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Volume 15 Spring 2014

Hoof Print

The Small Ruminant Magazine Magazin


• The Value of Wool • Direct Marketing for Goat and Sheep Producers • Small Ruminant Roller Coaster • Is Online Marketing for You?

GENETICS: Is the FAMACHA© System Accurate for All Breeds of Sheep?

HEALTH & MANAGEMENT The Five Point Check®

2 I VOLUME 15 SPRING 2014 I Hoof Print

Volume 15 Winter 2014

HoofPrint Magazine Published Quarterly $24 per year

Hoof Print

Hoof Print Magazine

Published Quarterly Free $24 with per paidyear membership

to one or more of our partner Free with paid membership to one or organizations. more of our partner organizations.

Hoof Print: The Small Ruminant Magazine is a periodical to promote better animal health, husbandry, and knowledge among sheep and goat producers. Hoof Print is the joint effort of members of the sheep and goat industries and serves as a united voice for all small ruminant producers. EDITOR / MARKETING DIRECTOR Kelley Yates EDITORIAL BOARD Tess Caudill, Maggie May Rogers Sonia McElroy, Donna Puckett Scott VanSickle, Debra K. Aaron Donald G. Ely, Mark Powell Denise Martin, Beth Johnson Kathy Meyer, Warren Adcock Dr. Tom Huber



The Small Ruminant Magazine


The Value of Wool by Kim Caulϔield


Direct Marketing for Goat and Sheep Producers by Rob Holland & Megan Bruch


Small Ruminant Roller Coaster


by Tess Caudill


Is Online Marketing for You? by Kelley Yates

DESIGN & LAYOUT Maggie May Rogers & Kelley Yates OFFICE SUPPORT Sharon Koontz PHOTOGRAPHY Sam Kennedy, Dr. Debra K. Aaron Philippe Roca, Kim Caulfield ADVERTISING Kelley Yates (502) 682-7780



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18 GENETICALLY SPEAKING Is the FAMACHA© System Accurate for All Breeds of Sheep?

4 6 8




KY Goat Producers Assoc. TN Sheep Producers Assoc. KY Sheep and Wool Producers Assoc. Marketplace

By Dr. Debra K. Aaron

Executive, Editorial & Advertising Sales directed by Kentucky Sheep & Goat Development Of ice: P.O. Box 4709 Frankfort, KY 40604-4709

22 NEWS TO EWES Sustainable Agriculture I. The Role of Grazing Sheep By Dr. Donald G. Ely

26 HEALTH & MANAGEMENT The Five Point Check® Copyright © 2014 by Kentucky Sheep & Goat Development Office. All rights reserved. No portion of this publication may be reproduced mechanically, electronically, or by any other means, including photo copying without written permission from the publisher.

By Susan Schoenian

16 Hoof Print I VOLUME 15 SPRING 2014 I 3

KY GOAT PRODUCERS ASSOCIATION KGPA - UPCOMING EVENTS - If you have a goat related event you would like listed please contact Denise Martin,


KGPA Youth Membership •

Youth can be KGPA members too! • Youth receive same bene its as a regular adult membership. • Youth are eligible for prizes based on participation in KGPA approved functions. (list of approved functions can be found at Children can become members in one of two ways: 1. Added to a current KGPA membership for $5 per child. 2. Become an individual KGPA member for $20. Individual memberships will receive 4 issues of HoofPrint Magazine and a Kentucky Sheep and Goat Development Calendar. (Youth memberships only available up to 21 years of age as of January 1st)

Northern Kentucky Goat Producers Association Meeting – First Tuesday of every month 6:00pm Kenton County Extension Office - 10990 Marshall Road


Date Location / Details April 5th Keinan Boers First Annual “Strive for the Drive” Private Treaty Sale – Double Doc Farm Parksville, KY April 12th KY Proud Elite Breeder Sale – Franklin County Fairgrounds April 17th Fort Harrod Goat and Sheep Producers Association Meeting, 6:30 p.m., Mercer County Extension Office - Contact Bev Devins (859)326-6289


Date Location / Details May 3rd KY Derby Day Classic Goat Show – Marion County Fairgrounds May 17-18th KY Sheep & Fiber Festival – Masterson Station Park, Lexington, KY

For more details on how to join, visit

17th Annual Derby Day Classic presented by Kentucky Goat Producers Association

May 3, 2013 • Marion County Fairgrounds 415 Fairgrounds Road • L ebanon, KY 40033 8:00 am American Dairy Goat Association Sanctioned Show Registration begins at 7:00am • Judge- Mr. Matt Casselman 11:00 am Youth Jackpot Wether Show—See Rules for Eligibility Weigh in 10:00am to 10:30am • Judge-Mr. Warren Beeler 1:00 pm American Boer Goat Association Sanctioned Show Registration 8:00am to12:00 pm• Judge- Ms. Elizabeth Walker ABGA – Angie French (502)827-1501 ADGA – Ray Graves (859)209-0695 Jackpot Wether Show – Kenny Fenwick (502)331-3332 Proceeds to benefit the Kentucky Goat Producer’s Youth Activities, the Bucks for Kids Program and the Kentucky State Fair Youth Dairy Goat Showmanship Contest.

Sign Up for your KGPA Membership Today! Membership Application Your $30 membership provides:

• 4 issues of the Hoof Print Magazine plus the newly designed 2014 Sheep and Goat Management Calendar • A unified voice for the goat industry on the state and national level • Representation on important committees such as the Check‐Off and the Animal Care Standards boards • Support of various educational and youth activities • Youth Membership forms can be found at • And much, much more!

4 I VOLUME 15 SPRING 2014 I Hoof Print

Visit to join today! Name: _______________________________________________________ Address: _______________________City: _____________State: ______Zip:________ Phone: _______________________E-Mail: _________________________ Please enclose a check for $30 made out to KGPA and mail to: Kentucky Sheep and Goat Development Office P.O. Box 4709, Frankfort, KY 40604-4709.



