WANG HOOI YING 376195
WEEK 1: STATE OF THE ART PROJECTS Personal Project Guggenheim Museum Bilbao Guangzhou Opera House
WEEK 2: CASE FOR INNOVATION-COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN UK Pavilion Genetic Algorithms Dynamics and Field of Force Parametric Design CNC Fabrication Folding
WEEK 3: SCRIPTING CULTURE A Research Pavilion in Stuttgart BIOTHING-Seroussi Pavillion Son-O-House Beekman Tower Aqua Tower
WEEK 4 : MATRIX OF COMBINATION Cut and Develop
WEEK 5: REVERSE ENGINEER
OMA Restaurant Aoba-Tei, Japan Spanish Pavilion, Expo 2005 Dior Ginza
WEEK 6: EOI Research Project Personal Research Restaurant Aoba Tei
WEEK 7:EOI Research Project Restaurant Aoba Tei Exploring form Exploring Light
WEEK 8:EOI Research Project Prototype Learning outcomes
STATE OF THE ART PROJECTS What is ARCHITECTURE? [Architecture as a system of COMUNICATIONS]
-Patrik Schumacher, ‘Introduction : Architecture as Autopoietic System’
[Architecture as a form of art,symbolic realm, spatial experience.] -Richard Williams, ‘Architecture and Visual Culture
WANG HOOI YING 376195 5/3/2012
The approach of this project is to create a computational design and generate a physical model with fabrication and folding. It is important as it intended to contribute to development and understanding of computational design. The main concept for the headpiece is the wave form with triagular openings. The inspiration is from an architect named Elena Manferdini who used the similar concept apply on her fashion design field. Her projects consisted of parametric designs and mostly followed the fabrication principles used for laser-cut clothing, which is useful in determining the method of construction for the Getaway Project. The Getaway Project gives much freedom in exploring the methods, textures, forms and designs by computer programming. The headpiece emphasized on the repeatition of triangles on the surface by using parametric design to create fluidity form. Its texture and the repetitive shapes and openings can be considered in Getaway project. The openings at the surface of the headpiece can be created more precise if laser cutting is used. Also the headpiece can be created more easily if it is a parametric design which allow the process of editing and modifying many times and easily by changing the parameter set in computer. Discourse might be created as people might discuss about its form, shape and texture. The headpiece not really look like a headpiece, but also like a fruit (durian) and can be a sculpture. People might discuss about what its actually is.
[ Do computer design techniques enhance or retard the production of architectural design?] Computational and digital architectures are profoundly changing the processes of design and construction which shown by many architects such as Zaha Hadid and Frank Gehry. Undoubtedly that computer design technique brought a lot of advantages such as allowing modification and edition of the project many times and speed up the design process. It enhances the design process by providing many possibilities which might be â€œimpossibleâ€™â€™ to be done in past. The exponentially increasing processing speed of computers, and the resultant advances in software and modelling techniques allowing situations to be modelled in increasing complexity. However, tranditional architects might think computer design is not a good way to be used in architecture design as young architects might be too dependent on computer drawing and take it easy in designing process. They might have a mindset that computer design is an alternative way to archieve success. But the answer is no. Computational design is only a technique to generate a design and enhance the communication process and the outcome is always a reflection of our own abilities.
Guggenheim Museum Bilbao Frank Gehry 1991-1997
The image above shows the building look like a ship with its structure. Through this sketches , Gehry developed more on his design by computer. With his drawing, people might curious what will it be after it was built.
Frank Gehry was the first architect to utilise the processing power of computers in the production of built architecture. The resultant constructions have inspired the recent generation of architects to look beyond the familiar rectilinear and experiment with unconventional forms. The Guggenheim Museum is one of the iconic building which reflects Gehryâ€™s approach in using computer design. Guggenheim Bilbao Museum succeeds monumentally in its efforts as an iconic building and has drawn much attention to the city of Bilbao. It is located near to Nervion River which is a industry zone while its design created a visual interest with strong contrast between the building and the surrounding environment. However, by using the computer technique to create fluidity curve form with undulating surface which made it able to blend in the context well. Its function as an exhibitions and gallaries area, also serves as the landmark in Bilbao. The museum which looks spectacular from outside, and has had an enormous impact on the economy of Bilbao. It clearly recognisable for its twisted, curving lines and series of interconnecting volumes which linked by glass curtain walls.Gehry used large curving shapes and shiny metal skins to create buildings more akin to giant sculptures which can only be implemented through digital means.
[Architects, after all, can design with pencils anyway] - Burry, Scripting Cultures (2011), pg. 17 Frank Gehry expressed his initial ideas through simple pen and paper. He presents the contents of the building in very simple form with basic structure, interaction to environment and its butural form context. Although he used computatinal design, he still showed that ”Architects, after all, can design with pencils anyway.” Computer technologies actually play only a small part in the process of generating ideas of Gehry’s buildings and once a satisfied physical model is built, it is transfer into digital model. In this way, computer becomes more of a realisation tool than a design tool for him. By using CATIA , Gehry able to design and specify all the underlying structural componentry required to support the buildings. His design contributed to discourse as his computing techniques opened up a host of new possibilities in architecture. The possible architectural forms available to architects to use beyond modifications of the traditional cuboidal shape completely change the design process. These possibilities were extremely exciting for the architectural community and allowed architecture to take its place amongst the physical art forms and made buildings as sculpture possible, extending their value beyond that of practical purposes as shelter. There are many of Gehry’s subsequent buildings which have used the same technique, and as a result look very similar to the Bilbao Guggenheim, for example the Walt Disney Concert Hall. His building contributed to visual interest which create a sense of strongness and tough while the organic shape reflects the sence of sensational feeling.
Integration of EOI
The function of this building successfully express the significance of textures and materials which MUST be considered in Getaway Project. The materiality and the forms enhance the aesthetic appearance of building to be an iconic features of the building. The comtemporary of the undulating surface of the museum which helps it to blend in the exixting context should be considered in EOI as one of the sites of Getaway Project has a hill and the building is important to able to blend into the landscape.
