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November/December 2013

Issue 1 l Volume 1

Economic overview of the global pumps market Winterisation

As days gradually get shorter and the temperature drops, we look at equipment specifically designed for hostile environments

Savings to new life sciences plant with revolutionary valve design

All new magazine covering fluid handling technologies, operation and maintenance across the chemical, petroleum, food and beverage, pharmaceutical and water/wastewater sectors


THIS SUDOKU VARIANT IS CALLED “CENTER DOT SUDOKU”. THE CENTRAL CELLS OF EACH REGION FORM AN EXTRA REGION THAT MUST ALSO CONTAIN THE NUMBERS 1 THROUGH 9.

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Puzzle Compliments of

brodieintl.com Statesboro, GA 30459 USA | 001.912.489.0200 | sales@brodieintl.com


COnTenTs November/ december 2013

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Comment

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Latest news

Horseshoe Media Ltd Marshall House 124 Middleton Road, Morden, Surrey SM4 6RW, UK www.fluidhandlingmag.com

7

Picking up good vibrations

8

Economic overview of the global pumps market

MANAGING DIRECTOR Peter Patterson Tel: +44(0)20 8648 7082 peter@horseshoemedia.com

10 Focused on single-use

Publisher & editor Margaret Dunn Tel: +44 (0)20 8687 4126 margaret@tankstoragemag.com

issue 1 • Volume 1

Deputy editor James Barrett Tel: +44 (0)20 8687 4146 james@tankstoragemag.com Assistant Editor Keeley Downey Tel: +44 (0)20 8687 4183 keeley@horseshoemedia.com

16 Savings to new life sciences

plant with revolutionary valve design

18 Choose the right hose 22 Global perspectives on emission control

13 Moving underground

Tunnelling contractor Gallagher’s turned to UK-based Euroflo when it required a dredging pump system for a major railtunnelling project in east London

14 Rotork assists Wessex

Water’s environmental improvement scheme for leisure beaches

26 Winterisation

As the temperature drops and days get gradually shorter, UK-based fluid handling specialist Amarinth highlights the need for equipment specifically designed for hostile environments

staff writer Daniel Traylen Tel: +44 (0)20 8687 4143 daniel@horseshoemedia.com Advertising Sales manager David Kelly Tel: +44 (0)203 551 5754 david@tankstoragemag.com PRODUCTION Alison Balmer Tel: +44 (0)1673 876143 alisonbalmer@btconnect.com SUBSCRIPTION RATES A one-year, 6-issue subscription costs £150 (approximately $240/€185 depending on daily exchange rates). Individual back issues can be purchased at a cost of £30 each Contact: Lisa Lee Tel: +44 (0)20 8687 4160 Fax: +44 (0)20 8687 4130 marketing@horseshoemedia.com

Join Fluid Handling magazine on Linkedin to discuss important issues Follow us on Twitter: @fluidmagnews No part of this publication may be reproduced or stored in any form by any mechanical, electronic, photocopying, recording or other means without the prior written consent of the publisher.Whilst the information and articles in Tank Storage are published in good faith and every effort is made to check accuracy, readers should verify facts and statements direct with official sources before acting on them as the publisher can accept no responsibility in this respect. Any opinions expressed in this magazine should not be construed as those of the publisher.

ISSN 1750-841X

www.fluidhandlingmag.com Our aim is to provide a one-stop source of information relating to the use of fluid handling technologies and systems in operation globally, as well as their operation and maintenance, across a range of industries such as chemicals, petroleum, pharmaceuticals, water/wastewater and the food & beverage sectors. So if you’re looking at best practices on the measurement or containment of your fluids then we hope you find what you’re looking for here. If not just give us a call.

For editorial enquiries and submissions please contact Margaret Dunn – margaret@fluidhandlingmag.com +44 208 687 4126 For advertising please contact David Kelly – david@fluidhandlingmag.com +44 203 551 5754

November/December 2013 l FLUid HandLinG 1


Tank overfill. In the best case, you have to clean up. In the worst case, you end up in court. Want to sleep well at night?

YOU CAN DO THAT Driving overfill prevention technology forward. Emerson’s new Rosemount Raptor tank gauging system lets you comply with the reworked overfill protection standard API 2350 (4th edition) for every type of storage tank. The Raptor system includes safety features like SIL certification and a unique radar with two independent gauges (level and overfill) in one housing. Learn more about Raptor and get the latest API 2350 overfill prevention guidance at www.rosemount-tg.com/safety

The Emerson logo is a trademark and a service mark of Emerson Electric Co. Š 2012 Emerson Electric Co.


COmmenT

Streaming information direct to you Having published market leading Tank Storage magazine for 10 years now it’s safe to say we know a little about the liquids business, particularly when it comes to oil and petrochemicals. But when it comes to food, beverage, pharmaceutical and wastewater we’ve still got a lot to learn. We found many of our readers and advertisers supplying equipment such as pumps, valves, hoses, pipelines, level gauges and seals wanted to reach a wider audience internationally. So to cater for this need, we’re proud to bring you the very first issue of Fluid Handling

magazine. Its website is already updated daily and, to add to this, the publication will bring you updates to regulations, the latest equipment developments and technical articles exploring market challenges. In order to ensure the magazine is packed full of quality content, and to make certain it reaches the right audience, we’re starting off slowly. The first edition will be released as a digital issue, giving us a chance to gather feedback on other content you would like to see included and accumulate a relevant, international readership list. The magazine is being sent to utilities, plant

engineers, managers and operations directors. If you know a colleague who would benefit from this information feel free to pass the publication on. By registering at www.fluidhandlingmag.com you will be automatically added to our future distribution list. In the meantime please don’t hesitate to get in touch with your initial thoughts or if you’d like to contribute to a future issue. Best wishes, Margaret Dunn margaret@fluidhandlingmag.com

November/December 2013 l FLUid HandLinG 3


News Krytar introduces ‘lowest frequency’ coupler Krytar, a design and production company of ultra-broadband microwave components and test equipment, has a new directional coupler operating in the frequency range of 4 to 20GHz, which offers nominal coupling of 30dB in a compact package. The new directional coupler offers some of lowest frequency coupler with stripline designs on the market. Stripline

designs offer low insertion loss, high directivity and tight coupling. The coupler lends itself to emerging wireless ultra-broadband designs and many test and measurement applications. These couplers can also be manufactured to military specifications. Targeting broadband electronic warfare (EW) systems and complex switch-matrix applications, for example, Krytar has

used its proprietary designs to produce a wide assortment of directional couplers with ultra-high performance over a broadband frequency range. This new directional coupler is in a compact package which measures only 1.40” (L) by 0.40” (W) by 0.66” (H). With the standard SMA female or optional SMA male connectors the coupler weighs just one ounce.

UK pipe suppliers announce new valves UK-based industrial pipework suppliers Pipestock have announced a new selection of medium density polyethylene (MDPE) valves. MDPE is a material used within industrial pipe systems and Pipestock carrys a range of MDPE pipe and fittings. The new valves can be used within an MDPE pipe compression system for the regulation and directing of flow. MDPE is a variation of polyethylene defined by a density range of 0.926-0.940g/ cm3 making it a thermoplastic which is tough and flexible. MDPE has advantages over traditional steel pipework like its

lightweight, flexible and tough characteristics. Pipestock’s new range of manufactured valves include: Ball Valve, Ball Valve F Thread, Ball Valve M Thread, Double Check Valve, Stopcock, Stop Tap PE X Copper, Butterfly Valve, Ice Valve Thread, Angle seat Valve M Thread and Single Check Valve Thread. With these valves you can regulate, isolate or promote non-return flow.

News in Brief Brazil city gets wastewater treatment plant A new wastewater treatment plant is set to be built in the Brazilian city of Joinville in the state of Santa Catarina. The $21.9 million (€16.6 million) project will be mostly funded by through a cities ministry grant, with city-owned water utility Aguas de Joinville contributing part of the costs. The plant, upon completion, will triple the region’s wastewater treatment capacity from 200l/s to 600l/s.

Smaller valves offer same high performance, says Burkert Burkert Fluid Control Systems now offers microfluidic valves with proprietary twin power technology in three sizes – 10, 16 and 22mm. The company says the twin power technology combines a rocker principle with an actuator. This dual-solenoid design allows the use of a smaller valve with lower power consumption and improved reliability, without sacrificing performance. ‘The valves have the flow and pressure resistance typically found in larger valves, making them suited for applications where space is critical or higher performance is needed,’ said a company statement. ‘The 10mm valve is available with an orifice size up to 1.6mm and pressure resistance up to 5bar. The 16 and 22mm valves are available with 3mm orifice, with pressure resistance up to 2bar for the 16mm valve and up to 5bar for the 22mm valve.’

Ruro adds new level monitoring system to lab software

Environmentally friendly sewage and wastewater pipes from Huliot

Green pipes set for European sewage systems Huliot, an Israel-based plumbing and drainage firm, is set to supply environmentally friendly sewage and wastewater pipes into Europe. It claims its acoustic insulated pipe, made from a plastic compound that does not pollute the environment, is a first for the European sewage industry. The pipes also operate at minimum noise level and will replace cracked lead pipes in existence.

Alongside the six contracts to supply countries in Europe, Huliot is also in talks with a number of local construction companies about taking on their product. ‘The reduced amount of noise of downward trickling wastewater associated with the new pipes will be seen as particularly key to building residents,’ Huliot marketing VP Areil Apeloig was quoted as saying.