Happy Spring Fellow Goat Producers,

Dear Goat Guru, I had two kids born a couple of days before their due date. Everything appeared fine, the doe cleaned them off, and they were able to stand and nurse within a couple of hours. On day 2, they appeared sluggish and I never saw them nurse. Since their bellies appeared full, I just assumed they were eating and their behavior was due to them being full. They died during the night. What went wrong and how can I prevent this from happening in the future? - Sincerely, Confused Goat Herder Dear Confused Goat Herder, The symptoms you described are common amongst kids born with bacterial septicemia, inadequate colostrum intake, trauma, congenital conditions or meconial impaction. Retained meconium seems to be more prevalent than ever. Key symptoms of meconium impaction are premature birth and distended abdomens accompanied by depressed behavior. Meconium is the black, tarry stool that the newborn kid usually expels soon after their first meal of colostrum. For some unknown reason, retention of meconium occurs more frequent in premature kids, kids whose dam had a difficult delivery, and in dams that are not very good mothers. However, I have seen this occur in kids that have a great mom, too. Therefore, it is very important to watch for yellow stool which means the milk that the kid has ingested is being digested and excreted in the normal way. If you do not see this within 36 hours of age, consider giving the newborn kid an enema. Pediatric enemas that can be purchased over the counter at your local pharmacy work great. Unfortunately, when meconium impaction occurs, a bacterial septicemia may develop. So it is recommended to treat the newborn kid with a broad spectrum antibiotic in addition to treating with an enema. I usually use a florfenicol product or ceftiofur but would recommend consulting with your local veterinarian for their recommendation. In very rare cases, I have had to give the kid 30cc mineral oil orally with an oral-gastric feeding tube passed into the stomach. This can be repeated every 4 hours until the mineral oil is being excreted rectally. Remember, always observe newborn animals closely for their first three days. Watch for playful activity, stretching when they stand up after resting, and nursing. These are all good signs that point to healthy, satisfied kids. If you notice anything abnormal consult with your veterinarian as soon as possible! Remember “an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure”. - Sincerely, Goat Guru

Information provided by Dr. Beth Johnson, DVM, Kentucky Department of Agriculture Staff Veterinarian.

>> To ask the Goat Guru your question, email k

2014 KGPA Board of Directors Denise Martin, President Mt. Sherman, KY 270.307.2356 Beth Johnson, Vice-President Parksville, KY 859.583.5655 Beverley Devins, Treasurer Perryville, KY 859.326.6289 Angie French, Correspondence Secretary New Haven, KY 502.827.4406

After a long hard winter we look forward to all of the events the KGPA has planned this spring. The Kentucky Proud Elite Breeders Sale is just around the corner. Join us April 12th at the Franklin County Fairgrounds where consignors from across the state offer the best Kentucky Proud market kids, lambs and pigs to our 4H and FFA competitors. The Derby Day Classic is scheduled for May 3rd, starting at 8 am with the American Dairy Goat Association Show, followed by the Jack Pot Wether Show and ending with the American Boer Goat Association sanctioned show. In an effort to encourage more youth to become involved in our association, we are proud to announce the formation of the Youth Membership Plan. Youth from the ages of 5 years to 21 years can now join KGPA for a reduced price. Youth who join, will receive the same bene its as a regular adult membership plus be eligible for several prizes awarded at the 2014 Annual Producer Conference October 25, 2014 at the Cave City Convention Center. Details of the program can be seen on page 4 of this issue and at Lastly, the KY Sheep and Goat Development Of ice is developing a Small Ruminant Pro it School (SRPS) for beginning producers. SRPS will be a three class course held over 2014 and 2015 to give new producers quality, pertinent information regarding facilities, nutrition, breeding/genetics, parasite management, rotational grazing and much more. One major component of this educational program is the connection of a mentor to each new producer who will answer questions and give advice in order to help SRPS participants to better utilize what they learn in the course. Dates and locations of classes will be available at Keep an eye on the website and the facebook page as the program comes available. Thank you for your membership and your work producing goats, Denise Martin, President Kentucky Goat Producers Association

KGPA COMMUNITY GRANTS PROGRAM OVERVIEW: The purpose of the KGPA Community Grants Program is to provide assistance to county and regional Kentucky goat associations for local projects that impact goat producers in their community. KGPA will award two grants up to $250.00 each in 2014 to the top applicants for projects that provide education, marketing assistance or increase profitability of Kentucky goat producers. ELIGIBILITY: Any Kentucky based county or regional goat association is eligible to apply. How to Apply: Download and complete an application from the KGPA Community Grant page on Return form to: Denise Martin - President KGPA P.O. Box 57 • Mount Sherman, KY 42764

Applications must be postmarked no later than April 15, 2014

2014 KGPA Board Members • Donna Puckett, Munfordville, KY, 270.218.1336 • Kenny Fenwick, New Haven, KY, 502.331.3332 • Sonia McElroy, Milton, KY 502.268.9321 • Connie Gray, Cadiz, KY 270.350.1499 • Shawn Harper, Benton, KY, 270.705.7800 • Dr. Debbie Reed, Hopkinsville, 270.977.3143

> > Visit us at

• Mary Ann Holmes, Pleasureville, KY 502.845.2224 • Ray Graves, Perryville, KY 859.209.0690

Hoof Print I VOLUME 15 SPRING 2014 I 5


NEWS from the Rep


Hello Fellow Tennessee Sheep Producers, As I write this, old man winter seems determined to stick around. We’re still breaking ice fairly regularly for the stock, and I’ve got the February blues, as usual, this time of year. One recent bright spot for me though was getting to attend my irst national ASI conference as Tennessee’s voting director. The conference was held in our region this year at Charleston, South Carolina. It was an outstanding event and I’d like to tell you about a few of the highlights from a irst timer’s perspective. In addition to the annual ASI business meeting (open to all ASI membership, which your TSPA membership includes), there were a broad array of speakers on production of both meat and wool, panels on the farm bill and any other sheep political issue you could imagine. The business meeting also included a banquet and a fashion show featuring wool clothes. I particularly enjoyed the Young Entrepreneur track. The program was designed for new producers or producers in their 20’s and 30’s, and included speakers such as David Kohl, famous ag economist, and Benny Cox, manager of the San Angelo sale barn. In short, the conference included something interesting for just about everybody in the sheep business. Most importantly, I got to talk sheep for four days with folks from all over the country. Some even talked sheep in the hotel lobby each night until about 2 am! I came home with a bunch of new ideas, a much broader perspective on the sheep business, and shepherd friends from Alabama to California! One last highlight is a large direct marketing study conducted by the American Lamb industry. The study will combine survey results, interviews and other research to formulate materials to better assist producers in direct marketing pursuits. Be sure to visit the American Sheep Industry Association website for the study results- I am out of space and haven’t even started discussing the “issues” and how Tennessee’s sheep business relates to them. Hopefully we can catch up on that at our state meetings. ASI is our national representation and there are a lot of opportunities for our state membership to be involved. Next year’s conference is in Reno. Hope to see you there! Sincerely, Sam Kennedy, TN ASI Rep

Date Location / Details April 11-12th Smokey Mountain Fiber Festival – April 18-19th Tennessee Sheep Shearing School – Tennessee Livestock Center, Middle Tennessee State University

