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Volume 8, Issue 2

Inside this Issue: Monsanto No Cancer Link − 2 From the President – 3 Member Feature: Every Soul Acres ‒ 5 VCTGA Annual Meeting ‒ 6 CTPB Report ‒ 7 CTPB Consumer Research ‒ 8 CTPB Research – 9 USDA Christmas Tree Referendum Dates – 10 Congress Funds Ag Research ‒ 11 PPP - Dress for Success! ‒ 12 Spotted Lanternfly Pest Alert – 18

Spring 2018

Every Soul Acres featuring Evergreen Farm

Advertisers LaRon Christmas Tree Farm ‒ 2 Alpha Nurseries − 4 Bosch’s Countryview Nursery – 7 Riverside Enterprises ‒ 8 Kelco ‒ 8 Tim Mitchell’s Yule Stand System − 9 Tree Teck – 11 Wagoner’s Fraser Knoll ‒ 20

ITSCHRISTM SKEEPITRE L.COM

Save The Dates August 9-11, 2018!

Annual Conference, Natural Bridge, VA See pages 9, 10, 18


Large U.S. Farm Study Finds No Cancer Link to Monsanto Weedkiller A large long-term study on the use of the weedkiller glyphosate by agricultural workers has found no firm link between exposure to the pesticide and cancer, scientists said this month. The findings are likely to affect legal proceedings in the United States against Monsanto, the maker of Roundup, in which more than 180 plaintiffs are claiming that exposure to the pesticide gave them cancer - allegations that Monsanto denies. The findings may also influence a crucial decision due by the end of the year on whether glyphosate should be relicensed for sale across the European Union. EU countries had been due to vote on the issue last week but

again failed to agree to a proposal for a five-year extension. The EU decision has been delayed for more than a year after the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer reviewed glyphosate in 2015 and concluded it was "probably carcinogenic" to humans. Other bodies, such as the European Food Safety Authority, have concluded that glyphosate is safe to use. The new research is part of the Agricultural Health Study, which has been tracking the health of tens of thousands of agricultural workers, farmers and their families in Iowa and North Carolina. Since the early 1990s, it has gathered and analyzed detailed information on the health of participants and their families, and their use of pesticides, including glyphosate.

David Spiegelhalter, a professor at Britain’s Cambridge University who has no link to the research, said the findings were from a "large and careful study" and showed "no significant relationship between glyphosate use and any cancer." Click here for the complete article. https://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/study-finds-no-firm-link-between-chemical-in-popular-weedkiller-and-cancer/2017/11/10/1f8096c0-c57811e7-aae0cb18a8c29c65_story.html?utm_term =.2d5f422adcd8&utm_source=Ag+ Report+%2318+%2812%2F2%2F17% 29&utm_campaign=Ag+Reports&utm_medium=email

Going out of Business Sale  LaRon Christmas Tree Farm 

All Available Items Will be at the August Meeting in Natural Bridge  Buy Now for Best Availability 

 18” Elkin Tree Netter with Stand ‐ $220    23” Elkin Tree Netter with Stand ‐ $250    “Lifetime” Folding Picnic Table ‐ $90    Propane Patio Heater with 20G Tank ‐ $120    Wreath Making Table, Wooden with No Hammer Clamp ‐ $125    Howey Gas Tree Shaker Model 150‐A, 4HP Honda Engine with Metal Tree Holder ‐ $750    Beneke Trimmer Head & Wand w/Shoulder Harness (no Motor) ‐ $130    CTE 3‐Wheel Auger Transporter, 6” Auger, 2005 Tanaka Engine ‐ $900    Saje Backpack Trimmer with 7 ½’ & 8’ Blades, and 2’ Extension Blade ‐ $950    Beneke Electric Trimmer & 2’ Wand Extension w/Shoulder Harness (dead Battery) ‐ $250   

 Plus much more: Tables, Bulletin Boards, Gift Shop Supplies, Ribbon, Bows, Signs & Saws.    If you need it, we may have it.  Call or email us for info, pictures, or a complete price list.     Ron & Lorraine Hoke, Powhatan County            804‐598‐7701            Lhoke3310@aol.com  Page 2 

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VCTGA News Journal –Spring 2018 

VCTGA News Journal ‒ Spring 2018


or

https://wapo.st/2JmCJEn

From the President

Jeff Gregson, President VCTGA 2016-18

Good day everyone! Hope this message finds you well and ready for a busy and prosperous 2018. It is now mid-April and I am going to go out on a limb and declare that Spring is finally here and there will be no more foul weather to interrupt our routines of working in the tree fields, planting our gardens or whatever else is on your calendar. The VCTGA is looking to an active 2018 with a number of projects in the works. Ranging from reworking our printed material to freshening up our web page to planning for our annual meeting. All of our efforts have one common denominator. That is to give you – the members – more value for your membership dollar. VCTGA News Journal ‒ Spring 2018 VCTGA News Journal – Spring 2018 

Be sure and mark your calendars for August 9-11 for the VCTGA Annual Meeting. This year we are meeting at the Natural Bridge Hotel and Conference Center, 15 Appledore Lane, Natural Bridge, Virginia. The Hotel is under new management and has undergone major renovations in the last few years. The meeting space and the overnight accommodations appear to be quite nice and are reasonably priced. VCTGA Vice President John Carroll has been hard at work putting together a program the we believe will provide you with much useful information and many ideas for your business. Elsewhere in the Journal you will find an initial look at the agenda for the meeting. If you have any last minute thoughts on topics you would like to hear about let us know. Please look for more information on the meeting and details on housing and registration in the very near future. Included in this edition of the Journal is information on the Pest Alert recently issued by the Virginia Cooperative Extension Service regarding the spotted lantern fly. Please take a moment to read this material and contact your local extension service if you have any questions. Also included is information on the referendum to be conducted by the Christmas Tree Promotion Board with respect to the check off program. The material is provided for your information and we encourage you participate when the time comes.

Lastly, please mark your calendars for the 2018 State Fair of Virginia. The dates are Friday, September 28 through Sunday, October 27. Once again, the VCTGA will have a booth along with other groups from the agriculture and forestry industry. And once again we will be looking for volunteers to man the VCTGA exhibit throughout the course of the Fair. Parking and admission will be provided. We will have more details at the Annual Meeting in August. That’s all for now. I hope everyone has a great Spring and we will see you in August in Natural Bridge. Thank you. Jeff Gregson, VCTGA President

VCTGA News Journal Contributing and Coordinating Editors Pests Eric Day VDACS Support & Updates Danny Neel Grant Updates Greg Lemmer Editor in Chief - Jeff Miller Virginia Christmas Tree Growers Association Inc. 383 Coal Hollow Rd Christiansburg, VA 24073-6721 PH: 540-382-7310 Fax: 540-382-2716 secretary@VirginiaChristmasTrees.org www.VirginiaChristmasTreees.org

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ALPHA NURSERIES, INC 3737 –65TH ST. HOLLAND, MI 49423

Phone: 269 - 857-7804 Fax: 269 857-8162 Email: info@alphanurseries.com

Fall 2017Spring 2018

Find us on the web at: www.alphanurseries.com

Spruce Species

Size Age

Per Per 100 1000

Colorado Bl. Spruce

9-15" 10-18" 12-18" 18-24"

2-0 2-1 2-2 * 2-2 *

10-18" 14-20" 16-24"

Pine, Other Evergreens Species

Size Age

Per Per 100 1000

$41 $215 $88 $550 $112 $700 $160 $1,000

White Pine

7-10" 10-16" 10-18" 18-24"

