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DUSTOPIA

CONSTANTINOS NICOLAIDES l HOREB MOSES l JACKY THIODORE l JAEWON SHIN RC14 MARCH URBAN DESIGN THE BARTLETT SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON 2015 - 2016


Previous pages Figure 01: Air pollution over China Figure 02: Particulate matter under the electron microscope


DUSTOPIA

CONSTANTINOS NICOLAIDES l HOREB MOSES l JACKY THIODORE l JAEWON SHIN RC14 MARCH URBAN DESIGN THE BARTLETT SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON 2015 - 2016


MArch Urban Design 2015 - 2016: Roberto Bottazzi, Kostas Grigoriadis RC14 Big Data Architecture: Materialising the Virtual

Polemics: The Anthropocene has been defined as a new geological era in which the influence of human actions on the earth and its biosphere have given rise to its own geological stratum. Environmental phenomena such as global warming can no longer be seen as simply ‘natural’ but rather produced by human actions as much as climatic factors. Previous stable ‘reductionist’ binaries such as natural/artificial or subject/object melt away and, similarly, linear causality gives way to a more complex, fluid, open, incomplete, embracing way to account for reality and the transformations of the urban environment. In this scenario the relation between knowledge and design must be re-evaluated or, in other words, design must evolve into an activity having to do with matter and structures as much as ways of seeing, grasping, and manipulating complex systems. Whilst profound progresses have been made from the point of view of theory[1], design seems lagging behind in responding to these challenges. Big Data – i.e. the possibility to aggregate and manipulate large datasets enabled by computers – constitute an essential phenomenon to make designers aware of processes of change and emergence and their impact on the built environment. As 75% of all processors manufactured are not installed on desktop or laptop computers, computation is increasingly woven within the fabric of everyday life expanding the possibilities for humans and the environment to tune into each other. The result is a kind of urbanism operating across former divides: it is both physical and virtual, operating both at the scale of the human body and that of the environment, weaving multiple networks together. The cluster will focus on the conceptual and technological challenges and opportunities designers confront when working with large datasets. Students will learn how to sense, aggregate, mine, and visualise large datasets to utilise them as an actual design material. This will range from issues of representation and mapping to, most importantly, design. Students will research through design and develop both conceptual and practical skills to operate in complex, uncertain conditions. They will pursue an idea of urbanism operating at several scales: from large strategic moves to issues of materiality, construction techniques, and detailed articulation. The focus of this cluster will be London. Particularly we will be looking at the East part of the capital, an area not only vulnerable to significant environmental risks, but which has also been the object of several proposals which are drastically changing its urban character.

[1] Chandler, D (2014). On Resilience: The Governance of Complexity. London: Routledge.


B-PRO URBAN DESIGN | 2015 - 2016 PORTFOLIO BARTLETT SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE LONDON LONDON, UNITED KINGDOM

TUTORS ROBERTO BOTTAZZI KOSTAS GRIGORIADIS

SUBMITTED BY CONSTANTINOS NICOLAIDES HOREB MOSES JACKY THIODORE JAEWON SHIN SEPTEMBER 2016


Figure 03: Dust storm off Egypt


ABSTRACT The 21st century is the age of the Anthropocene where human influence will sooner or later bring 1

countless outcomes of a scale we have not anticipated or have underestimated; Uncontrollable urbanisation, depletion of natural resources, a worldwide industrialisation, deforestation, an energy crisis and pollution. The spectrum of human influence has spread across every corner of the planet. As a result, billions of people currently are both the beneficiaries and victims of this sheer scale of ‘progression’. The advancement of technology, more efficient transport systems and infrastructure has given us the gifts of economic prosperity and convenience. However this capitalistic definition of progress has also resulted in overcrowded cities and towns, destruction of natural environment and the outcome of all these, pollution. Pollution has become an inseparable part of our life and we can no longer live without it or away from it. Pollution has many forms, but no other forms of pollution have been as detrimental as air pollution in recent history. It also comes with numerous variations, but one of the deadliest air pollutants is dust. Dust is a unique and powerful element. It has always been part of human history, from the eruption of Mount Vesuvius that removed Pompeii from the face of the earth, to an immense scale of air pollution issues we now face today. It is often colourless, odourless, tasteless and invisible to human eyes. However dust is never not present. Many of us use air purifiers to filter harmful urban dust from our space, but the irony is that dust is not gone or eliminated. It is merely relocated to another space. This is an uncomfortable truth that no matter what we do, there is no way of eliminating dust from our space completely and be free from it. However, as most of urban dust is produced by human activities, altering our ways of life could reduce the level of dust and other types of serious air pollution. And we believe that architects can play an essential role in challenging our perception of dust within the urban fabric. We propose a prototypical design that attracts and collects dust in order to visualise the element and protect those in need in polluted areas. This could hopefully influence the way we currently perceive air pollution and begin a new chapter in addressing the issue before we are faced with yet another disaster like that of the Great Smog of 1952.

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The term Anthropocene was coined in 2000 by Nobel Prize-winning chemist Paul Crutzen, who claimed that the effect of human behaviour on the earth during the last 200 years was so significant that it should represent a new geological era. Anthropocene. Macmillan Dictionary : http://www.macmillandictionary.com/buzzword/entries/anthropocene.html


CONTENTS

CHAPTER 01

1.

CHAPTER 02

Project Overview

1.1.

Aim

1.2.

Air Pollution

2.

Urban strategy

2.1. Air pollution on a global scale 2.1.1. Introduction 2.2. Air pollution in London 2.2.1. The great smog of 1952 - Cause and immediate consequences 2.2.2. The great smog of 1952 - The Clean Air Act of 1956 and its impacts 2.2.3. The age of the automobile and an unintended new invention, Exhaust 2.2.4. London in 2016 2.2.5. Conclusion 2.3. Origin of dust and its impacts 2.3.1. Characteristics of dust 2.3.2. Impacts of dust on climate 2.3.3. Impacts of dust on health 2.4. Conclusion

3.

Analysis and Data Mapping

3.1.

Site introduction

3.2.

Site Analysis and Data Mapping

Figure 04: Digital map of London

3.1.1. PM concentration across London and surrounding areas 3.1.2. PM concentration in London 3.1.3. The site and around 3.2.1. 3.2.2. 3.2.3. 3.2.4. 3.2.5. 3.2.6. 3.2.7. 3.2.8. 3.2.9. 3.2.10. 3.2.11. 3.2.12. 3.2.13. 3.2.14. 3.2.15. 3.2.16. 3.2.17. 3.2.18.

Data gathering Overall air pollution 1 Overall air pollution 2 Influential elements of dust Wind pattern Other influential factors of dust Risk assessment equation Level of dust Landuse People frequency People frequency video frames Protected areas Distance from pollution sources Distance from pollution sources - grid Risk assessment map Risk assessment video frames Pollution level video frames Combined data map


CHAPTER 03

CHAPTER 04

4.

Design and Strategy

4.1.

Design Method

4.2.

Catenary Arch Study

4.2.1. 4.2.2. 4.2.3. 4.2.4. 4.2.5. 4.2.6. 4.2.7. 4.2.8. 4.2.9. 4.2.10.

4.3.

Catenary Arch Development

4.1.1. Static electricity 4.1.2. Ionisation

4.3.1. 4.3.2. 4.3.3. 4.3.4.

Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4 Type 5 Type 6 Type 7 Type 8 Prototypes Detailed site Stage one Stage two Stage three Detail development

5.

Material and Details

5.1.

Material Study

5.2.

Detail Design

6. 7. 8.

5.1.1. 5.1.2. 5.1.3. 5.1.4. 5.1.5. 5.1.6. 5.1.7. 5.1.8. 5.1.9. 5.1.10. 5.1.11. 5.1.12. 5.1.13. 5.1.14. 5.2.1. 5.2.2. 5.2.3. 5.2.4. 5.2.5. 5.2.6. 5.2.7. 5.2.8. 5.2.9. 5.2.10. 5.2.11. 5.2.12. 5.2.13.

Conclusion Bibliography List of Figures

Material selection Material experiment 1 Copper Aluminium Material experiment 2 Weaving pattern experiment Weaving points - number and density RealFlow simulation of basic forms RealFlow simulation of different cylinder shapes Module frame typologies Weaving patterns from 2D to 3D Weaving pattern parameters Material experiment 3 Material experiment 4 Circle packing on surface Circle packing and catenary systems Circle packing and catenary systems Circle packing and catenary systems Circle packing and catenary systems Circle packing and catenary systems Models Dust flow and design Sections Drainage process Park area ground development Site model Key views

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type type type type type

1 2 3 4 5


Figure 05: Winds dispersing vast quantities of aerosols around the world- dust(red), sea salt(blue), sulphate(white), black and organic carbon(green)


CHAPTER 01 Project Overview

16-17

Air Pollution

18-37


Chapter One | Project Overview

Figure 06: Site Overview (Tate & Lyle Sugar Factory) 16


Bartlett School of Architecture | University College London

1. PROJECT OVERVIEW Can architecture have an influence in changing our current perception towards air pollution in London? Ever since the establishment of modern society, people have been fascinated with the

notion of Utopias, an imaginary place where everything is perfect. Many architects and visionary thinkers have dreamt of and visualised their own versions of an ideal Utopia. But one can argue that, instead of building an entirely new society, we can just reimagine our existing cities to have the utopian ideology, while working within its restrictions. This led to the conception of Dustopia. Dustopia aims to challenge the perception of dust within the urban fabric. This will be

delivered through a design that is controversial and unusual in a sense, so that those who occupy the space can visualise dust in various physical and political representations and be stimulated or influenced by it. One can then hope to influence people’s willingness to participate in addressing the undesirables such as pollution more effectively, which hopefully could lead a way to our current interpretation of Anthropocene to a more positive notion in the coming years. 1.1. Aim What is the urbanism of pollution?

