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Hoof Print

Volume 21 Fall 2015

The Small Ruminant Magazine

USEFUL FARM HACKS FROM KENTUCKY FARMERS

MARKET MATTERS

How Does the Ethnic Market Affect You as a Sheep or Goat Producer? (Part 2)

GENETICALLY SPEAKING

The Sheep’s Role in History (Part 1)


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Volume 21 Fall 2015

Hoof Print

Hoof Print Magazine Published Quarterly $24 per year

The Small Ruminant Magazine

Free with paid membership to one or more of our partner organizations. HoofPrint: The Small Ruminant Magazine is a periodical to promote better animal health, husbandry, and knowledge among sheep and goat producers. HoofPrint is the joint effort of members of the sheep and goat industries and serves as a united voice for all small ruminant producers. EDITOR / MARKETING DIRECTOR Kelley Yates EDITORIAL BOARD Tess Caudill, Maggie May Rogers Sonia McElroy, Scott VanSickle, Debra K. Aaron, Donald G. Ely, Mark Powell, Denise Martin, Beth Johnson, Kathy Meyer, Jim Mansfield, Dr. Tom Huber, Brent Ballinger DESIGN & LAYOUT Maggie May Rogers OFFICE SUPPORT Sharon Koontz PHOTOGRAPHY Dr. Debra Aaron, Al Dilley, Pat Bennet, Tess Caudill, Donna Puckett, Dee Daniels

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In this Issue ––––––––

12 KENTUCKY COUNTY AGRICULTURAL INVESTMENT PROGRAM (CAIP) 27 RESULTS FROM THE SEKGA SPRING ROUNDUP AND SALE 28 FARM HACKS

ADVERTISING Kelley Yates kyates@kysheepandgoat.org (502) 682-7780

Special Features ––––– 14 MARKET MATTERS How Does the Ethnic Holiday Market Affect Producers? Part 2

16 HEALTH & MANAGEMENT Lungworms, are they really important?

18 GENETICALLY SPEAKING The Sheep’s Role in History (Part 1) 22 NEWS TO EWES Nutritional Architecture of the Sheep

In Every Issue ––––––––

Executive, Editorial & Advertising Sales directed by Kentucky Sheep & Goat Development Office: P.O. Box 4709 Frankfort, KY 40604-4709

4 6 8

KY Goat Producers Assoc. TN Sheep Producers Assoc. KY Sheep and Wool Producers Assoc. 31 Marketplace

Copyright © 2015 by Kentucky Sheep & Goat Development Office. All rights reserved. No portion of this publication may be reproduced mechanically, electronically, or by any other means, including photo copying without written permission from the publisher.

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KY GOAT PRODUCERS ASSOCIATION

ASK THE GOAT GURU

President’s Letter

Hello fellow goat producers!

Fall is here and that means we are gearing up for the 2015 Annual Producer Conference. Kentucky State University Research Farm is the site of this year’s conference. In conjunction with the conference, you have two other opportunities to learn more about goats and sheep. First, you can attend KSU’s Third Thursday event on October 15th. On October 16th, the KY Sheep and Goat Development Office will be hosting a cheese making workshop taught by KGPA member Polly Lush, soap making workshop taught by KGPA member Donna Puckett, and a seminar hosted by Sertified Sorted. Talk about an opportunity to learn goat production and meet other producers! Registration can be done at www.kysheepandgoat.org. The Small Ruminant Profit School 2015/2016 had its first class in September. The second class is during our conference on October 17th. If you have not signed up, you will have one more chance at the Annual Producer Conference. Don’t miss this opportunity to learn how to make your goat or sheep business profitable! The Kentucky Goat Producers Association will have its annual membership meeting during the Annual Producer Conference. If you are interested in running for a seat on the board of directors please contact any of our current board members. We need good people willing to run and serve Kentucky goat producers. A description of the responsibilities of a board member can be found on our KGPA pages in this publication and online at kysheepandgoat.org. The state fair was a lot of fun this year and I was blessed to be able to meet many of you. Pictures of the champions of all the goat shows and belt buckle winners will be in our winter issue. KGPA also served goat bacon again this year at the Commissioner in Ag Commodity Breakfast. The product was a huge hit amongst agriculture’s elite and even made a TV appearance on channel WDRB out of Lousiville. Finally, once again this year the KGPA will be sponsoring a buck collection at the Marion County Fairgrounds, 415 Fairgrounds RD, Lebanon KY on November 15th. Contact Dr. Beth Johnson if you are interested in preserving your bucks genetics for the future. Denise Martin President, Kentucky Goat Producers Association

Question: Last year I purchased several doe kids from around here and also a few from states out west. When I brought them home it appeared that the ones I purchased from around here took off and never looked back, but the ones that came from the states out west took a long time to get their “feet on the ground” and still have never caught up with the others. Why did this happen? Answer: Of course the obvious answer is different genetics but lets look deeper at what is going on. Several years ago, many Kentucky farmers used tobacco settlement money to start goat herds using animals from herds out west. Many of these goats never made it past the first year after arriving in Kentucky. They were brought from an arid environment with native pasture that is nutrient dense. After arriving here, they were introduced to a huge worm burden that they had never seen before. The hot, humid environment of Kentucky is well known for luscious grass but within that grass is a huge larvae infestation that these goats had never experienced. They were not “adapted” to this environment and their digestive system was not geared to our lush grass. Their rumen microflora was more adapted to brush and native grasses. It takes a while for the rumen microbes to “adapt” to this different food source. The goats also had to deal with the heavy parasite infestation that their immune system had never seen before. They were not “adapted”and the parasites multiplied unmercifully in a naïve environment and most of them died or performed poorly due to the heavy parasite burden. Over the past 10 years, Kentucky producers have developed many excellent, well adapted animals that can be purchased right here at home. You can find a list of breeders on the 2015 Breeder Directory compiled by the KY Sheep and Goat Development Office. Visit www.kysheepandgoat.org. When purchasing livestock either from in the state or out of the state, it is always a wise decision to question the breeder as to what the animals were being fed, what their environment is like, what vaccinations have they had and what parasite treatments (internal and external) have they received. If the animals were on some form of grain supplement grab a bag of the feed they were on and slowly introduce your new acquisitions to your grain ration by mixing the feeds. Above all else, do fecal exams on the new animals within the first week after purchasing, deworm if necessary, and keep them separate from your animals for 10-14 days so you don’t introduce disease into your herd. After they have been there for about one month do another fecal to be sure they are not becoming infected with parasites. Hopefully this will help your new acquisitions to get off to a good start and become successful herdmates. >> To ask the Goat Guru your question, email kygoatguru@yahoo.com.

TIME TO RENEW!

KGPA Membership Application Your $30 membership provides:

• 4 issues of the Hoof Print Magazine plus the newly designed 2015 Sheep and Goat Management Calendar • A unified voice for the goat industry on the state and national level • Representation on important committees such as the Check‐Off and the Animal Care Standards boards • Support of various educational and youth activities • Youth Membership forms can be found at kysheepandgoat.org/KGPA.html • And much, much more!

4 I VOLUME 21 FALL 2015 I Hoof Print

Visit www.kysheepandgoat.org to join today! Name: _______________________________________________________ Address: _______________________City: _____________State: ______Zip:________ Phone: _______________________E-Mail: _________________________ Please enclose a check for $30 made out to KGPA and mail to: Kentucky Sheep and Goat Development Office P.O. Box 4709, Frankfort, KY 40604-4709.


KY GOAT PRODUCERS ASSOCIATION

What’s Going On?

Little Goats Win Big

L

ittle goats win big at the first Miniature Dairy Goat Association show in Paducah, KY. The McCracken County fair in Paducah was the site for the first Miniature Dairy Goat Association show to be held in Kentucky. This 2 Ring show was judged by Mr. Wade Buntin and Mrs. Jane Robinette. The show was sponsored by Gena Studdard of Wasola, Missouri. Buck Creek Stables in Smiths Grove, KY is now the proud owner of a 2x Grand Champion Jr Doe, Reserve Grand Champion Jr Doe and a Reserve Grand Champion Sr Doe. The owner, Dee Daniels has been raising Miniature LaMancha Dairy goats since 2013. She finds the size of the Miniature LaMancha to be the perfect size

KGPA - UPCOMING EVENTS

Calendar of event items can be sent to kyates@kysheepandgoat.org with date, location and time. Northern Kentucky Goat Producers Association Meeting – First Tuesday of every month 6:00pm @ the Kenton County Extension Office - 10990 Marshall Road

OCTOBER Date Location / Details Oct. 2-3 Corn County Commercial Goat Conference and Cream of the Crop Sale, Cordon, IN Oct. 9-10th Kikofest 2015– Cumberland County Community Complex Crossville, TN October 15th KSU Third Thursday, KSU Research Farm, Frankfort October 16th Cheese and Soap Making Workshops, KSU Research Farm, Frankfort October 17th 2015 Annual Producer Conference, KSU Research Farm, Frankfort

NOVEMBER Nov. 3 – 20 NAILE, Louisville, KY Nov. 6 - 8 Dairy Goats show Nov. 17 - 19 Boer and Junior Wether Goats show Nov. 15 Buck Collection, Marion County Fairgrounds, KY Nov. 21st KGPA board of directors face to,face board meeting Ryan’s restaurant Elizabethtown Kentucky 1 pm eastern, e-mail bethc.johnson@ky.gov

Help Wanted goat for homesteading and the Miniature Dairy Goat Association is a great fit for her because she can show online through the Virtual show or at a live show. Miniature Dairy goats are a group of new dairy breeds that are being created by taking a full size dairy doe and breeding it to a Nigerian Dwarf buck. The goal is to produce a midsize dairy goat that looks like the standard size breed. For more information about the Miniature Dairy Goat Association, please go to www.miniaturedairygoats.net.