2-0 3-0 2-1 2-2

$45 $235 $55 $290 $106 $660 $192 $1,200

2-0 2-1 2-2

$42 $90 $128

Red Pine

7-10" 8-14" 8-16"

2-0 2-1 2-2

$39 $87 $110

$205 $545 $690

24-36"

2-2

$168 $1,050

16-24"

2-3

$143

$895

10-18" 12-18"

2-0 2-1

$41 $87

$215 $540

Austrian Pine

4-7" 7-10"

2-0 2-0

$32 $41

$170 $220

Lake States

20-30"

2-2

$136

$850

Serbian Spruce

Scotch Pine

6-10"

2-0

$32

$165

9-15" 12-24"

2-1 2-2

$94 $132

$590 $825

10-18" 2-0 $41 Scots Highland, Guadarrama, French, East Anglia

$215

7-14" 14-20"

2-1 2-2

$100 $136

$625 $850

Picea pungens 'glauca'

Kaibab, San Juan Misty Blue * * - Add $75/1000

Norway Spruce Picea abies

Lake States

White Spruce Picea glauca

Picea omorika

Germany

Black Hills Spruce Picea glauca 'densata'

Black Hills, SD

Fraser Fir Abies fraseri

Roan Mountain

Balsam Fir Abies balsamea

Nova Scotia, Lake States

Concolor Fir Abies concolor

San Isabel, Cibola

Canaan Fir

Abies balsamea var. phanerolipsis

West Virginia

Douglas Fir:

Pseudotsuga menziesii glauca

Lincoln, Rio Grande

Korean Fir: Abies koreana

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$220 $560 $800

Fir

Pinus strobus

Lake States

Pinus resinosa

Lake States

Pinus sylvestris

Ponderosa Pine

P+1 P+2

$116 $156

$725 $975

6-12" 8-12" 12-16"

P+1 P+2 P+2

$100 $122 $148

$625 $765 $925

10-15" 8-14" 10-18"

2-0 2-1 2-2

$61 $92 $132

$320 $575 $825

8-14" 8-16"

P+1 P+2

$122 $148

$760 $925

10-18" 10-18" 20-30"

2-0 2-1 2-2

$41 $88 $134

$215 $550 $835

8-14"

P+2

$136

$850

2-0

$47

$245

12-18" 18-30" 30-42"

2-0

$86

$540

2-0 2-0

$113 $142

$710 $885

7-14"

RC+1

Black Hills N.F.

American Larch

7-12" 10-14"

6-12"

Pinus ponderosa

Larix laricina

Ontario

Green Giant Arb's

$164 $1,025

Thuja plicata 'Green Giant'

Ontario

White Cedar

8-15" 2-0, 3-0 8-14" 18-24"

Thuja occidentalis

Michigan

2-1 2-2

$51

$270

$99 $620 $168 $1,050

Write today for complete price list! Note: Other evergreen species available. In addition, we grow 200 species of broadleaves.

25% deposit due with order. Thank you for your consideration!

Jeff Busscher, Manager VCTGA News Journal ‒ Spring 2018


Every Soul Acres featuring Evergreen Tree Farm 2017 Christmas Sales Season

As the gates open to the farm the day after Thanksgiving our patrons flocked to their favorite tree destination. All the uncertainties of what to expect being new farm owners had a peace as our patrons were now here and our hearts filled with joy. The smell of freshly made donuts, the sounds of live Christmas music being played, the sleigh bells ringing from the horse drawn carriage rides and the laughter of children playing in the fields, Christmas season was officially underway!

Preseason planning as new farmers was focused on partnering with other growers to provide the tree species/heights that were going to be in demand that we had limited supply in our fields for choose and cut. With approx. 1100 trees in our field that we selected to harvest over 6 ft tall. We invested in hundreds of trees from other quality producers to give them the option to select a fresh cut premium tree as well. We knew that the families would arrive to harvest the perfect tree and the farm experience VCTGA News Journal ‒ Spring 2018 VCTGA News Journal – Spring 2018 

was a place to make memories and we wanted to be sure we could still be a part of their Christmas experience. Selling over 1600 trees we closed the farm a week early because we simply sold out.

Successful is an understatement for how our season unfolded. As owners Bobby and I believe in creating a culture the reflect our faith, “serving one another.” We feel blessed to have found the best employees who were new to the business yet had outstanding work ethic. We had ladies making wreaths and greenery who took pride in their creations. We had field helpers who served our customers as family. Everyone from the tree loaders to the ladies serving hot chocolate beamed with pleasure doing what they were asked to do. Our local and national media sources did a fabulous job educating our patrons about the tree shortage, price increases and to shop early. This prepared them as they arrived to the farm early in the season. We had nearly 600 sales the first weekend and they were receptive to price changes and lack of inventory in the fields.

As I reflect back on the season my husband and I were the ones who felt sincerely welcomed. New customers

as well as those who have visited for 30 plus years and everywhere in between shared all their memories of the farm. There were so many patrons that told us “Thank you for purchasing our Christmas Tree farm and for keeping our family tradition alive.” As owners that is the greatest complement you could ever receive.

By Laura Wolfe, Every Soul Acres, everysoulacres@gmail.com 540-269-2691

From the VCTGA Board Greg Lemmer has completed an application to the USDA/VDACS Specialty Crop Grant to assist in website upgrades and marketing for members. Dave Thomas, Tim Grove and Kyle Peer are updating the VCTGA potential member contact lists and developing new outreach to non-members. The VCTGA will hosting an exhibit at the State Fair of Virginia and volunteers are needed to help setup and staffing. A great opportunity to promote your farm! VDACS will be exhibiting again in 2019 for the VCTGA at the MANTS Trade Show in Baltimore. Help Danny Neel and visit over 1,000 exhibitors and 11,000 attendees.

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Save The Date! Annual Conference Virginia Christmas Tree Growers Association

 Review of 2017 Sales Season, Adapting to the Tree Shortage: Grower Panel  Species Selection for Virginia Growers: True firs, spruce and pines Dr. Rick Bates, Penn State  Check Off Promotion Workshop: 2018 Marketing Plan Marsha Gray, Promotion Board (invited)  Business Meeting Social and Dinner – McCormick Farm Barn, Raphine, VA

Friday, August 10 Morning Program

"Drama of Creation" Natural Bridge Park

August 9-11, 2018

Annual Meeting Program DRAFT

 My First Sales Season: Lessons Learned, Panel of VCTGA First Time C&C Sellers  Post-Harvest Needle Retention/Freshness and Why It’s Important : Dr. Rick Bates, Penn State  Mistletoe Meadows Farm and Nursery: Joe Freeman, Laurel Springs, NC (tentative)

 Board Meeting and Dinner

Awards Luncheon: The Honorable Bettina Ring, Secretary of Agriculture and Forestry, Guest Speaker

 Auction and Vendor Setup

Afternoon Program

Wednesday, August 8

Thursday, August 9 Morning Pre-Conference  Tree and Wreath Contest Setup  Wreath Workshop

 Pre-Conference Technical Workshop

 Noon Lunch

(provided with registration)

Afternoon Program

 Tree Farm Expansion to Multi Season Crops: Bill and Mary Apperson, Mill Farm, Williamsburg  Financial Profit Tips: Capital Gains Treatment for C&C Income; Employment Rules and Regs: Raetz and Hawkins PC,  Brags and Blunders Session Scholarship Auction & Social