The aim is to set up a new system that not just deals with air pollution (specifically particulate matter) in the form of a working solution, but also makes a statement on the issue as a whole through a unique design.

1.2. Urban Strategy The deployment of prototypes in key urban spaces, identified by big data mapping, which engage with both the physical as well as the conceptual nature of dust.

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Chapter One | Air Pollution

Figure 07: The great smog of 1952 18


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2. AIR POLLUTION 2.1. Air Pollution On a Global Scale 2.1.1. Introduction

As Anthony Oliver-Smith has pointed out in his article Anthropological research on hazards and disasters , 1

both local and global issues we all face are the outcomes of the interactions of society, technology and environment.

Many believe our deep rooted, ever growing capitalistic perceptions where one sees everything on this planet as a form of resource that could be utilised in a profitable way has caused an even larger problem we call the climate change. Naomi Klein uses the term ‘extractivism’2 in her book This Changes Everything: Capitalism vs. the Climate to describe such economic model which began to dominate the globe in earnest with the invention of the coalfired steam engine in 1776 by James Watt. And one of the key causes of the climate change is pollution. Pollution has become an inseparable part of our life and has many forms, but no other forms of pollution have been as detrimental as air pollution in recent history. And it has not been looked at with the same amount of gravity as the economic prosperity and convenient life style in the world of capitalism. Air pollution specifically has many elements that makes it unique from other forms of pollution. For example, unlike ground pollution which is static and often only affects the originated locale, air pollution can affect a much larger area as well as continuously moving and affecting other regions. It is always present, whether one is inside or outside, some forms of air pollution are never not there. In addition, we are now also confronted with a new form of air pollution since the second half of the 20th century, the age of the automobile. The widespread personal vehicles generate a new kind of air pollution that is often odourless, colourless, tasteless and most importantly, invisible to human eyes. And as we are still almost entirely dependent on the five senses in our everyday life, those particularly in the West and other developed nations often forget about the issue as a whole. Cities in developed world like London now enjoys cleaner air since the great tragedy of 1952 which forced the relocation of polluting industries to developing nations and brought in many of the world’s first acts to control pollution. However the demand for new products have only been growing constantly across the world that eventually produced more and more pollution comebined with rapidly rising car ownership on a global scale made the issue a global catastrophe. 1 Oliver-Smith,A. (1996).Anthropological research on hazards and disasters,. Annual Review of Anthropology. 25(1). pg 303. 2 Klein,N.(2014).This Changes Everything :Capitalism vs.the Climate. NewYork :Simon & Schuster..pg 148.

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Chapter One | Air Pollution

2.2. Air Pollution in London 2.2.1. The Great Smog of 1952 - Cause and Immediate Consequences Air pollution comes in many forms, from smoke, gas, and dust to the most recent unintended invention, exhaust. It has always been an integral part of human civilisation. Clearing land, burning forest and even cooking produce pollution on different levels. London has always been the most polluted city in the country and in the world at some point in history. London had been suffering from air pollution since as early as 12731. However it was considered rather as a symbol of a successful economic development and as part of a prosperous urban life until December of 1952 which changed everything. As a rainy island that has 133 wet days on average per year, Britain has long been affected by fogs and mists. This was a deadly combination as fine dust from coal burning factories and homes in the air acted as catalysts for fog, as water clings to the particles and created pollution rich fog, or smog. This had an enormous impact especially on those who were young, old and vulnerable from skin irritations, breathing problems and deaths. Large cities, particularly London suffered the most throughout the history. Although there were many incidents from the beginning of the 19th century, the worst happened in the middle of the 20th century. The incident was a combination of severe weather conditions and human activities. The abnormally cold winter resulted in more coal burning throughout the region and the smoke did not disperse due to an anticyclone in the area. This pushed down the air to the ground, trapping smoke that came out of the chimneys. This inversion trapped particles and pollutants from homes and factories throughout London along with more pollution from the continent brought by the easterly winds. As a result, 1,000 tonnes of smoke particles, 2,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide, 140 tonnes of hydrochloric acid, 14 tonnes of fluorine compounds and 800 tonnes of sulphuric acid were emitted during this period. 08

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Figure 08: Victoria Bus Station, London Figure 09: Ludgate Circus, London at 2pm in December, 1952 Figure 10: Piccadilly Circus, London Figure 11: A policeman wearing a mask Figure 12: City of London Figure 13: A swan killed by a car in the thick fog outside Stamford Bridge, London Figure 14: Two-year-old Jill Hamlin is fitted for an anti smog respirator for babies and toddlers Figure 15: A group of city workers wearing masks against the heavy smog in London 20

This single incident killed at least 4,000 people immediately, and additional 8,000 in following months. The condition was so dire that it even choked cows to deaths in the fields as well as bringing road, air and rail transport to a complete standstill.2 The visibility was near to zero in many parts of London which has caused further accidents across the city.

1 Evelyn, J.(2011). Fumifugium: A 21st century translation of a 17th century essay on air pollution in London. 1st ed. [eBook] London: Environmental Protection UK. Available at: https://issuu.com/environmental-protection-uk/docs/fumifugium. [Accessed 1 May 2016]. Pg 5. 2 Met Office. (2014).The great smog of 1952. The Met Office. [Online].Available at: http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/learning/learn-about-the-weather/weather-phenomena/ case-studies/great-smog (Accessed: 16 April 2016).


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Chapter One | Air Pollution

2.2. Air Pollution in London 2.2.2. The Great Smog of 1952 - The Clean Air Act of 1956 and Its Impacts Even though there were a number of Anti-Smoke legislations brought in by the government including the Public Health Act of 1875 and 1926 to tackle the air pollution issues in the UK prior to the great tragedy, they were unsuccessful in improving the situation due to their ambiguous terms and lack of efforts by both the government and the society. However, the sheer shock and horror turned the tide which finally resulted in a number of positive outcomes. Both the government and people recognised pollution as a serious and deadly problem. The disaster became a major political issue and the Clean Air Act 1956 was finally brought in, introducing smoke control areas, replacing coal with cleaner, smokeless fuels such as gas and electricity as well as relocating pollution sources away from cities. The government for the first time began to regulate both domestic and industrial smoke emissions by establishing ‘smokeless zones’ as part of the smoke control programmes across the country. Over the course of the programmes, London made the greatest progress in smoke control in Britain and this was largely due to the newly changed ‘perceived need’.1 The tragedy also had a great impact on the society as people began to pressure the government for a change and began to reassess social priorities. The environmental ideas began to influence more people and an environmental consciousness grew in society2, greatly affecting the rise of the modern environmental movement. This first legal act in the world to tackle the environmental issues along with people’s changed attitude has successfully reduced smoke levels in London by over 75 percent in the next twenty years.3 And this has reaffirmed social beliefs that the environmental reforms can be achieved through active social involvement and campaigning. This has also changed London’s traditional sptial character. The East End for example, used to be the prime industrial area of London and home of the working class, tranformed into the centres of finance, art, commerce and sports. 16

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Figure 16: A factory in the East End 1952 Figure 17: Protest on air pollution in the UK Figure 18: The East End of London in 1935 Figure 19: Canary Wharf in 2016 Figure 20: Royal Docks in 1964 Figure 21 Royal Docks in 2015 Figure 22: Traffic jam in Beijing Figure 23: Exhaust fumes 22

London no longer suffers greatly from the traditional form of air pollution from coal burning factories and houses, but from a recently created new form of air pollution, exhaust.

1 Scarrow,H.A.(1972).The Impact of British DomesticAir Pollution Legislation.British Journal of Political Science. 2(03).Pg 269-271 2 Wilson, M. (2014). The British Environmental Movement:The development of an environmental consciousness and environmental activism, 1945-1975. PhD. Newcastle: the University of Northumbria. Pg 14. 3 Evans, D. (1997). A history of nature conservation in Britain. London: Routledge. Pg 105.


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Chapter One | Air Pollution

2.2. Air Pollution in London 2.2.3. The Age of the Automobile and an Unintended New Invention, Exhaust London began to enjoy more clear days in the second half of the 20th century, and severe air pollution from coal burning industries and houses seemed to have become problems of poorer developing countries. However, London soon faced with a similar, yet new type of air pollution which is now largely invisible to human eyes, particulate matters and other pollutants from vehicle exhaust. London was soon filled with many types of vehicles; cars, buses, taxes and lorries. There were 4 million vehicles registered in the UK by 1950s and half of them cars. By 2013, 35 million vehicles and approximately 85 percent of them cars.1 As of 2010, 66% of the particulate matters originate from ground-based transport followed by construction which takes 15% of the new air pollution in London. And more concerning fact is that around 40% of this pollutants are generated outside of Greater London, including the mainland Europe and Africa.2 This also means that this ‘newly invented’ pollution is putting an end to how the old air pollution reshaped human occupation in towns and cities until a few decades ago. The rich who fled the city to suburbs in search of cleaner air began to move back to the city’s core for the convenience. However, main roads and areas in close vicinity now define where pollution levels will be higher. This is a critical moment that the rich are now as equally affected by the invisible toxin as their counterpart no matter which part of the city they choose to live. The age of the Anthropocene means that such issue nowadays are no longer a particular country’s but a world-wide problem. While the UK no longer suffers as severally as several decades ago from coal related air pollution, the new air pollution combined with extreme levels of the old pollution generated from the relocated industries in developing countries such as China and India, coupled with their rapidly growing car ownership are affecting air conditions on a planetary scale eventually having a huge burden on the climate. Another crucial issue is that even though we are more aware of the damaging effects dust have on human health and the environment with the help of new technologies to measure and analyse, people such as Londoners are now easily desensitised, as it became more difficult to smell, taste or see dust. This is concerning as it seems to be a natural behaviour of humans to easily forget and become indifferent to what we cannot sense directly. 1 Brown, P. (2002). 50 years after the great smog, a new killer arises. The Guardian. [Online].Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/waste/story/0,12188,851002,00. html (Accessed: 01 July 2016). 2 Anon. (2016).Air pollution in London. Clean Air For London. [Online].Available at: http://www.cleanerairforlondon.org.uk/londons-air/air-pollution-london (Accessed: 06 July 2016).