4 FLUid HandLinG l November/December 2013

Ruro, a developer of research software and inventory solutions, has introduced a second additional module to its ezColony software. Developed specifically for breeding and transgenic laboratories, the Advanced Alerts module allows users to send custom notifications to designated contacts, such as when animal count falls below a pre-defined level. ‘This critical level monitoring makes tracking animal lines and breeding or replenishment order timing easier,’ says Tom Dolan, Ruro sales director. ‘We have seen more growth in our ezColony user labs which let us know we needed to add critical level monitoring.’ The module’s business logic rules allow customers to control animal inventory levels based on various criteria, including all user-defined fields, animal lines, genotypes and individual allele values.The module is designed to enhance overall facility communications and monitoring.


news Cynergy3 extends flow switch range for larger pipes UK-based flow sensor and liquid level manufacturer Cynergy3 Components has extended its range of flow switches to cater for larger diameter pipes and higher flow rates. In addition to inline flow switches, the range now includes paddle type flow switches including a new stainless steel version. Inline and paddle type flow switches are suitable for installation in both small and large size diameter pipes. The flow switches can be used to control pumps, valves and other control equipment in a variety of industrial processes. The FSH range of paddle type flow switches includes two series, the FSH10AR

New AKO air operated pinch valves revealed AKO Armaturan have now made air operated VMC series pinch valves available in nominal diameters of DN010-DN100. AKO says the VMC series is based on a multi-functional modular system which enables exchange of the two types of body available (aluminium and stainless steel) and a range of different collar caps/flange types. The different connection options are: • Flange connection according to DIN EN 1092-1 PN 10/16 or ANSI B 16.5/150lbs • Internal thread connection according to DIN EN ISO 228 (G) or ANSI/ASME B1.20.1 (NPT) • Tri-clamp connection according to DIN 32676 row A or C • Weld-on ends according to DIN 11850 series 2 or ASTM A554 • Threaded spigot (RJT connection) according to DIN 11851 • Alternatively aseptic pipe, aseptic flange or aseptic clamp connections can be welded on according to DIN 11864 and DIN 11853. ‘Our design specifications and focal points lay in the compact and lightweight construction of the air operated pinch valves,’ read a AKO statement. ‘With the aid of computer assisted design software and intensive, economical fabrication, it was possible to achieve a weight reduction of up to 65% compared to previous series.’

and FSHPLC. The FSH10AR series is a general purpose paddle flow switch for loads up to 4A inductive. The switch can be used to control a pump, valve or process via a relay output, ideal for controlling a circulating or centrifugal electric pump is providing increased pressure or flow within water systems with storage tanks. Pipe connection is via a G1” (1” BSP) thread suitable for mounting to pipe sizes G1”, G2”, G3” and G4”. The device relies on the flow of liquid working in opposition to the spring-loaded paddle to operate the relay. The FSHPLC series works in a similar way to the FSH10AR series, but provides a signal level, volt-free contact for output to a PLC -

also suitable for pipe sizes G1” to G4”. Both series’ are constructed in reinforced polyamide with brass screw mounts and are protected to IP54. Maximum pressure is 10 bar and maximum operating temperature is 100°C. The LFS series of paddle flow switches have a stainless steel paddle and a IP65 aluminium alloy housing or DIN 43650 connection. These switches are suitable for flow detection in harsh operating environments, where the pipe media is aggressive/corrosive. LFS flow switches can be installed in 1” to 3” bore pipes. Maximum operating pressure is 20 bar and operating temperature range is -30°C to +150°C.

Nordson hi-tech valve system for hard-to-reach areas introduced Nordson EFD had announced its Pico xMod valve, a fully exchangeable and modular concept in non-contact and contact needle dispensing of assembly fluids. This valve system technology uses hi-tech, durable piezoelectric actuation technology for continuous operation at speeds of up to 500 cycles/second. It can also produce deposits as small as two nanolitres, at high production speeds, with deposit accuracy and process control as standard. The non-contact jet valve makes it possible to apply fluid in hard-to-access areas or onto

uneven or delicate substrates for applications in electronics, automotive, life sciences, solar and other industrial dispensing applications. ‘Our new system offers tool-free release and installation of the valve seat assembly,’ explains Claude Bergeron, Nordson EFD product line manager. ‘If a part fails then only the worn part needs changing which eliminates the expense of a whole new valve assembly.The ability to swap one xMOD component for another lets the manufacturer toggle between different applications and fluids, offers flexibility, reduces production down time and saves money.’

PTFE compound developed for foodstuff valves Freudenberg Sealing Technologies (FST) has introduced its new polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) compound Y005, developed especially for use in guide bands on valves that come into contact with foodstuffs. It claims the material complies with the regulations of the FDA and European Union (EC Regulation 10/2011) and also prolongs service life. ‘Guide bands compensate for lateral forces and extrusion in valves, which means the materials used must be pressure-resistant. At the same time, the guide bands must have a certain degree of flexibility in order not to be damaged during assembly,’ reads a FST statement. ‘The previously used combinations of carbon and PTFE achieved good service life but were not recommended for food device engineering.’ The main reasons FST developed the special PTFE compound Y005 were to achieve a targeted balance between pressure resistance and flexibility, authorisation for contact with food, and resistance to cleaning-in-place and sterilisation-in-place cleaning products.

FST introduce new seal product

November/December 2013 l FLUid HandLinG 5


news Yamada and PumpScout partner

Mouvex launches new pumps for hygienic applications

The full line of air operated double diaphragm (AODD) pumps from Yamada are now available from PumpScout after the two companies formed a partnership. Yamada’s product range is suitable for industrial, automotive fluid transfer, mining and chemical applications, among others. The company offers several products for varying applications, such as its Electro Polished series for ultra-high purity solvents and other noncorrosive liquids compatible with 316 stainless steel, and its UL listed pumps for petrochemical, chemical and petroleum applications. Other pump types include powder pumps, PTFE pumps and true non-lubricated NDP series. Yamada NDP-80 Series Double Diaphragm Pumps

Dräger X-dock 5300/6300/6600

X-dock station launched for gas detection instruments Dräger Safety UK has designed a product to aid the oil and gas industry to stay on top of testing and calibration of its portable gas detection instruments. Its X-dock is an instrument calibration and management system which allows for complete automatic bump testing and calibration in seconds, using just a fraction of the test gas traditionally used in other systems. Dräger claims the X-dock has the

flexibility and range of multiple gas inlets to facilitate the use of different gas mixtures for testing and calibration via three different versions of the product. ‘We believe these innovations will help to improve the entire safety landscape in gas detection by shifting the emphasis away from individual instruments and onto maintaining and managing the fleet as a whole,’ says Dräger Safety’s Kevin Honner.

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Pump manufacturer Mouvex has launched new models of its seal-less drive Eccentric Pumps. The SLS4 and SLS8 have been designed for use in a range of pumping applications in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, all of which require hygienic operations. Both pumps incorporate a double wall bellows into the design, along with monitoring that is done by pressure switch. By mounting the pressure switch on the bellows flange, the bellows becomes an independent subassembly within the pump, making for safer and easier operation. This design has helped the pumps earn the ability to be used in hygienic applications from a number of regulating agencies, including EHEDG, 3A, FDA and the new European Commission (EC) Regulation No. 1935/2004, which applies to all food-contact materials during production. Other improvements in the SLS4 and SLS8 pumps includes the ability to handle differential pressures up to 10bar in the SLC4 and 6bar in the SLC8, and machined parts for optimum surface finish, which are also compatible with SMS, DIN11851, DIN11864 and ASME-BPE clamp flanges. Along with these advancements, the SLS4 and SLS8 pumps also feature: • Completely seal-less design • Self-priming and dry-run capabilities • Volumetric efficiency even with variable viscosities and pressures • A vacuum and compression effect that allows for line stripping • Low shear rate for gentle product handling • Only two wear parts that can be replaced quickly while the pump remains online • Optional heating jacket The introduction of the SLS4 and SLS8 pump is the latest step in Mouvex’s replacement of its C-Series line, which was introduced in 1996. Already, the SLS1, SLS2 and SLS3 models have been introduced to the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical markets, with the availability of the SLS12, SLS18, SLS24 and SLS36 models expected in 2014.

Mouvex launch new pumps


reGULaTiOns

Picking up good vibrations A new set of guidelines concerning pump vibration standards were published this summer by the Europump Technical Commission, part of the European Association of Pump Manufacturers. The guidelines present essential points on the six common global standards known in this regard: ‘They are suitable to be read by people across any industry served by centrifugal pumps including oil and gas, chemical, water, building and services,’ explains John Bower, a member of the Europump commission and author of the guidelines. The reason for the publication is to clarify the options available and help customers choose the right standards for the right application which, in turn, should help lower the cost of pumps by avoiding overspecification. ‘Generally the lower the vibration level, the better pump reliability achieved,’ adds Bower. ‘The guidelines are for pumps with multi-vane impellers which typically have between five and eight vanes. Pumps designed for handling solids have wider passages and few impeller vanes, and experience higher

out-of-balance forces and pressure pulsations and consequently have higher vibration levels, compared to those addressed by international standards. ‘Many are built to individual designs and specifications by the manufacturers,’ he continues. ‘These pumps are not included in the guidelines because, as part of an ever adapting industry, it would almost impossible to benchmark all different designs and would make the guidelines too complex.’ Bower also reveals the interantional standards can often appear conflicting as they present machine vibration limits in different ways and with different limiting values. ‘The guidelines present the essential points of each standard applicable to the pump industry and explain where each one tends to be used. The diversity of standards is probably greater on the subject of vibration than in any other field,’ he adds. ‘One of the main objectives of the guidelines is to advise pump users not to overspecify the vibration standard. For example, specifying ISO 10816-7 Category One (pumps for critical applications) or ISO 13709 (pumps

for oil and gas industries), to chemical process pumps could lead to more expensive pumping equipment. ISO 5199 is the appropriate standard for chemical process pumps’. Bower and the commission are quick to stress that their document is not an alternative to studying the full content of any standard with which compliance is required. ‘As it is a summary, our guidelines do not contain all the conditional statements and explanations which are in a standard itself,’ he says. ‘We do recommend studying the standards themselves for any clarification needed which is not covered by our guidelines.’ As the guidelines are available online Bower says they can be updated as and when, but he reveals talks are on-going to add an extra dimension to its next addition. ‘We’d like to bring in the Hydraulic Institute, which is an US pump association of nearly 100 years standing, to incorporate some of their knowledge and standards to expand our document further,’ he adds. The Europump guidelines can be viewed via europump.net/publications

November/December 2013 l FLUid HandLinG 7


PUmps

Economic overview of the global pumps market

GDP Growth Rate, North America, 2012, Q1–Q4 2013 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 The United States

Canada

2012 came from abroad, motivated largely by the potential of learning shale gas harnessing technologies. Manufacturing, although sluggish, is still showing positive growth. The automobile industry is showing double digit growth, which bodes well for manufacturing industries, such as steel and aluminium, which are projected to grow at improved pace.