Shepherds Gather in Force! ASI Conference 2014


MAY Date Location / Details May 23-24th Tennessee Fiber Festival –

2014 Tennessee Sheep Shearing School featuring Doug Rathke

April 18 – 19, 2014 Tennessee Livestock Center Middle Tennessee State University Murfreesboro, TN The school will start at 10:00 a.m. on Friday, April 18, with registration. At 10:30 a.m. there will be a discussion of equipment care and maintenance and at 1:00 p.m. we will start shearing. On Saturday, April 19, at 8:00 a.m. we will continue until All Sheep Are Sheared. The cost for the Shearing School is $125 per person. In order to make plans, pre-registration is required. Participation is limited to the first 20 paid applicants. Please see the TSPA Website ( for registration information or call Warren Gill at (615) 898-2404. Doug Rathke, a seasoned shearer, is returning again this year. Doug knows what it takes to learn the art of shearing and he knows what it takes to teach it on a level so it can be understood and retained. That is why so many people have taken his sheep shearing course. Whether you are a beginner or a more advanced shearer, there is something for everyone to learn.

RENEW TODAY! TSPA Membership Application Annual Dues:

Adult: $30.00

Junior $10.00

Name: ____________________________________________________________ If you are interested in a committee please select below:

Address: ___________________________City:_____________State: ___Zip: _______ Phone: _______________________E-Mail: __________________________________

_____  Wool _____  Youth _____  Jr. Expo _____  Sale _____  Production Education _____  Membership/Revenue _____ Publicity _____ Annual Meeting

6 I VOLUME 15 SPRING 2014 I Hoof Print

Breed(s) of Sheep: ______________________________________________________ Please enclose a check for amount made out to TSPA and mail to: Tennessee Sheep Producer’s Association 4233 Poplar Hill Road, Watertown, TN 37184


2014 Middle Tennessee Fencing School May 15, 2014 • 8:30 am – 4:00 p.m. McKinney Farm, Rome, TN


Greg Brann, Tennessee-NRCS Grazing Specialist Benefits of Good Fence

Buddy Rowlett, Stay Tuff Fencing Construction Foundations and Innovations

Melissa Bryant, TN Farm Bureau Associate “Fencing Law in Tennessee: What is the Legal Definition of a Fence”

Christy Luna, NRCS, Wilson and Smith Co. District Conservationist Review of Available Programs

Jeremy McGill, Gallagher Electric Fencing Basics and New Applications/ Techniques

Hands-On Fence Building Stations & Example Installations All Afternoon!

Contact James Tipps at the Wilson County NRCS Office for more details (615) 444-1890, Ext. 108 2014 TSPA Board of Directors Scott Payne, President Columbia, TN Ed Bowman, Vice President Gray, TN Mark Powell, Secretary/Treasurer Watertown, TN 2013 Board Members Allan Bruhin Sevierville, TN Chris Wilson Jonesborough, TN Daniel Rivers Bon Aqua, TN Ricky Skillington Marshall County, TN Stevan Alsup Lascassas, TN Sam Kennedy, ASI Rep Columbia, TN

2013 TSPA Annual Meeting Highlights


he Tennessee Sheep Producers Association held its annual meeting December 6-7, 2013 at the Ward Ag. Center in Lebanon, TN. A large and enthusiastic crowd attended from all facets of a resurgent sheep industry within the state. Tennessee Commissioner of Agriculture, Julius Johnson, addressed the enthusiastic crowd on the state’s sheep industry and his plans going forward to boost all segments of agriculture in TN Commissioner of Agriculture, Julius Tennessee. Johnson, addresses the attendees of the Over the course of the two day meeting, TSPA Annual Meeting Dr. Ben Bartlett and his wife, Denise, gave well received presentations on “More Sheep – Less Work,” “Raising Lambs on a Bucket,” strategic planning for sheep producers, “Developing a Grazing Plan,” and “Low Stress Sheep Handling.” Retired after thirty years as an extension dairy and livestock agent at Michigan State University, Dr. Bartlett is a noted expert on grazing practices, low stress animal handling and new enterprise analysis. He and his wife, Denise, operate a 640 acre sheep and cattle farm on the Upper Peninsula of Michigan known as Log Cabin Livestock.

Congratulations are in order!

The 2013-14 TSPA Sheep Board is proud to announce the election of the following members: Scott Payne, Chris Wilson, Ed Bowman, Sam Kennedy, Stephen Alsup, Allan Bruhin, Ricky Skillington, and Jessy Shanks. TSPA wants to give a grateful “Thank You” to Reyes Rich for the many years of dedicated service to the association. TSPA also proudly awarded Dwight and Rita Loveday as Shepherd of the Year, and Commisioner Julius Johnson as a Friend of TSPA. Dwight and Rita Loveday awarded Shepherd of the Year

> > Visit isiit uss at http // te

Hoof Print I VOLUME 15 SPRING 2014 I 7


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Kentucky 4-H Volunteer Forum


he Kentucky 4-H Volunteer Forum was held in Lexington January 31st -February 1st. Over 750 4-H leaders attended the Forum. A display for “SHEEP & WOOL” was in the exhibit area. Information on KY Make It With Wool, Kentucky Sheep & Fiber Festival, HoofPrint Magazine, KY Sheep & Goat Management Calendars, and sheep and goat youth organizations were displayed on the table. Also participants of the livestock tracks received HoofPrint magazines and KY Sheep & Goat Management Calendars.


Date Location / Details April 8th UK EweProfit III School, C. Oran Little Research Farm, Midway, KY April 12th KY Proud Elite Breeder Sale – Franklin County Extension Office


Date Location / Details May 15th UK Sheeprofit Day – C. Oran Little Research Farm, Midway, KY May 17 - 18th KY Sheep & Fiber Festival – Masterson Station Park, Lexington, KY


Date Location / Details th June 5 UK EweProfit 1 School – C. Oran Little Research Farm, Midway, KY

Start your KSWPA Membership TODAY! Visit

KSWPA Membership Benefits • Quarterly issues of HoofPrint Magazine plus the newly designed 2014 Sheep and Goat Management Calendar • A unified voice for the sheep industry and representation on important state and national committees • Assistance with new marketing opportunities such as The Kentucky Sheep and Fiber Festival and • Support of various educational and youth activities

Name: ______________________________________________ Phone: ___________________E-Mail: ___________________ Address: ____________________________City : _____________________ State: ______ Zip: ______________ Please enclose a check for $30.00 made out to KSWPA and mail to: Kentucky Sheep and Goat Development Office P.O. Box 4709, Frankfort, KY 40604-4709.