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Figure 24: China’s Rapidly Growing Car Ownership

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Chapter One | Air Pollution

2.2.4. London in 2016 London is no longer one of the most polluted cities in the world. Most factories are now relocated to developing countries in Asia which alone improved the air quality of the city significantly. Modern day London is largely affected by two major sources of dust; economic activities such as industries and construction, automobiles and extraterritorial sources including the Saharan dust and particles from industrial countries in mainland Europe. In London, PM2.5 is the most harmful air pollutant along with Nitrogen Oxide. PM2.5 alone kills approximately 9,500 people each year according to a study by King’s College London.

Figure 25: Death caused by air pollution

2.2.5. Conclusion As the capital city of Britain and as one of the largest cities in the world, air pollution has always been one of the largest environmental issues in London. The ‘elimination’ or relocation of the old pollution from coal burning is now replaced with the new kind produced by continuously rising number of vehicles. And this time, it is more difficult for humans to realise the problem as it is often not physically detectable without the help of technology. In addition, dust produced in relocated factories in China and other developing nations eventually have an enormous impact on a global scale. London is also constantly growing and changing in many aspects, more inhabitants, more transport of people and goods and more construction of buildings. Air pollution, especially dust is continuously causing many serious health issues as well as the earth’s ecosystem. Therefore we believe the gravity of the issue remains dire and how we perceive dust should be challenged in the urban fabric. Architects and Urban Planners should be active in dealing with such issues and attempt to inspire or influence the public through design.

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Figure 26: Smoke, pollution and Saharan dust off northern Europe

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Chapter One | Air Pollution

2.3. Origin of dust and Its Impacts 2.3.1. Characteristics of Dust Dust comes with various names including particles, particulate matter (PM2.5 or PM10) or aerosols depending on the different fields of industry. These generally share the same definition which stands for fine, airborne solid and liquid particles that are present throughout the earth’s surface and atmosphere.1 Approximately 90 percent (by mass) of dust has natural origin that can be divided into three main groups; particles from desert that are lifted by wind and pollens from plants, sea salt and volcanic ash. The remaining 10 percent has an anthropogenic origin that is produced by human activities from numerous sources. As such, dust can be found in both end of the earth’s spectrum. It exists in the oceans, deserts, mountains, forests, ice as well as within the spheres of human civilisation. Dust, or particles depending on the chemical process and composition can be categorised into different groups, such as sulfates, organic carbon, black carbon, nitrates, mineral dust and sea salt. Many of these groups including sulfates, nitrates, organic/black carbon are the results of humans’ agricultural and industrial activities. Even though there are distinct differences between each group, particles often clump together and form complex mixtures, creating hybrid particles.

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Figure 27 - 30: Scanned electron microscope images of volcanic ash, pollen, sea salt, and soot (left to right) Figure 31: Dust storm (mineral dust) Figure 32: Pollen Figure 33: Volcanic ash Figure 34: Biomass burning Figure 35: Plant plants Figure 36: Construction Figure 37: Automobiles Figure 38: Fire place 28

1. Natural origin 1.1. Dust 1.1.1.Mineral dust 1.1.2.Pollen 1.2.Sea salt 1.3.Volcanic ash 2.Anthropogenic origin 2.1.Industrial sources – power plants, construction, smelters, incinerators, automobiles etc 2.2.Agricultural source – biomass burning etc 2.3.Indoor sources – fire place, cooking stoves, cigarettes, candles etc

1Voiland,A. (2010).Aerosols:Tiny particles, big impact: Feature articles. NASA. [Online].Available at: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Aerosols/ (Accessed: 28 April 2016).


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Chapter One | Air Pollution

2.3. Origin of dust and Its Impacts 2.3.2. Impacts of Dust on Climate Dust has two major impacts, the climate and human health. Dust is a powerful element that plays a significant role in Earth’s climate by reflecting sunlight back to space or by absorbing it. Bright coloured dust reflect radiation and cool the climate, and darker coloured dust absorb radiation resulting in a warming effect. For instance, black carbon produced from wildfires and industrial pollution are likely to accelerate the process of ice melting in the Arctic. Also a single volcanic eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines in 1991 dropped the global temperature by 0.6°C for two years as a result of sulfate infusion. Dust plays a critical role in the formation of clouds, acting as small ‘seeds’ which is called cloud condensation nuclei. The pollution rich clouds are brighter in colour, and have more and smaller droplets which also block sunlight from reaching the surface resulting in cooling effect. In addition to scattering or absorbing radiation, dust can alter the reflectivity, or albedo of the planet. According to recent studies by NASA, air pollution from China and India is the major reason for the recent ‘doomsday blizzard’ in America and other climatic instabilities as well as increased days with air pollution in western part of North America.1 Air pollution particles become cloud cores, resulting in increased thickening of the clouds which lead to more unstable and harsh weather conditions. Also over the past 30 years since the Asian economic boom, north pacific storm strength increased by 10%. Dust can travel at 5 metres per second, which means it can reach thousands of kilometres in a week. Mineral dust lifted from the Sahara travels through Europe and the Atlantic eventually reaching the Caribbean. The same happens on the other side of the planet where the combination of mineral dust from the Gobi desert and urban dust from the industrial part of China travels through Korea, Japan and eventually crossing the Pacific Ocean to North America. 39

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Figure 39 - 42: Global aerosol distribution from MISR (Dec-Feb, Mar-May, Jun-Aug, Sept-Nov) Figure 43- 46: Global average wind speed (Dec-Feb, Mar-May, Jun-Aug, Sept-Nov) 30

1 Wong,E.(2014).China exports pollution to U.S.,study finds. The NewYorkTimes.[Online].Available at:http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/21/world/asia/china-also-exports-pollution-to-westernus-study-finds.html?_r=1 (Accessed:2 May 2016).


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Chapter One | Air Pollution

2.3. Origin of dust and Its Impacts 2.3.3. Impacts of Dust on Health Human Health Dust or PM 2.5 is the deadliest form of air pollutant that evade human’s natural defence and make its way deep into the lungs and even the blood stream. NASA study found that more than 80 percent of the world’s population breathe polluted air that exceed the level set by the World Health Organisation of 10 micrograms per cubic metre.1 This can cause a wide range of cardiovascular diseases, asthma and bronchitis. Research is now emerging which suggests that the impacts of air pollution go beyond asthma and other respiratory disease as well as heart attacks and strokes. In July 2013, the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) showed that living near polluting major roads in nine countries in Europe increased the chances of lung cancer. Three months later, the WHO’s International Agency for Research in Cancer (IARC) formally classified outdoor air pollution as a carcinogen, causing both lung and bladder cancers.2 Studies done in 2013 show that PM2.5 is responsible for 1.6 million deaths in China and 1.3 million deaths in India respectably, 5.5 million deaths worldwide. In the UK, the committee on the medical effects of air pollutants reported that 29,000 premature death was caused by PM2.5 and 75% of cardiovascular hospital admissions in 2010 is considered to be the result of PM2.5. Who is more vulnerable? In October 2013, ESCAPE reported on air pollution and low birthweight babies. Among the participating cities was Bradford in England. As elsewhere, in the Born in Bradford cohort of mothers and babies, there was a higher likelihood of restricted foetal growth if the woman in her pregnancy was living in an area of high air pollution. Low birthweight babies often have health problems in later life.

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It is not which city that matters, but where in the city, with the highest risks close to main roads. A study of 50 schoolchildren by Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, a professor at Barcelona’s Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology demonstrated in 2015 that their exposure was higher when walking back from school. The study also looked at the effects of air pollution on children’s cognitive development. Their paper in PLos Medicine shows that children in Barcelona at schools where air pollution is heavier did less well over time in memory and attention tests than their peers elsewhere.3

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Figure 47: Extreme air pollution in China Figure 48: Chinese man wearing a gas mask Figure 49: Heavy-duty face masks are now frequently seen on Beijing’s streets Figure 50: A baby given nebulizer therapy at Beijing Children’s hospital 32

1Voiland,A. (2010). New map offers a global view of health-sapping air pollution. NASA. [Online].Available at: http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/health-sapping. html (Accessed: 1 May 2016). 2 BBC. (2013).Air pollution causes cancer - WHO. The BBC. [Online].Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-24564446 (Accessed: 1 May 2016). 3 Basagaña et al. (2016).‘Neurodevelopmental deceleration by urban fine particles from different emission sources:A longitudinal observational study’. Environmental Health Perspectives. [Online].Available at: http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/wp-content/uploads/advpub/2016/4/EHP209.acco.pdf (Accessed: 8 June 2016).


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Chapter One | Air Pollution

2.4. Conclusion Dust is a powerful element that has a major impact on a planetary scale, from the Earth’s climatic system to every aspect of human life. However it is concerning that its influence over our life is only growing as dust became a life-threatening issue in many parts of the world, due to our unchanged perception and attitude towards the environment versus the economic prosperity. We believe that our social priority needs to be reassessed and revalued as an individual and as an inhabitant of this planet. The new, invisible air pollution can be materialised and visualised through design in the realm of architecture, and this can hopefully be a constant reminder to the public what we are living with within our immediate space. And perhaps we will not require yet another disaster to remind and force us to reassess our values and priority, as this time there may not be another chance to rectify the situation.