Guangzhou Opera House Zaha Hadid
Guang Zhou Opera House designed by Zaha Hadid served as the visual landmark of Guangzhou and located at the heart of Guangzhou’s cultural development. It is self-referential and anti-urban which located in a large urban context The main concept of design came from the natural landscape and influenced by river valleys – and the way in which they are transformed by erosion.The fascinating interplay between architecture and nature; engaging with the principles of erosion, geology and topography further enhanced the concept of the building. This building contributed to the the unique exploration of contextual urban relationships and combined the cultural traditions that have shaped Guangzhou’s history, with the ambition and optimism that will create its future. Its contoured profile, unique twin boulder design and approach promenade enhanced urban function by opening it to the Pearl River. Also the opens access to the riverside and dock areas created a new dialogue with the emerging town. This building is directly relevant to Getaway Project as it also serve as an eye-cathing iconic building at the site. As similar to the opera house, the installation of Getaway should provide a focal point of iconic scale and encourage a sense of pride within the local community. It is extremely useful in generating the applicable design concepts for the Getaway Project in order to enhance the physical environemnt , history and cultures of the site. The concept Guangzhou Opera House strongly related with the natural landscape and cultural tranditions can be considered in EOI.
This building is a valuable contribution to the discource on parametric design architecture. Zaha Hadid creates parametric design as this new style seeks to â€˜fight stylistic pluralismâ€™. By using this method, she ables to make her building blend into the environment prefectly and creates those fluid and organic shapes for her building. The opera house consisted of two structures which shape a series of paths through and around the site. It only made possible with parametric modelling because the whole facade is made from complex triangular glass and cause the building to glow at night. The triagular faceted window warps around the surface enhanced the visual interest. The fluid dynamic of the space in interior acted as an otherworldly transition from outside to inside. Zaha Hadid also focus on the movement and relationship between each space and how it interacts with existing contextt which is an important issue for the Getaway Project.
By means of digital aids, the forms of building could be easily generated or modified by changing the parameter values in order to create the fluidity effect. It can also be considered as visual scripting-change the parameters in order to modify the form and shape of buildings. Zaha Hadid use computational technology to explore maximum possibilties of form, shapes and structures through computer. She creates discourse with her designs while she is the one fully utilised parametric design. She changed the way people think about the appearances of building and challange the maximum possibilities on fluidity form of building.Some might think it was amazing to have parametric buildings but some might think it was ugly.
Compare and contrast The Guggenheim Museum by Frank Gehry and the Guangzhou Opera House by Zaha Hadid were credited for its visual presence and act as the iconic idendity in the city. Their works are enhanced by computational program and further develop in details through computation. Their projects have different approach with other building which the organic geometries are used to create great degree of fluidity. The curving form and fluidity effects in their buildings can only be implemented through digital means. It speeds up the degining process and increase the preciseness on calculation for materials. The idea of blending in context further enhanced by digital means. In contrast with my personal project, Gehry’s and Zaha Hadid’s buildings contribute to disourse and successfully influence many young designers. Their designs are totally different with the traditional building norms. My personal project showed the basic and simplest way to use digital aids and explore its functions. Digital model allows me to play with different forms of headpiece, make some openings on the surface of headpiece. Both Gehry’s museum and Hadid’s Opera House are parametric buildings which showed us the new life of architecture by using computer.
COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN Today, variety of design computation systems available to be used in research and design practice in order to fulfill the diversity of design needs and tasks in different design contexts. However, with emergence of net-based digital world, the traditional meaning of architect is challenged. Computational architectures work based on concepts such as topological space, isomorphic surfaces, kinematics and dynamics, keyshape animation, parametric design, and genetic algorithms. Buildings can be created as the designerâ€™s mind are entered, manipulated, or stored on a computer system. Parameter values are used to create and edit the digital model in different ways such as modifying its form, shape, materials, details, surface and so on. Most of the design practices reflect designers define spatial characteristics of a design in the virtual world that eventually will be built in the real world. Spatial thinking skills are needed in the virtual world for (i) conceptualizing complex design forms, (ii) using computational systems as design-support and representation tools, and (iii) communicating solutions. The challenge of connecting between these contexts strongly marked during the iterative process of design. Same design concepts might have structurally different representations of spatial entities. Thus, distinct spatial thinking skills required when creating these representations and moving between virtual and real worlds.
CASE FOR INNOVATIONCOMPUTATIONAL DESIGN [It is possible to claim that a designerâ€™s creativity is limited by the very programs that are supposed to free their imagination.] terzidis, Kostas (2009). Algorithms for Visual design using the processing Language (Indianapolis, In: Wiley), p. xx
UK PAVILION ( SEED CATHEDRAL) Seed Cathedral created by architects in Heatherwich Studio and AKT/p.art successfully contributed to architectural discourse and reflects the contemporary computational design. It showed the significance of integration of design with the computer programming software. The form is made up by 60000 fibre optic strands, create an interesting texture. The fibre optic strands sway in the wind reflecting the light illutrate a dynamic shinny movement on the surface while during night, the light source stored in each strands make the whole structure glow. The pavilion is completely differ from traditional building structure and contruction norms. The design is heavily rely on computational design technique where the position of the 60000 fibre optic strands inserte in aluminium sleeves should be calculated precisely and is only made possible with computational programming. The construction of structure precisely and materiality of this pavilion reflect the incredible function and advantages of computational design. The texture of pavilion rely on the materials in order to create the soft and organic effect.
Integration of EOI
While amazed by the seemingly soft and organic structure, the durability of the structure to resist to weather is questionable with the numerous puncture on its skin. This has triggered a concern for the issue about structural skin which will most probably be adopted in the design for the Wyndham City Gateway Project. Computational design has again shown its feasibility for producing building with high accuracy without fault. It is important to explore the materials plan to be used and the structure with the construction method. The integration of design and computational programming software should be applied in Getaway Project which allows for more innovative explorations on structures, materials and textures.
Beekman Tower by Frank Gehry Echoing to the theme of computation in architecture, this project used sophisticated computation method to produce the building façade. Though it is very typical for Gehry to build physical models, computers models were created through the scanning of physical models. Using Rhino software, the model was able to be refined and perfected to produce intended results. In relation to this subject and the gateway project, this is crucial as computation is less time consuming in producing favourable results. The surfaces of this building would not be able to achieve its current effect without parametric and script writing to analyse them. Digitising of the façade allowed designers to have the flexibility to alter the façade while still being able to remain within established parameters. All the various component sizes, angles, and extrusion types could be tracked to a particular unit and hence, they were also tied to the manufacturing process with CNC data through to fabrication and installation. With the uniqueness and scale of the project, it would be difficult to change everything manually without the help of computation. This example of façade is very interesting in a way that it looks like as though it is blown by the wind to result in the curves and folding effect and this also coincide with the theme ‘air’ for the gateway project. This effect is to be incorporated into the design for the gateway project. Besides, the façade of the Beekman Tower also evokes rivulets of water, crinkled sheets of aluminium foils, melting ice. At the same time, all these effects were heighten by light and shadow across the surfaces over the course of a day. This provides an interesting change for viewers when viewed at a different time of the day. In relationship to the gateway project, changes through light and shadow are important to create a static sculpture that appears to be constantly changing. This is to be achieved by utilizing and applying the sun path where different angles of sunlight may produce different outcome.