2015 KGPA Board of Directors President Denise Martin, Magnolia, KY martinmeadowfarms@yahoo.com Vice-President Angie French, New Haven, KY kygirlfarm@gmail.com

Treasurer Beverley Devins, Perryville, KY andreasattic@aol.com

Secretary Dr. Beth Johnson, Parksville, KY bethc.johnson@ky.gov

KGPA Director Position

D

irector is responsible for representing goat producers in Kentucky. Representation on the Board of Directors (BoD) includes several meetings, conference calls, email discussions and special committees each year that focus on KGOA direction to support all KGPA members. Directors are expected to actively participate in a minimum of 75% of all BoD activities in order to assure that members are getting adequate representation on the board. Directors are elected at the annual meeting, by simple majority, for a three year term.

2015 KGPA Board Members • www.kysheepandgoat.org • Shawn Harper, Benton, KY, shawn.harper@kctcs.edu • Brent Ballinger, Bardstown, KY, brent@millcreekranch.biz • Shelia Duncan, Hardyville, KY, svkennels@scrtc.com • Ray Graves, Perryville, KY ray.graves@beckhybrids.com • Connie Gray, Cadiz, KY cfcgray@hotmail.com • Sonia McElroy, Milton, KY mcelroyakers81645@hughes.net

> > Visit us at http://www.kysheepandgoat.org/

• Debbie Reed, Murray, KY Debbie.reed@murraystate.edu • Vincent Thompson, Elizabethtown, KY vat.farm.345@gmail.com

Hoof Print I VOLUME 21 FALL 2015 I 5


TENNESSEE SHEEP PRODUCERS ASSOCIATION PRESIDENT’S LETTER

Shepherds of Tennessee!

I hope that by now your winter preparations are complete and you are enjoying the fall colors and lovely cool weather. If you’re not prepared and still scurrying around, take heart. There are plenty of us right there with you. This summer has been good but busy to say the least on our farm….one day I dream of achieving the status known as “caught up.” Here are a few quick notes on TSPA happenings and then I better get back to work ! I get calls and e-mails almost daily from folks wanting to start in the sheep business, looking for information, and trying to find breeding stock etc. This is another good indicator of the growing interest in the sheep business in our state, and I typically direct them to our email classified service for the membership. Please, if you know any new sheep producers, encourage them to join the TSPA, get involved, and get hooked in to our network. The big association news of the fall is that the TSPA Board has decided to change things up with this year’s annual

Date

conference and meeting. For several years we’ve batted the idea around of partnering up with the other livestock associations of our state. I am excited to announce that this year’s conference will be held in conjunction with the Tennessee Cattleman’s Assoc. and Tennessee Dairy Producers Assoc. annual conventions at the Embassy Suites in Murfreesboro, TN! We may or may not continue to do this on an annual basis but thought it was a great idea to try this year for several reasons: • Many of our political issues are the same and we can be stronger working together • Many of our production issues are similar also and there are things we learn from each other. Also, a lot of livestock producers run cattle and sheep and it’s a great opportunity for folks to learn about the potential benefits of multi-species grazing. • TRADE SHOW! That many people in one place attracts a lot of vendors and we will have large trade show with vendors covering the full range of livestock services and products. • LARGE VENUE with hotel. The

facilities available in the area will still allow TSPA to have its own conference space and speakers. The speakers and schedule have not been selected yet, but I anticipate opportunities for joint speakers and topics also. • Networking and recruiting. There will be lots of chances to spread the good sheep word. • YOUTH ACTIVITIES. Again, the plans are still in the works, but we hope for enhanced youth activities to be held jointly with the other associations.

As always, please keep me updated with any sheep happenings across the state and let us know if you have any suggestions. Conference speakers have not been chosen yet, so if you have someone you want to hear from, let us know. If any of you know how to stay “caught up,” let me know and we’ll make sure you’re on the speaking schedule also! Eat lamb and wear wool! Sam Kennedy

TSPA - UPCOMING EVENTS

Details • Location • Website

October 24, 2015 Fiber in the ‘Boro – Lane Agricultural Park, Murfreesboro, TN • www.fiberintheboro.com February 5 - 6, 2016 TSPA Annual Meeting – Ward Ag Center, Lebanon, TN • www.tennesseesheep.org

JOIN TODAY! TSPA Membership Application Annual Dues:

Adult: $30.00

Junior $10.00

Name: ____________________________________________________________ If you are interested in a committee please select below: _____  Wool _____  Youth _____  Jr. Expo _____  Sale _____  Production Education _____  Membership/Revenue _____ Publicity _____ Annual Meeting

6 I VOLUME 21 FALL 2015 I Hoof Print

Address: ___________________________City:_____________State: ___Zip: _______ Phone: _______________________E-Mail: __________________________________ Breed(s) of Sheep: ______________________________________________________ Please enclose a check for amount made out to TSPA and mail to: Tennessee Sheep Producer’s Association 4233 Poplar Hill Road, Watertown, TN 37184


TENNESSEE SHEEP PRODUCERS ASSOCIATION

A

2015 TN Junior Livestock Exposition

nother successful Tennessee Junior Livestock Exposition has come to a close. The countless hours spent in the barn has paid off by teaching over two hundred 4-H and FFA sheep exhibitors valuable life lessons in responsibility, hard work, and sportsmanship. The Tennessee Junior Livestock Sheep Expo kicked off July 13 at Hyder Burks Agricultural Pavilion in Cookeville, Tn. Judges Evan Snyder, Pa., Aaron Jennings, In., and Kalen Poe, In., had their work cut out for them, sorting seven hundred and nineteen wethers and ewes. Taking home Supreme Champion Bred by Exhibitor honors in the Registered Ewe Division was Nathan Long, Loudon County, with his Oxford ewe. Taylor Young from Bedford County was awarded Reserve Champion Bred by Exhibitor with her Southdown ewe. Loudon County’s Gage Goddard brought home champion flock with his Hampshire flock of ewes. Registered Ewe Premier Exhibitor winners included Anna Powell, Wilson County (Explorer Division), Wesley Trew, Polk County (Junior Division), Cooper Belcher, Trousdale County (Junior High Division), Luci Allen, Macon County (Senior I Division), and Gage Goddard, Loudon County (Senior II Division). In the Commercial Ewe Show, Brooklyn Ellis from Macon County took home the Heather Webster Thompson Memorial Trophy for her champion black face crossbred lamb. Brooklyn’s black face crossed yearling ewe was awarded Reserve Champion and Champion Farm Bred. Jacey Moncier, Hawkins County reserve champion farm bred commercial

2015 TSPA Board of Directors Sam Kennedy, President & ASI Representative Columbia, TN Ed Bowman, Vice President Gray, TN Mark Powell, Secretary/Treasurer Watertown, TN

ewe. Premier Exhibitor winners in the Commercial Ewe Show were Brayden Lawson, Hawkins County (Explorer), Tyson Warner, White County (Junior), Karley Warner, White County (Junior High), Cora Key, Clay County (Senior I), and John Calvin Bryant, Lawrence County (Senior II). Closing out the show was the Market Lamb Show. Taking home the overall and Tennessee bred championship award was Brooklyn Ellis of Macon County with her 129-pound black face crossbred