 Welcome by Jeff Gregson

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Dinner on your own (Hotel Seafood Buffet for $37.95 or other local restaurants)

Saturday, August 11 Farm Tours

Keynote Speaker Rick Bates Dr. Rick Bates is a Professor of Horticulture in Penn State University’s Department of Plant Science. He received his Ph.D. in horticulture from Virginia Tech, and his B.S. and M. S. in horticulture from West Virginia University. Rick worked as a county extension agent in Ohio and Virginia and as an Assistant Professor at Montana State University prior to coming to Penn State. Since arriving at Penn State in 2000, his research has focused on developing innovative approaches to plant production systems and development of plant varieties exhibiting improved pest resistance and adaptability. Rick’s extension responsibilities include the development of educational programs in support of Pennsylvania’s woody ornamental industry. The primary goal of his research program is to enhance the profitability and competitiveness of the nursery and Christmas tree industry in Pennsylvania, and the U.S. He is currently working on projects relating to Nordmann and Turkish fir evaluation, Douglas-fir resistance to Rhabdocline needle cast, and Canaan fir improvement. VCTGA News Journal ‒ Spring 2018

VCTGA News Journal –Spring 2018 


Reports to the Industry Highlights of the 2017 promotional campaign were presented to Christmas tree producers across the country via a campaign summary video. “The video provides highlights and reach numbers for the campaign in an entertaining fashion,” comments 2017 Promotion Committee Chairperson, Mark Arkills. “Although plenty of growers engaged in the campaign during the season, but we know that many were too busy to watch the campaign in real time. This video helps to demonstrate how we reached consumers this past season.”

The video was presented at more than 20 state and regional Christmas tree meetings between January and March, reaching growers in at least 23 states. CTPB Industry Commu-

nication and Program Director, Marsha Gray, participated in ques-

tion and answer sessions at these events to provide more details and to insure growers had accurate information about the campaign. “The campaign was a tremendous success” states CTPB Executive Director, Tim O’Connor. “With more than 260 million impressions between on-line reach, television advertising and media coverage, this was a homerun.” In preparing for the campaign, the team developed and agreed on an overarching statement and three key messages that would be included in all campaign materials:

A real Christmas tree is a choice you can be proud of. 

Growing, using, and recycling real Christmas trees is good for the environment.

Buying real Christmas trees provides business for farmers.

Selecting a real Christmas tree makes memories for families and friends.

These messages were shared via a series of grower videos on social media, through more traditional media outlets (including a satellite media tour) and by engaging with social influencers. Our messages were expanded through a limited run of advertisements on the Hallmark Channel and a partnership with “The Real” television talk show. Partnerships at Christmas tree lighting ceremonies in

10785 84th Avenue • Allendale, Michigan 49401 Ad – Bosch’s Countryview Nursery Phone: (616) 892-4090 • Fax: (616) 892-4290 Email: brian@boschsnursery.com www.boschsnursery.com

Wholesale Price List for 2018

Quality Seedlings & Transplants

Age

Size

Per 100 Rate

FRASER FIR (2-2, PL+2) (2-2, PL+2) (P+2, P+3)

8-15” 10-18” 12-22”

$135.00 $145.00 $155.00

BALSAM FIR (2-1, P+1) (2-2, P+2) (P+2, P+3)

8-14” 10-18” 12-22”

CANAAN FIR (2-1, P+1) (P+2) (P+2, P+3)

Per 1,000 Rate

Per 100 Rate

Per 1,000 Rate

$830.00 $880.00 $950.00

WHITE SPRUCE - Lake States (2-0, 3-0) 9-15” $50.00 (2-1) 12-18” $100.00 (2-1, 2-2) 15-24” $125.00

$210.00 $675.00 $775.00

$95.00 $125.00 $135.00

$610.00 $810.00 $850.00

NORWAY SPRUCE - Lake States (2-0, 3-0) 9-15” $50.00 (2-1) 12-18” $110.00 (2-1, 2-2) 15-24” $125.00

WHITE PINE - Lake States (2-0, 3-0) 6-12” (2-1) 6-12” (2-1, 3-1) 10-16” (2-2) 12-18”

$210.00 $675.00 $775.00

SCOTCH PINE - Scothighland + French (2-0, 3-0) 9-15” $55.00

$250.00

8-14” 10-18” 12-22”

$115.00 $145.00 $155.00

$725.00 $890.00 $950.00

$55.00 $110.00 $135.00 $160.00

$250.00 $690.00 $850.00 XXX

$275.00 $610.00 XXX

DOUGLAS FIR - Lincoln (2-0, 3-0) 9-15” (2-1) 8-14”

BLACKHILL SPRUCE (2-0) 5-12” (2-1, 2-2) 10-15” (2-2) 10-18” (2-2) 15-24”

WHITE CEDAR (2-0, 3-0) (2-1) (2-2)

$55.00 $100.00

$250.00 $630.00

CONCOLOR FIR (2-0) 5-12” (2-1, P+1) 8-14” (P+1) 10-15”

$55.00 $110.00 $115.00

$250.00 $680.00 $725.00

SERBIAN SPRUCE (2-0) 8-14” (2-1) 8-15” (2-1) 12-18”

$60.00 $105.00 $135.00

$295.00 $650.00 $850.00

AUSTRIAN PINE (2-0) 6-14”

$55.00

$250.00

RED PINE - Lake States (2-0, 3-0) 6-14”

$55.00

$250.00

COLORADO BLUE SPRUCE - San Juan & Kiabab (2-0, 3-0) 9-15” $50.00 $210.00 (2-1, P+1) 10-16” $100.00 $630.00 (2-2, P+2) 12-18” $135.00 $850.00 (P+2, P+3) 15-24” $160.00 XXX

Age

Size

Age

Size

6-12” 8-15” 15-24”

Per 100 Rate

Per 1,000 Rate

$55.00 $95.00 $110.00 $135

$250.00 $595.00 $695.00 XXX

$55.00 $95.00 $145.00

ARBORvITAE - *EMERALD, *GREEN GIANT, TECHNY & DARK GREEN (RC+1) 6-12” $140.00 $890.00 *(P+1) 8-14” $165.00 XXX For complete list please write or call us. Brian Bosch / Owner

VCTGA News Journal ‒ Spring 2018

VCTGA News Journal – Spring 2018 

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four major markets provided an opportunity to share the campaign messaging with the media. The campaign summary video is available to view on the organization’s website: http://www.christmastreepromotionboard.org/2017campaign/

Consumer Research Provides Insights As a part of the promotional budget, CTPB funds consumer research to learn more about consumers’ attitudes about real Christmas trees, what motivates them to choose a real Christmas tree and the barriers that stand in the way of converting them to become real Christmas tree customers. Additionally, CTPB measures the effectiveness of its ad campaign and the specific messages used in the campaign to improve its results each year from these learn-

ings. Consumer research is conducted in January immediately following the Christmas season and the ad campaign. In the January 2017 consumer survey, following the first ad campaign, CTPB learned some very important things that the January 2018 survey confirmed also held true for the 2017 Christmas season: The type of tree young adults grew up with as a child is highly correlated to the type of tree they choose for their own families today. Unfortunately, most young adults today grew up with an artificial tree resulting in 64% of US consumers having had an artificial Christmas tree in 2017.

CTPB’s ad campaign was targeted at Millennial and Gen X families to deliver messages proven to be effective at overcoming these barriers (see the messages above). Our 2018 consumer research confirmed all three messages were highly effective in improving our target consumers’ attitudes about real Christmas trees and increasing their interest in having a real Christmas tree for 2018.