8 I VOLUME 15 SPRING 2014 I Hoof Print


Kentucky Make It With Wool Contestants attended National Competition


llison Novak from Williamsburg represented Kentucky as a senior and Amber Lucas from New Hope represented Kentucky as a junior in Charleston, SC at the National Make It With Wool Competition. Over thirty states are represented in the national competition. In addition to the competition, both girls were in the fashion show at the Banquet for the American Sheep Industry Convention. While in Charleston, the girls got to visit the famous Market Place. Each contestant received 1 ½ yards of Pendleton wool, Coats & Clark Thread box, hand sewing needles, and other sewing notions. The 2014 Kentucky competition will be October 25, 2014 in Cave City, Kentucky. Contact Dorothy Vale, state director, for entry form that is due October 1, 2014 Pictured left: National MIWW Contestants, Allison Novak, Senior, left and Amber Lucas, Junior, right.

President’s Letter Dear KSWPA Members: Thank goodness spring has arrived! I’m sure all of us are very glad to see the bitter cold, ice, and snow leave. I hope you and your SHEEP & WOOL sheep made it through the harsh conditions PRODUCERS safely. ASSOCIATION The 2014 American Sheep Industry Association/National Lamb Feeders Association annual convention in Charleston, SC, had record attendance in January. Kentucky sent four people to represent our state. Our Executive Director, Kelley Yates, reported that Kentucky is de initely a pace setter in regards to our efforts to help promote, market and educate our producers and consumers. KSWPA was recognized for the largest percentage increase in membership for associations of our size. That is great news! By working together, we can create a sustainable market for our sheep products. One of the highlights of the ASI/NLFA annual convention was the roll out of the Industry Roadmap Report. I encourage all producers to read the full report at The Industry Roadmap was created in order to identify and analyze the major challenges facing the American Lamb industry. The goal was to provide information that can help strengthen our competitive advantage and return the industry to consistent pro itability. The Roadmap has four major goals and objectives: 1. Product Characteristics: reduce fat content and improve consistency 2. Demand Creation: achieve an increase in demand for American Lamb 3. Productivity Improvement: achieve a signi icant increase in industry productivity 4. Industry Collaboration: work toward a common industry goal of meeting consumer desires These goals have been taken by all facets of the industry and been converted into tangible action steps. In the next issues of HoofPrint we will be sharing more information about this report and where Kentucky its into the efforts. Be sure to mark your calendars. Sheepro it Day and the Kentucky Sheep and Fiber Festival will be coming up in May. Both events are great for networking and learning more about the industry. Lastly, be diligent this spring with your parasite management and rotational grazing efforts. Good luck! Warren Adcock, KSWPA President

2014 KSWPA Board of Directors Warren Adcock, President Campbellsburg, KY

B.P. Davis, Treasurer Mt. Sterling, KY

Jim Mansfield, Vice President Salvisa, KY

Dorothy Vale, Make it with Wool Chair Nicholasville, KY

2014 KSWPA Board Members Scott VanSickle, Auburn, KY Alex Leer, Pairs, KY Kathy Meyer, Pairs, KY Endre Fink, Winchester, KY

Sara Evans, Secretary Winchester, KY

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Hoof Print I VOLUME 15 SPRING 2014 I 9

Competitive Loans with Flexible Terms only for Sheep- and Goat-Related Businesses Highly


Loan Option Increase the Size Your Flock

The Sheep & Goat Fund encourages innovation and of efficiency in the sheep and goat industries by providing credit to eligible and qualified entities. Sheep & Goat Fund loans are a valuable tool for sheep and goat producers who need assistance in financing Never before have funds been available projects that go beyond the farm gate. Loans are to increase sheep numbers. NLPA and the available in amounts up to $1.5 million per appliAmerican Sheep Industry Association decant delivered through either direct loans or loan veloped this one-of-a-kind loan that adds guarantees. These loans are not to be used as a basic production loan. a new dimension to the Sheep & Goat Fund

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Middle Tennessee Fiber Festival May 23 & 24, 2014 Dickson County Fairgrounds Dickson, Tennessee Over 40 Vendors Classes All Day Friday & Saturday Shearing & Spinning Demonstrations For more information: 615-789-5943 10 I VOLUME 15 SPRING 2014 I Hoof Print

breeding sheep only.

Tennessee State Fair

Let the Good Times


September 5-14, 2014 Fleece Show Fleece Auction Spinning Contest Sheep to Shawl Contest Open Sheep Show TN Junior Sheep Show Please visit our website at or contact Kim Caulfield, Fleece Department Head, at or (931) 293-4466

Today is the day to

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For optimal performance following the start, transition them to Ultra Fresh® Optimum lamb milk replacer or Doe’s Match® Premium Blend kid milk replacer.

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Hoof Print I VOLUME 15 SPRING 2014 I 11


Value of WOOL by Kim Caulϔield


he great 18th century sheep breeder, Robert Bakewell, referred to his livestock as, “Machines for converting herbage into money,” (The Animal Estate by Harriet Ritvo, 1987). That sounds wonderful, though most of us fi nd that our business is not quite this simple. Wool is just one product that comes from sheep, and although the selling of wool won’t necessarily make you rich, there are some things that are easy to understand and do that may increase the price you receive. There are two common ways of marketing wool. You can sell individual fleeces to hand spinners and crafters, usually for relatively high prices, and usually by intense marketing. The alternative is to sell wool in bulk, often through a wool pool such as the one run by the Tennessee Sheep Producers Association each year. Th is allows you to sell all your fleeces at once, with little effort.   No matter how you sell your wool, there are many things you can do to help you get the best price.

Shearing Your shearer can do a lot to help or hurt your wool. Most shearers are responsive if you tell them what your priorities are. 1. Obviously, treating your sheep carefully should be top priority. 2. Trying not to step in the wool will make their footing more secure, and your job easier. 3. Throwing any muck from around the tail off to the side when it is sheared keeps the rest of the fleece cleaner. 4. Minimizing second cuts (those short bits of wool that come off when a shearer goes back to smooth off a spot). Second cuts do not always come out easily, especially with the processing methods available to most hand spinners, and can make for scratchy and inconsistent yarn.