Aqua Tower by Jeanne Gang/Studio Gang Architect Aqua Tower projects itself as a significant landmark in Chicago with its irregularly shaped concrete floor slabs which lend its façade an undulating and sculptural quality. The undulating balconies which vary from floor to floor are built with painstaking consideration on views extension and maximization of solar shading for each apartment units. As such, the design is driven by the forces of its context, creating an extremely site specific building which could never be justified in other places. This criterion is particularly important for the Gateway Project as the design is targeted to be informed by the natural elements on site, specifically sun path, climatic, and atmospheric conditions throughout the day. Besides, the building is significant in the sense that it offers different sense of appearance as one move from afar and gets closer to it. From afar, the building as a whole appears like the striated limestone outcroppings commonly found in the Great Lakes, which is interestingly the very initial inspiration from which the design was developed. Such effect changes completely into a series of ocean waves flow across the façade with the rippling balconies as one move closer to the building. This is an interesting idea that could probably be adopted for the Gateway Project design which aimed to create a sense of constant changes for a static sculpture. In fact, the undulating balconies appears as if the wind were blowing ripples across the surface of the building itself and the gentle rhythmic effect produced could probably guide the gateway project as an effort for incorporation of ‘air’ into design as advocated by the studio.This has again exhibited the advantage of parametric design and further augmented the choice for parametric design as the way for the Gateway project.
Genetic Algorithms in ComputerAided Design In the book, Evoluntionary Architecture, John Frazer argues that generative process can apply the concepts of biological growth and form. He attempt to develop a theoretical basis for architecture using analogies with nature’s processes of evolution and morph-genesis. The use of algorithms to manufacture forms and relationships is the key method for his architecture. Algorithms can be encoded to generate complex spatial models and forms which are often unexpected and can then be filled, punched, and stretched to meet other functional or aesthetic criteria. An algorithmic representation generating complex forms receives input from physical representation of the same form in 3D design space. ‘Form creation’ using these systems enabled designers to not only ‘imagine’ but also ‘specify’ for construction of complex free-form structures. The key characteristic of genetic algorithms is a “string-like structure equivalent to the chromosomes of nature,” to which the process of reproduction, gene crossover and mutation. Various parameters are encoded their value keep changing randomly. A project carried out by Karl S.Chu, X PHYLUM is an attempt at developing an alternative approach to architectural design capable of engendering a new type of bio morphology. Karl Chu focused on the algorithmic information theory, which gives a possibility to generate a self-organic form. X PHYLUM is conceived as a prelude to a form of proto-architecture based on an algorithmic conception of the world. The project reflects an emphasis which searches for morphological complexity whereby the construction and selection of rules that produce specific morphological effects is partially motivated by aesthetic and plastic sensibilities of the architect. The project therefore contributes into discourse about traditional methods of architectural design and proposes a design process in which the architect becomes an inventor or constructor of formal systems as well as takes on the role of a navigator of the system’s behaviour over time.
Karl S. Chu, X-PHYLUM, Los Angeles, [http://synworld.t0.or.at/level2/soft_structures/allgemein/x-phylum.html
Dynamic simulation is the use of a computer program to model the time varying behavior of a system. Greg Lynn was one of the first architects to utilize animation software not as a medium of representation, but of form genration. The image below shows the use of par ticle emission in the Port Authority Bus Terminal in New York competition project, architect Greg Lynn. The main idea is a merge of function and dynamic programming of usage. According to Lynn, while motion implies movement and action, animation implies evolution of a form and its shaping forces. He used various forces of movement established a gradient field of attraction across the site. To discover the shape of this invisible field of attraction, Lynn introduced geometric particles that change their position and shape according to the influence of the forces. Thus, a protective roof was designed through a series of phase potraits of the cycles of movement over the time. He successfully take the advatanges of movement of forces and applied dynamic simulation in his design.
Integration of EOI
Dynamic stimulation is useful in Getaway project as my group aim to explore the movement of water, various forces on hitting the water surface and pouring the water will result in various form and movement of water over seconds of time. It is useful to use computer program to model the form of water movement and flow over time.
sourced from: http://jhfc.duke.edu/jenkins/publications/Lenoir_FlowProcessFold.pdf
F i e l d s
D y n a m i o c f s F a o n r d c e
PARAMETRIC DESIGN IN ARCHITECTURE
[The dominant mode of utilizing computers in architecture today is that of computerization; entities or processes that are already conceptualized in the designer’s mind are entered, manipulated, or stored on a computer system. In contrast, computation or computing, as a computer-based design tool, is generally limited.] terzidis, Kostas (2006). Algorithmic Architecture (Boston, mA: elsevier), p. x
Parametric design is computerization process where architect’s design is transfer into computer in order to further develop their ideas without restrict their imagination and design. According to Patrik Schumacher, parametricism is not only refer to the process but also explicitly propagating a new type of aesthetic expression that is made possible by the power of computer modeling software. By exploiting technology, new possibilities have been offered to designers that have never been available before. Parametric design helps to develop a more ‘fluid logic of connectivity’. This project shows an example of parametric design while the building form and structure is generated by an agent-based flocking algorithm in which agents from various locations on the site create paths following those of structural loads, determining the location of primary and secondary structural members. This parametric design is useful for the gateway project as it able to create a sense of movement and fluidity along the whole building.
BANQ restaurant by Office dA CNC (Computer Numerical Control ) fabrication have been integrate into design process nowadays, which can be said that is â€œdigitally designed and digitally producedâ€?. After doing a digital model in computer, data will be sent to CNC fabric cutting mechine to cut the exactly same product follow the given data. It can be applied to certain materials and allows for certain possibilities in design. BanQ restaurant show the implication of CNC fabrication for interior design. By using this technique, a carved out interior space within the plywood ribs is created. The curve and smooth shape ceiling and wall enhance the experience of customers with the sense of harmony and comfortable. It also reflects a sense of fluidity with the smooth wavy form ceiling which will only able to be done by computation. The geometry of the wood slats were radiused in order to smoothen the relationship between other adjoining equipment, creating a seamless landscape.
Space between ceiling and dinning areas is important to be wel organised. The spatial organisation is related to the brief of Getaway Project which ask for certain degree of spatial quality and resolution. The flow of space and movement between spaces is important to be connected together.