The majority of consumers believe an artificial tree is better for the environment than a real tree. This belief is also highly correlated with the type of tree they had as a child and is reinforced by environmental education that cutting down trees is bad for the environment. Young adults today

Ad – Kelco

Ad Riverside Enterprises

8Page 8  |

want to do what is best for the environment when they can, overcoming this barrier will require delivering strong messages about the sustainability of real Christmas trees and reversing these beliefs.

VCTGA News Journal –Spring 2018  VCTGA News Journal ‒ Spring 2018


Research a Focus for CTPB The CTPB has firmed its commitment to Christmas tree production research by funding research projects and committing approximately $250,000 in funding thus far. The first research project that is being funded by the CTPB is a continuation of the CoFirGE (Cooperative Fir Germplasm Evaluation project). Researchers from six universities are cooperating on evaluating performance of Turkish and Trojan Fir.

European fir species are emerging nationally as new and popular alternatives to traditional regional species due to their disease and insect resistance, acceptance in the marketplace and growth habits. The CoFirGE project is one of the most extensive research initiatives ever to be done in the US with a Christmas tree species - over 30,000 trees are being evaluated on sites in Pennsylvania, North Carolina, Connecticut, Michigan, New York, Oregon, Washington and Denmark.

The CTPB has also provided funding for the “Development of IPM Strategies for Management of Slugs on Christmas Trees”. Slugs are one of the most important pests of Christmas trees grown in the Pacific Northwest relative to load rejections in Mexico, Japan, Hawaii and other Pacific Rim

destinations. In order to develop effective tools for controlling these pests it is critical to know what species are infesting the target crop. Surprisingly this information is currently lacking for slugs in Christmas trees thereby making it very difficult to design effective approaches for their management. The plan is to sample in plantations for 12 months to determine the seasonal abundance of pest species and in year two, use this information to develop effective tools for both pre and post-harvest management with the ultimate goal of minimizing slug contamination of exported trees. Two other research projects being funded by the CTPB tackle the extremely costly issue of cone removal. These projects strive to reduce production costs, reduce time to market and increase tree value. “Cultural Options for Reducing Coning of Fir Christmas Trees

Ad – Tim Mitchell’s Yule Stand System

VCTGA News Journal ‒ Spring 2018

VCTGA News Journal – Spring 2018 

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NCSU” is focused on herbicide application techniques to remove emerging cones. Recent research in NC has identified herbicides with the potential to selectively kill cones without damaging the rest of the tree. An application study will be conducted using backpack, hydraulic and mist blower sprayers to identify optimum equipment and application techniques. The other coning project, “Cultural Options for Reducing Coning of Fraser fir Christmas Trees Michigan” focuses on two approaches; pro-active cone control (is it possible to keep the trees from coning) and reactive cone control (post-emergent treatment). This project evaluates coning and growth responses of Fraser fir trees treated with a plant growth regulator. It also initiates a new round of trials to further evaluate the utility of applying herbicides to developing Fraser fir cones to prevent cone development. This research project revealed an added bonus: Plant growth regulators (PGR) treatments reduced shoot growth and increased bud density in Fraser fir. An immediate needs research project being funded by the CTPB is “Determining the Impact of Elongate Hemlock Scale on Shipped Christmas Trees into Florida.” This pest has been a leading cause of load rejections of cut Christmas trees from NC into Florida. In 2012, the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services reported EHS entering Florida on cut Fraser fir. As incidence reports continued to increase, FDACS-DPI requested a robust host study of trees in the families Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, and Taxaceae to alleviate regulatory and environmental concerns associated with EHS being shipped into Florida where it is not established. This study strives to determine the susceptibility of important Florida conifer species as potential hosts of EHS. 10Page 10  |

March 9, 2018, Marsha Gray, Industry Communication and Program Director - 517-242-1630 marsha@christmastreepromotionboard.org

USDA Sets Referendum Dates for Christmas Tree Research & Promotion Program March 16, 2018 The U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) announced today that, as required by statute, it will conduct a referendum for eligible producers and importers of Christmas trees to vote on whether to continue the Christmas Tree Promotion, Research and Information Order. The referendum will be held from May 1 through May 31, 2018. The program will continue if it is favored by a majority of producers and importers of Christmas trees voting in the referendum. To vote in the referendum, producers and importers: must have produced, cut and sold more than 500 Christmas trees domestically or imported more than 500 Christmas trees from Sept. 1, 2017 through March 15, 2018; and must have been subject to assessments during that period. The referendum will be conducted by mail. AMS will mail ballots and voting instructions to all known eligible producers and importers before the voting period. Eligible producers or importers who do not receive a ballot by May 24, 2018, should contact referendum agent Victoria Carpenter at (202) 720-6930 or (202) 720-9915, or email VictoriaM.Carpenter@ams.usda.gov. Completed ballots must be received by the referendum agent by 4:30 p.m. ET, May 31, 2018.

AMS will provide the option for voters to return ballots electronically. More details will be provided in the ballot instructions. More information about referendum procedures is in Subpart B of the Christmas Tree Promotion, Research, and Information Order. Notice of the referendum was published in the Federal Register March 16, 2018. The program was developed to strengthen the position of fresh cut Christmas trees in the marketplace, and maintain and expand markets for Christmas trees within the United States. For more information about the board, visit the Christmas Tree Promotion Board on the AMS website or contact Victoria Carpenter. You may also mail your request to Promotion and Economics Division, Specialty Crops Program, AMS, USDA, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW. Room 1406-S, Stop 0244, Washington, DC 20250-0244. Since 1966, Congress has authorized 22 industry-funded research and promotion (R&P) boards to provide a framework for agricultural industries to pool their resources and combine efforts to develop new markets, strengthen existing markets and conduct important research and promotion activities. AMS provides oversight, paid for by industry assessments, which helps ensure fiscal accountability and program integrity. USDA is an equal opportunity provider, employer, and lender Source URL: http://www.ams.usda.gov/content/usda-sets-referendum-dateschristmas-tree-research-and-promotion- program Links http://www.ams.usda.gov/content/usda-sets-referendum-dateschristmas-tree-research-and-promotion-program VCTGA News Journal –Spring 2018  VCTGA News Journal ‒ Spring 2018


mailto:VictoriaM.Carpenter@ams.usda.gov https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/textidx?SID=719053f16050a70daea5f7 46f306d462&mc=true&no de=pt7.10.1214&rgn=div5#sp7 .10.1214.b https://www.federalregister.gov/documents/2018/03/16/201805313/christmas-tree-promotion-resarch-and-information-order-referendum https://www.ams.usda.gov/rules-regulations/research-promotion/christmas-trees

Research Funds Approved in Omnibus Congress passed a $1.3 trillion mandatory spending bill on March 23. President Trump signed the bill into law that afternoon. Of particular interest in the bill is Department of Agriculture funding, totaling $146 billion in discretionary and mandatory funding. $2.75 billion was allotted to support agricultural research conducted by the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) and land grant and nonland grant universities. This is good news for programs such as the Floriculture and Nursery Research Initiative (FNRI), an essential program for our industry that is funded through ARS.

Ad - Tree Teck

Additionally, $985 million was given to the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS), which was $172 million above the Administration’s budget request and $35.7 million above the FY2017 enacted level. This funding will continue programs to prevent, control and eradicate plant pests and diseases affecting specialty crops, among areas of focus. VCTGA News Journal ‒ Spring 2018

VCTGA News Journal – Spring 2018 

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Dress for Success! Some Things to Know About Personal Protective Equipment BEFORE You Handle a Pesticide

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Always read and follow label directions before buying or using a pesticide. Follow all appropriate federal, state, tribal, and local regulations concerning the use of pesticides and personal protective equipment.