Figure 51: Saharan dust storm affecting the UK 34


Bartlett School of Architecture | University College London

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Figure 52: Tourists pose for a photo of the Hong Kong skyline as the real thing is shrouded in smog


Data mapping


CHAPTER 02 Analysis & Data Mapping

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Chapter Two | Analysis and Data Mapping

Combined data map 40


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3. Analysis and Data Mapping Site Analysis and Shaping Design Strategy

Pollution is usually looked upon with disdain as an unhealthy by-product of various human activities.

It is treated as undesirable and harmful and the only solution to deal with it is either its reduction or negation. A parallel flow of thought to writing off pollution as a problem is to look at it as more than a non essential inevitability but as a probable ‘medium’ of awareness and a possible material in itself. To do this one has to zoom into more specific forms of pollution, their occurrence and nature. One such form of pollution, much prevalent in London is dust. Dust, which comprises mostly of particulate matter is a form of pollution that is so common within the urban fabric it is treated as a normal occurrence rather than an issue. This chapter lays the groundwork for shaping the urban strategy and design. It begins with overviewing the site which is located in London Borough of Newham, and analysing numerous conditions which include; pollution level, people movement throughout the day, landuse, identification of pollution sources, proposed protection sites in accordance with the research carried out in part one, and most importantly the risk map based on the self developed equation combining all the elements together. Based on the risk map, the prototypes of different scales and functions will be deployed throughout the site accordingly. This unique design approach allows each design to be distinct from each other and give them more meaning which will be looked at with a much greater detail in the next chapter.

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3.1. Site Introduction Royal Docks The site is located within the boundary of Silvertown in the London Borough of Newham. Its location is approximately 5 miles east of the City of London and is an industrialised district on the north bank of the River Thames. Newham as a whole is one of the most ethnically diverse and deprived areas in the country. The area was heavily industrialised since 1852 with an opening of a rubber factory followed by numerous manure and chemical works and petroleum storage depots. Henry Tate and Abram Lyle built sugar refiners from 1877. However, the site was a victim of a massive TNT explosion known as the Silvertown explosion in 1917, which left a devastating impact on the existing industries. During the Second World War, most of the industries including Tate and Lyle’s sugar refinery, Silvertown Rubber Works were all severely damaged. Silvertown was then taken over by the British Tyre and Rubber Co, which closed down in the 1960s and now became the Thameside Industrial Estate. Along with the Thameside Industrial Estate, a large portion of the site is currently dominated by industries such as the Tate & Lyle sugar refinery and the John Knight ABP animal rendering plant. Apart from the industries, the site also has another unique component, London City Airport. Located in the Royal Docks on the eastern edge of Silvertown, the airport was constructed in the 1980s. It served 3.6 million passengers in 2014. It has also been proposed that the airport will have the capability of handling 8 million passengers per annum by 2030 without an additional runway or significant expansion of the airport boundaries. The site is currently undergoing a major £3.5 billion redevelopment that include construction of shops, a school, offices, a tech hub, 3,000 new homes and brand experience pavilions. In terms of the issues with pollution, air pollution is deemed to be a more significant concern compared to other factors such as water and ground pollution. Even then, the site is relatively at ease from such issue due to several reasons. Firstly, the site is not as heavily populated as other neighboring boroughs of London along with its waterside location. There is also less traffic flow than other parts of London with a smaller percentage of car ownership in the area than London and national average. (According to transport for London, 42% of adults with household have access to car in Newham and the trend continues to decline. London on average has 0.76 cars per household compared to 1.21 cars nationwide according to London Transport Data.) It is also worthwhile to mention that industries causing heavy lethal pollution no longer exist in the area. However, this does not mean the site is pollution free. Although the level of air pollution is declining every year, it still certainly produces toxic contaminants mainly by traffic and industries as well as the airport. Furthermore the proposal of the redevelopment of a large portion of the site, which will invite more people into the site and the plan to increase the airport passengers by millions, will undoubtedly increase the level of air pollution in and around the site.

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3.1.1. PM concentration across London and surrounding regions This image shows the PM concentration across London and surrounding areas. It is apparent that PM is more concentrated in London area and along the river Thames possibly as the terrain of the area is lower than the rest. PM level is significantly lower in rural areas further outside of London.

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3.1.2. PM Concentration in London The PM levels across London are influenced by various factors including population density, traffic flow, industries and construction. Central London is clearly the most polluted area in the city mainly due to heavy traffic and population density. The site is also part of a heavily polluted zone due to its close proximity to the city and other key areas including Canary Wharf and industries.

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INDUSTRIES 3.1.3. The Site and Around The site area is surrounded by a number of different pollution sources. Apart from pollution caused by heavy traffic in the western part of the site, the industries located along the banks are the highest source of pollution suplemented by the airport.

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3.2. Site Analysis and Data Mapping The site analysis largely focused on two main elements; first is air pollution in the area, starting from measuring different types of air pollution to detailed study of dust and its concentration levels as well as behaviour throughout the day. Second is to identify landuse of the area in order to identify the design intervention sites. The main initial task of data mapping was to first identify the key targets where the design proposals will take place. To do this a ‘risk equation’ was created. This involved the systematic mapping to the site into various grades or levels, which entailed the measurement of multiple factors such as distance from pollution sources, flow of pollution and landuse. This led to a series of individual maps which then would be combined to create one map highlighting the areas of design intervention. This macro analysis of the site is essential for the placement and working of the design interventions within smaller localised zones.

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3.2.1. Data Gathering Initial data collection involved multiple site visits to gather pollution data throughout the site using professional and industry standard measuring devices as well as a self-developed sensoring machine with GPS using arduino. 1. CEM DT-9880 Particle Counter - Used to measure PM particles from 0.3 - 10um which allows short filming as well as storing captured photos 2. Q-Trak Air Quality Monitor - Capable of up to 5 measurements including CO2, CO, temperature and humidity simultaneously 3. Arduino - Used to measure precise GPS lcoations, dust level, temperature and humidity. The overall air quality assesment and analysis was made based on general measurements of air pollution. This was further analysed with focus on PM levels in the site. Further data collection methods included the measurement of PM values across the site in accordance with split zones. The site was divided into grids and the measurement of PM in each grid was calculated, tabulated and then mapped. Data was collected from the macro to the micro. Across different mediums of pollution but then detailed on PM pollution, its causes and effects. This then led to points of PM variation across the site. The analysis of this data gathering was that the wind direction, location of sources and mainly the airport and major roads played huge factors in the ‘cluster’ of PM particles across the site.

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CEM DT-9880 Particle Counter and Measurements

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Q-Trak Air Quality Monitor and Measurements

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Arduino with multiple sensors and measurements

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3.2.2. Overall Air Pollution 1 All gathered data is converted into an elaborate air pollution map that records Carbon and Nitrogen levels, PM levels and general quality levels across the area. Legend

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3.2.3. Overall Air Pollution 2 An isometric view of the air pollution mapping across the site, which shows the different types of pollutants that are prevalent in the site. It is possible to see that pollutants are concentrated especially along the main roads in the site. Legend

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3.2.4. Influential Elements of Dust Dust has a strong correlation with a number of elements especially time, height and wind. Urban dust is primarily produced from human activities such as ground-based trasport(66%), construction(15%), Part B processes(5%) and other(14%). Therefore, the level of dust concentration rises rapidly from 7am until mid-day where it decreases slightly, and this seems to be because people stop their ecnonomic activities for lunch. It continues to rise until 5pm and the level rapidly drops after the evening rush hour. The level is lower during weekends, but shows a similar pattern. This is evident that dust level has a direct correlation to human activities in cities, which means the more active and busier the city, the more dust it produces. Dust also exists everywhere both horizontally and vertically, but figure 2 shows that the closer to the ground level, the higher the dust level. This means that children are at more higher risk than adults, and it is less healthy to work or do things on the ground level than above the ground level.

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3.2.5. Wind Pattern Wind around the site generally has the southwesterly wind pattern. This means that dust also has similar movement patterns as wind. Figure 57 shows that wind speed is faster especially around the airaport area due to departing and landing flights as well as along the River Thames. Figure 58 is an image from the CFD wind simulation on a specific area of the site in between a factory and the airport. The southwesterly wind creates a specific pattern particularly right after when the wind hits buildings, but generally flows through spaces in between buildings creating wind channels. Figure 59 and 60 show the realistic wind/dust behaviour which could be used as a guideline for the prototype design. For example, a design could be placed near the facades of buildings where the general wind is likely to hit. It could also be placed in between buildings as the wind travels through at faster speed on the ground level.

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Wind pattern across the site Wind simulation 1 Wind simulation 2 Wind simulation 3


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Wind Speed

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3.2.6. Other Influential Factors of Dust Dust is affected by numerous other factors that also include temperature and humidity. In order to find out the relationship between these factors and dust level, we chose a smaller area within the site and measured the figures around Drew Primary School in between the airport and Tate and Lyle Sugar Factory. 1. Temperature - Despite the small size of the research site, the temperature values still showed significant fluctuations during the measurement process. These differences may seem small but they affect the air pressure as well as the air quality in generall, consequently affecting the dust levels within the area. Higher values were recorded close to the major roads as well as the DLR station and the tunnel connecting the residential area with the London City Airport. 2. Humidity - In contrast to the small range of temperature values, humidity displayed higher variety of values in the same area. In the research area, the range beteween the lowest and highest values reached almost 40%, with the higher values recorded on the side of the airport due to its proximity to the water body to the north and the open green spaces in the site. 3. Dust

Level - Dust levels in Drew Primary School area tended to be higher close to the DLR station and the tunnel leading to the airport to the north and the major roads to the south. Although the daily pattern of local life procduces different values of dust levels during the day and the seasonal activities may vary throughout the year. Values representing dust at its peak during the day are displayed to show the average condition of dust in the site.