“La Fabrique Sonore”, presents the combinations of computational design techniques with ancient paper folding techniques, shows the contemporary between technology and man made model. Computational design is credited with huge range of possibilities while designers can chose the pattern and effect that they satisfied and create it by folding. Folding is an interesting process which increase the degree of understanding on the structure of the project during folding process. However, there is a limit in shape and form for the folding object depends on what software and materials are being used. “La Fabrique Sonore”consists of multi-layered folding process and the real installation is made up of a highly geometric, folded and suspended structure enhance the experience. The project is located in a cave and the space also serves as functional loud speaker. It acoustically amplifies the sound form a single speaker-driver in order to create an enclosed space that overflows the listener in its center. The method of folding can be applied to the model making or the real building of the Getaway Project. Folding is one of the methods to create cut on the surface and is easily to be worked with.
La Fabrique Sonore
SCRIPTING CULTURE What is scripting? [ Scripting in architecture could be perceived as an approach to computational design which orders codes for form-generation and introducing new opportunities for designing ]-Burry, Scripting Cultures.
[ Scripting, as an approach to computational design, offers access to whole new ways of exploring design, but design remains always at the core. ] -Burry, Scripting Cultures
[ Today’s scripters are inventive; however, scripting is a relatively new technique for the exploration o f architectural designs and designers are still figuring out new potentials for using scripting as a design tool.]- (Brady Peters) Burry, Scripting Cultures Scripting allow the creation of digital model by using code. These codes open up many possibilities of modelling systems through digital means, and with it the possibility of using digital means to breed structures. It become more popular nowadays, but still seen as a difficult arena to enter although there are many designers start to aware of scripting’s potential. Scripting Cultures treats scripting not only as a technical challenge that requires clear description, guidance, and training, but also, and more crucially.
A digital model can be produced by using the technique of ‘scripting’ – the manipulation of digital. A new generation of structures is being created, that recognizes the potential of the computer not just as a sophisticated drafting and rendering tool, but as a potentially powerful tool in the generation of designs themselves. This technique allows 3D realizations to be visualized through rendering from every angle in different ways. It also promotes many possibilities of shape and form without any restriction.
However, this lead to some issues from opponents such as lack of restrictions, design can be made that no realistic to built. Also some people claimed that due to the massive computer power, scripting started to become a style and everything looks quite similar as they use the same technique.
A Research Pavilion in Stuttgart The pavilion demonstrates the latest developments in material-oriented computational design, simulation, and production processes in architecture. The design intents are to explore a geometry which exploit the potential of plywood in an optimal manner and challenge its structural and physical limitations at the same time. It demonstrates how scripting tools can be used by experimenting and developing ideas, forms and also used to examine the relevant material behavioural features. Some material properties such as bending capacity of plywood, thickness of plywood, and method for joining the plywood sheets were emphasized and examined using computers. Besides, it is the ability of scripting to work with large data sets (Burry, 2011) that contributed to the success of the structure. Unlike traditional design method which might encounter structural impossibility at later stage of design process, scripting increases the efficiency of the design process as all the designs are based fundamentally on its structural feasibility at the outset. There is no need to remodify the design to cope with structural capability as alternation could be made simply by adjusting the input codes and this boosts the speed of construction without much delay. On top of that, this project is credited with its complexity and difficulties during the construction process. Different methods for constructing this plywood strips were assessed and compared by using computational tools. Potential repetitive work during various experiments could be reduced and subsequently saves up cost, resources, and time-consumed. Mistakes could be avoided while construction could be carried out efficiently.
SCRIPTING FABRICATION Scripting increase the ability to work with large data sets and proceeding in many directions. The digital model of the pavilion based on the bending behavior and a script with roughly 6400 lines of code. Once the codes are entered in computer, all relevant geometric information is derived and directly outputs the data required for both the structural analysis model and the manufacturing. This project is credited with its complexity and difficulties during the construction process. All plywood strips was connected with just simple socket bolts instead of steel nodes which reflects it’s incredibly hard to be built. Different methods for constructing this plywood strips were assessed and compared by using computational tools. This project also explores the functions of scripting tools in material calculations and structural analysis. In fact, scripting proceeds in various directions simultaneously and works beyond human’s perceptual capacity (Burry, 2011). It is with such features that results in the simple yet innovative Research Pavilion. This, on the other hand, has renounced the stereotype about the complexity of scripting as it could do the exact opposite (Burry, 2011). The success of this project could be referred as inspiration for developing the gateway design. Materials’ potential could be set as logic at the up front for scripting a design. Endless possibilities could be generated via scripting (Burry, 2011). Hence, for the Wyndham City Gateway Project which asks for an inventive design with significant impact, the use of scripting is irrevocably beneficial.. Benefits of scripting which reflected in this project: -engaging with complexity -useful for budget limitation and structural difficulty projects -reduce the potential repetitive work during various experiments carry out for the project -modification and alternation can made by simply adjusting the input codes
BIOTHING-Seroussi Pavillion Biothing is a research-design laboratory by using scripting tools. The structure is derived from particular linkages between various disciplinary and technological nodes, promoting intra-specific creative relationships which in turn serve as a transformative tissue for the design process itself. Seroussi Pavilion is an example of biothing which was â€œgrownâ€? out of self-modifying patterns of vectors based on electro-magnetic fields (EMF). The logics of attraction/repulsion trajectories were calculated then series of structural microarching sections were raised through different frequencies of sine function. The scripting technique of this project can be applied in Getaway project by using visual scripting tools: rhino+grasshopper. The distribution of lighting/ shading and programming of views of Seroussi Pavilion can also be achieved through math functions in grasshopper which drive the parametric differentiation of angle, size and materials. The expression of texture and pattern in the pavillion roof can be referred in Getaway project and explore the potential of computational patterns to produce texture expressions on various scales. http://scriptedbypurpose.wordpress.com/participants/biothing/
Son-O-House Son-O-House, designed by Lars Spuybroek (NOX) in 2004, 2004 in Son en Breugel, The Netherlands can be considered as an example of scripting cultures as it built by the implication of computer programming. Son-OHouse is highly abstract and simple form of cuts in paper strips. It is designed by using ordering code which made it easy to create complex and repetitive forms. A tool is formed to describe and analyse the process of a body moving through a house then create a space. The outcome at the beginning process is unknow, therefore it is no restricted to any forms or shapes. Son-OHouse is based on a complex set of interrelated natural and social references in a parametric design. It has a simple rule which is â€œLets movement creates spaceâ€?.