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VCTGA News Journal ‒ Spring 2018


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his brochure focuses on some of the basics of personal protective equipment (PPE), but does NOT substitute for following the pesticide product label, the PPE user instructions, and all applicable government regulations. To reduce exposure, the required PPE must be handled properly from purchase through disposal, whether you apply a pesticide at home, or work in an agricultural or non-agricultural occupation.

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When purchasing and prior to using a pesticide product, it is essential that you read and understand all portions of the pesticide product label. You are legally obligated to follow the instructions and requirements on the label. The label is the law, AND it contains vital information about the use, safety and handling of the product. Carefully review the signal word, precautionary statements, personal protective equipment requirements, entry restriction statements, emergency first aid measures, and directions for use – they are included to protect you, others, and the environment.

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Different pesticide products require different personal protective equipment. Remember that any product that contains a pesticide – including baits, aerosols, fertilizers, seed, “natural” products, etc. – must be handled using the required PPE, in the correct way. In addition, there are basic PPE principles and practices that must be understood to protect the health and safety of everyone involved in handling a pesticide. What is Personal Protective Equipment? Personal Protective Equipment is apparel and devices worn to protect the body from contact with pesticides or pesticide residues, including aprons, chemical-resistant suits, coveralls, footwear, gloves, headgear, protective eyewear and respirators. While the following attire is not defined as PPE, the pesticide label may require pesticide handlers or early- entry workers to wear regular work clothes for some tasks: long and short sleeved shirts, long and short pants, shoes and socks. The required PPE will be listed on the pesticide label, and may be different for different tasks. PPE may be required during pesticide mixing, loading, application, repair, cleanup, and/or early entry into a treated area. The required PPE will be different for different pesticide products, because products differ in their potential health impacts via skin (dermal), mouth (oral), breathing (inhalation), and eye contact. Skin contact can occur on any part of the body, but the hands and forearms are where exposure is most common. Inhalation can result by breathing in fine sprays, mists, dusts and vapors. Formulation type, application equipment type, and other factors may impact the required PPE, so it is critical to read and follow the PPE section on every product carefully, even if the brand name is the same. For example, a liquid and dry formulation of the same product may require different PPE, and a liquid formulation may require different PPE when applied with a handheld versus a mechanized sprayer. Why the Pesticide Product Label Specifies Personal Protective Equipment The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires studies to determine if a pesticide can be registered and how it can be used without impacting health or the environment. To help protect pesticide handlers and early entry workers, the PPE specified on the label must be selected and used correctly, and all other directions and precautions must be followed.

VCTGA News Journal ‒ Spring 2018

How Personal Protective Equipment Relates to Signal Words on the Pesticide Product Label A Caution, Warning, or Danger signal word will appear on the pesticide product label and is based on the acute (single exposure) toxicity and irritation potential of the pesticide product, including the active ingredient(s) and the other ingredients in the formulation (particularly solvents). The signal word selected for a pesticide formulation reflects the most toxic category resulting from dermal, oral, inhalation or eye contact. Caution indicates that the pesticide formulation is slightly toxic by any of these four ways of contact. Warning indicates that at least one of the ways of contact is moderately toxic. Danger indicates that at least one of the ways of contact is highly toxic. The signal word is an indicator of the overall acute toxicity of a pesticide formulation, but is not the only consideration when defining PPE requirements.

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The Worker Protection Standard (WPS) protects agricultural workers and pesticide handlers on farms, or in forests, nurseries and greenhouses, from occupational exposure to pesticides used to treat agricultural plants grown for commercial or research purposes. Employers and employees must ensure that they are familiar with their responsibilities and rights under the WPS, including PPE for handling pesticides and early entry into pesticide-treated areas. Employers must provide the PPE required on the pesticide label for the specific work task. Employers are also responsible for ensuring that the PPE fits correctly, and that reusable PPE is properly cleaned, maintained, replaced, and stored. Employers must ensure that employees have attended all required safety training and refresher programs, which include PPE training. The employer is responsible for ensuring that PPE required on the pesticide label is worn. Some federal and state employee protection regulations require medical clearance and monitoring when respirators are used. In case of an accidental pesticide exposure requiring emergency assistance, the employer must provide immediate transportation to a medical care facility and information about the pesticide. If your employer has not complied with their responsibilities under the WPS, contact your state’s pesticide regulatory agency.

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PPE requirements are based not only on protecting the user from acute toxicity concerns but also from other toxicity concerns, such as repeated exposures and how the person would be exposed during mixing, loading and application. Personal Protective Equipment Requirements on the Pesticide Product Label are Revised Frequently Pesticide product labels undergo scheduled reevaluations, and can also be changed at any time due to new research and/or regulatory requirements. So read the entire label every time you purchase a pesticide product. The same applies to any PPE instructions that accompany the PPE – read them carefully every time you purchase the PPE, even if you purchased the same brand and model before. When to Use Personal Protective Equipment The PPE requirements on the pesticide product label must always be followed, and may change depending on the type of handling task being performed. For example, the PPE required for someone mixing or loading a pesticide usually differs from that required for someone applying the same pesticide. If handling more than one pesticide product, choose the most protective PPE from the product labels. PPE must be used to protect workers when other means of protection are not feasible. For example, closed spray tank loading systems, enclosed tractor cabs, pre-weighed pesticides in water-soluble packages, and closed container rinsing systems can greatly reduce the risk of exposure and therefore may reduce or even eliminate the requirements for PPE. What to Consider When Selecting Different Types of Personal Protective Equipment Correct selection of PPE is the first critical step. Follow the pesticide product label carefully when certain types of gloves, respirators, and/or other PPE are specified. For example, a specific type of glove material may be highly chemical-resistant to some pesticide products but not others. A respirator suitable for one task may not be suitable for another. A “water-resistant” material is different than a “chemical-resistant” material. “Chemical-resistant” PPE is “material that allows no measureable movement of the pesticide being used through the material during use”. However, “chemical-resistant” aprons, coveralls, eye protection, footwear, gloves, and headgear are not equally resistant to all pesticides, under all conditions, and for the same length of time. Read the PPE user instructions carefully to ensure that the PPE meets the specifications on the particular pesticide product label. If in doubt about what PPE to use, call the pesticide product manufacturer, the

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PPE manufacturer, your county agent, or your state’s pesticide safety education program. Pesticide labels, PPE instructions and safety equipment catalogs contain phone numbers, and PPE manufacturer websites often contain detailed information on their products. More is not necessarily better in the case of PPE – select the PPE required by the label. Make Sure PPE is Working Properly It is very important to select the correct PPE. Just as important, the PPE must be working correctly every time you use it, either alone or in combination with other PPE. When several pieces of PPE are used together, they must not interfere with each other. For example, protective goggles must not interfere with the operation of a respirator. Read the PPE user instructions carefully before every use, and seek assistance if needed. Before and after every use, check for any type of deterioration of or damage to all the components, seams, etc. of the specific re-usable PPE and, if necessary, dispose of properly. Aprons, when required, must be made of chemicalresistant material and cover the front of the body from mid-chest to the knees. It is a good idea to wear an apron whenever mixing or loading chemicals or cleaning spray equipment, even when not required on the pesticide label. Coveralls are loose-fitting one- or two-piece garments that cover, at a minimum, the entire body except the head, neck, hands and feet. The pesticide label may specify that the coveralls be worn over a layer of clothing. Most coveralls are made of fabric such as cotton or a cottonpolyester blend and are not chemical-resistant. There are laminated or coated materials that provide water resistance and protection from some solvents, but no US certification currently exists. Chemical-resistant clothing is rarely required and usually not encouraged due to heat stress concerns. Eye protection requirements may be shielded safety glasses, goggles, a face shield, or a full-face respirator. Shielded safety glasses have a brow cover and side shields. Special goggles are needed when wearing a half-mask respirator or prescription glasses. Straps on eye protection equipment should be worn under any required protective headgear. Goggles and safety glasses having directly vented air holes are not totally protective against splashes. Footwear includes water-proof boots, or chemical-resistant boots or shoe coverings, worn over regular shoes or boots. Ensure that the footwear chosen will not absorb the spray. Always wear the pant legs outside the footwear to prevent spray from running down the leg into the footwear.