GDP Growth Rates, Asia Pacific, 2012 and 2013 12

Growth Rate (%)

Being a mature market, overall pump growth is coupled with the general economic scenario. The global economy continues to experience a mix of headwinds and tailwinds. While the economy in North America is experiencing positive growth, the US government shutdown is casting a pall over Q4 of 2013. Q1 and Q2 of 2013 experienced robust growth thanks to the shale gas boom which is a driving force in manufacturing re-shoring in the US. Efforts are being made to boost exports through trade talks with the EU and Asia-Pacific countries through the Transatlantic Trade, Investment Partnership (EU) and Trans-Pacific Partnership. These activities are expected to help the trading environment grow stronger for the domestic pumps market. The pump market in North America has experienced choppy growth. While solution providers for oil and gas markets have experienced relatively strong growth, pump suppliers who have focused on other verticals find growth to be challenging in the current environment. Foreign direct investment continues to drive the US economy. For example, China alone has invested more than $6.5 billion (€4.8 billion) in 2012. About 20% of investment in the US tight oil and shale gas during 2008 to

2012 Q1 2013 Q1

2012 Q3 2013 Q3

2012 Q4 2013 Q4

Malaysia

Thailand

Vietnam

6

0

Australia

China

India

Indonesia

Japan

Countries

Source: Global Economic Tracker (Frost & Sullivan) 3

Asia-Pacific: Asia-Pacific represents a significant portion of emerging economies. Major economies in this region are expected to experience a slowdown in the short term. China, which has been the key growth engine in the region, experienced a decelerated pace in the first two quarters of 2013. It is expected that a high savings rate, improved salaries and working conditions, and better government regulations on credit and tax Q1 2013 policies will boost Q2 2013 the domestic Q3 2013 demand in 2014, Q4 2013 driving growth rates back up. For example, public sector restructuring and Source: Global Economic Tracker (Frost & Sullivan) policy reforms in 1

8 FLUid HandLinG l November/December 2013

2012 Q2 2013 Q2

the banking sector, along with strong export promotion, are driving developments in major industries in China. Economic growth in India meanwhile has virtually halved in the past two years to less than 5% in 2013 — the lowest level in a decade. Policy logjams and the election next year are affecting the growth prospects for chemicals, realty and construction industry. Infrastructure growth remained slow, at a mere 1%, in the fiscal year 2012-13. The outlook for 2013-2014 remains negative and large delays in execution of different planned projects and issues in the government releasing funds are expected to contribute to the scenario. Other countries in the region have experienced mixed results. In Q1 of 2013, Singapore witnessed a GDP growth of 0.2%, but grew strongly in the second quarter at 3.8%. Malaysia, on the other hand, expanded by 4.1% in Q1 2013 - more than a percentage down Q1 2012 due to slower growth in public spending and weak exports. The Malaysian Institute of Economic Research (MIER) has revised downwards GDP forecast to 4.8% for this year from the 5.6% estimated earlier. The economy is expected to pick up in the second half of the year regarding improved and expanding business spending.


PUmps market dynamics robust growth in 2013 and 2014. Major shift every economies in Latin America such as Brazil, six months, Mexico, and Venezuela are expected to grow meaning short at more than 5% in this scenario. 6 term market 2012 Q1 2012 Q2 2012 Q3 2012 Q4 2013 Q1 2013 Q2 2013 Q3 2013 Q4 data has to be • Medium growth – This scenario recalibrated, at a assumes that shale investment slows down minimum, every in 2013 in North America, key countries 3 six months. in Europe (such as Germany and UK) Many pump experience growth while others (such as manufacturers Spain and Italy) continue to face recession. project growth The Chinese economy will rebound while Italy Spain is done using other Asian countries lag in growth. 2014 0 France Germany Poland Romania Russia United traditional is comparatively better than 2013, but only Kingdom forecasting marginally. methodologies that are focused • Low growth – This assumes shale (3) on the mediuminvestments do not bring necessary growth Countries Source: Global Economic Tracker (Frost & Sullivan) and long-term. in North America in 2013, Europe as a Given the whole continues to face recession in 2013 Europe unprecedented change that has occurred in and major economies in Asia-Pacific face the market, this methodology is not optimal slowdowns. Hence the pump market would Europe seems to have finally blossomed out for understanding short term trends. In experience a rapid decline in late 2013 but, of its deep recessionary trend. The biggest response to this, economies - Germany and the UK - lead Frost & Sullivan Pump Manufacturers Quarterly Financial Performance 2011 – 2013 Europe’s fragile economic recovery. Even has developed countries in deep recession are expected a forecasting to see some positive growth. For example, methodology Colfax Gas and Fluid Handling 60% Dover Engineered Systems according to Eurostat data, exports from Spain which provides IDEX Fluid and Metering Techonologies 50% will rise 4.1% in 2013 after a 2.1% increase in three different ITT SPX Flow Techonology 2012. Moreover, unemployment figures are scenarios Xylem 40% reducing in Europe as Purchasing Managers and provides Index (PMI) in September 2013 rose to 52.1 quarterly growth 30% from 50.7 in August. updates. This 20% helps company’s Impact on pump industry benchmark 10% growth with As mentioned previously, the pumps market the industry 0% Q1'11 Q2'11 Q3'11 Q4'11 Q1'12 Q2'12 Q3'12 Q4'12 Q1'13 Q2'13 growth rate is highly dependent on the and also does Quarter -10% economic climate. Given the extreme volatility midterm course in the pump market, it is becoming increasingly corrections to Dover revamped their segments from Q4 2011 from fluid Xylem spun off from ITT management to engineered systems difficult to deliver robust short-term growth better inform Source: Google Finance, Frost & Sullivan Analysis forecasts. Prior to 2008, the pump market was short-term 5 relatively stable year on year with annual or planning and bi-annual variation as a normal state. investments. After the 2009 economic crisis, pump as 2014 progresses, experience a rebound market dynamics changed dramatically. In The three scenarios in the most in the growth. the current volatile global economy, pump recent forecast (depicted in the chart above) A review of the quarterly financial are: performance of the major pump Global Pump Market – Forecasting Model Comparisons manufacturers indicates the medium growth (Quarterly Growth Rate Projection) • High scenario may be the most accurate one in growth – the current economic scenario. Most of the 10% This scenario pump manufacturers experienced decline Medium Growth Rate assumes that earlier this year but have started to see Historical Data the shale growth in demand. Looking at the growth High Growth Rate investments in prospects, both for retrofit and green field North America projects, it was observed that the market is will drive the recovering from the economic instability and oil and gas is anticipated to show potential in the long 0% '11 Q1 '11 Q2 '11 Q3 '11 Q4 '12 Q1 '12 Q2 '12 Q3 '12 Q4 '13 Q1 '13 Q2 '13 Q3 '13 Q4 '14 Q1 '14 Q2 '14 Q3 '14 Q4 market. Europe run. Quarters will experience net positive growth in 2013 Gloomy Model and major Low Growth For more information: economies in This article was written by Anand M. Gnanamoorthy, -10% Asia-Pacific programme manager for Frost & Sullivan Industrial Source: Frost & Sullivan Analysis Automation & Process Control will experience Growth Rate (%)

GDP Growth Rates, Europe, 2012 and 2013

Growth Rate (%)

Growth Rate (%)

2

6

November/December 2013 l FLUid HandLinG 9


PUmps

Biologics-manufacturing operations take place in sterile and time-sensitive conditions. Pump technology like that found in single-use quaternary diaphragm models from Quattroflow are able to satisfy the product containment and speed-to-market requirements that are paramount in these types of operations

Focused on single-use How is pump technology adapting to allow the multi-billion biopharmaceutical industry to get products out to market more efficiently?

In the multi-billion dollar global biopharmaceutical industry, an emphasis is being placed on the development and manufacture of advanced biologically-derived drugs (biologics). These biologics offer potential development of blockbuster drugs which could provide new treatments for an array of diseases. While pharmaceutical drugs are derived from more traditional chemical processes and reactions, biologic-based ones are biologically induced processes such as intracell growth processes (mammalian cells, bacteria, viruses etc), and the subsequent harvesting and purifying of target substances, such as proteins, molecules and enzymes. These substances are then used to create drugs, vaccines or antitoxins. In essence, cells are used as miniature process vessels to create new substances. The development of new biologically-derived drugs is however just one opportunity for manufacturers. Another important goal is to commercialise these products as early as possible within a typical 20-year patent window. Patent submission needs to occur during the development process and, following a patent filing, much occurs including further product development, toxicity checks and clinical trials. Hopefully Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval also occurs during this period. Following FDA approval, the developers need to take the necessary steps to properly produce the product at commercial-scale. If the drug’s development takes time, its patent may run through a portion of its window of protection before the

10 FLUid HandLinG l November/December 2013

drug has a chance to be commercialised. In some cases, a patent may only have seven years left once the product goes to market. Every year a drug is covered can mean billions of dollars in sales, so every day the development process can be accelerated means a better bottom line.

Growing industry From a process equipment standpoint, permanent and single-use quaternary diaphragm pumps, such as PSG Dover’s Quattroflow pumps, represent a growing technology that helps enable the efficient development of new biologic drugs and then facilitates the speed to market of the end-product. Single-use pumps, such as those using disposable pump chambers, feature replaceable wetted parts, meaning no cleaning nor validation process needed during a product development process requiring multiple trials. ‘The biopharm industry is adopting disposables faster than the general population is trying to recycle,’ claims Mark Sitcoske, head of single-use pump technology provider High Purity New England. Essentially, the driving force in the process to create these target products is to promote growth of biologic material in a highly controlled, sterile environment with adherence to strict operational parameters, such as the correct pH level, temperature, oxygen level and nutrient feed. An imbalance in any of those can cause unwanted biologic processes to occur, such as the formation or growth of competing and undesirable organisms,


PUmps

Quattroflow 1200 Quaternary Diaphragm Pumps showing the stainless-steel multi-use pump-head option

or it could cause the target biologic process to not occur at all. Once the raw biologic product is produced, the desired target components can be purified by using a number of techniques, including filtration, separation or certain chemical reactions. The critical issue to remember during any extraction techniques is biologics are sensitive to change or damage from outside influences, such as temperature or light changes. That means the extraction process the target components are subjected to require a pump which can deliver:

filtering processes. There are generally three purification processes (that can also be used in combination): Tangential flow filtration (TFF): For this process the biologic feed stream flows horizontally with positive pressure across the filter membrane. As it passes across, the portion of the feed stream - which is smaller than the membrane’s pore size - passes through. This is different from what is known as normal flow (NFF), or ‘dead end’ filtration, in which the feed flows entirely through the filter membrane and the size of the pores determine which portion of the feed is allowed to pass through and which do not. TFF is different from NFF in biologics applications because the tangential motion of the fluid across the membrane causes any trapped particles to be rubbed off. This mode of operation means a TFF process can operate continuously with relatively high solid loads without fouling of the filter. The quaternary diaphragm Quattroflow pump provides constant flow control for optimal filtrate (desired product) yields for TFF filters. Chromatography columns: A typical chromatography column is a glass, steel

or plastic tube filled with resins that are compressed in a certain format through which a feed stream product flows to either capture or purify this feed stream. These columns contain filter media that need careful handling. A resin, for example, can cost as much as $10,000 (€7,600) an ounce, making proper feeding of it important. In this application, a quaternary diaphragm Quattroflow pump can be used to pack resin into a chromatography column and then pump the biologic material through it. Both are critical operations that require a constant high flow rate and pressure. Centrifuges: A centrifuge is really a separator consisting of a vessel that can be fed with a biologic substance and spun around a central axis in order to separate the materials according to their different specific gravities/ weights (or to separate particles that are suspended in the liquid). The biologic’s target product can be the high, intermediate or low-specific gravity substance spun out of the centrifuge. As centrifuges spin at high speeds, a proper constant feed rate is essential to minimise potentially severe vibration that could cause equipment damage. In all three processes used for target feed stream purification, the requirements of the pump are precise: constant, low slip, low shear, low pulsing flow. Any deviation from these requirements can result in deleterious effects for the substance being handled, as well as damage the media used in the filter. Several different types of pump technologies have been used or tested for these processes and, while there are applications they are suited for, they have been found to

• High purity and sterility • Low volume and surface area exposure • Low levels of leachables and extractibles • No mechanical spalling/ shedding of contact materials • Controlled/constant flow • Low shear, slip and collateral effects • Low pulsation • Self-priming and negative suction lift • Controlled pressure • No heat addition • High volumetric efficiency

The challenge The harvesting and purification of biologic target materials is accomplished using separation and

Prior to Quattroflow, single-use low-pulsation positive displacement pump options were not suitable for many needed biologics production processes

November/December 2013 l FLUid HandLinG 11


PUmps be deficient in the purification processes described above. These are Peristaltic, Lobe, Centrifugal and Piston pumps. One key manufacturing trend that can reduce development cost and increase speed to market is the adoption of single-use technologies.

pumps are driven one after another by a connector plate, which moves back and forth out of its central position in a stroke generated by an eccentric shaft, just like the human heart. Its chambers do not contain rotating parts subject to any friction to compromise product.