Overall, it seems that higher temperature combined with higher humidity seem to result in a higher level of dust. However this also could simply be a part of bigger microclimatic conditions that are interconnected with other more major factors such as road traffic and the amount of activities in certain areas.

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3.2.7. Risk Assessment Equation When it comes to pollution mapping, the existing methods and types are extremely conventional and not really architecturally aligned. They deal with just quantity and quality of the pollutant itself rather than focusing on the anthropocene, at least in terms of mapping. We devised a method that will enable us to pinpoint the highest risk areas acros the site using big data mapping with respect to pollution. Key criteria was identified on which the equation would be based and finally settled on the following parameters : Constants and variables. Constants are key location and people based factors such as : 1. Landuse - Self-developed landuse mapping out zones according to degrees of required protection. 2. Pollution levels - A comprehensive plotting of pollution in terms of sources, wind direction and amount of PM. 3. People frequency - A timeline based analysis of people and their movement in site. 4. Distance from pollution sources - The distance of an identified building from the source of pollution. 5. Number of pollution sources And variables that involve micro climatic factors such as temperature and pressure. All these parameters are valued according to bands of 1 to 5 which denotes categorisation and sub categorisation of the collected data to create easily understandable values to enable the spatial mapping of risk.

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All these parameters are valued according to bands of 1 to 5 which denotes categorisation and sub categorisation of the collected data to create easily understandable values to enable the spatial mapping of risk.

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3.2.8. Levels of dust (PM2.5) One of the most important parameters for the equation is the mapping of dust levels. The source of pollution, wind direction and topography are taken into consideration for this map. The levels are mapped in form of bands, where the innermost bands are the most concentrated.

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3.2.9 Landuse A unique version of landuse based on the level of importance a building has in terms of protection based on the research done in chapter one. Children, elderly and the sick are much more vulnerable to dust and other air pollutants. Therefore schools, hospitals and elderly homes are given the highest priority to intervene and protect, as well as spaces that are constantly occupied throughout the day.

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3.2.10. People Frequency This map visualises the number of people occupying buildings and other elements throughout the site. This also shows the average dust levels and distance from major pollution sources.

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3.2.12. Protected Areas Protected areas and existing road system are highlighted. Protected areas include education, hospital buildings as well as constantly occupied commercial and public areas and buildings. The busiest roads that generate most of air pollution are also mostly located alongside the protected sites. These form the basis for the overall strategy.

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3.2.13. Distance from Pollution Sources This is a direct representation of the distance of a source of pollution to the highest priority areas, creating a cross linked mesh of linear pollution lines. The closer the distance, the higher the effect of pollution.

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3.2.14. Distance from Pollution Sources - Grid An evolved version of the previous map, where the distance between the source of pollution and every grid within the site is measured. Legend

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3.2.15. Risk Assesment Map The culmination of the equation parameters and all the mapping results in this Risk assesment map which visualises the level of risk a place is at. This is represented in terms of bands which will eventually help establish the zones of intervention. This is the basis of the urban strategy of Dustopia.

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3.2.18. Combined Data Map This map combines all the data throughout the analysis process. Firstly, pollution sources and highest priority areas to be protected are identified which include health and educational spaces, public spaces that are constantly occupied throughout the day such as DLR stations and large commercial buildings. Pollution lines are mostly in accordance with the risk assessment map defining areas at high risks. This data is used as an overall strategy deciding where different prototypes are placed throughout the area depending on different circumstances.

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CHAPTER 03 Design & Strategy

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4. Design and Strategy Design Development and Urban Strategy

D

esign and strategy that are to be explored in this chapter are based on the theoretical research in chapter one where we found out that children, elderly and the sick are at high risk from air pollution, and the site analysis and mapping to analyse the relationshsip between the proposed protection sites and air pollution in chapter two. The aim of the project is to attract dust firstly to protect the ground space where people occupy and secondly to visualise dust to make a statement. In order to realise this, the design requires the use of combined technologies of ionisation and static electricity. This negatively charges the surrounding air(ionisation), and draws materials(dust) onto the charged surface of the object. This is a core part of the design and it needs to work with the technology, meaning the design should be done in a way that can maximise the efficiency of the technology. Therefore, the material requirement of the design is also limited to electric conductors, for instance, copper which has the second highest conductivity after pure silver, but more affordable and non-corrosive. This will be explored in a much greater detail later through experiments and computer simulations. Design proposals are comprised of four main prototypes that are deployed differently throughout the entire site according to the risk assessment map. Prototypes differ in terms of scale, function based on the specific site conditions. Catenary arch is used as a fundamental design language that are explored thoroughly to to suit different conditions. Four prototypes include canopy, stand-alone, combination of the two and a smaller wall module. For instance, the canopy type is deployed where there is no available ground space therefore uses roofs or facades as anchor points. The stand-alone type is placed where there is available ground space. The combined type is much larger in size that could cover a much larger area using both the ground, walls and building roofs as anchor points. Finally there is a modular type which can be deployed on walls where risk is lower. The process focused much on the combined type in order to depict various conditions and forms.

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4.1. Design Method 4.1.1. Static Electricity Static electricity is an imbalance of electric charges within or on the surface of a material. The charge remains until it is able to move away by means of an electric current or electrical discharge. Static electricity is named in contrast with current electricity, which flows through wires or other conduc tors and transmits energy. A static electric charge is created whenever two surfaces contact and separate, and at least one of the surfaces has a high resistance to electric current as an electrical insulator. The effects of static electricity are displayed when we are brought close to a large electrical conductor, for example, a path to ground, or a region with an excess charge of the opposite polarity positive or negative. The triboelectric effect, also known as triboelectric charging is a type of contact electrification in which certain materials become electrically charged after they come into frictive contact with a different material. Rubbing glass with fur or a comb through the hair, can build up triboelectricity. This is also achieved by inducing opposite charges in two materials . Most everyday static electricity is triboelectric. The polarity and strength of the charges produced differ according to the materials, surface roughness, temperature, strain, and other properties. 4.1.2. Ionisation Ionisation is the process by which the dust particles in the air are given a negative charge using a device called an ioniser, installed in prototypes placed specifically for this purpose. These negatively charged particles are immediately drawn to any electrically charged surface, namely the copper elements used in design. Ionisation also has several positive effects such as; -

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Increased sense of well-being and mental clarity Clears the air of dust, pollen, pet dander, mold spores and other allergens Decreased airborne viruses and bacteria Improved function of the cilia in respiratory tract to protect lungs Relaxing effect to normalise breathing rate, decrease blood pressure and relieve tension Effective at treating Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) Improved energy levels and focus (University of California)


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4.2. Catenary Arch Study As a structural form, catenary arch comprises useful qualities that few parametric shapes have. It is capable of covering large spans and thus big areas and anchor not only to the ground but also on vertical surfaces such as building facades. Moreover, it also has the magnificent ability to distribute the loads it bears almost evenly, without spots being stressed more than others, according to the degree of symmetry of the surface. Type 1: A simple catenary arch resembles a sheet that anchors to the ground on the four corner points of a square, giving the impression of a dome with edges. Type 2: The complexity of the catenary system begins with the introduction of more anchor points, such as to the centre of the previous form Type 3: A catenary arch can also repeat itself within it, having the initial four corner points with the addition of another four closer to the centre of it. Type 4 and 5: The symmetry maintained up to this point can be omitted by moving the anchor points out of the outline of the square. By changing the number of anchor points as well, the variety of different outcomes becomes infinite. Catenary archs do not only abide to squares but also to other rectangular shapes. A simple rectangle consisting of two squares side by side is already capable of producing numerous alternative options which display the very fundamental advantages and multiformity of the catenary surface system (type 1, 2, 3).

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CATENARY ARC STUDY 1

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4.2.1. Type 1: A simple catenary arch resembles a sheet that anchors to the ground on the four corner points of a square, giving the impression of a dome with edges.

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4.2.2. Type 2: The complexity of the catenary system begins with the introduction of more anchor points, such as to the centre of the previous form

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4.2.3. Type 3: A catenary arch can also repeat itself within it, having the initial four corner points with the addition of another four closer to the centre of it.

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4.2.4. Type 4: The symmetry maintained up to this point can be omitted by moving the anchor points out of the outline of the square. By changing the number of anchor points as well, the variety of different outcomes becomes

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4.2.5. Type 5: The symmetry maintained up to this point can be omitted by moving the anchor points out of the outline of the square. By changing the number of anchor points as well, the variety of different outcomes becomes infinite.

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4.2.6. Type 6: The symmetry maintained up to this point can be omitted by moving the anchor points out of the outline of the square. By changing the number of anchor points as well, the variety of different outcomes becomes infinite.

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4.2.7. Type 7: The symmetry maintained up to this point can be omitted by moving the anchor points out of the outline of the square. By changing the number of anchor points as well, the variety of different outcomes becomes infinite.

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4.2.8. Type 8: The symmetry maintained up to this point can be omitted by moving the anchor points out of the outline of the square. By changing the number of anchor points as well, the variety of different outcomes becomes infinite.

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4.2.9. Prototypes Based on catenary arch studies, we have developed three types of prototypes which can be applied throughout the site under different conditions and situations. Prototype 1: Canopy This canopy type can be deployed on the roofs or building facades where there is no availabale ground space such as school grounds or playgrounds. This will allow maintaining the ground without compromising any existing space. Prototype 2: Standalone This prototype can be applied where there is available ground space so that the columns or anchor points of the archs can stand on. Applicable sites include public parks, squares and car parks etc. This prototype allows a more direct contact with those who use the space. This means the design not only provides some level of protection from air pollution, but it can also maximise its other purpose which is to visualise dust in a more approachable distance. Prototype 3: Combination This prototype combines both the canopy and standalone prototypes. This can be applied where the risk level is the highest so that more area could be covered and be protected from air pollution. Potential sites include schools or hospitals near the airport, construction sites, major roads and industries. As a combination of the previous options, this can cover a large area if required, using ground, building facades and roofs as anchor points. The prototype therefore can vary in size and forms depending on each site. A small area of the site will be chosen for further development.