VCTGA News Journal ‒ Spring 2018

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Duct tape can be used to temporarily seal the area where boots meet the pants. Exposed footwear should be cleaned after each day’s use, and never worn indoors. Glove materials differ in their protective ability and the length of time they are protective after contact with the specific pesticide. The level of protection also varies depending on whether diluted sprays, concentrated product splashes, granules, or powders contact the gloves. Pay careful attention to the glove types specified on the pesticide label; they are based on the different solvents in the formulation. Barrier laminate gloves are highly protective for all solvents that have been approved for use in pesticide formulations. Nitrile gloves are highly protective for many but not all formulations. Waterproof gloves are highly protective only for dry and water-based formulations. Pesticide labels will usually list “examples” of suitable glove types – use the examples listed unless you are willing to do the research to ensure that other types meet the same chemical-resistance requirements. Always wear unlined gloves, and never wear canvas, leather, cotton, or other fabric gloves unless specified on the pesticide product label. Even highly chemical-resistant gloves must be rinsed off at breaks if pesticide contact occurs. Wear sleeves outside the gloves if spraying below the shoulders. If spraying overhead, gloves should be outside the sleeves. If spraying both overhead and below the shoulders, duct tape can be used to temporarily seal the area where the gloves meet the sleeves. Elbow length gloves are more protective and are required for some activities. Headgear includes chemical-resistant hoods and chemical-resistant hats with a wide brim. Some labels require headgear – ensure that the headgear chosen will not absorb the spray. Respirator requirements on pesticide labels are very specific when required for pesticide handling tasks. Generally, the label will require either a dust/mist filtering (particulate - removing) respirator, or a respirator with an organic- vapor cartridge or canister fitted with a prefilter. Use only respirators certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). If you are required by the pesticide label to use a respirator (or if you choose to use one), an initial medical evaluation is strongly advised even if not required by law. Self-contained, canister and cartridge style respirators require a tight seal to the face and must be fit tested before use. Fit testing is also required annually, or when the type of respirator changes, or when there are significant changes in weight or facial features. Only a trained person or safety professional should

VCTGA News Journal ‒ Spring 2018

conduct the fit testing, according to the instructions included with the respirator or other fit test protocols specific to the model. Tight-sealing respirators cannot be worn by persons having even minimal facial hair, jewelry, or other obstructions where the respirator contacts the face. A respirator seal check (also known as a pressure check or fit check) is a very different procedure than a fit test. A seal check determines the effectiveness of the seal between the respirator and the skin, and must be done EVERY time the respirator is worn. Follow the PPE instructions to conduct a proper seal check. Replace filters, canisters, cartridges, etc. according to the pesticide label or PPE instructions (whichever is more frequent), and whenever there is equipment damage, breathing resistance, odor, taste, irritation, or soiling. Following the PPE instructions for replacement is critical, because other indicators are not always dependable. For example, the ability to detect an odor depends on the product, the person, and the weather conditions, and the mere presence of an odor does not indicate that harm can result. For PPE having multiple components as well as associated PPE (for example, respirators and filtration media), be sure to review the assembly, parts, and filtration media instructions. All “dust masks” are not the same. Some dust masks having a particulate prefilter are approved for some types of applications (for example, a “dust/mist NIOSH-approved respirator with any N, R, P, or HE filter”) while other dust masks are not protective nor approved. Cleaning, Maintenance, Storage, and Disposal of Personal Protective Equipment Cleaning and maintenance instructions from the PPE manufacturer must be followed for reusable PPE. Never reuse any type of disposable (one-time use) PPE equipment, because you can be exposed to residues remaining on the PPE from the previous use, or to product moving through damaged or deteriorated PPE during reuse. Note that reusable or limited-use PPE must be discarded if not cleaned and maintained properly, because there is a significant risk of pesticide exposure. For example, pesticide exposure can occur from residues remaining from the previous use, damaged seals in the respirator, small holes or tears in gloves or clothing, or degradation of the chemical-resistant PPE. Remove PPE as soon as you complete the tasks where you were exposed to the pesticide. Wash disposable OR reusable gloves with soap and water, and then remove other PPE while still wearing the gloves. Then wash the gloves again with soap and water before removing them. Clean reusable PPE according to the PPE instructions, without causing contamination to yourself.

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Wash regular work clothes that have been exposed to pesticides as soon as possible to ensure maximum pesticide residue removal. Wash them separately from other laundry using detergent and hot water. Using an outdoor clothesline rather than a dryer may help break down any remaining pesticide residues. If no PPE is required on the pesticide label, it is still wise to wash clothes promptly. Always obtain replacement parts for half- and full-face respirators from the original manufacturer and repair PPE in accordance with manufacturer instructions. Respirator component parts are NOT interchangeable between different manufacturers. Storage instructions from the PPE manufacturer must be followed for both reusable and disposable PPE. Most PPE must be protected from chemicals, sunlight, extreme temperatures, excessive humidity, and moisture, or the specified shelf-life will be reduced. Disposable, reusable or limited-use PPE must be discarded if not stored properly. Keep PPE in its sealed package until use, and never store PPE with pesticides or personal clothing. Disposal is the critical last step in handling PPE. Ensure that you remove and discard PPE without causing contamination to yourself, garbage collectors, or the environment. PPE may have an expiration date, while other PPE requires careful inspection – read the PPE manufacturer directions and be diligent about disposal of PPE that will no longer provide protection. Clean disposable, washable items with soap and water prior to disposal, to remove pesticide residues. Properly cleaned PPE can be disposed as regular garbage. PPE that is contaminated with a pesticide must be disposed of according to directions on the pesticide product label and all federal, state, and local regulations. In the absence of specific label directions or government regulations, dispose of contaminated PPE as household hazardous waste, which can be taken to an appropriate waste collection event or disposal site. If all PPE instructions for cleaning, maintenance, storage, and disposal are not followed carefully, PPE can become ineffective or even increase exposure to a pesticide. If in doubt, dispose of the PPE or PPE component. Limitations of Personal Protective Equipment PPE does not substitute for following all other pesticide product label directions and precautions necessary to protect family, farmworkers, bystanders, non-target organisms, sensitive sites, the community, and the environment. 16 |

PPE must be selected according to the pesticide product label and must be used, maintained, cleaned, and stored according to the PPE instructions. If you still have questions after reading both the pesticide product label and the PPE instructions, call the pesticide product manufacturer, the PPE manufacturer, your county agent, or your state’s pesticide safety education program. What to Do if You Don’t Have the PPE Required on the Pesticide Label If you don’t have the PPE that is required on the pesticide label, don’t apply the pesticide.