Photo provided by Roca ©2014

Colored Sheep If you have any black sheep (in the sheep industry “Black” simply means any sheep that is not white), you need to be extra careful during shearing. If possible, shear the blacks after the whites, so there is no chance of getting even a few second cuts of black wool mixed into the white clip. If you must shear whites after some blacks, sweep the shearing area very carefully between them. Always bag any colored wool separately from white wool! Last year, there was a 180 lb. bag of lovely wool brought to the TN wool pool that had to be graded as Black because there was one colored fleece in it. If you have both white faced and black faced sheep in your flock, bag these separately. Even a single black fiber can appear as a dingy looking stain in a piece of finished cloth, so commercial buyers are extremely careful to avoid white wool that has ANY black contamination. Bag fleeces from black faced breeds, such as Suffolks, Hampshires, and even Southdowns, separately from wool from white faced breeds.

Commercial Sales Commercial wool buyers are mostly interested in a few simple points: length, strength, and cleanliness.

12 I VOLUME 15 SPRING 2014 I Hoof Print

Cleanliness Try to give the buyers what they want by putting all of your best wool together,

and the rest in another bag. You do not need to pull out every piece of hay, burr, or speck of dirt, but it only takes a few seconds to pull off the mucky bits. Your wool will appear cleaner and smell better to the graders. Strength The graders will test for strength, so you may want to check too. Take a lock about the thickness of a match stick and snap it by your ear.  If it makes an almost musical tone, the strength is excellent. If you hear fibers tearing, you have a problem.   Another way to test is to take another small lock and twist it twice, then pull it with about ten pounds of force. If it holds securely, it is strong enough to survive most processing. Weak fleeces are often a result of something stressful in the sheep’s life, so you may want to double check wool from animals that have been seriously injured or sick.

Hand Spinners Spinners are often willing to try just about any breed of fleece, but they tend to be very picky, and they have long memories. Hand spinning is done for pleasure, so fleeces that are a lot of work to process are not appealing. They want fleeces to be relatively clean and free of second cuts. Most spinners are not too thrilled to find they’ve bought dung tags, so please do remove these first.

If you sell a spinner a problem fleece, she/ he will likely never come back, but if you sell clean, sound fleeces, you will develop a loyal customer base. Finding local spinners is usually not hard.  First, they tend to flock almost as well as our sheep.   Spinning guilds or fiber guilds tend to spring up whenever at least three enthusiasts live within an hour’s drive of each other.  Ask at your local art museum, living history museum, or at any nearby yarn store. Look for fiber festivals and wool shows, and go prepared. Always carry business cards and pictures of your flock.    Marketing to individuals is all about establishing a personal connection with your customers. Spinners like to get to know the shepherd, and even the sheep. 1. Label your individual fleeces. If your sheep don’t usually have names, consider naming some of them, or even letting your spinners help choose names for them.

gain a better understanding of exactly why some fleeces inspire nothing but curses, and others are a joy to work. You will also learn to speak the language of spinning. Men, don’t be afraid of this.  Some of the finest spinners I know are big, strong men.  

Fleece Shows

Fleece show at the Tennessee State Fair. may find that having many people on your farm on shearing day is more of a headache than it is worth.

2. You may want to invite spinners out to meet your sheep, and hopefully buy fleeces.

4. Consider having a farm open house day or weekend, and maybe keep back a few sheep to shear for demonstrations.

3. Some shepherds invite spinners out to see or help with shearing. Th is can be a great enticement to spinners, but you

Even if you do not plan on becoming an addicted hand spinner, it will help you tremendously to learn the basics. You will

No matter what kind of wool you raise, I strongly encourage you to consider participating in a fleece show. This can be educational, especially since some shows provide written score cards and comments. Many shows also have sales which give producers a great way to connect with local spinners. Most of us are not going to become rich selling wool, but with reasonable care, we can improve our fleeces, and the prices they bring for us.  Kim Caulϔield is a passionate wool lover. She is equally fascinated by hand spinning and the commercial wool industry. She runs a cottage industry wool processing mill, and she and her mother, Jane, raise a ϔlock of around 150 Romneys, Cotswolds, and Shetlands near Cornersville, TN.

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Call 1-800-KENCOVE for your FREE fence guide & catalog Hoof Print I VOLUME 15 SPRING 2014 I 13

Direct Marketing for Goat and Sheep Producers by Rob Holland and Megan Bruch



irect marketing farm products to consumers is a growing part of the agricultural economy. According to the Census for Agriculture, sales from farms directly marketing products to consumers for human consumption in Tennessee increased from $8.4 million in 1997 to $15.3 million in 2007. Total sales from direct farm marketing are likely much higher than reported due to direct sales of non-food farm products such as Christmas trees and ornamentals. More speci ic to livestock and meat products, “locally sourced meats” was among the leading trends cited in a national survey of restaurant operators for 2013. The interest in direct marketing meat is also on the rise in Tennessee. From December 2011 to December 2013, there was a 59 percent increase in the number of farm-based retail meat permits issued by the Tennessee Department of Agriculture. The “farm-based retail meat permit” allows a livestock producer to directly market the meat from the animals they raise that were harvested and processed in a federally inspected facility to household consumers. A variety of factors have contributed to the increases in direct farm sales. These factors include more consumer interest in purchasing locally grown products, more producers meeting this market demand, and diversi ication of direct market channels for marketing farm products. Consumers perceive local products to be high quality, fresh and authentic. They value the story behind the farm and the product, as well as experiences related to purchasing and using the products. They often value the opportunity to support the local economy. While consumer interest in buying products directly from local farmers is strong, there are challenges for farmers interested in accessing this market. It is important for farmers considering selling products direct to the public to

understand some of the basic concepts of direct marketing, including regulatory requirements.

Direct Marketing

Direct marketing refers to the sale of products directly from producers to consumers. Examples of possible direct marketing channels for goat and sheep products include farmers markets, onfarm retail markets, roadside stands, and Internet sales. Although not technically direct markets, wholesale marketing of products to restaurants, grocery stores or institutions is often included in discussions of direct farm marketing. Agricultural producers often have dif iculty choosing a direct marketing channel from among the alternatives, determining whether a speci ic channel has potential for success for their operation or deciding whether or not to add an additional channel to their marketing mix. All producers have different skills and resources. Some producers are better suited to certain market channels than others. A less-than-ideal market match is not guaranteed to fail — but extra work may be needed to overcome obstacles to make the market channel successful.

Direct Marketing Meat and Live Animals for Custom Harvest In Tennessee, sheep or goat producers can sell meat from their animals direct to consumers if they have a farm-based retail meat permit from the Tennessee Department of Agriculture. To obtain a permit, animals must be harvested and the meat must be processed and packaged under federal inspection. The meat must be properly labeled, and the producer’s method of transporting and storing the meat will be inspected. There is also a $50 annual fee for the permit, which only allows for sales direct to the end consumer; it does not cover wholesale sales. Producers interested in marketing meat wholesale to restaurants, grocery stores or institutions must register with the U.S. Department of Agriculture as a meat handler.