In certain cases, permanent stainless steel process lines can be costly to set up, lack the production flexibility in biologic development and have complex and time consuming cleaning and validation requirements. Therefore expense and time can be saved by starting each trial process with a fresh, sterile set of single-use process equipment

This mode of operation also means the pumps can run dry, self-prime and produce little or no shear because of low slip. These pumps can provide constant flows from one litre (0.0047 gpm) to 20,000 litres per hour (88 gpm), some of the highest turn up/down capabilities in the industry. Proper scale-up is important as biologics

The strict single-use pumping requirements demanded in the biologics filtering process can be found in the positive displacement quaternary diaphragm technology developed by Quattroflow components like bags, special agitators, singleuse tubing, coupling and valves instead of their stainless steel equivalents, and filter systems.

The solution The strict single-use pumping requirements demanded in the biologics filtering process can be found in the positive displacement quaternary diaphragm technology developed by Quattroflow, which was acquired by Pump Solutions Group last year. The quaternary diaphragms in Quattroflow

go all the way from development to commercialisation. The same pump technology within a lab needs to handle both low and commercial production flow rates similarly. This scale-up capability assures a pump’s operation does not adversely affect repeatability and production rates. Quattroflow pumps can also be fitted with explosion-proof, DCA or air motors, allowing them to work like other pumps. Due to the controlled low-slip aspect of this pump technology and high turn-down capability, this brand also benefits from new generations of

12 FLUid HandLinG l November/December 2013

vector drives for precision applications. Another way these pumps help contribute to speed-to-market is by commonality of single-use configurations. A single-use pump enables biopharmaceutical manufacturers to optimise the cost of cleaning and validating their pumps. This results in a quick process and one which delivers preferred levels of product purity and sterility, with no chance for cross-contamination. Single-use pumps made from FDA/USP class VI approved materials also have a lower cost compared to stainless steel counterparts. Here is a further example: to get a 500 litre batch of biologics, with a market value of over $5 million, to the buying public as quickly as possible, an additional $500 or so for a replaceable pump head becomes an attractive way of doing business. The total cost of using a single-use pump is less because the cost to replace the head may pale in comparison against the high cost of validating any cleaning, plus the entire cost to install a permanent stainless steel process line. For cases where a permanent stainless steel process line is an attractive option, the Quattroflow pump head can be converted to a stainless steel head with the same controlled flow, low-shear, low-slip and high purity operation.

Conclusion The advance in producing and using biologically-derived drugs has created exciting opportunities for manufacturers in the biopharmaceutical market. However, while this continuing trend is packed with possibilities, they can only be realised if the development and manufacturing processes for products are optimised, both in regards to speed-tomarket considerations and contaminant-free production requirements. Quattroflow has identified the challenges in this process and responded accordingly.

About the Author: Wallace Wittkoff is the hygienic market director-Americas for Pump Solutions Group, +1 (502) 905-9169 or Wallace. Wittkoff@psgdover.com


pUmps

Tunnelling contractor Gallagher’s turned to UK-based Euroflo when it required a dredging pump system for a major rail-tunnelling project in east London

Moving underground

The Connaught Tunnel in east London dates back to 1878. It is around 550m long and runs between Royal Victoria Dock and Royal Albert Dock. Refurbishments are now underway to enlarge the tunnel to accommodate additional trains and overhead line equipment. Cofferdams were positioned at the Royal Albert and Royal Victoria docks, some 50m apart. This left water between the two Cofferdams, which were then pumped out to leave a residue of heavy silt and slurry, situated 15m below. The civil engineering works involved the accessing of tunnels through the base of the excavation in order to enlarge the existing tunnels. Initially they used standard, diesel-driven hydraulic drainer pumps in an attempt to pump heavy silt and slurry from the bottom of the excavation. However, these pumps were completely unsuitable for a dredging pump application and continuously blocked causing lengthy delays. Euroflo proposed a temporary dredging pump system that would cope with the heavy slurry and supplied the entire packaged solution; including generators, control equipment, cabling, pumps and pipework. This was to move the heavy slurry with a specific gravity of around 1.3, so jetting rings were required to create the conditions of a 70%/30% water/ soil mix for pumping. As part of the package, Euroflo installed a Dragflow Dredging pump, along with a jetting ring attachment. Water was high-pressure jetted

Grindex Maxi in action

by a Grindex Drainage pump to help break up the heavy material. This was accompanied by a smaller Toyo Dredging pump that could be more easily moved around for slurry pump transfer to the main Dragflow dredging pump from around the dock floor. The Dragflow dredging pump was positioned at the deepest part of the excavation so that the material would gravitate towards the dredging pump with the use of excavators and Euroflo’s other smaller, more mobile dredging pumps. The larger Dragflow dredging pump then discharged the material over the cofferdam 100m away. Euroflo were then commissioned to automate the operation of the Dragflow heavy-duty slurry pump system to run as required unmanned. Once the slurry removal process was complete an 8” Grindex Maxi drainage pump was installed to manage the water levels for the remainder of the project. The technical challenge was fairly straightforward.The key to success in managing high specific gravity applications is to keep the material moving and critical to that is the right pump selection with slow revolution motors. Euroflo recommends heavy-duty hard iron pumps for dredging pump applications, which will withstand the often abrasive and sometimes corrosive environments. Because of variable densities of slurries and compacted

material we recommended jetting the material at high pressure. A Grindex Master pump was suspended in the main dock and delivered water at 3 bar pressure over the 15m Cofferdam delivered to a tee piece with one spur used for the jetting ring to create agitation Dragfow dredging pump used in the project and the other spur used to provide cooling water to through the material which is the dredging pump. A submersible unproductive, or it would block pump is normally cooled by the quickly against the resistance of the media its submerged in, but in heavy material thus overloading and this case it was only possible burning the motor. to semi-submerge the dredging When a pump starts up it can pump which meant it needed use up to 6/7 times its running to be kept cool by water spray amps if a direct-on-line (DOL) from the Grindex Master, thus electrical starter is used.This can avoiding overheated motors and mean using a disproportionately breakdown. large generator to cope with A Dragflow hard iron dredging a short starting phase.To solve pump with a this problem, Euroflo used soft44kw motor start 18-55 kW electrical panels was installed which peak at 2.5 time running with an 8” amps and consequently require Grindex Maxi discharge a much smaller generator, which Pump and pumped reduces costs. Euroflo used pre100m programmable soft starts set above through the working parameters of the a wire pumps at 95 amps, slightly higher armoured than its 89 running amps to protect hose. The from pump overload.The cable six-pole supplied on all Euroflo pumps is three-phase individually screened and designed 50 Hz (60 to go to earth immediately the hp), runs at cable is cut rendering the cable 980 rpm. literally powerless and completely This slow safe, in the event of an accident. running The generator sized at 150kva motor spins was supplied with a fully bunded the impeller 2000-litre diesel tank. slowly A total of 6000 Qm3 approximately of slurry was moved to move over 10 weeks with intermittent the heavy breaks and used 12000-18000 Qm3 material. A of water to mix with slurry.Towards fast motor the end of the project a 37 kW (2800rpm) Grindex maxi pump was installed would either and level controls were introduced spin the to manage intermittent residual impeller too slurries and Cofferdam leakage. fast, cutting November/December 2013 l FLUid HandLinG 13


VALVES

Rotork assists Wessex Water’s environmental improvement scheme for leisure beaches Wessex Water has invested £26 million (€30 million) at the site to achieve improved bathing water quality for the resort of Weston-superMare. The improvements will ensure the site can cope with increased population and continues to comply with standards set by the UK Environment Agency. The work has been completed ahead of the revised Bathing Water Directive, which comes into force in 2015 and introduces more stringent quality standards. New process plants and equipment have been constructed to improve secondary treatment by the replacement of submerged biological contactors with an efficient and reliable fourchannel activated sludge plant (ASP), combined with increased final settlement capacity.This enables newly installed ultra-violet disinfection

Rotork IB gearboxes are installed for the manual operation of isolating valves at site locations including the pumping stations

plant to achieve better microbial reduction and meet strict consent levels in the final effluent. The upgraded site is designed to deliver a flow to full treatment (FFT) rate of 1050 litres/second. Additional on-site work has involved the introduction of storm settlement tanks with a capacity of 21,000 m3 (tonnes) to assist the reduction of over-spills in combination with a separate programme to remove surface water flows into the area’s foul sewer network. Flow control company Rotork’s scope of supply in the project encompasses IQ multi-turn and IQT quarter-turn intelligent electric actuators and IB manual gearboxes for motorised and hand-operated valves and penstocks throughout the new works. All electric actuators are Profibus-DP V1 network

This IQ3 unit, the latest version of Rotork’s intelligent actuation product range, drives through Rotork IB gearboxes and extension drive shafts to control the position of the two outlet modulating penstocks on the site’s new ultra-violet disinfection plant

14 FLUid HandLinG l November/December 2013

enabled and centrally controlled by a bespoke SCADA system designed by the Wessex Water Automation Team. The use of Profibus technology, a standard feature of Wessex Water’s automation programmes, delivers significant savings in cabling, terminations, PLC hardware and labour. The SCADA system runs the automated processes and collects control, status and diagnostic data from each actuator. This information is available on the site and at Wessex Water’s regional operation centre at Bath, where remote diagnostics has proved to be a cost effective method of maintenance and service by identifying the right operational staff to be sent to site if required.

Profibus-DP V1 enabled Rotork IQT intelligent electric valve actuators control the air supply to the new activated sludge plant (ASP) at Weston-super-Mare STW


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InCon InspectionConsultants

Inspection Consultants (InCon) Ltd offers:

Inspection Consultants (InCon) Ltd is a specialist NDT inspection company providing in service and out of service storage tank inspections in compliance with current codes and standards. To complement our inspection services, InCon is able to offer full engineering assessment of storage tanks to meet the guidelines laid down by EEMUA 159 and API 653 including “fitness for purpose” reports, RBI (Risk based Inspection) assessment and inspection scheduling reports.