2015 Board Members

Allan Bruhin Sevierville, TN

Jessica Shanks, Lenoir City, TN

Chris Wilson Jonesborough, TN

Mark Shedden Knoxville, TN

Stevan Alsup Lascassas, TN

Scott Payne Columbia, TN

Dwight Loveday Louisville, TN

lamb. Reserve champion lamb was the 125-pound Hampshire lamb shown by Taylor Cox from Macon County. Reserve Champion Tennessee Bred lamb was Hawkins County’s Gordon Moncier with his 139-pound Hampshire lamb. Market Lamb Premier Exhibitors were Eli Rich, Clay County (Explorer), Andy Davis, Hawkins County (Junior), Jacey Moncier, Hawkins County (Junior High), Gordon Moncier, Hawkins County (Senior I), and Cassie McConkey, Loudon County (Senior II). In the Sheep Skillathon Contest, which tests youth on knowledge gained through their sheep projects, Eli Rich (Clay), Andy Davis (Hawkins), Cooper Belcher (Trousdale), Luci Allen (Macon), and Gage Goddard (Loudon) were winners in their age divisions. Full show results can be found on the UT Animal Science 4-H Sheep Project Page at https://ag.tennessee.edu/ AnimalScience/4-H/Pages/Sheep.aspx Hoof Print I VOLUME 21 FALL 2015 I 7


KY SHEEP & WOOL PRODUCERS ASSOCIATION

Save The Date! 2015 Annual Producers Conference

October 17, 2015

KSU Research Farm • Frankfort , KY

SHEEP & WOOL PRODUCERS ASSOCIATION Featuring Dr. Ken McMillan, Dr. Frank Pinkerton, and Dr. Beth Johnson, Dr. Frank Pinkerton, Dr. Ken McMillan, and Dr. Beth Johnson Pre-conference workshops and seminars on October 16th Cheese Making • Soap Making • Sertified Sorted Seminar

Register at www.kysheepandgoat.org

Price: $20 adults; kids 12 and under are free Registration starts at 8:30 and program begins at 9am.

Cartoon created by Tonya Fedders, Flat Creek Wool & Pottery

KSWPA - UPCOMING EVENTS

OCTOBER

Location / Details

Date

October 6 EweProfit II School, C. Oran Little Research Farm, Midway, KY October 15 KSU Third Thursday, KSU Research Farm, Frankfort October 16 Pre-Annual Producer Conference Workshops, KSU Research Farm, Frankfort October 17 2015 Annual Producer Conference, KSU Research Farm, Frankfort October 17 KGPA and KSWPA Annual Producer Conference, KSU Research Farm, Frankfort, KY

NOVEMBER November 3- 20 NAILE, Louisville, KY Nov. 12-20 Sheep shows, NAILE, Louisville, KY

DECEMBER December 5 December 12

Sheep Shearing School, Purdue University, Animal Science Center (For Information Contact: Bill Harshbarger/Harshbarger Sharpening 2005 E. 200 N. Center Point, IN 47840 • (812)835-3171 Sponsored in cooperation with the Indiana Sheep Assoc. and Purdue Ext. Service) SRPS Class, KSU Research Farm, Frankfort

T I ME TO R E N E W !

Visit www.kysheepandgoat.org KSWPA Membership Benefits • Quarterly issues of HoofPrint Magazine plus the newly designed 2015 Sheep and Goat Management Calendar • A unified voice for the sheep industry and representation on important state and national committees • Assistance with new marketing opportunities such as The Kentucky Sheep and Fiber Festival and HoofTrader.com • Support of various educational and youth activities

Name: ______________________________________________ Phone: ___________________E-Mail: ___________________ Address: ____________________________City : _____________________ State: ______ Zip: ______________ Please enclose a check for $30.00 made out to KSWPA and mail to: Kentucky Sheep and Goat Development Office P.O. Box 4709, Frankfort, KY 40604-4709.

8 I VOLUME 21 FALL 2015 I Hoof Print


KY SHEEP & WOOL PRODUCERS ASSOCIATION PRESIDENT’S LETTER Hello All,

It’s been an amazing summer here in Kentucky. As I write this letter, it’s mid-August almost State SHEEP & WOOL PRODUCERS Fair time, and the grass and ASSOCIATION forages are still green and growing. I think it rained at our farm almost every day in July. Luckily not all day rains but passing showers. It was hard to make hay but we sure grow a lot of good grazing for our animals. I would like to encourage anyone who wants a thorough knowledge base to make your sheep or goat operation successful, to sign up for the upcoming Small Ruminant Profit School put on by our Sheep & Goat Development Office. Kelley Yates the Executive Director has worked diligently to put this series together that covers not just the basics but also addresses the details like; how to figure the least cost feed based on the animals nutritional needs, marketing choices, genetics and record keeping. The University of Kentucky, Kentucky Agriculture Development Board, Kentucky Department of Agriculture, Kentucky State University and the American Sheep Industry Association have contributed to developing the excellent course material and (large) three ring binders each class member receives for the course. And we are offering free mentorship opportunities for new producers to be paired with experienced sheep & goat farmers. What a deal!! Sign up details are at: www. kysheepandgoat.org. Sign up by Sept. 7th. Classes start Sept. 26th. As I write this letter, the state fair opening breakfast is next week. I’m proud to say rather than serving orange juice for our association’s contribution, we are once again serving goat bacon and lamb sausage. This state fair opening breakfast is also called the “Commodity Breakfast” because it is sponsored by the agriculture commodity associations and is targeted to our state and national leadership as a chance to address agriculture issues and allow them to show their support for agriculture in Kentucky. The Governor attends and addresses the crowd as will the Commissioner of Agriculture and several others. There

will be state representatives and possibly a congressman or two in attendance as well as USDA, UK, KDA, KSU, KFB and all the other Ag related initials you can think of! The point I’m trying the make is, we are doing our part to remind these folks that sheep and goats are profitable production opportunities for farmers in KY and we produce great products! The 2015 Annual Producer Conference will be held in Frankfort, KY October 17th at the KSU Sustainable Ag Conference Center (a big, nice, new facility). We are offering both hands on and educational workshops as well as our association’s annual meetings and board member elections. The Annual Producer Conference is a great chance to meet other shepherds and learn some new things. Hope to see you there!

Jim

Jim Mansfield KSWPA President

Help Wanted KSWPA Director Position

D

irector is responsible for representing sheep producers in Kentucky. Representation on the Board of Directors (BoD) includes several meetings, conference calls, email discussions and special committees each year that focus on KSWPA direction to support all KSWPA members. Directors are expected to actively participate in a minimum of 75% of all BoD activities in order to assure that members are getting adequate representation on the board. Directors are elected at the annual meeting, by simple majority, for a three year term. Election will be held at the 2015 Annual Producer Conference. If you are interested in running, please contact Kelley Yates at kyates@kysheepandgoat.org.

2015 KSWPA Board of Directors President Jim Mansfield, Salvisa, KY jim@fourhillsfarm.com

Vice President Scott VanSickle, Auburn, KY scottvansickle@wheattech.com Secretary Kathy Meyer, Paris, KY 1tkmeyer@bellsouth.net

Treasurer B.P. Davis, Mt. Sterling, KY davisclublambs@yahoo.com

Make it with Wool Chair Dorothy Vale, Nicholasville, KY kymiww@aol.com

> > Visit us at https://kysheepandgoat.org/

2015 KSWPA Board Members Alex Leer, Paris, KY Frank Berry, Lexington, KY Hannah Nilsson, Windsor, KY Mary Brown, Lexington, KY SHEEP & WOOL PRODUCERS Bill Decker, Waddy, KY ASSOCIATION Warren Adcock, Campbellsburg, KY Bob Leer, Paris, KY Hoof Print I VOLUME 21 FALL 2015 I 9


2015

AnnualProducerConference

Direct Marketing in the

US

October 17, 2015

Harold R. Benson Research and Demonstration Farm 1525 Mills Lane - Frankfort, KY Featuring Dr. Ken McMillan, Dr. Frank Pinkerton, and Dr. Beth Johnson Dr. Frank Pinkerton- National Outlook for Sheep & Goats Dr. Ken McMillan- Fabricating Goat and Lamb Carcasses for Market and Home Dr. Beth Johnson- Parasite Management & FAMACHA Training

Annual meetings of KSWPA and KGPA Pre-conference workshops and seminars October 16th Kentucky State Research Farm, Frankfort KY

Cheese Making • Soap Making • Sertified Sorted Seminar

Register at www.kysheepandgoat.org Price: $20 adults; kids 12 and under are free Registration starts at 8:30 a.m. • Program begins at 9am.

10 I VOLUME 21 FALL 2015 I Hoof Print


Save The Date!

Bigger Venue! More Vendors!

New Networking Opportunities!

2015-2016 Tennessee Sheep Producers Annual Meeting February 4-6, 2016

Embassy Suites, Murfreesboro, TN Details and Registration Coming Soon! Visit www.tennesseesheep.org To be held in conjunction with the Tennessee Cattleman’s and Tennessee Dairy Associations Annual Conferences.