14 I VOLUME 15 SPRING 2014 I Hoof Print

While some sheep and goat producers may be interested in selling meat products, others may be interested in selling a live animal to local consumers who may have it harvested and processed to their speci ications at a custom-exempt processing facility. Custom-exempt processing is not conducted under USDA inspection and can only be done for the owner of the animal. The meat harvested and processed in a custom-exempt facility cannot be sold and is labeled “not for sale.” The meat produced is for the owner’s exclusive use and for that of their nonpaying family, guests and employees. Farmers offering live animals for sale to consumers for custom-exempt processing must clearly communicate and document the sale of the live animals in order to prevent any appearance that they may be selling meat. The following suggestions may help sheep and goat producers marketing live animals for custom-exempt harvest: 1) Avoid using terminology associated with meat in promotion of the animal and in communication with customers. In all communications, be clear that a live animal is being sold. 2) Set the price for the sale based on the value of the live animal either as a price per head or per pound of live weight. 3) Provide and retain a detailed bill of sale for the transaction including a visual representation, such as a photo, of the animal being sold. 4) Document the transfer of funds for the purchase of the live animal between the customers and the farmer. 5) The customers should pay the processing facility and communicate with the facility staff directly regarding the details of harvesting, processing and packaging. 6) Transportation or delivery of the live animal to the custom-exempt processing facility and meat from the facility to the customers should be handled carefully. It is common

Regulations for direct marketing are different in each state. To ind the rules and regulations that apply to you, contact your state’s Department of Agriculture. Visit to locate your of ice. practice that buyers of the live animals will arrange to have the farmer deliver the animal to the processor. Details of the delivery of the live animal should be well communicated and documented between the buyer and the seller. When live animals are delivered to the custom-exempt processor, the name or names of the new owner or owners should be recorded by the processor. That is, if the farmer delivers the animal to the processor, the farmer should make sure that the animal is recorded in the name of the buyer(s) and not the farmer, who no longer owns but is only transporting and delivering the animal. While there is no single required format for a bill of sale, there are several pieces of information that should be included and some additional pieces of information that would be very helpful to document the terms and conditions of the live animal sale. The bill of sale should identify the: • Date of transaction • Buyer and seller names and addresses • Description of livestock • Dollar value received by seller/paid by buyer • Payment method (check number, cash, etc.) • Delivery services agreed upon • Buyer and seller signatures

from a bit more information about the advantages and disadvantages of some common direct marketing channels. Farmers Markets A farmers market is a common facility or area where several farmers or growers gather on a regular, recurring basis to sell a variety of farm products from independent stands directly to consumers. Between 2006 and 2009, the number of farmers markets in the United States increased from 4,385 to 5,274 (a 20 percent increase). During the same period, the number of farmers markets in Tennessee increased 56 percent, from 55 in 2006 to 86 in 2009. Today, there may be as many as 130 farmers markets in the state. In the past, farmers markets may have been thought of as marketing channels primarily for fresh fruits and vegetables. Today, many farmers markets also feature a variety of vendors offering local meat products for sale. Farmers markets have several advantages, including no requirements for sales volume, no standard pack or grade, and access to market information. Farmers markets can also create opportunities for farmers to springboard into other market channels. Advertising and promotion of the farmers market may bene it all participants. Farmers markets also have some disadvantages, including face-toface selling, small transactions, relatively high marketing costs, potentially grueling market schedules and limited space for vendors.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Direct Marketing at Farmers On-Farm Retail Markets and On-Farm Sheep and goat producers interested in direct marketing at farmers markets or from an on-farm market might bene it

On-farm retail describes the various ways in which producers sell their products directly to consumers at the farm. On-farm

retail markets may range from simple operations, such as selling pumpkins and bales of straw for fall decorations at a farm stand, to more complex operations, such as an orchard with a retail store. Advantages to on-farm retail include no transportation costs for marketing, no standard pack or grade requirements, a unique buying experience for the customer and instant credibility for locally grown products. Disadvantages to onfarm retail markets include selling faceto-face, enticing customers to visit the farm, location challenges, liability, small transactions and the potential to be capital intensive. Rob Holland was appointed Director of the Center for Proϔitable Agriculture in September 2007. Prior to his appointment as Director, Rob served as the Center’s Financial Feasibility Specialist and served as an Extension Area Specialist in Farm Management covering ten counties in East Tennessee. Rob received a B.S. degree in Agricultural Business from the University of Tennessee Martin in 1991 and a M.S. degree in Agricultural Economics from the University of Tennessee Knoxville. Megan Bruch joined the Center in June 2003 as a Marketing Specialist and focuses on marketing fundamentals and applied research. She provides leadership to the Center’s programs in agritourism, value-added fruit and vegetable products, farmers markets and other direct marketing channels. Megan is a native of Yuma, Colorado and was raised on a commercial cow/calf operation. She earned a M.S. degree in agricultural economics with an emphasis in marketing and a B.S degree in agricultural business and animal science-industry from Colorado State University.

OTHER LINKS OF INTEREST INCLUDE United States Deparment of Agriculuture Marketing and Regulatory Programs United States Department of Agriculture Farmers Market and Local Food Marketing ersMarkets&leftNav=WholesaleandFarmersMarkets&page=WholesaleAndFarmersMarkets&acct=AMSPW United States Department of Agriculture Alternative Marketing and Business Practices- Direct Marketing On-farm Enterprises and Value-added Products

Producers interested in learning more about direct marketing local products to consumers may find resources and assistance available from the Center for Profitable Agriculture. The center is a partnership between UT Extension and the Tennessee Farm Bureau committed to helping farmers develop value-added agricultural enterprises. Find out more at

Hoof Print I VOLUME 15 SPRING 2014 I 15

by Tess Caudill


o say the least, the past 24 months in the world of sheep and goat marketing has been quite a ride. The ride began two years ago when prices for 60 pound kids topped the $2.50 per pound mark, 70 pounds lambs hit upwards of $2.30 per pound and fat lambs were fetching a whopping $1.90 per pound. Then, as most of you will well remember, the typical price drop that we normally see around May or June came early and hit hard. It was very much like being on a roller coaster taking that irst big drop. All you can do is hold on and hope you survive the ride! Ultimately, we saw goat kids drop about $.50 per pound from April to May of 2012 and then continue to fall throughout the summer until they settled in around $1.50 per pound. This was a full $1.00 per pound price drop in a few short months. Likewise, light lamb prices dropped $.60 per pound from April to May of 2012 and their ride didn’t stop until they hit a low of around $1.25 per pound. Fat lambs held much better through most of the month of May, but from May to June of 2012 saw a $.35 per pound drop in price. While occasionally better, fat