Son-O-House is an architectural environment and an interactive sound installation in one. The work is continuously generating new sound patterns activated by sensors picking up actual movements of visitors. This information is continuously analyzed and quantified. The output of the analysis is used to control the nature of the sound and therefore challenges the visitors to re-interpret their relationship with the environment. The success of this project focused on the experience of visitors can be referred as the inspiration of Getaway Project as my group aim to create the form of water movement and explore the space and fluidity effect of the model. By using scripting tools, endless possibilities could be generated (Mark Burry, 2011). Therefore, scripting can be considered as generative tools. The Getaway project aim to create visual interest for visitor to experience the falling water around them when they drive through the highway.
Conclusion (Contemporary of Digital Tools) Nowadays, the increased complexity that of architecture can be only achieved with new design tools which have led to formalism inconsistent with architectureâ€™s own tradition. Digital tools have improved the potential of architectural design thus broadening architectureâ€™s role and providing the apparatus to explore geometries and constructive systems that would have been unimaginable decades ago. Digital fabrication is the logical extension to digital design as it relies on the computersâ€™ precision and their potential to manage complexity in varied ways, shifting from construction to manufacturing. The advents of digital tools have also brought a change of paradigm, not only a more efficient way of designing architecture. Just as deep as was the change introduced by Modernism, digital tools have altered the language of architecture itself. Computers have truly altered the design process and architectural conception. The change of paradigm is related in the first place to complexity, to the possibilities that computers offer in terms of conception, visualization and management of extraordinary complex geometries that could have been unimaginable and irresolvable without them. In addition, computers have also allowed calculating enormously complex systems of loads and stresses, and computerized robots have been able to manage the positioning and assembly of the customized constructive elements. We can refer to digital consciousness as the awareness on digital computing enhancements applied to architectural design. Thus, digitally conscious architectural design challenges modernist paradigm and proposes a new grammar in accordance with digital culture. Architecture can also be informed by the new inputs and bits of information that digital culture has managed to spread. Every epoch has its zeitgeist, ours is undoubtedly build on information.
Complexity is at the core of digital culture. In architectural design complexity has been greatly enhanced through the introduction of the virtual space and 3D modelling. Computer programs oriented to the generation and management of complex surfaces â€“ such as Rhino- have greatly contributed to the freedom of form that these tools have provided the designer. Many of the complex geometries that have been achieved would have been impossible to design or to build without computers. The enhanced design possibilities introduced through the use of computer tools in the field of architecture has lead to an explosion of new geometries and complex architectural forms. Fabrication: This new way of dealing with the constructability of architecture and its materiality has deeply changed architectural design. Objects can be parameterized and calculated producing surfaces of variable curvature. Designs are, therefore, based on form finding strategies where architects manipulate their coded designs to produce series of possible outputs that must be discarded or selected in as much they fulfill the design requirements and the performance they are expected to encompass. It is undoubtedly that digital tools contributed a lot of benefits in architecture field. It reduces the time consuming when doing research, modification and searching new possibilities on design and form. However, it takes time and hard for a beginner to use digital tools. Time consuming and practise are necessary to enhance the technical skills.
Source: New materiality: Digital fabrication and open form by Carlos L. Marcos
MATRIX OF COMBINATION
[ In what way can computers serve, and possibly improve, the process of architectural design nowadays? ]
“Architecture,” “as a practical form of art, has been in need of computation and computational aids since ancient times” said by Kalay.
(Sourced from: Kalay YE. Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Method’s of ComputerAided Design. Cambridge: The MIT Press, 2004.)
According to the Architecture’s New Media, Yehuda Kalay offers a comprehensive exposition of the principles, methods, and practices that underlie architectural computing. He discusses the aspects of information technology that are pertinent to architectural design, analyzes the benefits and disadvantages of particular computational methods, and looks at the potential of emerging computational techniques to affect the future of architectural design. “Design is a process of discovery... The process may be compared to puzzle making: the search for the most appropriate effects...through the manipulation of a set of components, following a set of combinatorial rules.” -Kalay, Architecture New Media (2004). The digital realm offers place-making opportunities that do not exist in physical space. Search and exploration process are necessary to examine the problems and produce candinate solutions for considerations and increase the design outcome. Computation allows different possibilities of design and explorations on new designs, textures and materials. Design solution can only be decided after different considerations, explorations and further developments are done. Some explorations on fluidity have been done according to the design intent of the Getaway project. My groups’ design intent is focused on the fludity form and water movement.
Graph Mapper tools function as an association which works like an image sample, while points can be created follow the form of graph. The arrangement of points and form can e adjusted by changing the parameter values or the types of graph. Rather than garph mapper, math function (assaciation) also provides the same effect by entering the math equation to create the graph form. The point created can be different by connecting the association with different outputs.
ORIENT With the same grasshopper definition, different forms can be created by changing the parameter values. This experimentation was a process of adjustment and alteration of parameters. Slightly change in the parameters will result in different possibility designs. This experiment showed the potential of digital aids credited with different variations available and the design output maybe out of expectation. Computational aids speed up the design process and modification, manupulation process become easier.
MATERIALITY A simple tower is built as the experimentation of Getaway Project, by using points and lines which connected together. Instead of making a square or circle-based building, this building is made by irregular shape and twisted in order to create a sense of fluidity. The form of tower looks like the flowing movement of water which is the main design intent of the Getaway project. Cut effect can be applied on the surface of the tower acts as the facade. This tower also aim to explore the materialistic used in Getaway project. Bricks are arranged follow the form of building which can be done by the orient tool in grasshopper.The texture of facade can also be changed by using different image samplers.
MATRIX OF COMBINATIONS Input:Overlapping Patterns Association:Maths Funtions Output:Data Drive Rotation The Overlepping patterns create double layer of cirlces on the surface which connected to the math function. Different curve pattern can be created by entering different math equations. The Data Drive Rotation creates weaving pattern on top of the effect of the curve patterns.In this experiment, the math equation is fix while thresholds of geometry are altered. By adjusting the parameters, the curve patterns look like moving and flowing. The grasshopper defination was remained but for further experimentation, the output was replaced by data driven extrusion. It is expected the result will look more obviously by using extrusion. The circles on the surface were extended from two plans into three dimensions while the patterns are still similar to previous.
Input: Using Surface Normals Association: Multiple Maths Functions Output: Data Driven Extrusion The combination of matrix allow more possibilities in design. Circles are distributed on the surface according to multiple maths functions and the parameter values. Those extruded circles made the surface become three dimension and create the cut effect on the surface. A right solution which suitable to the Getaway project should be decided before doing further development and experiment. The fluidity effect can be created by the math function on the surface normals.
