nevertheless, its implementation is unsatisfactory. At present projects in coastal region the procedure of environmental impact assessment is rarely applied. Thus, the respective EU directive is not considered. The main constraint is shortage of financial means for EIA procedure at particular project implementation.

SEA directive (2001/42/EC) The purpose is to consider environmental considerations for the preparation of programmes and plans, which are likely to have significant influence on environment. This requirement has already been adopted by national Albanian legislation. In practice, presently in coastal region this goal is partially met with the World Bank document “Pre-feasibility Study and solid Waste Management Plan for Southern Albania, Component 4 – Draft Preliminary Environmental Consequences”. This document provides descriptive and semi-quantitative assessments of environmental impacts presumably caused after implementation of future regional solid waste disposal concept. Nevertheless, the whole scope of requirements as listed in SEA directive - annex 1 is not covered.

299


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

In two other infrastructure plans the (1) Wastewater Management and Integrated Planning for Albania’s Coastal Zone Study, Draft Final Report (World Bank) and the (2) Wastewater Management Master Plan Saranda (EIB and World Bank) environmental issues are addressed but the scope of SEA directive is not covered completely. Summarising for present infrastructure plans the SEA directive is partially regarded but for completeness several important issues are neglected. For future planning emphasis shall be laid on e.g. public consultation and inclusion of NGOs.

Access to environmental Information Directive (90/313/EC) Present above cited World Bank Studies on solid waste disposal and on wastewater show that existing data and information are available at regional and local authorities. Further, during the second field mission of this Coastal Development Study data have been provided without any restriction. If there were obstacles they were caused by lack of technical equipment but not by official order. Thus in the spirit of legislation enforcement the objective of Directive 90/313/EC is covered but the physical implementation is presently unsatisfactory.

Reporting Directive (91/692/EEC) Since Albania is presently not member of European Union the Reporting Directive 91/692/EEC is not yet relevant. For a possible future membership this directive shall be respected for the purpose of smooth and facilitated procedure of environmental issues administration.

Bathing Directive (76/160/EEC) Presently in coastal region this directive is not implemented. For future tourism development the issue will obtain advanced priority.

6th Environmental Action Plan ‘Environment 2010 Albania has already passed variant legislation to adopt the requirements of the 6th Environmental Action Plan ‘Environment 2010. Also the respective institutional structures for implementation and monitoring are well established. However, law enforcement is frequently missing with the consequence that many goals of the concerned action plan are still not achieved by far. One significant indication for that is the present situation of solid waste, water resources management, residential development and the unsatisfactory enforcement of infrastructure legislation. For future meeting the action plan goals one prerequisite will be reliable law enforcement and the implementation of respective legislation on water quality, wastewater treatment, solid waste disposal as well as on fauna and flora protection.

The Habitat Directive (92/43/EWG) Albania has already passed sufficient specific legislation to respect the requirements of the EU Habitat Directive (92/43/EWG). Further, the institutional and administrative framework to manage regulations in practice are well established. However, similar to other domains there exists a frequent lack of law enforcement entailing that various regulations are not implemented. Summarising the consequence is that presently biodiversity and habitats are endangered mainly in coastal regions. The reasons are the high development pressure and frequent uncontrolled residential construction.

300


Annex 14

As a conclusion, the legal, institutional prerequisites for implementation of Habitat Directive (92/43/EWG) are sufficiently provided but realisation in practice needs remarkable improvement. Since presently the deterioration of nature resources is proceeding high priority shall be assigned to meet the goals of respective EU directive.

Priorities Regarding the most urgent treats to human health, water resources and wildlife highest priority shall be assigned to fulfilment of requirements of EU directives as listed below. ƒ

Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive (91/271/EEC)

ƒ

Directive on the Landfills of Waste (1999/31/EG)

ƒ

Waste Framework Directive (75/442/EWG)

ƒ

The Habitat Directive (92/43/EWG)

Further the five strategic principles of the 6th Environmental Action Plan ‘Environment 2010 shall be introduced as quick as possible into all domains of infrastructure and residential development.

301


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

302


Annex

15

Consultation and Participatory Planning Process – First Meeting Initial Coastal Stakeholder Committee Meeting for the Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan (April 5, 2005) REPORT, ANALYSIS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

1.

Proposal for the Makeup of the Coastal Stakeholders Committee (CSC)

In late March and early April of 2005, local consultants to the Integrated Coastal Zone Development Study and Plan prepared a proposed list of participants in the CSC committee based on the project objectives regarding committee makeup. Stakeholders have been identified from all representative areas of the Study and Plan and from five major sectors: Local Gov’t, Local Institutions, Intellectual Community, Business Community, and NGO Community. The proposed CSC consists of 15 members from each sector for a total of 75 potential participants. (See Appendix A)

2.

Initial Meeting of the Coastal Stakeholders Committee (CSC) April 5, 2005

2.1. Pre meeting: The Saranda Mayor’s office undertook personal telephone invitations for participation in the initial meeting of the Coastal Stakeholders Committee on April 5, in the Saranda Municipal Auditorium. 60 participants arrived, out of 75 invitees. Upon arrival, stakeholders were presented with an agenda for the meeting (Appendix B), a short written description of the Objective and Purpose of the Study, a list of names and responsibilities of the Project Team (Appendix C), and a two open-question survey of desired outcomes of the project, and concerns about outcomes of the project. (Appendix D).

2.2. Presentations of the Project After a short introduction of the participatory process, the international team members present (Mr. Helmut Kowala, Ms. Laurence Saint-Bauzel, Mr. Jacques-Emmanuel Remy, Mr. Glafkos Constantinides) were introduced by Mr. Andrian Vaso. Mr. Glafkos Constantinides proceeded to present the project on the background of a prepared slide presentation of the existing situation of major sites along the coast. Major points covered in the presentation: ƒ

Profile of the work, existing situation, opportunities.

ƒ

Planning to protect most important the environmental qualities still existing and how to plan in order not to loose these qualities.

ƒ

Spoke about density and height problems as crucial issues of environmental quality.

303


PAP/RAC – SOGREAH: Integrated Coastal Development Study and Plan – Interim Report

ƒ

Density has effect on infrastructure, traffic, environment, schools, etc.

ƒ

Saranda growth has been fast but there is still room for further development.

ƒ

Problem biggest is illegal buildings, no control, because private sector and public sector are out of sinc.

ƒ

Our responsibility is to find best way to prevent uncontrolled dev (or design controlled