Hoof Print I VOLUME 21 FALL 2015 I 11


Kentucky County Agricultural Investment Program (CAIP)

T

he Kentucky County Agriculture Investment Program (CAIP) is one of the Governor’s Office of Agricultural Policy’s most utilized programs and is made possible through the Kentucky Agriculture Development Fund. The Kentucky Agricultural Development Fund, in statute, is administered by the Kentucky Agricultural Development Board. The mission of the board is to invest these funds in innovative proposals that increase net farm income and affect tobacco farmers, tobacco-impacted communities and agriculture across the state by stimulating markets for Kentucky agricultural products. This includes finding new ways to add value to Kentucky agricultural products and exploring new opportunities that will benefit Kentucky farms now and in the future. Programs offered through CAIP are wide and details of each program and the pre-requisites can be found at ht tp://agpolicy.k y.gov/funds/Pages/ program-portal.aspx. CAIP programs are approved by a local County Agricultural Development Council and administered by a local administrator. Each county has different application deadlines and maximum amounts that can be funded, therefore you are encouraged to contact your local County Cooperative Extension Office for those details. 12 I VOLUME 21 FALL 2015 I Hoof Print

General information for programs available to small ruminant producers are as follows:

Program Areas for Sheep and Goat Producers Fencing & On Farm Water

Eligible Cost‐Share Items: For exterior and interior fencing, including perimeter fence, rotational grazing, predator fencing, water source protection (development, movement and field drainage), forest management, etc.

Small Animal

The Small Animal program is designed to help producers enhance their herd genetics, build or update handling facilities, and assist in milk production. Several pre-requisites need to be met when seeking funding for genetics. Examples include Breeding Soundness Evaluation, males must be registered full bloods or purebreds with permanent identification, etc. Handling facilities encompasses equipment used to treat and/or move livestock. Examples include head gates, chutes, tilt tables, foot baths, etc. Milk production equipment is also eligible. Examples include milking equipment, raw milk storage, pasteurization and animal waste handling. Details can be found at http://agpolicy.ky.gov/funds/ Documents/caip-2015/caip-15_animalsmall.pdf

Farm Infrastructure

Farm Infrastructure programs help producers with a wide variety of needs such as barn construction/renovation, construction/renovation of bulk feed storage, and on-farm composting. Three main subcategories are within Farm Infrastructure: Farm Storage Facilities, Livestock, Equine & Poultry Facilities, and On-Farm Composting. Details can be found at http://agpolicy.ky.gov/ funds/Documents/caip-2015/caip-15_ farm-structure.pdf

Forage and Grain Improvement

Forage & Grain Improvement and the Commodity Handling & Forage programs help producers improve pastures and purchase hay equipment. Details can be found at http://agpolicy. ky.gov/funds/Documents/caip-2015/ caip-15_forage-grain.pdf

On-Farm Energy

On- Farm Energy programs offer a variety of ways to make certain equipment and facilities more energy efficient, and create on-farm energy sources. This program can also assist with grant applications, energy assessments and training related to energy efficiency. Four subcategories: , Energy Efficient Building Components and Renewable Energy Projects, Professional Fees and Training, and Biomass Energy Crop Production. Details can be found at: http://agpolicy.ky.gov/funds/Documents/ caip-2015/caip-15_energy.pdf


Technology & Leadership Development

Technology & Leadership programs are designed to help producers learn and utilize technology that will make their farms more productive and efficient. Six subcategories: , Animal Data Management, Miscellaneous Equipment (field meters and farm safety), Computer Hardware and Record Management Software, Broadband Internet Service, and Leadership Development.

Value Added & Marketing

Value Added & Marketing is designed to offset costs related to materials needed to create products from raw commodities. Four subcategories: Value‐Added, Agritourism Development, Certified/ Commercial Kitchen Construction or Renovation, and Marketing and Promotion.

and for costs incurred with liability insurance. • Certified/Commercial Kitchen Construction or Renovation helps producers build and/or renovate certified kitchens to meet local and state codes. • Marketing and Promotion is assistance in advertising fees, developing business plans and feasibility studies.

Keep Your Eyes Open! 2016 KY Sheep and Goat Management Calendars are coming soon!

KGPA and KSWPA members will receive their calendars in the mail when they join and/or renew for 2016. Additional calendars can be purchased at

www.kysheepandgoat.org.

Details can be found at http://agpolicy. ky.gov/funds/Documents/caip-2015/ caip-15_valueadded-mkgt.pdf

Compiled by Kelley Yates, Executive Director of the Kentucky Sheep and Goat Development Office and Editor of HoofPrint Magazine.

• Value Added can be equipment for packaging, juice extraction, wool/ hair processing equipment, etc. • Agritourism is for items that ensure consumer safety like parking areas

2016

State Graded Sheep & Goat Sales 2nd & 4th Thursdays of every Month

Cattle Sales every Tuesday at 1:00pm 4350 Louisville Road Bowling Green, KY (270) 843-3224 Hoof Print I VOLUME 21 FALL 2015 I 13


Market Matter$ How Does the Ethnic Holiday Market Affect Producers? Part 2 by Tess Caudill

1. Know the seasonal price patterns.

W

hile Ethnic Holidays can be a wonderful thing for US sheep and Goat markets, trying to hit specific markets in order to receive price premiums related to specific holidays can lead to frustration and confusion. It has been my experience that because the number of sheep and goats marketed in the US is so small when compared to other protein sources (there are only on average about 40,000 head harvested per week under USDA inspection), that a small shift in supply one way or another can have a huge effect on market prices. In addition, keeping up with the different types of lambs and goats desired by different ethnic groups for each separate holiday can be mind boggling. That being said my best advice for producers wanting to market for ethnic holidays is as follows:

Anybody involved in the production of sheep and goats should know that prices (especially goats and light lambs) are typically higher in the winter and spring and lower in the summer and fall. This is simply due to the fact that most goats and sheep are still seasonal breeders and therefore market ready kids and lambs are harder to come by in the winter and spring. That being said, ethnic holidays that occur in the summer and fall do not usually have much if any beneficial effect on market prices because the supply of sheep and goats is plentiful. However, keep in mind that Muslim holidays move forward approximately 11 days each year so Ramadan, which was from June 18 to

Preparing for Ethnic Holidays

A

ccording to a study by the American Sheep Industry Association, ethnic markets comprise a significant and growing portion of the US sheep market. For this reason, producers need to consider the dates of various ethnic holidays (or religious observances) when developing their marketing plans.

“fat”) and place lambs in the market place at least 5-10 days before the holiday. As an option, you might consider spreading your risks and sending some lambs directly after the holiday.  Prices sometimes are high afterwards as supply is decreased due to the holiday.

Traditionally, the demand for lamb increases at Easter. In 2016, the (Eastern) Orthodox will occur on May 1st, whereas the Roman (Western) Easter will occur on March 27th. Often, the Easters occur on different Sundays, as different calendars are used to calculate the dates of the holidays. When targeting the Easter markets, be sure to sell the right kind of lambs (usually milk-fed and

Muslim holidays have become increasingly important to the US lamb market. There are two major Muslim holidays. Eid ul Fitr or the “Festival of Fast Breaking” follows the holy month of Ramadan (July 5, 2016), in which Muslims fast from sunrise to sunset and have celebratory meals in the evening. The most important Muslim holiday is Eid ul Adha or the

14 I VOLUME 21 FALL 2015 I Hoof Print

2016

“Fe s t i val of the Sacrifice.” This holiday commemorates Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son in obedience to God. Instead, he sacrificed a lamb (ram). Eid ul Adha will be celebrated on September 12-13, 2016 Muslim holidays cannot be predicted


July 17 this year, will eventually be in the spring and will compete with Easter for supply. Less supply coupled with higher demand means we could likely see prices dramatically impacted when these two holidays overlap.

2. Know what the market wants.

For every ethnic holiday there can be a specific type of sheep or goat desired and any increase in price will likely only be for that specific animal in demand. I am in no way an expert on the different types and kinds of small ruminants desired for specific holidays, but I do occasionally have requests from buyers at the graded sales for specific products. For example, 40 to 50 pound milk-fed kids and lambs are always in high demand around Easter. 70 pound buck lambs seem to be in higher demand at the end of Ramadan. For Eid al Adha (the festival of the sacrifice) yearling type intact male goats are typically requested, but a large number of mature female goats are processed for this holiday as well. Of these, the Easter market is probably the easiest market to hit as it’s fairly easy to have milk-fed with exact certainty, since they are based on a lunar calendar and the siting of the moon. For this same reason, Muslim holidays move forward approximately 11 days each year. The type of lamb demanded by Muslim consumers varies, but is usually an older, unblemished lamb or yearling, usually an intact male. As with any market segment, it’s important to learn what potential customers want and will pay a premium for.

lambs and kids in the spring. In 2016 Western Easter is March 27th so lambs and kids born in January should easily fit onto this market. Eastern Easter or Greek Easter as it is sometimes known isn’t until May 1st so there may actually be a second peak in demand for some later born lightweight kids and lambs. My only caution is that because it is fairly easy to hit the Easter market with winter born kids and lambs, a lot of producers choose to do it and sometimes the market becomes oversaturated just prior to Easter (see #3).