To discuss your requirements contact: Steve Delves Tel: +44 (0) 1472 488101 Mob: +44 (0)7725 261 393 Email: stevedelves@incon.co.uk

• Storage Tank Integrity Assessment to EEMUA 159 & API 653 • Storage Tank Floor Inspection using the Floormap VS2i MFL Scanner in both Mapping and Manual mode • Storage tank shell survey using the Scorpion Dry Probe UT Crawler • Stainless Steel and Aluminium storage tank shell survey using a Dry Probe UT Scanner on extendible poles negating the requirement for scaffolding around the tank • Dye Penetrant Inspection (DPI) • Magnetic Particle Inspection (MPI) • Pipeline Integrity Inspection to API 570 • Digital Radiography of pipelines through lagging/insulation • Digital Radiography of PTFE/FRP pipelines • Phased Array Inspection of pipelines, welds, and mapping of corrosion areas • Tubular Inspection using the Olympus MultiScan MS5800 (ECT, IRIS & RFT, NFT, MFL) • Positive Material Identification (PMI) • Remote Video Inspection (RVI) • Bespoke Weld Procedures & Welder Qualifications • Mobile Radiographic Services.

Neil Edge Tel: +44 (0)151 3572212 Mob: +44 (0)7736926750 Email: neil@incon.co.uk

November/December 2013 l FLUid HandLinG 17


vaLves

B.Braun’s LIFE Nutrition plant in Melsungen

s e c n e i c s e f i l w e n o t s g n y r a n Savi o i t u l o v e r h t i w t n a l p n g i s e d valve B.Braun’s Life Nutrition plant, situated at the company headquarters in the north German city of Melsungen, is a modern production site for nutrition solutions, such as amino acid solutions, carbohydrate solutions and fat emulsions. These are all manufactured and packaged in two production lines at a new manufacturing facility, with its integrated laboratory. After more than five years of planning and construction, as well as an extensive test phase, the plant started full-time production last year. The special challenges in the planning of the €164 million ($221 million) Life Nutrition included a requirement that the new plant be housed in a building that is spatially identical to B. Braun’s older Life plant. Despite this spatial constraint, the new production facilities needed to be more efficient, flexible and space saving. Bürkert Fluid Control Systems, a UK manufacturer of process control and measuring equipment, was awarded the contract to deliver its patented, space- saving Robolux range of multi-port process valves, and all process fittings.

Reduced installation space The Robolux units enabled compact and complex valve interfaces to be achieved in restricted installation space, and have practically no dead flow zone, which makes both cleaning

and sterilisation much easier and faster, and also enables quicker changeover for the manufacture of different product types.

Multi-port system advantages Following consultations with Chemgineering on the process specifications, Burkert developed models for the first, especially complex valve interfaces. ‘The special feature of the patented Robolux valve design is that two independent process switching functions can be achieved with one membrane,’ says Alexander Equit, field segment manager for Pharma, Biotech and Fine Chemistry at Bürkert. ‘This reduces installation requirements, eliminates T-adapters and minimises the overall number of valves and membranes required. The multi-port membrane valves were designed for high-purity installations and make it possible to design complex systems that are compact. ‘Due to this technology, even a 10-port valve interface requires little installation space, has a minimal internal volume and practically no dead flow zone. The lower inner volume offers several advantages: In addition to improved flow and evacuation properties, both cleaning and changeover of the interfaces for the manufacture of other products is easier and faster, less wastage of expensive chemicals and ingredients.’

16 FLUid HandLinG l November/December 2013

On the basis of the Robolux valve interface, a new fluidics scheme was developed and modern multi-port Robolux systems were included in the provisional plans for the new LIFE plant.

Optimised design for cleaning ‘The compact design, as well as the possibility to connect Robolux with standard systems, has resulted in valve interfaces that met the technical and practical needs of the Life plant – such as maintenance and cleaning, as well as flexibility in different operational modes,’ comments S. Reinhardt a spokesman for C Dostal, the organisation that operates both B.Braun’s original Life Infusion and the new Life Nutrition plants. The Robolux interfaces can be cleaned optimally due to directional flow. This systematically prevents the typical disadvantages of ring systems – which have especially large inner volumes and undefined flow, factors that complicate cleaning. The result of this design feature is, in steam sterilisation, a Robolux valve interface reaches the required sterilisation temperature in about half the time. However, even with this, and the other advantages provided by Robolux, the final decision to use the valve technology was still pending, because a number of hurdles still remained to be overcome. ‘The requirements


VaLves 100% reliability. In addition to their primary objective, the riboflavin tests also brought added benefits, in that the results of the tests can be used for optimising the cleaning processes, in respect of cleaning cycles, time and the quantity of cleaning agents required. Moreover, the design of complex valve interfaces in a test phase can be evaluated and optimised by the use of riboflavin tests.

Further developments

Visualisation of the fluorescent effect of riboflavin under UV light in a valve interface

and standards for use in Life Science systems are high, not only at B. Braun, and are continuously reviewed through audits,’ explains Equit.

Polished finish The way these requirements and standards impacted upon Bürkert was through a prerequisite to demonstrate the Robolux valve interfaces could be delivered with a surface quality, as defined by the Basler Standard BN94. Here, a solution was provided by Bürkert and developed a system for reliable electropolishing of the Robolux systems. This involves the removal of 30µm of metal from the media contact surface with a special electrolyte, under the effect of DC current. The material is removed without mechanical, thermal and chemical influences. As a result, the surface becomes smooth and shiny in the micro range; possible damaged outer layers are removed, and the properties of the pure stainless steel can be used. For reliable electropolishing of the complex interior of a 10-port system in all areas, the standard process had to be modified somewhat, and adapted to the special requirements of these solutions. Subsequent to the development of the electro-polishing system, audits were carried out to validate not only that process itself, but also the black-white separation in Bürkert’s production plants of products intended for the biotech sector. This separation means that all components manufactured from stainless steel may come into contact only with stainless steel to avoid contamination and rust film. This is also true for the bodies of fittings used in conjunction with the Robolux valves. These are produced on special production lines, where only stainless steel is used.

quality and compliance to defined standards, which are checked regularly in unannounced Factory Acceptance Tests (FAT). As a key contributor to the FAT, Bürkert conducted riboflavin tests on the most complex of the Robolux valve interfaces, using the company’s own proprietary test rig. In compliance with the VDMA directive, the inside of the valve interfaces is fully soaked using an atomiser with a test solution containing riboflavin that fluoresces when exposed to UV light. With the help of these tests, the flow properties and cleanability of fluidic systems and valve interfaces can be determined with

The valves at field level can be equipped with all the required automation components including pilot valves, electrical feedback units and optical status indicators. By integrating an AS interface as a field bus interface, the entire range of advantages of this approach can be fully utilised. All that is required for power supply, feedback and communication is a two-wire line connecting the PLC with up to 62 valves. The new decentralised automation concept can provide a viable and compact alternative to the use of central switching cabinets by integrating all the required automation functions in the control heads themselves. This provides considerable savings in installation costs and also provides commissioning and maintenance engineers with an instant indication of the status of each valve, which reduces the amount of time required for installation and trouble-shooting.

Testing ability Once the ability to deliver the surface quality to the required standard had been demonstrated, the focus in the supply of the Robolux multi-port valve interfaces turned to actual production requirements: those of

Compact design and optimal fluidics: One of the complex Robolux 10-port valve interfaces in the cleanroom installation at B.Braun

November/December 2013 l FLUid HandLinG 17


HOses

Choose the right hose The wrong hose could undermine your process, put personnel at risk, and compromise your bottom line. For example, an improperly chosen hose may kink. This permanent buckling of the hose disrupts the system media flow and creates a rupture threat. But because kinked hoses are not easily detected, they are in operation throughout industry. Despite its importance, hose selection is often treated as an afterthought. Proper hose selection starts with an understanding of the four main parts of a hose: 1. Core tube material and construction 2. Reinforcement layers 3. Covers 4. End connections

Selection requires making choices in those areas while paying attention to the variables in your application. Temperature, pressure and flow requirements, as well as requirements ranging from chemical compatibility to drainability, are some of the specifications that will dictate your choice. Hoses cost more than their purchase price. Selecting wisely also requires the consideration of hose longevity, maintenance and replacement costs, and other cost-of-

compatibility with any solvents or cleaning agents employed?

ownership factors.

Core tube material and construction When selecting a hose, the place to start is the core tube, which is the hose’s innermost layer and the one that comes into contact with the system media. Here are some basic questions to answer when selecting the core tube material: 1. Is the material chemically compatible with the system media? Will it corrode or deteriorate over time? 2. Can it tolerate the temperature range of the system media? 3. Will the material prevent or limit permeation and absorption? All materials, even metals, are subject to permeation and absorption, so this question is one of degree. Permeation occurs when media passes through a material, whereas absorption is when media absorbs into and becomes part of a material. Depending on your application, permeation and/or absorption may not be an issue. 4. Will the core material stand up to cleaning practices for your system, in terms of temperature, pressure and material

Hose selection requires making choices in the four main areas of a hose – core tube material and construction, reinforcement layers, covers, and end connections

18 FLUid HandLinG l November/December 2013

Materials choice Metal cores (commonly 316L stainless steel) are a good choice for general needs. They are usually rated for temperatures between -200˚C and 454˚C, which makes them an especially good choice – sometimes the only choice – for system media at extreme temperatures. A metal core is also a good choice when there is little allowance for permeation or absorption. With the advent of fluoropolymers, metal is usually not chosen for highly caustic or acidic media because of issues with corrosion. Historically, silicone has been a common choice for sanitary applications. A typical temperature range for silicone is from -53˚C to 315˚C. Silicone became the material of choice for sanitary applications because of its flexibility. However, that advantage has disappeared with advancements in fluoropolymer hose construction. Silicone, which is incompatible with common solvents, has limited chemical compatibility overall. In addition, it is absorptive, which can lead to contamination. If a fluid is absorbed into the walls of the core tube, it may remain there for a period of time before leaching out, at which point it may contaminate the media currently in the system. With silicone, removing the absorbed fluid is usually not possible. Steam cleaning, one of the most common sterilisation methods for silicone, may not remove it and the high temperatures may cause premature failure. The hose will become brittle and break down.