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What to Do if Instructions are Not with the Personal Protective Equipment If PPE equipment is available without instructions for use, three good options exist – 1) check the PPE manufacturer’s website for downloadable instructions for the particular model, 2) call the PPE manufacturer to obtain a copy of the instructions, or 3) purchase new PPE equipment containing the instructions. What to Do if Personal Protective Equipment is Uncomfortable Sometimes PPE is uncomfortable, particularly when working in hot weather. However, hot weather is NEVER a good excuse for not using the required PPE. Attempt to work outdoors during the coolest periods of the day. If workload or other label precautions sometimes prevent this, take all necessary steps to avoid heat stress, including frequent rest breaks in shaded areas, drinking plenty of water (not caffeinated drinks), and not working alone. Know the signs of heat stress and how to treat it. Face-sealing respirators may be uncomfortable if they have not been properly fit tested or are worn for long periods of time. In addition, physical activity can sometimes affect the seal between the respirator and the face. These and other conditions that cause discomfort and/or possibly reduce protection must be resolved in a way that does not cause a health hazard. Determine if other measures can be taken to reduce the need for PPE for certain tasks, as permitted on the pesticide label. Examples include the use of a closed cab tractor for pesticide application, a closed spray tank loading system, and pesticide products, formulations, or packaging (for example, water-soluble pre-weighed packs) that may require less PPE. In some cases, discomfort can be reduced simply by reducing the length of time spent on a task requiring PPE.

VCTGA News Journal ‒ Spring 2018

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What to Do if an Accident Results in Pesticide Exposure If an accident results in exposure, the label indicates what to do in the First Aid section. The proper first aid varies based on the product and type of exposure, so it is critical that the label is always immediately available to the pesticide user – and it is the law! Follow the first aid instructions immediately after exposure to the pesticide product, whether or not you have any immediate symptoms.

The Bottom Line The personal protective equipment specified on the pesticide label is essential to protect everyone who handles a pesticide. The PPE requirements will vary widely, depending on the task, pesticide, formulation, application method and equipment, and other factors. When questions remain after reading the pesticide label and the PPE instructions, do not use the pesticide product until you have contacted an expert and resolved your questions. Your personal safety is of the utmost importance, and is an essential part of proper and safe pesticide use.

Some Additional Resources There are many educational resources and organizations that can provide information on PPE. Only a few are listed here. PPE options, recommendations and regulations can change at any time, so contact the pesticide product manufacturer, the PPE manufacturer, your county agent, or your state’s pesticide safety education program if you have questions. • The Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides – epa.gov/agriculture/twor.html • US Dept. of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration – Personal Protective Equipment – osha.gov/SLTC/personalprotectiveequipment • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health – eye safety, heat stress, protective clothing, respirators – cdc.gov/niosh/topics • County Extension Offices – nifa.usda.gov/Extension • State and Territory Pesticide Safety Education Program Coordinators – nifa.usda.gov/nea/pest/part/pesticides_part_psep.html • State and Territory Pesticide Regulatory Agencies – aapco.org • State Departments of Agriculture – nasda.org We gratefully acknowledge the National Pesticide PPE Training Solutions Committee for its significant work on this brochure. Outdoor Photos Courtesy of USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service PPE Photos Courtesy of Virginia Tech Pesticide Programs and PesticidePics.org

This publication can be downloaded or ordered at the following websites: National Association of County Agricultural Agents: nacaa.com Syngenta Environmental Stewardship: syngentacropprotection.com/Env_Stewardship Pesticide Environmental Stewardship (PES): pesticidestewardship.org

VCTGA News Journal ‒ Spring 2018

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Spotted Lanternfly

Lycorma delicatula (White) (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae)

By: Douglas G. Pfeiffer, Eric R. Day and Phillip A. Sisti, Virginia Tech Entomology

Spotted Lanternfly

Origin & Distribution: The spotted lanternfly (SLF) has been detected in Virginia in Frederick County in the northern part of the state in January of 2018. The SLF originates from China where its presence has been Lycorma delicatula (White) (Hemiptera: Fulgoridae) documented in detail dating as far back as the 12th century. In modern times, it was first recorded from a By: Douglas G. Pfeiffer, Eric R. Day and Phillip A. Sisti, Virginia Tech Entomology sample collected in Nankin, China. SLF is native to China, India, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. In September 2014, the first detection of spotted lanternfly in the US was confirmed in eastern Pennsylvania. In 2017, the Origin & Distribution: The spotted lanternfly (SLF) has been detected in Virginia in Frederick County in the range expanded to 13 Pennsylvania counties and a single county in both Delaware and New York; the northern part of the state in January of 2018. The SLF originates from China where its presence has been geographical range is likely to expand further. SLF is likely to have arrived from China up to two years earlier th century. In modern times, it was first recorded from a documented in detail dating as far back as the 12 than first detected on shipping materials, pointing to its ability to overwinter successfully. It is highly sample collected in Nankin, China. SLF is native to China, India, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. In September invasive and can spread rapidly when introduced to new areas. This is attributed to its wide host range 2014, the first detection of spotted lanternfly in the US was confirmed in eastern Pennsylvania. In 2017, the (more than 70 host plant species) and a lack of natural native range expanded to 13 Pennsylvania counties and a single county in both Delaware and New York; the enemies. geographical range is likely to expand further. SLF is likely to have arrived from China up to two years earlier than first detected on shipping materials, pointing to its ability to overwinter successfully. It is highly Description: The first stage nymph is wingless, black, and has invasive and can spread rapidly when introduced to new areas. This is attributed to its wide host range white spots on the body and legs. The last nymphal instar (more than 70 host plant species) and a lack of natural native develops red patches over the body while retaining the whiteenemies. spot pattern. Description: The first stage nymph is wingless, black, and has Adult SLF are approximately 1” long and ½” wide. The legs and white spots on the body and legs. The last nymphal instar head are black, while the abdomen is yellow with broad, black develops red patches over the body while retaining the whitebands on top and bottom. Its forewings are light-brown/grey spot pattern. with black spots and the wings tips are reticulated black rectangular blocks outlined in grey. The hind wings are a Adult SLF are approximately 1” long and ½” wide. The legs and scarlet red with black spots and tips of reticulated black blocks, head are black, while the abdomen is yellow with broad, black separated by a white stripe. At rest, the SLF shows light-brown, grayish wings with black spots held “tentbands on top and bottom. Its forewings are light-brown/grey like” over its body. Adult females are distinguished by the presence of a red spot on the end of the abdomen. with black spots and the wings tips are reticulated black rectangular blocks outlined in grey. The hind wings are a SLF egg masses (oothecae) contain 30-50 eggs, are 1-1.5” long and ½-¾” wide, grayish-brown in color, and scarlet red with black spots and tips of reticulated black blocks, covered with a grey, waxy coating (newly laid oothecae are somewhat shiny). Old oothecae appear as rows separated by a white stripe. At rest, the SLF shows light-brown, grayish wings with black spots held “tentof 30-50 brownish seed-like deposits in 4-7 columns, measuring roughly 1” long. like” over its body. Adult females are distinguished by the presence of a red spot on the end of the abdomen. Life Cycle: The SLF is univoltine and overwinters as eggs in oothecae. Eggs hatch in spring and early summer SLF egg masses (oothecae) contain 30-50 eggs, are 1-1.5” long and ½-¾” wide, grayish-brown in color, and (late April-May) and undergo four nymphal instars before adults begin appearing in July, becoming abundant covered with a grey, waxy coating (newly laid oothecae are somewhat shiny). Old oothecae appear as rows in August. Adults begin laying eggs in September and continue through November until the onset of winter of 30-50 brownish seed-like deposits in 4-7 columns, measuring roughly 1” long. begins to kill off any remaining adults. Life Cycle: The SLF is univoltine and overwinters as eggs in oothecae. Eggs hatch in spring and early summer (late April-May) and undergo four nymphal instars before adults begin appearing in July, becoming abundant in August. Adults begin laying eggs in September and continue through November until the onset of winter begins to kill off any remaining adults.