3. Observe national markets for oversupply.

Because, as previously stated, sheep and goat markets are relatively small, it is easy to send more animals into market channels than are needed in a particular week. Unfortunately, this happens quite frequently around the larger ethnic holidays. If you are marketing your animals direct off the farm to ethnic buyers then this is not a concern. However, if you are marketing your animals through traditional livestock markets, this is a concern. I 1-hour in length, were recorded and are available for viewing. For links to the webinar series on marketing lamb and mutton to ethnic consumers, go to http://www.sheepandgoat.

co m /re co rd in g s.ht ml #e t h nic.

In addition, the tri-state ethnic marketing project has created several tools to help producers make better marketing decisions. Susan Schoenian Sheep & Goat Specialist for University of Maryland To help US sheep producers evaluate Extension has developed several and develop potential markets to spreadsheet templates to help ethnic consumers, three University producers evaluate marketing Extension systems have partnered options.  Richard Brzozowski, with their respective sheep Small Ruminant Specialist for the associations to help address this University of Maine has developed opportunity.  Maine, Maryland and a template for producers to use Ohio received funding from ASI’s in learning more about specific Let’s Grow campaign for this effort.  ethnic consumers as well as a set A series of webinars on marketing of questions for possible use in lamb to ethnic consumers was customer surveys. For these tools on presented.  These webinars, each marketing lamb and mutton to ethnic

recommend watching the national markets for indications of oversupply prior to sending any animals to market. You can simply pull up a market report from the USDA website for New Holland, Pennsylvania and read how many head they had and the trends for that sale to find indications of market saturation. For example if last week they had 1,000 goats and this week they have 3,000 goats and the trend says that kids were $30 lower than they were last week, I would be cautious about marketing my kids that week. It often takes several weeks for this oversupply to work through the market but once it does, prices often rebound to previous levels and sometimes even higher levels. Tess Caudill is the marketing specialist for the for the Kentucky Department of Agriculture and has been instrumental in developing a graded marketing program for goats and sheep. She has a B.S. degree from the University of Kentucky in Animal Sciences and currently raises goats, sheep and cattle in Harrodsburg, KY.

consumers, go to http://umaine.

e d u / l i v e s t o c k /s h e e p /e t h n i cmarketing-of-lamb-and-mutton/.

Material provided by Susan Schoenian from blog posted Tuesday, April 8, 2014 Susan Schoenian, is a Sheep and Goat specialist at the Western Maryland Research & Education Center. She has been with University of Maryland Extension since 1988. Previously, she served as a Regional Farm Management Specialist (Eastern Shore region) and county agricultural agent in Wicomico County. Susan holds B.S. and M.S. degrees in Animal Science from Virginia Tech and Montana State University, respectively. Susan lives on a small sheep farm (called The Baalands) in Clear Spring, Maryland. She shares her home with her cat, Max, and dog, Zak.

Hoof Print I VOLUME 21 FALL 2015 I 15


Health & Management

LUNGWORMS, ARE THEY REALLY IMPORTANT? by Beth Johnson, DVM

H

ave you ever noticed when you go down to the barn early in the morning and get your flock of sheep or goats up from their night sleep that they tend to want to cough and have a nasal discharge, but then as the day goes on everything goes back to normal. As I did a literature search for this article, I consistently read that lungworm infection does not appear to affect sheep and goats unless they are immunologically challenged. Well, to start with, our small ruminant population is consistently challenged with intestinal parasites on a daily basis, therefore one might say they are immunologically challenged every day. As I read necropsy reports from small ruminants, lungworms are identified routinely during the post mortem examination but rarely as the cause of death. So why should we worry about lungworm infection? Because it does debilitate our animals and make them more susceptible to other diseases such as pneumonia.

Clinical signs in heavy infections include coughing, rapid breathing, nasal discharge, loss of appetite and ill thrift. (1) Protostrongylus rufescens and Muellerius capillaris lungworms reside in the lung tissue of infected animals. They require slugs or snails as intermediate hosts, which must be eaten by the sheep or goat

for infection to occur. A major component of the patent stage is development of a chronic, nonsuppurative, eosinophilic, granulomatous pneumonia in response to eggs and first-stage larvae aspirated into alveoli and bronchioles. This is usually in the caudal lobes of the lungs and is severe when widespread; and in combination

CAUSE AND CLINICAL SIGNS

There are three major species of lungworms that infect sheep and goats. Dictyocaulus filaria, the large lungworm of sheep and goats, is a slender, whitish worm 3–10 cm long. Adults live mainly in the airways (bronchi) of the lung. Adults lay their eggs which develop into larvae. The larvae are then coughed up, swallowed, and then passed into the environment as the diagram illustrates. The infective larvae are ingested by a sheep or goat while grazing, migrate through the digestive tract and travel back to the lung where they mature into adults. In the pre-patent phase (before sexual maturity and egg laying), these lungworms may cause patchy pneumonia in heavy infections. As worms mature, emphasis shifts to the bronchial (airway) lesion. Most affected are lobes of the lung adjacent to the diaphragm. Worms are usually bathed in a mucus containing foamy, bronchial discharge. In heavy infections, there may be patchy to large wedge-shaped areas of dark red or grey consolidation in the rearward lobes.

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Life Cycle of Lungworm of Sheep Dictyocaulus filaria: Adult females (located in the bronchi of the lungs) lay eggs containing larvae. After hatching, the larvae wriggle into the sheep’s throat and are swallowed and are then passed out in the feces. They develop on pasture and are eaten by the sheep. Larvae move through the intestinal walls and travel to the lungs. Muellerius capillaris and Protostrongylus rufescens: Eggs laid in lung tissue hatch and the larvae wriggle up the bronchi to the throat. They are swallowed and passed in feces. The eggs hatch and the larvae then infect snails or slugs, in which they develop (this is an indirect life cycle). Infection occurs when the sheep eats a slug or snail. Larvae travel through the tissues to the lungs. As you can see, the adult parasite resides in the lung tissue of the sheep and goat. Some of the clinical signs of lungworm infestation include coughing, mucoid to purulent nasal discharge and unthriftiness. The adults lay eggs within the bronchioles, or large airways of the lung, which are coughed up and then swallowed into the digestive tract. The eggs hatch out into larvae within the digestive tract, then are passed out into the feces and undergo maturation in the environment into the infective larvae stage. The sheep or goat then becomes infected by ingesting the infective larvae which enters the bloodstream from the intestines and travels to the lung tissue where the adult parasite develops and the cycle begins all over again!


with the bronchitis, death may result. Interstitial emphysema, pulmonary edema, and secondary bacterial infection are complications that increase the likelihood of death. Survivors may suffer considerable weight loss.(2)

DIAGNOSIS

The only effective test for detection of lungworm infection in live animals is the Baermann’s test. This is a fecal test that is somewhat time consuming and expensive to perform and not routinely performed by veterinarians. As previously stated, postmortem examination does reveal infection but not the preferred method of detection. Many producers decide to treat if clinical signs and persistent cough, are present.

TREATMENT

Most anthelmintics utilized today, Ivermectin, doramectin, moxidectin, eprinomectin, fenbendazole, albendazole, and levamisole, are effective in killing the

adult stage of lungworms. Unfortunately, most are ineffective against the larval forms. Therefore, it is recommended that affected animals should be treated every 2-3 weeks for 3 treatments for effective treatment of lungworm infection. This year in Kentucky and surrounding states, we have experienced a very wet, humid, warm environment that is very conducive for larval development and transmission of internal parasites, including the lungworms. There have been a large amount of snails present which as previously stated is part of the P. rufescens and M. capillaris lungworm lifecycle of the lungworm. Snails are also part of the meningeal, or “whitetail deer”, worm’s life cycle. Therefore, it would be highly encouraged to use a dewormer this fall that is effective against these parasites, i.e. the avermectins.

PREVENTION

are no vaccines against these parasites but older animals do develop immunological protection against infection. Young animals are very susceptible to infection. Rotational grazing, which assists with control of other intestinal parasites, has been suggested as a method of controlling infection. Once again, if you suspect your animals are exhibiting signs of lungworms it is recommended to pursue treatment. 1.) http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/ respiratory_system/lungworm_infection/ overview_of_lungworm_infection.html 2.) http://www.tennesseemeatgoats.com/ articles2/lungworms.html

Dr. Beth Johnson is a Staff Veterinarian in the Kentucky Department of Agriculture and has 40 years of experience raising and treating small ruminants. Her family farm is in Parksville, KY where she raises Gelbvieh cattle and Boer goats.