INPUT: Using Surface Normals OUTPUT: Data Driven Rotation
By combining different definitions, adjusting the parameters, grasshopper producing many possibilities of outcome which enhance my understanding of computational design and show me the contemporary of using computer technology. Experiments and explorations of using rhino and grasshopper as designing tools is helpful for the Getaway Project. Many different forms, textures and cutting patterns can be created by using these tools and sometimes, it will bring some pleasant surpricses because I do not have any preconceived idea on the form when i start exploring a definition. The cutting effect of the Getaway project will be modified, edited and communicated easier by using computational design. Many different cut effect can be tried and modified until get the satisfied effect. The result can be predicted and showed in rhino and grasshopper before constructe the real building.
INPUT: Boolean Patterning Association: Image Sampler OUTPUT: Data Driven Extrusion
INPUT: Boolean Patterning Association: Graph Mapper OUTPUT: Data Driven Extrusion
Association: Curve Attractor OUTPUT: Data Driven Rotation
INPUT: Boolean Patterning Association: Image Sampler OUTPUT: Data Driven Shading
Integration of EOI
The main concept of Getaway Project is the fluidity effect and form of water movement. The cutting effect can applied on the surface of water movement and I plan to develop the cutting effect by using Image Sampler and Data Driven Shading. I aim to combine the element of nature together. The cut effect will followed the imgame sampler which might be trees texture on the surface of water form, acts as the reflection of trees on water surface. By using Data Driven Shading, it allows me to create the abstraction effect of trees and generate the texture of trees by using circles or polygons. Association: Curve Attractor OUTPUT: Data Driven Rotation
REVERSE ENGINEERING McCormick Tribune Campus Center [ OMA ]
EXPERIMENTS / EXPLORATIONS The facade of OMA challenging as it needs to orient different symbols to make the image rather than simple circle shape. Differents symbols are arranged according to the image from imgage sampler.The gradient and precision of texture can be archieved by altering the parameter values. The interior wall surface of OMA is interesting with the sharp egdes of pyramidals shape. It can be created in grasshopper by creating a pyramid orient it along the wall surface. The texture of the pyramidals form on the surface can be changedby using image sampler.
Restaurant AobaTei, Sendai, Japan The Aoba-Tei restaurant was designed by Hitoshi Abe showed his interest on the surface of the buiilidng by crreating perforation on the surface using the abstraction from nature. The main inspiration came from the Zelkova trees to present the characteristic landscape and establish a visual dialogue between inside and outside building.
Integration of EOI
The steel surface of this restaurant is one of the significant inspirations and precedents for Getaway Project of my group. I aim to create the same effect of trees on the surface of the water acts as the reflection of trees on the water surface. The texture of trees made up with different sizes and gradients of circles will be served as the cut effect for the project. The combination of image sampler and data driven shading produce the hole pattern based on the image sampler. The gradient, sizes and arrangement of holes based on the lightness and darkness of the image. It also can be adjusted by changing the parameters. The hole pattern can be changed or make it look more abstract by editing the image sampler. Experiments had been make to explore the possibility effects of the holes and to achieve the effect look like the steel wall of Aoba-Tei restaurant.
Perforation, abstraction from nature
Further development and research for EOI Different images were used to examine the arrangement of hole pattern and the gradient effect of the surface. I aim to explore more on the movement of trees due to wind and achieve the approach to make the pattern and texture look more abstract due to the impact of wind blow.
Input: Boolean Patterning Output: Data Driven Shading
Beggining onlly 2D surface with hexagon grid
Adding Data Driven Extrsion to make it become 3D and increase the complexity of form
SPANISH PAVILION, EXPO 2005 Brief explanation of Spanish Pavilion Rendered image
The facade of building is mainly covered with variations of hexagonal tile. It is made by panels which joined together while each panel is configured of six tile variations and each has different colour. The tiles are joined to create a range of architecture effects from large apertures to clusters of small windows. The hexagonal tiles are arranged randomly and do not have a specific pattern. In order to increase visual interest, the hexagonal tiles are fabricated in two versions-with and without a center aperture. This effect can created in grasshopper by using Offset tool to create a center hexagonal for some tiles. Sourced from: Ben Pell, â€˜Spanish Pavilion, Expo 2005â€™
Process Definitions: Curve Attractor+ Data Driven Extrusion
This building conveys the idea of repetition of a selfsimilar unit make up the whole facade and presents the architectural and cultural heritage of Spain. The basic repetitive hexagonals can be created through the Hexagon Grid tool in grasshopper and being extruded to give thickness for it.. In order to create a center hexagonal for some tiles, Curve Attractor and Offset tool are used. Curve attractor is function for selective perforation. Hexagonals which close to the curve attractor are being selected and offset to create smaller hexagonal at the center. The offset of hexagonals will change following the adjustment of curve attractor and the covered area of hexagon being offset can be increased or reduced by adjusting the parameters.
Integration of EOI This project can be referred in Getaway project which promote repetitive of simple shapes and form some abstraction texture through colour. The effect of seletive perforation can be applied to increase visual interest of Getaway project. Rather than curve attractor, image mapper can also be used as the reference for the seletive perforation while texture will illustrated followed the given image. It proved the contemporary function of computational design tools which allow many possibilities way to achieve an effect but slighly different in result due to different definitions applied is unavoidable.
DIOR GINZA Perforation and Layering
Definitions :Curve Attractor and Using Sets This building was credited with its facade which developed as double independent layered skin made by aluminium. Double layered facade increate its visual interest and provide different views when people passing cross. The hole patterm on the facade can be created by using curve attractor and sets.
Experiment with Grasshopper The facade of Dior emphasizes on perforation and layering. Some experiments have been carry out by using curve attractor. However, the holes cannot work well as there are too many curves to attract it in different direction. PULL tool is added to make the holes only attracted by the nearest curve. The holes which close to grid is bigger than other holes which are further, same as the facade of Dior. This buidling might be helpful in EOI as the perforated facade will be an interesting features for the getaway.
[ Dior facade presents itself like an architectural apparition; a ghost-like volume articulated solely through the luminious effects of its carefully edited surfaces.]-Ben Pell, Ornament and Technology in Contemporary Architecture
Aliceland Tower This tower is designed by Paragon ArchitectsÂ who not only pushed the boundaries in the visual aspect of the towers, but in the environmental aspect as well through the selection of materials and positioning of the building. It indicated the significant of choosing the right materials to create any effect. The towers are clad with glass and aluminum. The abstract surfaces create changing effects throughout the day, depending on the light. I try to figure out its facades by using grasshopper definition. Image sampler and orient tools are used to create the shinny facade while the front facade is created by combining curve attractor and using sets. The changing effect of the facade follows the image sampler and parameters. The cladding facade look different as viewed from different directions give credits to this tower.