16 I VOLUME 15 SPRING 2014 I Hoof Print

lambs traded weakly for the rest of the year and many times failed to even reach the $1.00 per pound mark. To the relief of producers, goat prices recovered fairly quickly from the market crash and by January of 2013 were again well above the $2.00 per pound mark. Unfortunately, to the dismay of many sheep producers, lamb prices did not recover as quickly. Light lambs rebounded well in the irst months of 2013 hitting the $1.70 mark, but could not sustain and again

the usual late spring/summer price drop came quickly and iercely. By June of last year, light lamb prices had fallen to their lowest point since 2009 at less than $1.10 per pound. Likewise, fat lambs appeared to be making a strong comeback early in 2013 with prices nearing $1.40 per pound, but quickly tumbled back to around $1.00 to $1.10 per pound for most of last summer. Both types of lambs were able to rally late in the year with light lambs hitting the $1.70 mark and fat lambs exceeding $1.60 per

How to Maximize Prices Using a Public Auction System


hile there are many different ways to market sheep and goats, utilizing the public auction system is by far the simplest. In this system, very little prior planning is necessary, you don’t have to be a marketer, and with the exception of the person unloading your trailer at the yards, you don’t have to deal with other people. You simply need to know what day and time the auction receives sheep and goats, have your animals there during that time, and go home and wait for your check. The auction system works by allowing market prices to be fairly established based on the supply of what is being offered and the demand of the buyers in attendance. While in this type of system producers are generally considered price takers meaning they have little or no influence on the price they receive, there are actually several things sheep and goat producers can do to help ensure they receive the best price possible in the auction system. 1. Research existing markets to compare how animals are selling at different locations. Unfortunately, with recent cuts at the USDA, sheep and goat market information is becoming more difficult to obtain. Depending on the state in which you live, obtaining market information may be as easy as going to the USDA website or as difficult as attending several different markets to observe them yourself. If you are in an area where prices are not reported, you may try calling yards in your area to gather information. If you try this, you must be

pound by December. Thus far in 2014, all classes of sheep and goats have traded extremely well with post-Christmas and New Year prices again approaching record levels. While all producers love to see those record high prices, they tend to make me a little nervous as it seems to me that the bigger they are the harder they fall. I am relieved to see that since then things have leveled out some and at the time of writing this article goat kids are selling around $2.40 to $2.50 per pound, light lambs between $2.20 and $2.30 per pound and fat lambs at $1.60+ per pound. To me, these prices seem much more sustainable. We do all need to be preparing for the seasonal price drops that will be coming in the next few months. Historically, we see about a $.25 to .40 per pound price drop on goat kids and light lambs from May to June and about a $.20 per pound price drop on fat lambs sometime between June and August. Prices typically stay at the depressed prices until mid to late fall when they gradually start to climb. Hopefully we will be back to this “normal” price pattern for 2014 and we can get off the roller coaster and back on to something a little less stressful like the merry-go-round. Tess Caudill is the marketing specialist for the Kentucky Department of Agriculture and has been instrumental in developing graded marketing program for goats and sheep. She has B.S. from the University of Kentucky in Animal Sciences and currently raises goats, sheep and cattle in Harrodsburg, KY.

specific! Do not call a yards and ask what sheep brought yesterday and expect to get an answer. If the product you are considering marketing is a 70 pound Prime hair lamb, then call and ask them what that specific type and quality lamb brought and you are much more likely to receive information that will be useful to you. Other information you may want to ask is how many buyers for sheep and goats they typically have at their sale. Sales with specific sheep and goat sales, or better yet state graded sheep and goat sales, will typically pull in the greatest number of buyers which usually results in higher prices.

marketing just prior to one of the major demand holidays of the year, such as Easter, may seem like a smart marketing move, many times the market gets oversaturated and prices drop. It is wise to watch the large national markets such as New Holland and San Angelo closely during this time for large increases in supply. Large supplies of sheep and goats in a given time period at these locations usually result in a drop in price. It may take a week or two for this supply to work its way through the system, but sometimes leads to a later shortage and prices are actually higher a few weeks after the holiday than they were before.

2. Be aware of the time of year you are selling, whether prices are typically rising or falling this time of year, and what holidays are coming up that could affect the market. Sheep and goats (especially kids and light lambs) have pretty distinctive price patterns with prices typically much higher in the colder months and lower in the warmer months. These patterns should be considered when determining when to sell. For example, if you have kids ready to market in May and have two auctions from which to choose, you may want to choose the market that occurs earliest as prices will likely be lower the latter part of May verses earlier in the month. As most know, holidays can have a dramatic effect on sheep and goat markets and too many or too few animals in the supply chain can drastically alter prices in a short period of time. While

3. Bring uniform, quality and clean animals to market! Livestock presented in an attractive package will always bring a better price. Make sure you are bringing healthy, quality animals in for sale and you will be rewarded. Try to keep your weights as uniform as possible by keeping your breeding season tight. If marketing different sizes and/or types of sheep and goats is necessary, try to do some sorting on them at home and keep them separate on the trailer if possible. And never haul livestock to market in a dirty trailer. Dirty sheep and goats always look of lower quality than clean ones. That time spent washing out the trailer or that $5 bag of shavings could make you a lot of money in the long run. USDA Market News Website

Hoof Print I VOLUME 15 SPRING 2014 I 17

Genetically Speaking... Is the FAMACHA© System Accurate for All Breeds of Sheep? by Dr. Debra K. Aaron

In this issue of HoofPrint, we’ll step away from “genetically speaking” per se and take a look at results of a study conducted at the University of Kentucky that evaluated accuracy of the FAMACHA© system for categorizing Hampshire, Polypay and White Dorper ewes on the basis of severity of Haemonchus contortus induced anemia.