HOses In place of silicone, fluoropolymer cores are becoming the material of choice for sanitary applications. PTFE, PFA, and FEP are three common fluoropolymers, with a typical temperature range from -53˚C to 230˚C. Fluoropolymer cores are the most chemically inert cores available.They are nonaging, nonstick, easy to clean, and can withstand repetitive steam cleaning. Like metal, fluoropolymers also have a low absorption rate. In addition, advancements in the use of reinforcement layers have allowed fluoropolymer cores to overcome their stiffness and gain flexibility comparable to that of silicone. New technology has enabled a bonding technology that allows a fibreglass braid to be added as a layer for increased flexibility. The bonding technology uses no glue.The glue-free process means there is no potential for glue absorbing into the core walls and later contaminating the process. PTFE cores comply with FDA regulation 21CFR Part 177.1550, USP <88> Class VI, and 3-A. One drawback of fluoropolymers is that they are highly permeable. If your application cannot tolerate permeation, then you can specify a less permeable core material, such as metal. With many fluoropolymer hoses, you can specify a carbon black filled core if your process requires static dissipation. Carbon allows the charge to travel to the end connections and exit. Static dissipative cores are important because fluid can generate electrostatic as it passes through the hose. Static sparking can damage hose and pose a safety hazard. Thermoplastic (nylon) hoses, which can contain high pressures, are often chosen for hydraulic applications. They are available in sizes up to 1 inch and have a typical temperature range from -40˚F to 200˚F (-40˚C to 93˚C). Rubber hoses are economical general purpose hoses with a typical temperature

HOSE SELECTION TIPS Use identification to your advantage. Customise your hoses with tags or text. Personnel can see at a glance what the hose function is, which helps with safety and plant efficiency. Proper identification also allows fast and accurate ordering of replacement hose. In another identification method, silicone covers are differently colored – one color for hoses going to the process, for example, and another for hoses coming from it – so operators can see hose function from a distance. Choose traceability. Select from manufacturers that offer fully traceable products. Lot numbers on hose assemblies, including fluoropolymer core tubes and stainless steel end connections, allow the manufacturer to better limit your potential loss in the event of a recall. For example, if you get a bad hose in an order of 100 hoses, traceability enables the manufacturer to determine if the problem goes beyond the one bad hose – without this knowledge, you might automatically replace all 100 hoses. Think about cost of ownership. Make decisions based on the true cost of a hose, which is the purchase price plus the cost of owning and maintaining or replacing the assembly over time. All hoses wear out. Determine how often hose replacement will be necessary. Calculate the cost of replacement parts, labor, and downtime. to bend like a flexible straw.Your application’s requirement for hose bendability will guide your decision, as will pressure, flow, and drainability needs. In a smooth-bore core, the tube’s inner wall is smooth. All core materials except for metal are offered in smooth-bore. Choose smooth-bore if precise flow control is a priority. With smooth bore, precise flow control is possible because there are no irregularities in the wall to cause interruptions. Smooth-bore also promotes drainability. The primary disadvantage is kinking, particularly in larger diameters. Reinforcement layers, discussed later, help solve kinking. In the other wall construction choice, convoluted, the walls of the tube are folded in a pattern that increases the hose’s ability to bend without kinking. Metal and fluoropolymer cores are offered with convolutions. This construction is chosen

when flexibility is the priority. Convoluted cores come in two types – helical and annular. The helical design, found primarily in fluoropolymer cores, is a single convolution that spirals down the length of the hose. Sometimes you must choose a convoluted core because you need flexibility, but at the same time flow maintenance and drainability are also important. In that case, select a helical design, because it promotes better flow downstream than annular convolutions. Annular design, typical in metal cores, is a series of connected rings. Annular metal cores come with deep convolutions for maximum flexibility. Despite their flexibility, convoluted metal hoses are not well suited to operations where they are moving in a repetitive pattern because the movements can cause metal fatigue and breaking.

Reinforcement layers

Smooth-bore cores, built with a smooth inner tube wall, are a good choice when precise flow control and drainability are priorities

range like that of thermoplastic. They are only for low-pressure uses. An advantage of rubber hoses is their ability to be crushed without permanent damage. They are also made in sizes above 2”. The other hoses described typically range in size from 1/8 or 1/4” to 2”. Before you make your final choice in core tube material, you must first understand core tube wall construction.You will need to decide whether the core tube wall should be smooth or have ‘convolutions,’ which allow it

Reinforcement layers are your next consideration. In most cases, the core tube is reinforced by a flexible, stainless steel woven braid, which is layered on top of the core tube. Proper reinforcement layers improve pressure containment and flexibility in the hose. Comparing flexibility is trickier. To do so, you need to understand bend radius. All hoses have a minimum bend radius, which measures how far a hose can bend before kinking. Measurements for minimum bend Minimum bend radius radius are standard measures how far a in industrial hose hose can bend before literature. kinking. Although not However, there’s as easy to measure as minimum bend radius, more to flexibility than force-to-bend is an bend radius – many equally critical factor in people in the industry your selection. do not understand this. Also consider the force required to bend

November/December 2013 l FLUid HandLinG 19


HOses an unpressurised hose. A hose with a good bend radius is not much help to you if the force required to bend it is too great. Is the hose so stiff that an operator can’t bend it or has difficulty installing it? Will it slow down or break a machine in a dynamic operation? Force-to-bend is just as important as bend radius but not as easy to measure, and guidelines don’t exist across hose manufacturers.

SELECTION GUIDELINE OVERVIEW Core tube material Summary Metal

• • • •

Good general purpose hose Widest temperature range Resists permeation and absorption Not compatible with highly caustic or acidic system media • Not well suited for operations with repetitive movements

• Available in convoluted core only, typically annular, to be used when flexibility is a priority

Fluoropolymer (PTFE, PFA, FEP)

• Good chemical compatibility • Advancements have made it very flexible • Good cleanability • Low absorption • Available with static dissipation • Highly permeable

• Available in smooth-bore core, for maximum flow control and drainability • Also available in convoluted core, typically helical, to be used when flexibility is a priority • Smooth-bore cores can kink, particularly in larger sizes, but reinforcement layers limit kinking • Helical is better than annular for flow control

Silicone

• • • •

Very flexible Limited chemical compatibility Highly absorptive Poor cleanability

• Available in smooth-bore core only

Thermoplastic (Nylon)

• Economical, general purpose hose • Good for hydraulic fluids • Limited temperature range

• Available in smooth-bore core only

Rubber

• • • •

• Available in smooth-bore core only

Covers Next, you’ll need to decide if your hose should have a cover – and, if so, what kind. A cover is an outer layer that protects underlying layers, personnel, and surrounding equipment. Covers come in materials such as silicone and rubber and are integral to the hose. The most common cover for general purposes is made of silicone. Silicone covers help prevent fraying of the braids in stainless steel reinforcement layers, which can happen from abrasion. Frayed braids weaken the hose and create a burst threat, and can injure the hands of operators. Silicone covers can provide enhanced burn protection for operators who grab or bump hoses that are carrying very hot fluid. They provide insulation as well, helping to maintain process temperature. Silicone covers are a particularly good choice for sanitary applications. Their smoothness makes them easy to wash down. And by covering the stainless steel reinforcement layer, they eliminate bacteria buildup in the braid’s crevices. You’ll also find covers for specialty applications. For maximum burn protection, consider a fire jacket a fibreglass cover coated in silicone rubber. Keep in mind, however, that fire jackets connect loosely to the hose and can snag and rip. Bend restrictors, another cover type, help prevent the hose from being bent beyond its bend radius. On the downside, covers add cost, restrict flexibility and make the hose larger, a concern for routing and angling. In most applications, the goal in cover selection is to achieve the smallest diameter and not decrease the flexibility of the hose.

End connections End connections, usually made of metal, are where most leaks occur. The performance of the hose assembly you purchase depends largely on the hose manufacturer’s ability to attach end connections, so choose a reputable manufacturer. For metal hoses, there are a variety of end connection choices. The connections are welded, which completely and permanently seals the product. For fluoropolymer hoses, you will choose between swaging or crimping. Swaging puts

Wall construction

Economical, general purpose hose Durable Available in large sizes (above 2”) Limited temperature and pressure range

pressure on the hose itself, while crimping squeezes the end connection. While both methods are widely accepted, crimping has a slight advantage in that it is less likely to damage the hose, because the pressure is exerted in a carefully controlled manner. Many chemical applications require that fluoropolymer-wetted surface end connections be used. The industry has devised some creative solutions. One is called ‘flarethrough,’ because the core tube is flared such that it covers the entire inner surface of the metal end connection. The chief benefits of the flare-through approach are that there is no step or drop between the core tube and fitting, ensuring smooth flow, and the result is an all fluoropolymer-wetted surface. However, flare-through is costly and fragile and is not recommended for high-temperature applications. Another common solution is called ‘encapsulation,’ because the stainless steel

20 FLUid HandLinG l November/December 2013

end connection is entirely encapsulated in fluoropolymer, inside and out. Advantages are cost and availability. Disadvantages are reduced orifice size, raising the possibility of reduced flow and entrapment.

Making the right choice To make the best hose selection, consider your choices in the main parts of a hose – core tube material and wall construction, reinforcement layers, covers, and end connections.You will find many options in each of these areas. The variables in your application, including the temperature, pressure, and flow of your system media, will direct your decision making. For more information: This article was written by Shannon Booth. Shannnon Booth is Product Manager, hose products, for Swagelok Company, Shannon.booth@swagelok.com


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November/December 2013 l FLUid HandLinG 19


seaLs

Global perspectives on emission control Photo courtesy of Team Industrial Services

and monitoring is done with organic vapor analysers per Method 21 (Fig. 1) and forwardlooking infrared (FLIR) cameras (Fig. 2). Regulations also include requirements for equipment repair and reporting, which necessitate advanced database systems and record keeping software. Plants not performing normal LDAR correctly may be subject to enhanced LDAR requirements. These involve equipment upgrades, improvement or replacement, including use of low-leak valves and packing technology, the latter being a regulatory first. Also required are guarantees or test reports indicating emission performance will not exceed 100 ppm for at least five years.