EOI Research Project: CUT and DEVELOP Restaurant Aoba-Tei Sendai, Japan
Hitoshi Abe + Atelier Hitoshi Abe
“Ornament is the figure that emerges from the material substrate, the expression of embedded forces through processes of construction, assembly and growth. it is through ornament that material transmits affects. ornament is therefore necessary and inseparable from the object.”-Moussavi, farshid, and Daniel lopez (2009). the function of form (Barcelona: actar; new york), p. 8
Restaurant Aoba Tei
Experimentation of Lighting effect, Distortion, Bending, Overlapping According to the lecture, debate about ornament has become inseparable from the design itself in expressing design intent and cultural meaning (Moussavi, 2006. The interior of Aoba Tei is chosen to be developed and fabricated in boxboard. The case study explore the potential of â€œCUTâ€? on surface to serve as a form of ornament for the Gateway design. In this case study, a surface with circle cuts of varying sizes which formed the image of a tree was fabricated. From the fabricated case study, experiments of lighting and shadow effect were carried out. It was interesting to see how the shadow casted by the model changes with different angles of light and also how the concentration of light affect the shadow produced. Futhermore, the model is bended and twisted to explore the performance of CUT ornament on a more complex geometry. The outcomes were surprisingly interesting for examples, the image of the tree appeared differently when the model is bent.
Overlapping shadow produced by light source from two different direction with different intensity.
However, it is not suitable for the theme for the gateway project, which is fluidity. Eventhough the image of the tree appeared to be interesting in combination with lighting, the form itself is rigid and flat, it will look repetitive and dull regardless how it is being looked at. The image itself also looked overly static regardless how the lighting direction is changed. All that was projected was the image of the tree and some interesting patterns of the cuts when the surface was bent. It was also discovered that it is hard for drivers to observe the shadows casted during driving in high speed. Shadows are also affected by day to day condition, which demotes the significance of the gateway project if it is to be based solely on the play of light and shadow projection. Hence, this case study proved that it is not suitable to be adapted for the Gateway Project. From here, it was decided that in accordance to fluidity, lighting was an interesting factor to explore with. Instead of artificial lighting, the gateway project is to aim at natural lighting, that is the sun.
Theme & Design Approach In response to the project brief, we would like to propose a design ooutcome which is never twice the same. It is believed that with this idea, a new, inspiring and brave gateway design can be producd. The conceptual driving force for achieving the outcome is based on the idea of fluidity. It is believed that the motion of fluid is ever changing, indicating numerous possibility of formation which is never twice the same. This will give a sense of excitement and visually interesting spatial urban experience for the current site condition which is of mainly straight roads and flat areas. Considering the Wyndham residence who frequently travel accross the interchange, this proposal will benefit them as the ever changing effect will enliven their journey through the highway. Since Wyndham city is known for its sculptural art, this proposal will become another turning point for the cityâ€™s achievement in art. This is due to the application of computaional design approach for the project where the outcome indicating that the Wyndhm community has ushered into a more technologically advance generation.
Exploring Form Experiments were carried out to explore the fluidity form of water by pouring the water in different conditions and record the forms. The direction of pouring and strength used in pouring will affect the form of water. The process of water-pouring is recorded and played in slow motion to compare between the forms generated. It was observed that the forms of water resulted were never the same twice. This is an interesting theme to explore and it also response to the brief where the Gateway Project has to be exciting and visually interesting for the otherwise boring and straight roads. Rather than water form, the change effect can also be created by the idea of weathering such as corrosion or fading in colour, mechanical tear or wear, and even biological growth of plants is particularly interesting in the way it changes the appearance of the design voluntarily without artificial means (human-made effect). The design intent with the quality of â€˜new, inspiring, and braveâ€™ as stated in the brief can be achieved through a design which shows constant changes throughout its lifecycle. The water forms are edited and composed into pictures as shown in figures below.
Exploring Light As aforementioned, the design aimed to achieve a sense of constant change so that every time when the passer-by drive through, the structure will appears different and never twice the same. Such attempt is approached by exploiting the position of sun during the course of the day, both in summer and winter. The experiment is carried out in 2 parts, in which each of them have different fixed and manipulation variables in order to explore on the most suitable folding of the design membrane and sizes of the perforation on its surface so as to achieve the proposed changing conditions. The first part of the experiment investigated the effect of sun position on the design via the shadow it casted on the surface. With regularly-sized circular holes cut on the paper surface, this is carried out by placing the camera at a fixed position and the photos taken show how the changes of the sun position might affect the overall design appearance to the passer-by of the road. Angle of light source is adjusted in reference to the sun path diagram and the results obtained show that the shadow cast on the surface is longer during winter and vice versa. Other than that, the results obtained generally made little or minimum difference on the design. Hence, the second part of the experiment is carried out to examine on possible ways to maximize the effect of sun on the design.
9am during Winter (Estimated)
9am during Sumemr (Estimated)
3pm during Summer (Estimated)
3pm during Winter(Estimated)
For the second part of the experiment, photos are taken from one end to another, just as how the drivers and passengers might have looked at the design. The size of perforations cut on the surface varies randomly. Then, the paper length is increased and folded in ‘S-shape’ manner as possible, hoping that the shadow can be cast on the surface of the design itself instead of casting on the road. The result, however, still turned out to be less satisficing as shown in the figures on the left. From there, the paper is modified by cutting it into a long strip of random height (some parts are high while some are short) and folded more extensively into a number of ‘S’. This time, the results appeared to be up to expectation as giving a fixed sun position, the design appears differently from one segment to another due to the shadow effect. For smaller perforation, it appears just like a strip of light similar to the interior of the UK Pavilion as discussed in section above. Most interestingly, the distinction between real perforations and ‘fake perforation’ resulted from shadow cast is barely recognizable. The series of photos show how each segments is different as a car drives through it. In fact, since the sun changes its position, the images seen in the morning might change in the afternoon and near dusk. This has successfully demonstrated the effect of change in the design in relation to the changes of natural phenomenon.
First sight while approaching the site (Driving towards North)
Second sight as one passing the design
Last view as one pass through the deisgn
Since the experiment is carried out manually without digital aids, the results obtained might not be as accurate and precise as the professional one. However, it still worth acknowledged that a number of parameters has been identified for further exploration in the future. These include the placement of the design on site which could be slightly tilted so as to provide greater views for the passer-by, the various height of the design membrane which helps to create more visualized effects, the size of perforations. Most significantly, it is important to acknowledge the direction of driving so that the curvature of the design could be designed in such a way which allows maximum casting of shadow while offering maximum viewing faces for the drivers. This is because a convex faces could have part hidden from direct viewing except for passengers who can turn their around for seeing it. In short, the experiment has explored the possibilities of a number of elements which is believed to be able to affect the design for achieving the changing effect proposed. Meanwhile, it also generated a few aspects which should be taken into consideration during the design process. The results produced are then incorporated into Rhino and Grasshopper for designing the prototype which will then be fabricated.