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Canopy

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Prototype 2: Standalone

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4.2.10. Detailed Site A smaller site is chosen to develop the combination of prototypes in a greater detail. There is a primary school within a residential area which is located in between the airport to the north and Tate and Lyle sugar factory to the south which are two of the biggest contributors of dust in the whole site.

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4.3. Catenary Arch Development The catenary system is based on a system of anchor points where the canopy reaches the ground. These points can also fit inside a rectangular grid, developing repeatedly in space, especially when covering empty areas in the urban tissue. Grid points follow open spaces such as streets, pedestrian walkways, parks and squares but they sometimes also climb on building facades. The resulting grid is a system with organic development, resulting from the available paths in the area of interest and having different dimensions along its extent. 4.3.1. Stage One Catenary archs multiply based on the points of this grid in several different ways providing different design options. In their most primitive form they can simply reproduce themselves on each grid square, forming a repetitive total of identical catenary archs. The disadvantage of this option however is the small span and height each catenary arch has comparing to the total area the entire system covers. 4.3.2. Stage Two This however can be surpassed by connecting the catenary archs to form more complicated combinations, with more than 4 anchor points on the ground. As they start clustering, catenary archs acquire larger height and span over specific areas. At this stage, interesting combinations of forms can be created, some of them more and others less uniformed in comparison to the rest. 4.3.3. Stage Three As the conglomeration of catenary surfaces proceeds, more continuous and fluidic forms appear, almost making the initial ground grid disappear. Many different heights along the overall surface create an undulating forms with a great variety both on top but mostly underneath, on ground level. The grid system as a scaffolding for the catenary formation is only obvious at the edges of the structure. This will be explored in a greater detail in a smaller scale.

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4.3.1. Stage One

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4.4. Urban Strategy The urban strategy is a summary of the site analysis and design strategy. It aims to visualise the relationship between the risk level, pollution level and design. For example, where each of prototype can be deployed throughout the site depending on these elements. Each layer depicts different information starting from the existing site. The second layer highlights the proposed protected areas along with the busiest roads which interconnect the whole site with other prototypes as well as being the largest contributor of air pollution. This is followed by the design interventions of four prototypes that are placed according to key elements including the average pollution level and the level of risk in each area. For example, the combined prototype is placed along the main road near Drew primary school and a residential area which sit in between the City Airport and Tate & Lyle sugar factory.

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5. Material and Details Material Study and Detail Design

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his chapter will focus on material experimentations and detailing and finalising the design. Design materials will be introduced first to make sure the aim can be achivable, and this will be supported by detail studies and finalisation.

5.1. Material Study involves the study and analysis of materials, their properties, composition, possible adaptive applications, which could be used to form a design within the chosen issue of particulate matter. Keeping in mind the requirement for dustopia is the need to allow people to review and revalue dust to make a political statement, it was decided that a collection of certain materials would be best suited for such a design. This can be achieved through a combination of the use of technology which is using electrostatic force and ionisation process to attract dust with selected materials that work best with the technology as introduced earlier. Several experiments were carried out in order to decide on materials. The primary requirement for the choice of the materials was electrical conductivity. Copper, Alluminium, Brass and stainless steel were chosen for the material experiments as they are four of the ten most conductive natural elements that are also readily available at relatively low cost compared to pure silver or gold which also have high electrical conductivity. The materials selected to test are: - Copper - Alluminium - Brass - Stainless Steel Copper was selected as the main material for its conductive properties. Using the concept behind electrostatic force and attracting particles towards a charged material, copper was the best suited as the second most conductive natural element after pure silver. Copper also has numerous other properties including 100% recyclability, aesthetics and erosion-resistance. Other materials, particularly alluminium is the second most conductive amongst the four which is also much cheaper than copper.

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5.1.1. Material Selection Material IACS (International Annealed Copper Standard) Ranking Metal 1 Silver (Pure)

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Copper, aluminium, brass and steel were chosen for the initial material experiment. The four metals were chosen based on three criteria; conductivity, availability and cost. As the table above indicates, the test also proved that copper and aluminium as the most effective elements to achieve design aims.

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5.1.2. Material Experiment 1

This Experiment utilises the process of ionisation and electrostatic force to test both the ionising and attractive capabilities of different conductive materials. Taking 4 easily available conductive materials such as Copper, Aluminium, Stainless Steel and Brass. Plates of each material are attached to an ioniser and subject to electrostatic charging. It is found that Copper and Aluminium created the highest density of ions required to ionise dust and then attract it. Another noted factor is that the strength of charge for both copper and aluminium is directly proportional to the duration of charge. The longer the charge lasts the more ionising potential the metal develops.

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Also observed were the differences in peak potential of each material. Peak potential was measured using a potentiometer on the scale of 0 to a million generated ions over 10 minutes. Copper reached its peak potential around half way and the gradually stabilised to a constant average potential. Aluminium on the other had spiked at the beginning and then fell into a lower constant potential to copper. Brass remained constant throughout but at a much lower level than both copper and aluminium while stainless steel had extremely low values.

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5.1.3. Copper Through the basic material test, it was found that copper and aluminium carry the strongest conductivity as written on the list above. This means that copper and aluminium are by far the best options to achieve the design goal. Taking into consideration the purpose behind the proposal, its affiliation with dust and the possible expected results, copper was the ideal electrically conductive material most suitable for Dustopia. It has the highest electrical conductivity after silver, which is the most important criteria. Furthermore ideal physical properties such as its high malleablity and ductility, low thermal movement and light weight ensures that it can be used in any form and spatial sense, easily adaptable to the context of any installation. Its durability ensures the long term success of the design, as it is corrosion resistant and can be applied in any environment. Its inertness to water also makes it ideal for the climate of London. It is a highly sustainable material as it is 100% recycable and can be re-adapted according to multiple requirements. Also research has proven that increasing the mass and cross section of copper in a coil increases the electrical conductivity of the material. Alloy Forms : Another advantage of copper is the multiple forms it is available in. These alloys of copper are much more effective and can provide better structural stability.

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Figure 61: Copper

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5.1.4. Aluminium Aluminium is the most abundant mineral on earth after oxygen and silicon. Its constitutes to 8% of the earth’s landmass but is a third of the weight of copper. It has high anticorrosive properties and is extremely light weight and durable. Aluminium’s physical properties make the metal light in weight, strong, non-sparking, nonmagnetic, nontoxic and non-combustible. Aluminium is remarkable for the metal’s low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and important in transportation and structures, such as building facades and window frames Aluminium is also highly conductive making it an ideal alternative to copper for this project. Due to its abundance it is a cheaper but less efficient alternative to copper and can be used in low risk areas of pollution. Aluminium can be recycled continuously with no loss of its qualities. Recycling saves 95 percent of the production of energy needed to create the metal through smelting processes

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Figure 62: Aluminium

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5.1.5. Material Experiment 2

This experiment tests the potential of plain surfaces against intricate weaves. The successful surfaces of copper and aluminium from experiment 1 are tested against a flat woven copper circle. The tests showed that while the ionising potential of the surfaces stayed constant the ionising potential of the weave kept rising. This is due to the fact that weaved portions function as rotations similar to a step up transformer. This increased the charge of the copper. Furthermore, denser weaving equals greater surface area of material that gets charge. This is directly proportional to ionisation potential.

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5.1.6. Weaving Pattern Experiment Through experimenting with copper wire weaving, applying different simple patterns on a circular grid of points provides a range of weaving outcomes. Depending on the number of the circle outline points included in eachs instance, the resulting weaving patterns produce different density qualities through higher concentrations of copper wire and the number of their junction points. The result of the experiments also showed that higher density of copper wiring is more effective in attracting more dust to the surface.

1. Rotated Grid Coil

The regular rectangular grid of lines is weaved inside the circular outline with the number of weaving points gradually increasing. It produced a dense pattern and many weaving knots reinforcing weaved wires and the general density of the copper pattern.

2. Spiral Coil

A repetitive spiral develops inside the circular outline. This pattern can also be applied simultaneously on the reverse direction, producing a combination of 2 mirrored versions of the same shape with numerous knots and increased density comparing to the initial shape.

3. Triangular Coil

According to the placement of the knot points on the circular weaving grid, a variety of triangular shapes is developed and then repeated a several number of times, creating a complicated still symmetrical flower-like pattern with interesting variations in denisity along its surface.

4. Starship Coil

Weaving each point of the circular outline to all the others apart from the exact opposite one produces the most common copper weaving pattern, the “starship�. Its most predominant feature is the extremely high density of the weaving according to the number of the weaving points, creating an almost solid-like surface. 150

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5.1.7. Weaving Points - Number & Density By increasing the number of weaving points, each pattern produces different densities comparing to others and within its own weaving as well. The higher the number of knots and weaving junctions as well as the increased density of copper wire weaved in certain areas, creates more surface for dust and particle attraction. Thus, density becomes a decisive factor in comparing the efficiency of each weaving pattern, since the higher the weaving density the better electrically charged and more effective than the pattern itself.

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5.1.8. RealFlow Simulation of Basic Forms In order to find out the best basic design form to attract particles, four basic shapes were tested through RealFlow. A cube, a sphere, a pyramid and a cylinder were tested under the same conditions and particle number of 5,000. The most obvious finding was that the more surface available, the more particles it collected. Therefore, both sphere and pyramid did not collect as much as the other two. In conclusion, the cylinder collected significantly more particles than the cube. This seems to be due to its curved surface which allows wind to flow more naturally and smoothly, allowing more dust to sit on, rather than the sharply curved edges of the cube. Different types of cylinders need to be tested that will work better with our design method which will be explored further on the next page.