Avoid grazing areas with standing water with snail/slug infestation. There

The Kentucky Sheep and Goat Check-Off Program collects $.50 for every $100 worth of sheep and goats sold in the Commonwealth. According to Kentucky law, Check-Off funds must be used for the purpose of promoting the increased use and sale of sheep and goats. • Special Project Proposal- The Kentucky Sheep and Goat Council will use check–off dollars to fund special sheep and goat related projects from Kentucky residents designed to meet at least one of the following two objectives. 1. Increasing the supply of sheep and goats in Kentucky. 2. Increasing the consumption of Kentucky raised sheep and goat products. Proposals will be accepted twice per year, on December 31st and on June 30th and applicants will be notified of their funding status within three months of the application deadline. • Examples of projects are the promotion of goat or lamb at public events or educating potential producers on the benefits of raising sheep and goats. To learn more details about the Kentucky Sheep and Goat Check-off Program visit www.kysheepandgoat.org/Check_Off.html Hoof Print I VOLUME 21 FALL 2015 I 17


Genetically Speaking...

The Sheep’s Role in History (Part 1) By Debra K. Aaron, Professor, Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Kentucky

H

ave you ever thought about the sheep’s role in the history of genetics? Are you aware that sheep played an important part in the development of animal breeding principles, as we know them today? Chances are you’ve heard of Dolly the sheep, but do you know why she was so important genetically? Sheep by nature are followers. However, as you’ll learn in this two-part Genetically Speaking, our wooly friends were a driving force, leaders you might say, as the breeding of livestock advanced from an art to a science.

The Beginnings Breeding

of

Selective

Ancient Romans made many comments about the types of animals that should be selected for breeding purposes, but apparently made no attempt to record pedigrees for their livestock. The Roman author Varro (116 BC to 27 BC) commented that the breeding worth of a sire should be judged by the quality of his get, which shows in a general way, early Romans were aware of the importance of the progeny test in estimating an animal’s breeding value. More than a thousand years ago Arabians were memorizing the pedigrees of their horses, but there is no detailed knowledge of how those pedigrees were used, if at all, to guide them in making breeding decisions. By all accounts, the scientific selective breeding of livestock didn’t begin until the second half of the 18th century. Its beginning is attributed to the English livestock breeder, Robert Bakewell, and its progress was driven by his work with sheep. Richard Gilbert tells this story in “From Bakewell to BLUP: Modern Livestock Breeding’s Short History” (The Shepherd, August, 2008) with help from Roger J. Wood and Viteslav Orel (Genetic Prehistory in Selective Breeding: A Prelude to Mendel, Oxford Press, 2001). Additional accounts of the story are found in classic textbooks

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Robert Bakewell (1725-1795), known as the father of animal breeding. He became famous for transforming his region’s sheep. From: The Collection of The Royal Agricultural Society of England, Dreweaths Bloomsbury Auctions (http://www.dreweatts.com/cms/ pages/lot/36124/114). written by J. L. Lush (Animal Breeding Plans, Iowa State College Press, 1945) and the team of V. A. Rice and F. N. Andrews (Breeding and Improvement of Farm Animals, McGraw-Hill, 1951). Using these collective efforts, the story of Bakewell and his sheep is retold here.

The Father of Animal Breeding

Robert Bakewell was born in 1725 in the parish of Dishley in Leicestershire, which is located in central England. Working with his father, a well-to-do tenant farmer, Bakewell developed a strong interest in the breeding of livestock. When his father died in 1760, Bakewell took over his farm and business interests and begin earnestly studying ways to improve the quality and well being of the livestock. Bakewell also traveled extensively throughout Britain, with the purpose of learning about different farming and livestock breeding methods. At the time Bakewell took over his father’s farming interests, livestock were generally not bred for meat or milk. Sheep were bred for their wool and cattle were

bred for their strength in farm work. Yet, Bakewell had the imagination and ability to predict the future needs of a growing population in terms of meat. Furthermore, he believed that with careful and planned breeding, the meat-producing capabilities of farm animals could be increased. He was also convinced this increase in production could be accelerated by irrigation of crops and improvement of pastures and forages. Robert Bakewell, who is shown in paintings as a portly man with cool eyes set in a pudgy face, was to become the first person to selectively breed animals for their meat. As a result, he will forever be known as the “father of animal breeding.”

The Sheep’s Role

At this point, you may be wondering about the sheep’s role in the story. It turns out that Bakewell’s success was largely due to his New Leicester sheep. “Wool was wealth” and sheep breeding was an important economic activity during this period of time. So, it makes sense that sheep actually drove the progress of scientific


Drawings of the New Leicester Sheep Bred by Robert Bakewell at Dishley Grange. The New Leicester sheep had small heads, short legs and stocky bodies with an almost level profile along their backs. They provided meat for the growing population during the Industrial Revolution in England. From: The New Dishley Society (http://www.le.ac.uk). selective breeding, attracting “ingenious, independent thinkers” like Bakewell. According to Wood and Orel, although Bakewell worked to improve cattle, sheep and horses through selective breeding, he learned the most about genetics from sheep. They write, “The idea of learning from sheep was at the same time an in-joke and a shared revelation within the circle to which the secret was being revealed.” (It seems that sheep have never gotten the respect they deserve.)

More of the Story

Bakewell’s farm, Dishley Grange, consisted of 450 fertile acres. His family had leased it for three generations. They grazed cattle and sheep and fattened them for city meat markets (Dishley is about 100 miles north of London). When Bakewell began to manage the farm, he expanded its irrigation infrastructure so that he could harvest four hay crops per year. He also divided the farm into 10-acre paddocks that could be further subdivided for more efficient grazing. It was the productivity of Dishley Grange and Bakewell’s improvements to pastures and forages that allowed him to become the first English farmer, or country gentleman, to practice selective breeding of livestock. Legend has it that he called his New Leicester sheep, “machines for turning herbage into money.” In the beginning Bakewell’s sheep were large-framed, heavy-boned and longwooled. They had little or no propensity

to fatten quickly (at that time sheep were being slaughtered at three to four years of age). Through selection, he gradually brought them down in frame and gave them more muscle, fineness of bone and quickfattening abilities, which set them off from their forebearers as a new type of sheep. It was said that Bakewell’s sheep were as broad as they were long and, according to the historical accounts, they could be sent to market after their second shearing, a full year earlier than the local sheep. Interestingly enough, given its economic importance, Bakewell paid little, if any, attention to wool (which was considered heresy at the time). Although Bakewell was most interested in meat, he did experiment with a Merino ram in the 1780s and he may have given some consideration to creating a dualpurpose type of sheep. But, he concluded that it was “impossible for sheep to produce mutton and wool in equal ratio; by a strict attention to one, you must in great degree let go of the other.” This is a concept taught in animal breeding classes today: As the number of traits being selected increases, selection pressure exerted on any one trait decreases. Bakewell understood this concept in the 1780s. By all accounts, Bakewell was a good farmer, an excellent observer, a keen student of anatomy and probably a good judge of livestock. Although he was not associated with any academic institution, he conducted himself as a “man of science.”

He gained knowledge through critical and systematic experiments, trying to determine principles of breeding he could rely upon in the future. For example, to compare growth rates and efficiency of sheep in converting feed into muscle, Bakewell fed out 20 to 40 ram lambs from his flocks each year and recorded their growth rates. There are also accounts of Bakewell buying rams from different farms and feeding them for a year to determine growth rates, feed efficiencies and subsequent differences in income when they were sold. These were the first ram tests in history and another first for sheep. Bakewell also conducted the first progeny tests on record; he judged a ram by its performance and, most importantly, the performance of its progeny. During the 1760s, he pioneered the practice of “ramletting.” That is, he did not sell his best rams outright, but leased them for a year at a time. Lush writes, “His annual auctions, or ramlettings, attracted great attention and were a distinct financial success.” Bakewell was a businessman as well as a livestock breeder. Lush continues, “He is said to have received as much as 1,200 guineas (which would be about $1800 today) for one year’s use of a ram.” By this practice of “ram-letting,” the best sires came back to Bakewell each year and any whose progeny had proven them better than the others could be kept for use in his own flocks. By doing this, Bakewell got his neighbors to “prove” the Genetically Speaking continues on pg. 20

Hoof Print I VOLUME 21 FALL 2015 I 19


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Genetically Speaking continued from pg. 19 transmitting abilities of his sires for him. He understood the genetic principle that “like produces like or the likeness of some ancestor.” In addition to practicing rigorous selection of potential parents based on growth rate and feed efficiency, Bakewell also dared to use inbreeding. As far as is known, he was the first person to use this controversial form of mating in a constructive way. He bred “the best to the best” regardless of how closely related the animals were. Bakewell had learned that inbreeding could “fix” characteristics. An inbred animal was more likely to be prepotent, which meant that it was likely to stamp its characteristics on its progeny. Coupled with his willingness to inbreed was a good knowledge of anatomy and an understanding of what types of animals were best suited to his farming operation and should be set up as goals. As a result, Bakewell’s sheep looked alike and preformed differently from other sheep. He kept parallel, unrelated lines within his flocks and could “cross” (linecrossing) them when relationships became too close or performance declined. He also outcrossed to other sheep that had been rigorously selected for muscling, growth rate and feed efficiency. When other breeders took up Bakewell’s inbreeding and linecrossing practices with animals better adapted to their locations, the foundations of our present breeds were laid. Bakewell’s successes gained him many disciples. Stockmen from many parts of England went to Dishley to work with him and study his methods of livestock breeding. Returning home they applied his methods to stock secured from him or to what they thought were the best of their own local animals. It is not known what happened to most of Bakewell’s “students,” but enough of them had success that throughout England there soon began to be groups of animals closely related to each other and similar in type. These were the groups from which came the modern breeds, most of which were not formally organized as such until the second half of the 18th century.