The figures show the best result obtained from the experiment as one driving towrads North at 9am in the morning during Summer. The experiment is carried out in a dark environment with a spotlight so as to emphasize on the chainging effect as influenced by sun light.
Prototype ONE This prototype composes of three membranes placed near to each other create an overlaying effect in order to explore the idea of fluidity. The membranes show different effects as the driver drive through depending on the driving speed, viewing angle and positions in relation to the structure itself. It shows an alternative for attempting the desired goal by manipulating the perforated membrane in a specific arrangement rather than relying solely on sunlight position. The prototype is interesting and could be further developed to create a sense of water flowing related to the main theme of Getaway project-fluidity therefore when driver drive through they will see the consistent change of water flowing.
Different views on the perforation surface was created everytime when car pass by.
Prototype TWO This prototype is developed from the research of exploring light. Sun path is the driver which helps to create the effect of change on the surface. The perforation on the surface appears to be regular and consist throughout as to maximize the effect of shadow cast on the surface. The curvy form of prototype is arranged close to each other in order to increase the possibility for shadow to cast on the surface next to it. Some problems were faced such as the shadow always cast on the surface at back of drivers. This is because when driver travel to work in the morning, they will drive along the highway to city which face to west which is the direction of sunrise. Hence, the shadow will always cast at the back of the driver. The same thing happen during sunset when they are travelling back home. Meanwhile, material used is important in influencing the effect produced. We found that fabricated in plywood sheet demonstrated limited elasticity and hence restricted from more â€˜aggresiveâ€™ bending. As a result, it is hard to achieve an organic form created in the digital model.
Feedback The idea of fluidity was fail to be expressed in term of visual presentation. The prototypes produced look rigid and inflexible, which was totally different from what we are trying to achieve. The photographing technique and images edition skill should be further developed in order to enhance the visual quality for presentation. More experiments due to different field should be carried out to explore different possibilities of outcome as the prototypes exhibited the same result and showed the same field of experimentation. Rather than sun light, experiment on addition features such as wind, water, or even weathering is encouraged for more design possibilities. It was recommended that the idea of fluidity can be expressed by means of wind rather than sunlight and shadow. Wind is chosen to be further exploited as it is related to the idea of air where the natural phenomenon of air (natural effect of air on building design) produce design effects which would not be possible without collaborating participation of the atmosphere surrounding the building.
A model was produced after getting the feedback from tutor. In order to increase the sense of fluidity, small pieces of perforated membrane were placed on mounting board which make it floats on the water. Each perforated membrane was joined together by needles. Once putting these membranes in a box filled with water, they float on water surface. As wind blow through, the model started to move continuosly. The movement keep changing according to the strength of the wind blow. This model indicated the integration of air into the design as it is the driver for changing effect. This model have to be further developed for the Getaway project while the way of installation at the site is quiet difficult. Without any trees and buildings at the site, the site might experience high wind blow as it is flat and empty. Hence, wind will be a good and suitable key element to create changing effect for the model at the site.
P r o t o t y p e 3
A slow motion video was taken to record the influnce of air in the model. Each membrane was moving as the wind blow, although the changing effect is not obviously, it is believed that the model will work better in large scale with more membranes.
Influence of AIR
Learning outcomes This course focused on digital architectural design which was introduced at the beginning of this subject. The contemporary of computer design is emphasized while it is significance to engage computational design in both theories and practical work. The implication of these technologies creates new attitudes towards architectural design. As always, new approaches generate new problems along with new benefits. Traditional paper-based design process is considered obsolete while digital computational design is argued to be a more vibrant and promising approach for contemporary architectural discourse and practice. I found the learning digital architectural design is a difficult but massively exciting challenge. With the readings in accordance to the lectures content, digital design is clarified as the key that we started to get on track with the subject objectives. By doing researches on precedents, case studies and architectural discourse, it provided me basic idea in developing an argument for the case innovation. It also gave the basis of the controversies and contradiction of such approach in architectural field. It also contributed a better insight into what digital architectural design is capable of in terms of their application and advantages. Apart of the theoretical aspect, opportunities to develop practical skills using parametric modeling in Rhino together with visual scripting via Grasshopper is offered in this course. Making a case for the proposal was initially challenged for me as my limited experience with Grasshopper and the concepts relating to parametric design. The initial restrictions of developing technical skills forced me to work harder and apply what I had learned at the particular stage. Despite the theoretical knowledge of the advantages of digital computational technique, as novices, the design process turned out to be the complete opposite and demonstrated the argument against computational design well enough. This was because enormous amount of technical problems were faced due to insufficient understanding on the algorithm behind the software.
I learned and started to fathom the foundational computational principles behind digital geometry, data structures, and programming via those mistakes I made. Besides, my awareness towards materiality and the potential of materials for innovative solutions have been raised through researching and integrating a theme of materiality. The learning of matrix combination proved how unpredictable results could be made possible by digital means. The definitions provided were combined in certain manners for examining its possible outcomes and the some of the results turn out to be surprisingly innovative and inventive, just as what has stated in the project brief. According to Kalay (2004), this is a design process under the catagory of â€˜searchâ€™ when the outcome of an action cannot be fully decided in advance. From this design method, it was realised that this method is more productive when done digitally. Not only it provided great amount of possibilities, it also helped to reduce amount of time consumed in search of a favourable design possibility. Through those possibilities, more choice were presented for the best to be chosen and be developed into something promising, thus contributes to the final design outcome. Also, digital fabrication was explored for the first time as an architectural student by fabricating one of the CUT projects in the case studies. Progressively, slowly though, weâ€™ve developed the capability to work in various three-dimensional media as specified in the course objectives. With all the knowledge and practices learned so far, a strong argument is formed for defending the inevitable role of digital architectural design as an alternative for traditional approach in this field. This is formulated in EOI, supported by precedents and researches carried out throughout the semester thus far. In conclusion, the learning is interesting and challenging, digital architectural design has stimulated a sense of curiosity for further exploration. This course provided a valuable platform to explore an interesting approach. In the future a greater time commitment and a wider variety of practices could allow me to gain a deeper knowledge of the digital tools.