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5.1.9. RealFlow Simulation of Different Cylinder Shapes From the previous RealFlow simulation, it was concluded that the cylinder attracts the most number of particles compared to other shapes. This simulation is an extended study on cylinder to test different types of cylinder forms and find out which kind works in the most effective way. Three basic types were tested from a standard cylinder, truncated cylinder and a curved truncated cylinder. These are placed on a catenary surface which is constant. The conditions of electrostatic attraction are factored in and then the models are simulated against ten thousand particles. As can be seen, it was concluded that the curved truncated cylinder was the most successful due to the availability of more space between them. The attraction potential is also exponentially increased by the curvature of the cylinders which facilitates air flow between the gaps.

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5.1.10. Module Frame Typologies Through the cone experimentation process, three typologies of frames were developed. All of them follow the starship weaving pattern both on the inside and outside, varying in size. The weaving density is increased significantly, using up to 160 weaving points in order to maximize the wire surface available for particle attraction. In terms of size dimensions, the three typologies do not maintain exactly the same proportion of height to the diameters of base and top, but gradually become taller to increase the overall electrostatic ionisation for the total of cones used regardless of their size and possible duplication of the effect between them. The height of the cones ranges from 27.5cm to 75cm. Differentiations in top and base diameters, apart from the general ionisation effect, are related to the amount of natural light penetrating the weaving on the final structure. For that reason, a small number of cones only have external weaving on their frames.

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5.1.11. Weaving Patterns from 2D to 3D The triangular, spiral and rotated grid coil, although being quite interesting and successfully woven on a two-dimensional surface, bring on several difficulties when applied on a three-dimensional surface. The point groups needed for their application provide significantly different results when applied comparing to the two-dimensional versions. The weaving patterns developed maintains a degree of structural consistency but still need a huge increase in the number of weaving points involved in order to provide adequate surfaces of the attraction of dust. In a zoom-in view, the continuation and uniformity of the overall pattern is no longer clearly visible, thus structural stability of the weaving on the frame is decreased. The starship coil appears to be the most stable and structurally consistent pattern, creating homogenous shapes, regardless of the number of joints. As their number increases, the weaving density increases accordingly and in this case it resembles the most a copper or aluminium surface, thus the pattern provides the biggest surface possible, available for dust attraction.

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5.1.12. Weaving Pattern Parameters The three-dimensional application of the starship pattern on the wooden frame can apply multiple densities, ranging from 20 up to 80 or even 160 anchor points for weaving. As a result of the uniformity of the pattern grid, the density increases fractally such as a multiple layers of curtain surfaces. According to the density applied, the length of copper or aluminium wire used per cone frame changes, reaching up to 320m for a medium sized cone. Another parameter affecting the capability of the total surface available to attract dust particles is the thickness of the copper wire. In relation with the density parameter, the thickness of copper wire used for weaving changes, usually in the reverse way to maintain enough space on the wire for particles to accumulate. The strength of the electrostatic and ionizing effect depends amount of power charge and its range in space. Different voltages according to the power source, either battery (12V) of main (at least 19.5V), can be provided to the weaving pattern. In this way the number of ions produced has an equivalent effect on particles around the module, especially when the woven modules are clustered to form larger groups. In this respect, the range of ionisation is proportionate to the charge provided to the structure. As the number of cones increases, the same happens to the general efficiency of the cone cluster. A range of 5mm per cone can thus be multiplied many times when being part of a group of cones adding further strength to the ionization and dust concentration process.

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Aluminium Weaving 163


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5.1.13. Material Experiment 3 This experiment involves recording and cataloguing the behaviour of charged dust around an electrostatically charged truncated cone. The cone is weaved with copper in accordance to the weaving pattern most successful. The frames capture the layering of dust particles on to the surface of the weave. The longer the charge is sustained the more layers of dust develop. This also proves that the amount of dust attraction is directly proportional to the density of weave of the cones. This is because more weaves i.e. more surface area allows for higher charge distribution in copper.

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Dust atttraction stages

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5.1.14. Material Experiment 4 The woven copper cone is subject to several simulations of rain after the accumulation of dust on its surface. The simulations found that the layered dust first merges together to form a dense slush and then gains enough mass and liquidity to drip off the cone. This can then be drained through the water drain mechanism devised. 173


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5.2. Detail Design 5.2.1. Circle Packing on Surface The volume on which circle packing is better applied is the sphere. The complete lack of edges or sides fits extremely well with the circular shapes involved, regardless of their diameter. In addition to that, sphere provides the opportunity of testing circle packing on a three-dimensional shape that has the similar properties with its two-dimensional form, the circle. The composition of circle packing applied comes with a variety of typologies. According to the number of different circle diameters involved, the diameters themselves, the number of circles included and the area of the surface of application, the outcome differs significantly. This is apparent in the overall composition of the circle groups and the gaps left between them. Circle packing typologies can be either specific or random. The second category tends to provide more interesting results visually as well as better packing of the sphere surface. Another parameter affecting the quality of the outcome is the number of different circle sizes involved. Based on the results of simulations conducted, the smaller the number of circles sizes the more complete the packing is and the smaller the in between gaps are. The shape and size of the gaps is also critical, since the smallest gaps with 3 or 4 corners coincide with a more compact and consistent distribution of circles.

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5.2.2. Circle Packing and Catenary Systems - Type 1 In circle packing, the goal for reaching stable and consistent shape is to achieve as many intermediate void between circles with the smallest number of corners possible. Thus, the less voids of 5 points (shown as red) and possibly the more voids of 3 points (shown as blue) in a circle packing system the better the actual result.

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5.2.3. Circle Packing and Catenary Systems - Type 2 The simplest form of a catenary arch, a symmetrical one with four edges reaching the ground, resembles mostly a dome shape like that of Type 1. The smoothness and gradual change of inclination provides an effective circle packing even with a small range of circle diameters.

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5.2.4. Circle Packing and Catenary Systems - Type 3 As a direct evolution of the previous catenary arch, this version resembles that form also introducing a fifth edge touching the ground at the centre. The increasing steepness of the arch is due to its small span which create bigger voids between the circles on the upper part.

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5.2.5. Circle Packing and Catenary Systems - Type 4 The next step is a catenary arch developing in a fractal logic, repeating the previous catenary version within it. With eight edges reaching the ground and a significant steepness because of its small size, a more regular and uniform circle packing is needed.

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5.2.6. Circle Packing and Catenary Systems - Type 5 A non-symmetrical catenary arch, following irregular plan level distribution provides quite effective circle packing options. Steepness and size of the arch can be adjusted according to the surroundings, providing a diversity in circle packing results.

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5.2.7. Models 197


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Cone modules applied on catenary arch 201


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Overall Section

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Car Park

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Park

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Peak point

5.2.10. Drainage Process Dust sticking on the structure is no longer harmful to people. The accumulation of dust on the structure is showing dust but not a permanent condition. Changing weather conditions such as rain wash down the dust to ground. As dust collides with water it falls on the ground. Channelling rings on the cones intersecting with each other are designed to reduce potentially dirty and dusty water falling uncontrollably on the ground.

Channelling Rain Water

The rings direct and send water to specific parts of the ground following the slope of catenary arch. On ground level, Biopori holes are designed to collect the dusty water, the placement of which becomes more concentrated in places where the roof structure touches the ground. Biopori

Channelling Rain Water

Biopori tubes is a technology first introduced in Indonesia in 2008. A biopori is a hole with a diameter of 10-30cm and a depth of 80-100cm, usually filled by organic waste such as leaves, used to collect rain water reaching the ground. In the case of Dustopia, biopori holes serve for the concentration of water mixed with dust particles. Even though crossing the already contaminated air of London, dust particles usually maintain useful organic nutrients that could be used as fertilizers or ingredients for decomposing. The mixture of organic waste, dust and water is capable of producing natural compos with time. As the water eventually dries out and biopori tubes are regurarly replaced with new ones, the end result can not only be used as compost outcome but also become a natural construction material. If treated properly, it could be used as an aggregate as part of construction material such as bricks or concrete blocks during production process.

Biopori Holes

Main Collection Point

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Peak point

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Channelling rain water

Channelling rain water

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Water Flow Diagram


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5.2.12. Park Area Ground Development

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5.2.13. Key Views

This view looks into the factory cark park and the main road. The raining background is to highlight dirty and dusty water flowing down the road which could also be a strong visual statement. In this area, the cone modules are facing down in order to maximise dust attraction in comparison to other parts of the structure. This is because air pollution is produced within the structure. Also, both copper and aluminium are used to reduce cost as functionality is more important than other areas. This means that the design elements, including materials and directions of cone modules change according to specific site conditions.

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Car Park View 249


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5.2.14. Key Views

This view looks into the park area in between the airport and the factory. As the area is heavily used by the public, only copper is used to achieve the maximum effect. Cone modules are facing upwards in order to protect the ground space as air pollution is produced outside the area.