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Evidence of Bakewell’s influence resulted in formation of a breeder’s club called the Dishley Society. It was established in 1789 with Bakewell as its first president. The Society provided a framework for identifying superior sheep

across many flocks and, subsequently, limited inbreeding. Dishley members shared similar goals. This was a major shift away from the previous pattern of breeders having much different ideals with regard to type. Members had first choice of one another’s rams, with Bakewell’s being preferred. Thus, he had access to all of the flocks of the Dishley members on which to test his rams. From the point of view of progeny testing, this agreement was equivalent to Bakewell possessing one enormous flock. The underlying principle of this arrangement – comparing large numbers of animals of the same type and with common relationships – would become the cornerstone of modern livestock breeding theory 150 years later. The Dishley Society and Bakewell were ahead of their time in realizing that accurate comparison could be confounded by different management practices. An important rule of the Society was that rams being evaluated (ram tests) would not be fed grain. According to Wood and Orel, “Bakewell and his friends clearly appreciated that extravagant feeding on some farms, but not on others, would confuse the genetic picture.” The willingness of the Dishley members to follow the no feeding rule represented another departure from the traditional practice of “feeding and fattening.” Two hundred years later, animal breeders would classify this as contemporary groups; animals being compared should be managed similarly.

The Moral of the Story

The revolutionary insights of Bakewell and his followers led to historic progress in the selective breeding of livestock, first in England with sheep and later around the world with other species. Bakewell’s “sheepish doctrines” and his outstanding success would earn him the title, “father of animal breeding” and would fortify the sheep’s role in genetic history. To be continued.

Read Part 2 of “The Sheep’s Role in History” in the next Genetically Speaking, when we fast forward to the 20th century, the era of genetic engineering, to tell Dolly’s story. Dr. Debra K. Aaron, PhD, professor in the UK Dept. of Animal Sciences, teaches animal science and genetics. Her research interests are in sheep breeding and genetics.


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NEWS TO EWES

Nutritional Architecture of the Sheep By Dr. Donald G. Ely Department of Animal and Food Sciences, University of Kentucky

A

nimal nutritionists view sheep differently than geneticists and physiologists. All may see breed character, structural correctness, body condition score, and/or fiber quality, but when it comes down to the brass tacks, nutritionists see gastrointestinal tracts mounted on four legs. More specifically, they visualize sheep eating roughage (forage, hay, silage), like cattle and goats, versus hogs eating grains (concentrates) or horses eating roughages and concentrates. Sheep diets around the world, on average, contain 85 to 90% roughage. Cattle and goat diets may contain similar amounts. So, how can these animals produce marketable products from primarily roughage, but other animals cannot? The nutritionists know these animals

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Figure 1. Hampshire mowing machine have a gastrointestinal (digestive) tract that is anatomically and functionally different from hogs and horses, making them ruminants, rather than nonruminants.

The Mouth

Sit down in the middle of a pasture of bluegrass, orchardgrass, or fescue towards sundown in July and listen to 25 ewes grazing. Will it be quiet? Will any sound be soft? Will it be loud? I have done this on occasion and the sound has always been the same – like a mowing machine (Figure 1). Why do they make so much noise when they “graze”? Basically, it’s because of their mouth anatomy. First, they have a great “pair of lips” that are totally mobile. This anatomical feature allows them to graze the youngest and most nutritious plant leaves that are growing closest to the ground surface. The “noise making” is a process whereby the sheep tear the leaves from the plants that remain implanted in the soil. Although sheep, like humans, with a “full mouth” have 32 total teeth, they don’t have any incisors (cutting teeth) in the front of the upper jaw. Instead, they have a firm, dental pad. When sheep use their lips to guide a bite of forage into their mouths, the forage goes between the lower incisor


sheep consume bites of roughages or concentrates. The newly swallowed material mixes with water and previously consumed feed being fermented by millions of bacteria and protozoa living anaerobically (without oxygen) in the fermentation vat (reticulo-rumen).

Rumination

Figure 2. Architecture of the sheep mouth. teeth and the dental pad (Figure 2). They move their heads back towards their bodies to tear, rather than cut, the bite from the forage plant. One sheep may not make a lot of noise, but 25 mowing machines tearing the leaves from the stems at their own pace is impressive to the ruminant nutritionist.

The Rumen

Although the primary type of feedstuff consumed by sheep around the world is roughage, they do consume concentrates (corn, soybean meal, etc.) in some production situations. If only roughages (forage, hay, silage) are consumed, they are consumed rapidly without any extensive chewing and are swallowed through the esophagus into the rumen. Likewise, concentrates are swallowed into the rumen without extensive chewing. In contrast to nonruminants that have only a single stomach, sheep stomachs have evolved into four compartments: the rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum (Figure 3). The rumen is the main fermentation compartment although the reticulum is so tightly attached they are often called the reticulo-rumen with the same fermentation function. So, what really happens in the fermentation process? My definition of fermentation is: Any group of chemical reactions, induced by yeast, bacteria, mold, or enzymes, that split complex organic compounds into relatively simple substances, especially the anaerobic (without oxygen) conversion of sugar to carbon dioxide and alcohol by yeast. Remember, very little chewing occurs when

Sheep participate in two major grazing periods in a 24-hour day. The first begins around sunrise with the second in late afternoon. Shorter and less regular periods take place during mid-day and at night. In general, sheep graze for 7 to 12 hours of a 24-hour period, ruminate for 3 to 8 hours, and spend the remainder of the period idling and/or resting. After sheep have grazed to their fill or have consumed their allotted meals (daily rations) of only roughage or a combination of roughages and concentrates, they rest and begin to “chew their cud�. The cud chewing process is called rumination (Figure 4) and consists of an involuntary reflex that brings partially digested feed back up into the mouth (regurgitation) from the reticulo-rumen. Once in the mouth, it is rechewed and resalivated. The rechewed cud, now called a bolus, is swallowed back into the reticulo-rumen for further fermentation. The number of times the digesta is regurgitated is unknown, but it is known the reticulo-rumen is in constant motion. This movement keeps the digesta mixing so the smaller feed particles fall to the bottom and eventually pass from the reticulum to the omasum,

News to Ewes continues on pg. 24 Hoof Print I VOLUME 21 FALL 2015 I 23


News to Ewes continued from pg. 23 the third compartment of the four-part ruminant stomach. Rumination is a physical process of breaking large feed particles into smaller ones. This process is a preliminary step to the chemical breakdown that occurs in the reticulo-rumen before digesta passes to the omasum. These processes allow ruminants (sheep) to utilize a feed source that nonruminants cannot. It’s not sugars or proteins or minerals or vitamins. Instead, it is fiber, which makes up the bulk of the dry matter in roughages. A main component of fiber is cellulose. This is a compound that no mammal (including the sheep) can use directly because no mammal can make the cellulase enzyme, which is necessary to digest (degrade) this fiber. How, then, can sheep produce marketable products when their average diet contains 85 to 90% roughage (fiber, cellulose) and they make no cellulase? It is the millions of microorganisms that live in the reticulo-rumen that produce cellulase. These microorganisms digest fiber (cellulose) with cellulase in the fermentation process. Therefore, sheep who spend their time eating forage/ roughage have evolved gastrointestinal tracts containing reticulo-rumens that house these microbes. In turn, the sheep can digest the products of microbial fermentation farther down the gastrointestinal tract. Digestion of the microbial bodies that participated in the reticulo-rumen fermentation yields nutrients that can be absorbed into the bloodstream of the sheep and then be used for maintenance, growth, milk, wool, and work. This is a brilliant two-stage system that allows forage/roughageeating mammals (like sheep) to derive their nutrients from fiber like no other mammals.