Global emissions regulations Technician uses a vapour analyser to monitor leakage

The global regulatory climate ranges from strict control and enforcement, as exemplified by the US to trust that companies will do the Photo courtesy of FLIR Systems

The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continues to vigorously pursue and penalise violators of the Clean Air Act. This year alone 17 consent decrees have been issued, totalling more than $16 million in penalties and mandating investment of more than $200 million (â&#x201A;Ź148 million) in pollution controls. Of particular interest is CountryMark Refining and Logistics, which in February agreed to pay a $167,000 civil penalty and undertake environmental projects totaling more than $180,000. The company also must invest $18 million in new and upgraded pollution controls and aggressive leak detection and repair (LDAR) practices to reduce emissions from equipment and processing units at its Mount Vernon refinery. This settlement brought the total to 109 refineries in 32 states and territories under judicially enforceable agreements to significantly reduce emissions of pollutants. These facilities, which account for more than 90% of US refining capacity, must invest more than $6 billion in new controls to reduce emissions of sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and other pollutants by more than 360,000 tonnes per year. Even more recently Big West Oil agreed in May to pay a $175,000 penalty and invest $18 million in emission controls, including numerous upgrades to its LDAR programme and installation of low-leaking valves to minimise fugitive emissions of benzene at its refinery in North Salt Lake, Utah. The number and severity of these consent decrees reflect a sea change in the EPAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s focus from remedial to preventive action. It now requires regular inspection of tens of thousands of individual components in a typical refinery or chemical processing plant. Depending on location, emission levels are limited to 100, 250 or 500 ppm,

Technician using an infrared camera to monitor tank leakage

22 FLUid HandLinG l November/December 2013


seaLs

Sources of fugitive emissions

right thing. Other countries, predominantly in Asia, rely more on voluntary social responsibility and public pressure than on government enforcement. However, most countries provide guidance on monitoring air quality and corrective action. A comparison of the regulatory environments in Asia, the Middle East and Europe provides a useful perspective on the global effort to reduce air pollution. Going from the most relaxed to the more stringent, following are brief overviews of regulations in Thailand, Japan, India, China, Singapore, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, and the European Union: Thailand does not limit emission levels for individual components such as pumps, valves and pipe flanges. It monitors a number of volatile organic compounds however using a variety of methods, including Tedlar gassampling bags per EPA TO-14, canisters, gas chromatography and gas chromatography/ mass spectroscopy. Compliance is largely voluntary, but the country now has VOC standards and is expected to enact regulations for self-monitoring, reporting and adherence to industry-accepted technical guidelines. Japan has ambient air standards, but does not require component monitoring. Companies are notified with regard to their emission limits, which are regulated regionally. Individual sites are expected to meet these limits using accepted technical practices, including the best available sealing and equipment technologies and diligent maintenance, monitoring and record keeping. Compliance remains largely voluntary, motivated by a sense of company honour, social responsibility and fear of public recrimination. India administers its environmental regulations through federal and state control boards, which can inspect equipment for emissions and determine compliance. They also issue permits to operate a plant, but there is no requirement to measure equipment emissions. Plants must report the amount of pollutants they release, and compliance is incentivised by bank guarantees, subsidies for equipment purchases, and avoidance of litigation, as Indian citizens can bring legal action against polluters.

In China, state and local governments use a permit system to establish emission limits, regulations and fees. In addition to requiring atmospheric monitoring and public reporting, local authorities set emission limits, issue permits, conduct site inspections, and penalise violators, including plant shutdowns. The country also has an environmental complaint system, allowing citizens to report polluters and petition the government. It is worth noting that multinational companies operating in China typically comply with the more stringent requirements their countries of origin, serving as exemplars of environmental best practices. Singapore monitors air quality but not plant equipment. Ambient air quality is monitored by telemetric monitoring and management systems. Site inspections are conducted for compliance, and non-compliant plants can be subject to special monitoring. A source emission test scheme requires air quality to be measured by the site or certified consultants. Corporate social responsibility encourages the use of best practices. Saudi Arabia requires a number of pollutants to be measured and reported using EPA methods. Air quality is managed through a local competent agency, which can enforce or relax requirements. The agency can inspect any

site and prosecute violators, resulting in fines and/or imprisonment. Taiwanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s air pollution regulations are administered by a competent authority comprised of its environmental protection agency and municipal and county authorities. The competent authority issues permits and collects fees, and can investigate and prosecute violators, determine emission standards, and designate pollution sources required to install air monitoring stations. Best available control technology, such as low-emission valves and valve seals, are used in air quality modeling and simulation to validate performance. The European Commission, seeking to minimise cross-border pollution, issues directives and permits for permissible emissions levels. Individual EU countries are responsible for establishing and enforcing laws. Best available techniques are published to promote best practices, including lowemission equipment and point monitoring of non-compliant equipment. A relatively new development is Germanyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s standard calling for flanged connections to meet the TA-Luft low-emission requirement. It also requires installation of gaskets by trained, qualified personnel and inspection of the assembled joint.

Controlling emissions Fugitive emissions are difficult and costly to detect given their variability and intermittent nature. As a result, estimates based on standard emission factors are generally used for reporting. For most chemical plants the primary contributors to fugitive emissions are flanged joints, valve glands and pump seals.Valve stems can also be a source of emissions (Fig. 3).

Tightening flange bolts to the proper seal load is critical to leak-free gasket performance

November/December 2013 l FLUid HandLinG 23


seaLs For flanged joints in process services, finished assemblies should be tested before start-up. Testing with nitrogen, a test gas and a soap-like solution indicates the presence leaks by forming bubbles at the joint, yielding a pass/fail result. Joint design, flange alignment, sealing load, gaskets and assembly all contribute to leak-free performance (Fig. 4). Well made joints that pass testing will maintain emission levels below 500 ppm. The ability of a joint to seal effectively is also impacted by a number of time-dependent factors, including bolt relaxation and loss of load, temperature fluctuations, and degradation/relaxation of the gasket material. Deterioration should not be an issue provided the right type of gasket is being used for the intended service.

emission-less packings for more efficient use of plant air and electricity in controlling actuated valves. Another solution for reducing valve emissions combines the performance of engineered sets with the ease of installing braided packing. Made of high-purity graphite yarn in wire jacketing, it is durable, requires minimal adjustment, and delivers superior emissions control. The wire reinforcement does not add excessive friction to the stem, so this packing not only provides improved emissions control, but requires 60% fewer adjustments and 4% less actuation torque, compared with conventional braided packing.

Pump seals Installed between rotating shafts and static housings, pump seals are available in singleor double-seal assemblies with pressurised barrier fluids. Single-seal assemblies, still common in most chemical plants, need to be cooled and lubricated by process fluids, allowing the release of emissions to the atmosphere. Most double-seal assemblies prevent such emissions or allow them to be vented to flare systems. Single-seal emissions often exceed 500 ppm, and overhauling the systems and replacing components does not always improve their performance. Doubleseal systems are costly and can impair pump reliability, but often they are the only viable solution to emission-free performance.

Valve glands Valve glands are sealed with packing between the stuffing box and shaft connecting the hand-wheel to the actuation mechanism. The packing is compressed by tightening a bolt to apply load to the gland follower assembly. Unlike flanged connections, however, the components must be able to move periodically in valves that open and close infrequently or continuously in automated valves that control process fluid flow. In either case, the packing must not be compressed to the point where the valve is rendered incapable of functioning properly. Most fire-safe packing uses either structured or braided graphite. Structured graphite packing is made of preformed graphite rings for insertion into the stuffing box. This type of packing can maintain emissions below 500 ppm, both in new valves and valves that have been retrofitted with it. Braided graphite packing is not preformed, but cut to desired lengths from a spool, and fitted into the stuffing box. Less costly than structured packing, it also delivers less consistent performance. However, specially processed, braided graphite packing can provide emission performance comparable to that of structured graphite. Testing confirms that valves with the proper type of graphite-based packing can achieve initial emissions performance of less than 500 ppm. Unfortunately this level of performance can deteriorate over time, the resulting leakage from which can often be reduced by retightening the valve gland assembly. This is successful in 50% to 75% of leaking valves; otherwise they have to be repacked to reestablish leak-free performance. It is virtually impossible to predict which initially leak-free valves will eventually leak. Therefore it becomes necessary to routinely monitor their performance. Such LDAR programmes are routine in the US, and are becoming more prevalent at chemical plants in the UK.

Summary

Engineered die-formed graphite packing sets are capable of ultra-low emissions performance

Valve stems Valve stem packings are available to limit fugitive emissions to 100 ppm (Fig. 5). Made of densified graphite, these packings help protect the environment and improve process yields. Unlike traditional sets of flat rings, their angled design and radial expansion allow repeated adjustment. Combined with their resistance to volume loss, these characteristics provide extended low-emission performance, reducing the need for expensive alternatives such as on-line leak sealing. The low friction of these advanced packings facilitates valve actuation for more efficient use of plant air resources, and their radial expansion seals even older, worn valves, so compliance can be achieved without replacing or reconditioning them. Also available are low-emission alternatives specifically designed for shallow stuffing boxes. These packings provide <100 ppm performance and long service life. They exert approximately 20% less stem friction than

24 FLUid HandLinG l November/December 2013

Efforts are being made throughout the world to control emissions of substances harmful to the environment and human health, and most industrialised countries are seeking to significantly reduce them. These efforts range from strict regulation and enforcement to largely voluntary programmes motivated by corporate social responsibility, economics, or both. It is likely that fugitive emissions will become more highly regulated on a global basis, given that industries such as refining and chemical processing are global. In the final analysis, however, more stringent regulations and stricter enforcement alone cannot improve air quality. The ultimate success of any effort to reduce fugitive emissions will require both regulatory oversight and voluntary compliance through a sense of corporate responsibility to do the right thing by companiesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; communities, nations and the planet. Fortunately sealing technologies are available to achieve emission levels below the most demanding requirements, with even better products being continuously developed. For more information: This article was written by Jim Drago, principal applications engineer at Garlock Sealing Technologies, +1 800-448-6688 or jim.drago@garlock.com


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The Measurable Difference


TemperaTUre

Winterisation As the temperature drops and the days get gradually shorter, UK-based fluid handling company Amarinth highlights the need for equipment specifically designed for hostile environments Winterisation is the process of designing oil and gas processing equipment to withstand extreme low temperatures. Winterised pumps will be specified by the contractor or end user on their datasheet to potential suppliers along with the extremity (i.e. the temperature range). Winterising pumps requires careful selection of materials and coatings and design of seal systems, couplings, motors and base plates. Interestingly, API 610 datasheets ask customers to define if they require ‘winterisation’ to the pump by ticking a box. However, it is difficult to find any industry standard definition of what winterisation means and what should be done to achieve this.

Materials Stainless steel is usually the minimum choice of material as it is much stronger and less brittle than normal carbon steel in extreme low temperatures. However, other factors such as the pumped fluid have also to be considered. For example, produced water is often rich is hydrogen sulphide (H2S), which is corrosive and would damage a stainless steel pump. The best material for this fluid is duplex stainless steel, so there can be conflicts between what is best for the site conditions and what is best for the pumped fluid.

Base-plates Base plates are usually manufactured from steel, and low carbon steel is suitable down to -25C. However, beyond this point stainless steel should be considered for the base plate as low carbon steel will start to suffer from brittleness. Charpy Impact Testing should be carried out for extreme

low temperatures to satisfy brittle tolerances and behaviour under stress, and to identify temperature-dependent brittleductile transition.

Couplings Coupling materials can be defined by three common ranges, those being: Standard materials that can operate reliably down to -15°C; Low temperature materials that can operate down to -40°C; and very low temperature materials that can operate down to -55°C. Steel variations must be carefully selected, for example, drive bolts can be induction hardened and made suitable for higher strength applications when resistance to shock is also required. It is important that in these extreme conditions the coupling manufacturers work closely with the pump manufacturer to define the operating conditions.