2018

Virginia Tech

ENTO-180NP (ENTO-264NP)

Virginia Cooperative Extension programs and employment are open to all, regardless of age, color, disability, gender, gender identity, gender expression, national origin, political affiliation, race, religion, sexual orientation, genetic information, veteran status, or any other basis protected by law. An equal opportunity/affirmative action employer. Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia State University, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating. Edwin J. Jones, Director, Virginia Cooperative Extension, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg; M. Ray McKinnie, Administrator, 1890 Extension Program, Virginia State University, Petersburg.

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2018

Virginia Tech

VCTGA News Journal ‒ Spring 2018 ENTO-180NP (ENTO-264NP)

Virginia Cooperative Extension programs and employment are open to all, regardless of age, color, disability, gender, gender identity, gender expression, national origin, political affiliation, race, religion, sexual orientation, genetic information, veteran status, or any other basis protected by law. An equal opportunity/affirmative action employer. Issued in furtherance of Cooperative Extension work, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Virginia State University, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating. Edwin J. Jones, Director, Virginia Cooperative Extension, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg; M. Ray McKinnie, Administrator, 1890 Extension Program, Virginia State University, Petersburg.


Signs & Symptoms: Newly emerging nymphs disperse from the oviposition site and appear to be broad generalists as they feed on a wide range of plant species—almost every plant they encounter while on the Signs & Symptoms: Newly emerging nymphs disperse from the oviposition site and appear to be broad ground. Nymphs are most often observed on leaves and branches of host plants. Look for nymphs on smaller generalists as they feed on a wide range of plant species—almost every plant they encounter while on the plants and vines during the summer. ground. Nymphs are most often observed on leaves and branches of host plants. Look for nymphs on smaller plants and vines during the summer. Nymph and adult SLF typically gather in large numbers on host plants. They are easy to spot at dusk or night as they migrate up and down the trunk of the plant. During the day, they are harder to see as they tend to Nymph and adult SLF typically gather in large numbers on host plants. They are easy to spot at dusk or night cluster near the base of the host plant if adequate canopy cover exists. as they migrate up and down the trunk of the plant. During the day, they are harder to see as they tend to cluster near the base of the host plant if adequate canopy cover exists. Adult SLF are found on tree trunks, stems, and sometimes near leaf litter at the tree base. Although winged, adults are poor flyers but very strong jumpers and thus prefer to move up trees by walking. They favor TreeAdult SLF are found on tree trunks, stems, and sometimes near leaf litter at the tree base. Although winged, of-Heaven (Ailanthus altissima) and grapevine (Vitis vinifera) as host plants on which to feed. In the fall, adult adults are poor flyers but very strong jumpers and thus prefer to move up trees by walking. They favor TreeSLF focus on Tree-of-Heaven as a host for feeding and egg laying, although not exclusively. Adults will lay of-Heaven (Ailanthus altissima) and grapevine (Vitis vinifera) as host plants on which to feed. In the fall, adult eggs on other smooth-trunked trees or any vertical smooth surface, natural or manmade. Look for adults SLF focus on Tree-of-Heaven as a host for feeding and egg laying, although not exclusively. Adults will lay starting in late August-September. Copulation and oviposition can be observed from evening to night from eggs on other smooth-trunked trees or any vertical smooth surface, natural or manmade. Look for adults mid-September to November. Look for egg masses on rocks and other smooth surfaces from October to early starting in late August-September. Copulation and oviposition can be observed from evening to night from spring. mid-September to November. Look for egg masses on rocks and other smooth surfaces from October to early spring. Both nymphs and adults are phloem feeders—they suck sap from young stems and leaves, which can cause withering of whole trees. This reduces photosynthesis, weakens the plant, and eventually contributes to the Both nymphs and adults are phloem feeders—they suck sap from young stems and leaves, which can cause host plant’s death. Feeding can also cause the plant to weep or ooze, resulting in a fermented odor. Wounds withering of whole trees. This reduces photosynthesis, weakens the plant, and eventually contributes to the will leave a grayish-black trail along the trunk. host plant’s death. Feeding can also cause the plant to weep or ooze, resulting in a fermented odor. Wounds will leave a grayish-black trail along the trunk. The insects excrete large amounts of a sugar-rich fluid called “honeydew” which covers the stems and leaves of trees as well The insects excrete large amounts of a sugar-rich fluid called as the ground underneath infested plants. This fluid hastens the “honeydew” which covers the stems and leaves of trees as well growth of sooty mold that can reduce photosynthesis, weaken as the ground underneath infested plants. This fluid hastens the the plant and cause eventual death. Blackened soil and even growth of sooty mold that can reduce photosynthesis, weaken mold patches, appearing as a yellowish-white mat, may form at the plant and cause eventual death. Blackened soil and even the base of the tree and often produce a vinegar smell. mold patches, appearing as a yellowish-white mat, may form at Honeydew secretion often attracts other insects such as yellow the base of the tree and often produce a vinegar smell. jackets, hornets, bees, ants and flies. Honeydew secretion often attracts other insects such as yellow jackets, hornets, bees, ants and flies. Quarantine & Status: SLF has recently been detected in Frederick County, Virginia. This fact sheet is to aid in the Quarantine & Status: SLF has recently been detected in detection of possible new infestations, since SLF is expanding its Frederick County, Virginia. This fact sheet is to aid in the range, and the insect can have an important economic impact. detection of possible new infestations, since SLF is expanding its SLF has great potential to impact the country’s grape, orchard, range, and the insect can have an important economic impact. logging, tree- and wood-product, and green industries. Suspect SLF has great potential to impact the country’s grape, orchard, insects that resemble SLF can be taken to the nearest Virginia logging, tree- and wood-product, and green industries. Suspect Cooperative Extension county office for identification at no insects that resemble SLF can be taken to the nearest Virginia charge. If you have a photograph of a suspected spotted Cooperative Extension county office for identification at no lanternfly, upload it here with the location: charge. If you have a photograph of a suspected spotted https://ask.extension.org/groups/1981/ask . Although there is lanternfly, upload it here with the location: no quarantine in place, if you have questions about moving https://ask.extension.org/groups/1981/ask . Although there is material out of infested sites, contact the Virginia Department of no quarantine in place, if you have questions about moving Agriculture and Consumer Services at 804-786-3515. material out of infested sites, contact the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services at 804-786-3515.

VCTGA News Journal ‒ Spring 2018

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Virginia Christmas Tree Growers Association News Journal Spring 2018  

Virginia Christmas Tree Growers Association News Journal Spring 2018, Save The Date August 9-11, 2018 Annual Conference Natural Bridge VA

Virginia Christmas Tree Growers Association News Journal Spring 2018  

Virginia Christmas Tree Growers Association News Journal Spring 2018, Save The Date August 9-11, 2018 Annual Conference Natural Bridge VA

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