After the Rumen

24 I VOLUME 21 FALL 2015 I Hoof Print

Ingesta (residual feed mass) that enters the omasum from the reticulorumen contains undigested feed particles, minute feed particles that may have been chewed numerous times, water, metabolic products from the microbial digestion of fiber, and bacteria and protozoa (dead and alive) that digested the fiber. The main function of the omasum is to absorb water from the digesta into the bloodstream. This is essential because as the digesta mass moves from the omasum into the abomasum, hydrochloric acid

(a liquid) is added to begin the protein digestion process. The hydrochloric acid decreases the pH, thereby killing any live microbes that came out of the reticulorumen through the omasum and preps the microbes and other protein in the digesta for post-ruminal digestion. Pepsin is secreted into the abomasum and begins enzymatic protein digestion. Protein reaching the abomasum can be undigested dietary protein or that synthesized by the reticulo-rumen microorganisms. In essence, these “bugs” degraded dietary protein into small compounds and then re-constructed proteins that became parts of their bodies in the reticulorumen. As described above, enzymatic digestion of their cellular bodies begins in the abomasum and continues in the anterior part of the small intestine. After the abomasum comes the small intestine. The abomasum is called the “true stomach” because it has basically the same functions as the stomach of humans. It is in the small intestines of sheep, like in humans, where major digestion and absorption take place – digestion in the anterior portion and absorption into the blood of digested material across the intestinal walls of the posterior portion. The pancreas and other organs secrete most of their digestive enzymes into the small intestine. Interestingly, the small intestine is not really small. Instead, it is quite long (as much as 80 feet). This makes sense because a longer tube contains more surface area, which increases the animals’ capacity to absorb nutrients. From the small intestine, some fibrous feed material will reach the cecum and colon, compartments of the large intestine. Digestion of a feedstuff or diet will never be 100%. Therefore, some of the undigested fibrous material will flow from the mouth to the feces even though some extra microbial digestion may occur in the cecum. This digestion is much less significant than what went on in the reticulo-rumen. A great amount of water from the passing digesta is absorbed into the blood from the colon in order to keep the sheep from having diarrhea (scours). Any part of a feedstuff or diet that passes out of the body, via the rectum, in the feces could have been consumed 3 to 5 days previous. In other words, it takes 3 to 5 days for a feedstuff or diet to pass through the rumen, reticulum, omasum,


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How Big is the Rumen?

HUGE! Especially when compared with the total body weight of the mature ruminant. Table 1 shows the approximate Table 1. Maximum Capacities of Digestive Tract Compartments in Mature Ewes a

Compartment

Capacity

Rumen

5 – 6 gal

Reticulum

2 qt

Omasum

1 qt

Abomasum Small intestine Large intestine (cecum and colon) Total a

3 qt 2 gal 6 qt 10-11 gal

Taylor, Robert E. 1977. Scientific Farm Animal Production, Fifth Ed., p. 277; Ensminger, M.E., J.E. Oldfield, and W.W. Heinemann. 1990. Feeds and Nutrition, Second Ed., p. 53; Gillespie, James R. 1998. Animal Science, Second Ed., p. 172.

maximum capacities of each part of the digestive tracts of mature ewes that weigh between 150 and 175 lb. Obviously, the rumen is the largest part, making up 50 to 60% of the total capacity of the tract. If digesta weighs about 8 lb per gallon (a

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gallon of water weighs 8.3 lb), maximum capacities for 170-lb ewes are about 80 to 88 lb. Assuming this weight, the rumen will hold about 40 to 48 lb of digesta when completely full. However, these compartments are seldom filled to their maximum. Instead, the normal operating level of the rumen is 50 to 60% of maximum (2 to 3 gal of digesta containing water, undigested feed particles, partially digested feed particles, bacteria, protozoa, and metabolic products of reticulo-ruminal fermentation) throughout a 24-hour period.

Summary

Sheep, and other ruminants, are unique from a nutrition standpoint. Two principles are fundamental to this uniqueness: First is the microbial fermentation of feedstuffs in the ruminant digestive tract and, second, is the places along the tract where this fermentation occurs. Their unique digestive tracts, clearly, are designed to extract the maximum amount of energy from fibrous feedstuffs because they feature multiple opportunities for this extraction, a sequential digestion system (rumen and small intestine), and a redundant system for physical breakdown (chewing their cud). Furthermore, these animals are unique, when compared with nonruminants, because their digestive system allows them to produce marketable products, for their owners, from diets that are primarily roughage. Dr. Donald G. Ely, professor in the Department of Animal & Food Sciences at the University of Kentucky

Hoof Print I VOLUME 21 FALL 2015 I 25


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RESULTS FROM THE SEKGA SPRING ROUNDUP AND SALE by Staff Writer

T

he Southeast Kiko Goat Association hosted their annual Spring Roundup and Sale on June 5th & 6th at the Georgia National Fairgrounds in Perry Georgia. The conference portion of the weekend included experts from across the country that addressed topics designed to help meat goat producers improve their herd management and increase the profitability of their operations. Speakers included Dr. Fred Brown who spoke about parasite management techniques; Richard Petcher addressed the subjects of forage products and year round grazing; Dr Maria Browning covered the topic of biosecurity; Dr. Richard Browning gave a presentation on genetic management and Brent

Ballinger spoke about setting goals and business planning. Free lunches were served on Friday and Saturday with a variety of goat meat dishes being well received by those in attendance. In addition, a fund raising auction was held on Friday evening. For the Kiko sale on Saturday afternoon 95 buyers registered representing 14 different states. At the end of the day, 105 goats sold for a total of $125,450.00. The high selling buck was consigned

by Bear Creek Kikos of Carlinville Illinois. The high selling doe was consigned by Ragin’ River Kiko Farm of Williamsburg Kentucky. The Southeast Kiko Goat Association is comprised of members from nine states and they conduct two Kiko sales per year. Their next event will be the Fall Roundup and Sale on November 13th and 14th in Hattiesburg Mississippi. More information is available on their website at www.sekga.us

Hoof Print I VOLUME 21 FALL 2015 I 27


Farm Hacks by Kelley Yates

M

ost all farmers are DIY professionals. We must be able to utilize our resources to the best of our abilities, which generally leads to creative uses for items around our farms that either save us money, save us time, or better yet both! Here are some Farm Hacks shared by our readers:

Grazing/Feeding

Al Dilley of Barren County grazes goats on many different pastures, thus he needs portable shelters that are easy to assemble and disassemble, and needs an efficient way to utilize portable fencing. For shelters, he utilizes gates and wire livestock panels.

Pat Bennet of Livingston, KY created feeders out of old farm equipment. For mineral feeders, she utilizes old tires with spreaders. To feed grain, she took the wheels off an old corn elevator so that it would set on the ground. The sheep don’t climb in it because it is tall.

Kidding

For an efficient way to use portable fencing, he uses electric netting. “We use electric netting and have problems with vegetation drawing current from the bottom energized wire. The solution was to cut the bottom wire. When we have nannies kidding, we reenergize the bottom wire by connecting a drop wire from the top to the bottom,” explains Al.

28 I VOLUME 21 FALL 2015 I Hoof Print

Tess Caudill of Harrodsburg, KY has found two great ways to handle kidding in the winter. “Often times when you pick up newborn kids or lambs and try to move them, the doe or ewe loses sight of them and becomes confused often running back to the place she originally had them or running in circles looking and calling for them. By placing them in a laundry basket on the ground, it’s much easier for the doe or ewe to keep sight of them and can even continue to lick them as she follows along behind the basket that you are pulling like a sled.  Very handy if you need to move them more than just a few feet.” “This winter I was kidding during the extreme cold temperatures we had in February.  I did not have enough purchased kid coats for all the new babies so I started thinking about how I could make some in a hurry.  I took some old, worn out sweatshirts and cut a section out of the sleeves.  Then I cut two leg holes A goat in a sweater from Prodigal Farm, North Carolina.


in the bottom, one on each side of the seam, and cut a little “V” out for the belly area so the boys wouldn’t get it wet. Worked like a charm!!!”

Facilities

Donna Puckett of Hardyville, KY uses homemade gates in her barn that have been “goat proof” for years. It is all in how the latch is made. The goats cannot twist and pull the latch, thus no rogue goats running around in the barn! She also uses homemade

Medical

Dee Daniels of Smith Grove, KY says, “Since most of the stuff we have to medicate or supplement goats with is ‘off label,’ I always label my new purchases with the Goat recommended dosage before I put them in my medicine cabinet.”

Kelley Yates, is the Executive Director of the Kentucky Sheep and Goat Development Office and the editor for HoofPrint Magazine.

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Hoof Print I VOLUME 21 FALL 2015 I 31


P.O. Box 4709 Frankfort, KY 40604-4709

HoofPrint- vol. 21 Fall 2015  
HoofPrint- vol. 21 Fall 2015  

HoofPrint - The Small Ruminant Magazine is a periodical used to promote better animal health, husbandry, and knowledge among sheep and goat...

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