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Park View 1 251


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6. Conclusion As the world steadily moves towards a smog filled future, the vision for Dustopia will always be one of

intricately woven pockets of purity. Serving as a safe haven from the perils of pollution, it will be a rebellious piece of the urban fabric, that refuses to succumb to the nature of dust. The project visually represents a nature of architecture that will be required a hundred years from now to combat the ever rising spectre of pollution. Dustopia simply put, will be architecture that protects. But it doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t end at that. The goals of Dustopia are twofold. While it attempts to provide protection against a harmful and undesirable element such as dust it also hopes to make a strong statement on the issue as a whole by enabling the visualisation of a material that is often not visible or perceivable, and hence easily dismissed. Dustopia as a project explores a way to apply such ideas in the realm of architecture and urban design. The entire working of such a project relies on vast extensive sets of data, both collected and real time data, that are essential for the project. This data is processed to eventually shape the design and strategy of Dustopia. Being prototypical in nature, Dustopia can be applied in any geographical setup. It merges adaptability, data processing, hardware and aesthetic design to truly be the apotheosis of smart architecture. There are of course many more aspects of the project that require further research and exploration. This includes the processing of dust once collected and how it could be utilised in more sustainable means. This next step could provide a way to turn a waste material to a more meaningful element, creating a new form of material infrastructure. Dustopia is derived from the term utopia where everything is hypothetically perfect. However, as creating a perfect city is practically impossible we believe what we can do instead, is to reinterpret the problems and issue of a city and try to work with the undesirables as well. Architecture is a powerful tool that could change not only our physical space, but also the way we perceive the world, expanding its horizon much further to absorb such undesired subjects and materials into its realm, utilising cutting edge technology available today, evolving into something more. Dustopia aspires to become the standpoint for a bigger change towards a more sustainable future, where the Anthropocene is no longer a negative burden on the earth. We will not need to correct or adapt to the follies of our planet degrading actions, but instead, through architecture like Dustopia, enforce positive change that allows us to control the outcome of our Epoch.

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Bibiliography and List of Figures

7. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Klein, N. (2014). This Changes Everything : Capitalism vs. the Climate. New York : Simon & Schuster. 2. Evelyn, J. (2011). Fumifugium: A 21st century translation of a 17th century essay on air pollution in London. 1st ed. [Online]. London: Environmental Protection UK. Available at: https://issuu.com/environmental-protection-uk/docs/fumifugium. (Accessed 1 May 2016). 3. Voiland, A. (2010). Aerosols: Tiny particles, big impact: Feature articles. NASA. [Online]. Available at: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Aerosols/ (Accessed: 28 April 2016). 4. Wong, E. (2014). China exports pollution to U.S., study finds. The New York Times. [Online]. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2014/01/21/world/asia/china-also-exports-pollution-to-western-us-study-finds.html?_r=0 (Accessed: 2 May 2016). 5. Voiland, A. (2010). New map offers a global view of health-sapping air pollution. NASA. [Online]. Available at: http:// www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/health-sapping.html (Accessed: 1 May 2016). 6. BBC. (2013). Air pollution causes cancer. The BBC. [Online]. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-24564446 (Accessed: 1 May 2016). 7. Boseley, S. (2015). Air pollution may cause more UK deaths than previously thought, say scientists. The Guardian. [Online]. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/apr/02/air-pollution-may-cause-more-uk-deaths-thanpreviously-thought-say-scientists (Accessed: 2 May 2016). 8. Choices, N. (2014). Air pollution associated with low birthweight. The NHS. [Online]. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/ news/2013/10October/Pages/Air-pollution-associated-with-low-birth-weight.aspx (Accessed: 3 May 2016). 9. Met Office. (2014). The great smog of 1952. The Met Office. [Online]. Available at: http://www.metoffice.gov.uk/learning/ learn-about-the-weather/weather-phenomena/case-studies/great-smog (Accessed: 16 April 2016). 10. Vaughan, A. (2015). Nearly 9, 500 people die each year in London because of air pollution. The Guardian. [Online]. Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/jul/15/nearly-9500-people-die-each-year-in-london-becauseof-air-pollution-study (Accessed: 21 April 2016). 11. Sunyer et al. (2015). Association between Traffic-Related Air Pollution in Schools and Cognitive Development in Primary School Children: A Prospective Cohort Study. 12. Wilson, M. (2014). The British Environmental Movement: The development of an environmental consciousness and environmental activism, 1945-1975. PhD. Newcastle: the University of Northumbria. 13. Brown, P. (2002). 50 years after the great smog, a new killer arises. The Guardian. [Online]. Available at: https://www. theguardian.com/waste/story/0,12188,851002,00.html (Accessed: 01 July 2016). 14. Oliver-Smith, A. (1996). Anthropological research on hazards and disasters. Annual Review of Anthropology. 25(1). pg. 303â&#x20AC;&#x201C;328. 15. Scarrow, H.A. (1972). The Impact of British Domestic Air Pollution Legislation. British Journal of Political Science. 2(03). Pg 261-282 16. BasagaĂąa et al. (2016). Neurodevelopmental deceleration by urban fine particles from different emission sources: A longitudinal observational study. Environmental Health Perspectives.

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8. LIST OF FIGURES Figure 01: http://www.zonu.com/images/0X0/2009-09-17-2657/Haze-over-Eastern-China.jpg Figure 02: https://www.gesundheitsindustrie-bw.de/en/article/dossier/environmental-toxins-effect-and-origin/ Figure 03: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Images/related_to.php?id=18040 Figure 04: http://mapdesign.icaci.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/MapCarte272_galaxy_large.png Figure 05: http://www.nas.nasa.gov/SC13/assets/images/content/21_Duffy_D_Climate_Nature_Run_Chem_2006-09-13_06-00_SC13_big.jpg Figure 06: Own Production Figure 07: http://home.bt.com/news/world-news/december-5-1952-thousands-suffocate-as-great-smog-descends-on-london-11363948039187 Figure 08: http://flashbak.com/the-great-london-pea-souper-fog-of-1952-45579/london-smog-2/ Figure 09: http://home.bt.com/pictures/uk-news/the-great-smogs-of-the-1950s-in-pictures-41363889916039 Figure 10: http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/02420/getty_2420347b.jpg Figure 11: http://ichef.bbci.co.uk/images/ic/1200x675/p01gpl00.jpg Figure 12: http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2012/12/06/article-2243732-16604904000005DC-217_964x760.jpg Figure 13: http://flashbak.com/the-great-london-pea-souper-fog-of-1952-45579/victim-of-fog/ Figure 14: http://home.bt.com/pictures/uk-news/the-great-smogs-of-the-1950s-in-pictures-41363889916039 Figure 15: http://flashbak.com/the-great-london-pea-souper-fog-of-1952-45579/gettyimages-71543358/ Figure 16: http://io9.gizmodo.com/brooding-photos-of-the-deadly-london-fog-922313031 Figure 17: http://files.stv.tv/imagebase/364/605x404/364876-friends-of-the-earth-scotland-campaign-against-air-pollution-on-nicolson-street-edinburgh.jpg Figure 18: http://blog.museumoflondon.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/08/Margaret-Monck-1935.jpg Figure 19: https://d.ibtimes.co.uk/en/full/1358772/canary-wharf-daylight.jpg Figure 20: https://imperialbusiness11.files.wordpress.com/2011/08/royal-docks-1964.jpg Figure 21: http://newlondondevelopment.com/full/54f8386269702d1102260100/170._RoyalDocks.jpg?1425553504 Figure 22: http://i0.wp.com/www.educationviews.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/traffic-jam.jpg Figure 23: http://66.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_l2n0b6RoqN1qbzx5q.jpg Figure 24: http://static.independent.co.uk/s3fs-public/thumbnails/image/2015/10/08/11/traffic-china.jpg Figure 25: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/earth/environment/11991350/Mapped-Where-is-air-pollution-killing-the-most-people.html Figure 26: http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view.php?id=66153 Figure 27 - 30: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Aerosols Figure 31: https://www.flickr.com/photos/ruthannestevens/4340694168/ Figure 32: http://i1-news.softpedia-static.com/images/news2/Carnivorous-Plant-Often-Turns-Vegetarian-Eats-Algae-and-Pollen-Grains-468021-4.jpg Figure 33: http://spaceplace.nasa.gov/review/volcanoes/earth-3.en.jpg Figure 34: http://www.earlyhumanimpact.eu/about/how-do-climate-parameters-respond-to-or-correlate-with-changes-in-biomass-burning Figure 35: http://www.medicaldaily.com/us-air-pollution-tied-chinese-exports-strong-winds-blow-nitrogen-oxides-carbon-monoxide-across-ocean Figure 36: http://www.theconstructionindex.co.uk/news/view/excuse-my-dust-1 Figure 37: http://www.earthtimes.org/health/cough-air-pollution-affects-hearts/476/ Figure 38: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fireplace#/media/File:Fireplace_Burning.jpg Figure 39 - 46: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=3516 Figure 47: http://www.cnmatters.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/CFP475599419-940x600.jpg Figure 48: https://melwood2014.files.wordpress.com/2014/12/chinese_man_in_a_gas_mask1.jpg Figure 49: http://www.theguardian.com/cities/2014/dec/16/beijing-airpocalypse-city-almost-uninhabitable-pollution-china Figure 50: http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/04/sunday-review/life-in-a-toxic-country.html?_r=2 Figure 51: https://metofficenews.files.wordpress.com/2014/03/sahara-dust-update.jpg Figure 52: http://www.businessinsider.com/hong-kong-picture-smog-backdrop-2013-8 Figure 53: http://www.theguardian.com/business/2016/feb/25/canadian-consortium-buys-london-city-airport-2bn Figure 54: http://www.londonair.org.uk/london/reports/Ealing_detailed_assessment_particulate_matter06.pdf Figure 55: http://www.mdpi.com/2073-4433/4/2/157/htm Figure 56: http://www.londonair.org.uk/london/reports/Ealing_detailed_assessment_particulate_matter06.pdf Figure 57: Own Production Figure 58: Own Production Figure 59: Own Production Figure 60: Own Production Figure 61: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copper#/media/File:NatCopper.jpg Figure 62: http://images-of-elements.com/aluminium.jpg

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Chapter Two | Analysis and Data Mapping

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Dustopia  

M.Arch Urban Design Thesis (2016) - Bartlett School of Architecture, UCL

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