Seals and seal support systems Seal systems, particular for hazardous fluids such as produced water, must be carefully considered. In addition to the normal winterisation of systems, a number of safeguards should be observed or built into the design to allow the storage and operation of the systems when conditions are as low as -50°C. Low temperature materials and elastomers must be chosen to suit the operating temperatures such as low temperature nitrile bladders for accumulators operating at or below -15°C. Standard 316 stainless steel materials within the seal support systems are stronger at low temperatures, however if carbon steel components are used below -20°C, impact testing is highly

26 FLUid HandLinG l November/December 2013

recommended. For cold duties, seal support systems can also be trace heated or lagged. Regardless of the operating protections, the materials have to be able to withstand extreme temperature exposure and be capable of operation once the controlled temperature range is established to be deemed winterised. The seal support system manufacturer and the pump manufacturer must consider all factors within the design and work together to ensure the complete system meets specifications.

Finishes Product finish and painting need to be carefully considered. For temperatures as low as -50°C, paint finishes could be high solids, low volatile organic compounds, two pack epoxy abrasion resistant coating which would have low ice adhesion and low frictional resistance. Provided the application is applied and cured at ambient temperature (usually during the manufacture and assembly process) and subject to agreed tests results such as ‘Bresle’ testing (the method used to determine concentration of soluble salts on metal surfaces prior to coating), paint thickness testing, blast cleaning etc., most paint specialists will guarantee the coating effectiveness. The typical film thickness for extreme low temperature needs to be in the region of 400-500 microns (dry).

Motors and drives Motor manufacturers are usually able to certify their equipment down to -55°C. They continue to use and guarantee their grey cast iron housings but the shaft steel will be alloyed heat

treated steel specially for cold temperatures, such as 25CrMo4 + QT 1.7218. Specialist grease and shaft seals will be used. Fans need to be made from steel, brass or aluminium, certainly not plastic.

Instrumentation In the case of instrumentation, they are best mounted within environmental heated enclosures, for example within heated cabinets. Pressure transmitter LCD displays can accommodate temperatures down to -20°C, but below this would need to be mounted within heated enclosures. Some pressure gauges can be silicon oil filled allowing them to operate at much lower temperatures than normal and tanks can be lagged or provided with immersion heaters to maintain barrier temperatures. Heat tracing and lagging of the system and pipework are the most effective solutions for maintaining operation in extreme conditions. Again, material selection and effective use following extreme temperature exposure (capable of full operation once the controlled temperature range is re-established) would be deemed winterised.

Other considerations In addition to the winterisation design considerations, in regions such as Russia where such pumps are frequently used, there are further challenges associated with access, passports, language, documentation (GOST-R or GOST-K). Overcoming these additional challenges is also crucial to the overall success of any project and should not be underestimated as the costs for this alone can be significant.


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November/December 2013 l FLUid HandLinG 25


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TAnk STorAge

SINGAPORE EXPO 10 - 11 DECEMBER 2013

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ThE LEADING EvENT FoR ThE ASIAN TANk SToRAGE INDUSTRY REGISTRATIoN NoW oPEN! The technologies and services on display at the FREE EXhIBITIoN will include everything from tank design, construction and maintenance, through to innovations in pumps & valves, multimodal, metering & measuring, automation & loading equipment, inspection & certification services plus lots more - making it a MUST ATTEND EvENT

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BOOk review

A timeless resource for the engineering community

Since its first publication in 1942, Crane’s Technical Paper 410 has been an indispensable resource for engineers, designers and engineering students worldwide. Containing comprehensive calculations and information about the flow of fluids through valves, pipes and fittings, the guide is essential in determining the correct equipment for piping systems. Richard Beyak, engineering manager at Lantic in Vancouver, BC, is just one person who has relied on TP410 for more than 20 years in the practical application of engineering equations to pipeline designs and pump and control valve selection in Lantic’s processing facilities. With refineries in eastern Canada and another in Montreal, Quebec, Lantic’s products include granulated, icing, cube, liquid, yellow and brown sugars. In western Canada, Lantic is the leading refiner, processor, distributor and marketer of sugar products, with two sugar processing facilities – a cane sugar refinery in Vancouver, British Columbia and a sugar beet processing facility in Taber, Alberta. When the sugar beet processing facility in Taber required a jet pump replacement, Beyak

was faced with a challenge—he had to select a pump that would maintain the critical proper flow rate and ensure that the beets were properly ‘floated into’ the factory via the flume system without causing damage to the system or the product. Today, the Taber, Alberta beet factory can produce up to 150,000 tonnes of sugar annually from locally-grown sugar beets, a number that attests to the success of TP410 in meeting the fluid handling needs of the engineering community, decade after decade.

applications of valve and fittings to explain the principles of pressure drop. The chapter reviews the resistance coefficient K, equivalent length L/D and flow coefficient Cv, and explains the Bends, Tee, and Wyes equations. Concluding with 24 cut-away pictures of different types of valves, the pressure drop information in this chapter is very import to consider when designing a complete piping system, like an HVAC system in commercial buildings.

Chapter highlights

Chapter 4,:‘Measuring flow with differential pressure meters’, reviews the equations used for orifice plates, flow nozzles and venturi nozzles.Vital information about each equation’s ‘limits of use’ is contained in this chapter, as it is imperative that engineers know the boundaries of equations to accurately predict flow rate. Also included is a review of the equation for compressible flow through orifices, nozzles and venturis.

The most recent comprehensive revision of TP410 took place in 2009, when the book was updated with all-new accompanying software and special additions to its content.

Theory of flow in pipe Chapter 1: ‘Theory of flow in pipe’, reviews the physical properties of fluids, including viscosity, density and vapor pressure. The Reynolds number equation, Bernoulli’s Theorem, Darcy equation and different methods for determining pipe friction factor are included in the introductory chapter, which ends with a lengthy review of the principles of compressible flow. This chapter provides the foundation upon which mechanical engineers around the world base their pipeline head loss calculations.

Flow of fluids through valves and fittings In Chapter 2: ‘Flow of fluids through valves and fittings’, Crane Co relies upon decades of experience with laboratory tests and field

Regulating flow with control valves Diving deeper into the design of control valves, Chapter 3: ‘Regulating flow with control valves’, analyses the different valve characteristic curves and the pressure, velocity and energy profile of a fluid as it passes through the valve body. Cavitation, choked flow and flashing are reviewed before the chapter ends with control valve sizing and selection equations.

Measuring flow with differential pressure meters

Pumping fluid through piping systems Centrifugal pump operation, the pump curve, net positive suction head, pump affinity rules and power calculations are all addressed in Chapter 5, ‘Pumping fluid through piping systems.’ Positive displacement pumps are also included, and of great importance is a detailed review of the pump curve, a thorough understanding of which is vital to the selection and operation of a centrifugal pump.

For more information: This article was written by Buck Jones, technical marketing engineer at Engineered Software and Dale Friemoth,VP of business development, Crane ChemPharma and Energy, cranechempharma.com

November/December 2013 l FLUid HandLinG 29


MULtI-ModaL sYsteMs

taNker eNcLosUre sYsteMs The Tanker Enclosure System (TCEN4) provides absolute safety for operators working on tanker tops by providing a walk surface over the entire tanker top that can be simply lifted up where necessary to provide access to the tanker connections. Handling Loading Arms and Hoses just became a lot easier.

The Multi-Modal system is the pinnacle of tanker top safe operations. The Multi-Modal raises and lowers vertically through a 1.5m range and can tilt each end to correct for sloping tanker tops. It can be custom designed to suit a range of lengths and widths. Supplied fully galvanised as standard however it is also available in Stainless Steel or painted to customer specifications.

cUstoM Meter skId sYsteMs Loadtec supply packaged metering systems to provide the customer with point of transfer volumetric or mass metering of liquids. The skids can also have pumps included and be provided as mobile units if required. The range of materials and methods of metering are configured to suit customer requirements.

Loadtec BottoM LoadING arMs Bottom unloading of tankers via loading arms is becoming increasingly popular. Hoses are heavy to lift and often are not stored thoughtfully. Bottom un/loading arms are completely counterbalanced and carry various accessories such as Dry Disconnect couplers, valves, purging and breakaway couplings. They can also be jacketed and insulated.

taNker access PLatforMs

Safe and robust access to tanker tops for operator convenience. A customer driven specification based on our unique design, provides an inexpensive and safe system for inspection or loading operations.

MoBILe access carts In cases where infrequent access is required or tanker positions are not fixed, the Mobile Access Cart will provide safe access to tanker tops of varying height. Ideally used for sample taking and inspection of bond seals, the MCA has foam filled 16â&#x20AC;? wheels and galvanised steel chassis with numerous optional configurations.

Loadtec toP LoadING arMs Top loading remains the most common form of bulk liquid transfer. Ensuring that it is carried out safely and with minimal environmental impact is a serious responsibility. Loading Arms equipped with vapour recovery and safety interlocks provide these solutions. Call us to have a look at your application and talk about how we can help.

track MoUNted GaNGWaYs

This system utilises a unique track and barrier system to allow a folding star to traverse over any distance, providing flexible access onto tanker tops where long loading racks are used.

foLdING staIrs

Bridging the variable gap between the tanker and the platform, our safety stairs are available in 3, 4 or 5 steps with optional safety cages. These take under an hour to fit to existing steelwork and take another safety problem away.

eLectroNIc GroUNdING

BreakaWaY coUPLINGs

fLoatING sUctIoN UNIts

The RTR Electronic Earthing Monitor is probably the biggest selling intelligent earthing system in Europe. The system provides a permissive signal when the tanker is recognised and correctly earthed.

An unplanned drive-away by a road tanker during liquid transfer operations could be disastrous. The breakaway coupling will part before damage occurs to the hose or loading arm and will close off at each end to secure the liquid in the line.

Simple and complex floating suction arm units are used in storage tanks to allow suction of the product near to the liquid surface level, avoiding intake of water or sediments that accumulate at the bottom of a tank.

Loadtec Engineered Systems is the leading brand name for Tanker Loading & Unloading Systems involving bulk fluid transfer. High quality and bespoke systems that provide safe, clean and efficient operations for point of transfer activities. Loadtec has the widest portfolio of Fall Prevention systems in the world, which provides our customers with unrivalled choice to suit logistics, budget and risk. A look at our website gallery will illustrate numerous examples of previously completed projects. Contact us to see how we can improve your operations.

The Stables, Coach House, Hythe Road, Smeeth, Kent, TN25 6SP Tel: 01303 813030 Fax: 01303 814040

Email: sales@loadtec.co.uk

www.loadtec.co.uk

Fluid Handling magazine  

A new publication covering fluid handling technologies, operation and maintenance across the chemical, petroleum, food and beverage, pharmac...