A Little Background


aemonchus contortus (commonly referred to as the barber pole worm, stomach worm or wire worm), is the most pathogenic internal parasite of small ruminants. This bloodsucking parasite is capable of consuming up to one-tenth of an infected animal’s total blood volume in a single day. Thus, heavy H. contortus infestation can result in severe anemia and, in some cases, edema or “bottle jaw,” which is an accumulation of fluid or swelling under the lower jaw resulting from blood protein loss. Both conditions are evident in the ewe photographed in Figure 1. This ewe, extremely anemic with “bottle jaw,” needs immediate treatment (drenching) with an anthelmintic (dewormer). There is no time to waste; death may result when parasitism is this severe. In the past, when one animal needed treatment, a producer might have treated the whole flock. This was expensive and, on many farms, led to development of resistance of parasites to the dewormers. Producers are now encouraged to treat animals, like the ewe in Figure 1, on an individual basis (selective deworming) to reduce costs and, most importantly, prolong efficacy of commercially-available dewormers. The FAMACHA© system is designed with this in mind. It uses clinical anemia as the determining factor for detection of H. contortus infection in sheep and goats. Anemic animals are identified by the color of the ocular conjunctiva (mucus membranes of the lower eyelid). A bright red or pink color indicates the animal has few or no worms or that it has the capacity to tolerate the parasites. No treatment (drenching) is necessary. An almost white eyelid color is a warning sign of very bad anemia; the worms present in the abomasum (true stomach) are in such numbers that they are draining the

Figure 1. Ewe exhibiting anemia and edema or “bottle jaw.” animal of its blood. If left untreated, such an animal will likely die. A scale of bright red, red-pink, pink, pink-white and white corresponds to FAMACHA© eyelid scores of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively (Figure 2). As indicated above, treatment (drenching) is based on the eyelid score. Animals with eyelid scores of 1 and 2 are not considered anemic whereas 3 is questionable or borderline, and animals with eyelid scores of 4 and 5 are considered anemic and should be drenched. Anemia can also be detected through measurement of packed cell volume (PCV). A PCV is a measure of the percentage of blood made up of red cells; it is also called a blood hematocrit. The larger the percentage, the less anemic the animal. Measured PCV should be negatively or inversely correlated with FAMACHA© scores; the lower the FAMACHA© score, the higher the PCV and vice versa. For example, an animal with a eyelid score of 1 would be expected to have a PCV of 28 or higher while an animal with a eyelid score of 5 would be expected to have

18 I VOLUME 15 SPRING 2014 I Hoof Print

Figure 2. FAMACHA© color chart. a PCV of 12 or less (Figure 2). Although accurate, measuring PCV requires blood be drawn from the animal, which increases time and labor. It also requires microhematocrit tubes, a centrifuge and a microhematocrit reader, equipment most producers aren’t

likely to have. On the other hand, the FAMACHA© system is designed to be a tool for on-farm detection of anemia caused by H. contortus infection. Each eyelid score is expected to correspond to a range of PCV as shown in Figure 2. So to estimate PCV and detect anemia, a producer needs only

Figure 3. Using the FAMACHA© card to assign an eyelid score.

Need a FAMACHA© card? You must participate in a training workshop in order to become certified and purchase a card. Your local veterinarian or agriculture extension agent can help you find a workshop near you. the FAMACHA© card (Figure 3) and the training provided when he or she is certified. Also, less labor is required. The FAMACHA© system is generally a good indicator of clinical anemia due to H. contortus infection. But, there are circumstances that can affect its accuracy of detection. Put another way, there are factors that can weaken the association or correlation between PCV and eyelid scores. Certainly, the amount and type of light in which animals are examined, agitation or overhandling of animals, training and skill of the handler (scorer) and even length of time the animal’s eyes are held open are all factors that can affect eyelid scores. Of particular interest in this study was whether breed-specific differences (for example, color of the mucosa or face color) might affect use of this system across breeds. Thus, our objective was to evaluate accuracy of the FAMACHA© system for categorizing Hampshire, Polypay and White Dorper ewes on the basis of severity of anemia as measured by PCV.

Table 1. Distribution of eyelid scores by breed (H = Hampshire, PP = Polypay, WD = White Dorper).

The Study Over a four-year period, records were collected on 414 Hampshire (H), 385 Polypay (PP) and 708 White Dorper (WD) ewes. Eyelid scores, based on color of the ocular conjunctiva (1 = red, healthy to 5 = white, anemic) were assigned by the same trained technician using the FAMACHA© card (Figure 3). All scoring was done in the same handling facility at the University of Kentucky Sheep Unit under similar conditions. Blood samples were collected via jugular vein and PCV (%) were determined using a digital microhematocrit reader. Data were statistically analyzed to 1) compare breeds with respect to distribution of PCV and eyelid scores, 2) determine strength of association between PCV and eyelid scores, and 3) assess value of eyelid scores for predicting H. contortus infection.

Distribution of Eyelid Scores Breed

of differences in color of the mucosa or face color as opposed to differences in degree of anemia. The percentage of ewes requiring immediate treatment (eyelid scores of 4 or 5) was similar for black and white faced ewes. Thus, the FAMACHA© system was sensitive enough to detect the most anemic animals regardless of breed. Genetically Speaking continues on pg. 20


Table 1 shows the distribution of eyelid scores by breed. Among the 414 H ewes, 35% were considered healthy (eyelid scores of 1 or 2), 51% borderline (score of 3) and only 14% were considered anemic (eyelid scores of 4 or 5) and in defi nite need of drenching. Among the 1,093 white faced (PP and WD) ewes, 65% were deemed healthy, 24% borderline and only 11% were considered anemic. The biggest difference between the black and white faced ewes was in the percentage of ewes categorized as either healthy or borderline (35% versus 65% healthy and 51% versus 24% borderline for black versus white faced ewes, respectively). Th is may be a reflection Hoof Print I VOLUME 15 SPRING 2014 I 19

Genetically Speaking continued from pg. 19 Average eyelid scores and PCV are shown in Table 2. Eyelid scores were highest for H ewes and lowest for WD ewes, meaning the H were healthiest and the WD most anemic as determined by the FAMACHA© system. The PP fell in between. Although we expected the PCV to reflect the same ranking with respect to severity of anemia, they did not. Based on average PCV measurements, WD ewes were as healthy as H ewes and PP ewes were slightly more anemic than either H or WD. Remember, the higher the PCV, the less anemic the animal. Either our eyelid scores did not reflect differences in color of the ocular conjunctiva or the association between eyelid scores and PCV was not the same across breeds.

5). As noted previously, the PCV expected for each eyelid score (1, healthy through 5, anemic) as determined by the FAMACHA© system is shown in Figure 2. Predictive value of the FAMACHA© system was high for healthy ewes (Table 3); in other words, healthy ewes were accurately categorized by eyelid scores of 1 or 2. Across breeds, 98% of the ewes with eyelid scores of 1 or 2 had measured PCV greater than or

Table 2. Eyelid score and PCV means by breed (H = Hampshire, PP = Polypay, WD = White Dorper).

Association between PCV and Eyelid Scores Further statistical analyses con irmed that the correlation (association) between eyelid score and PCV was weakest for H (-0.39) and strongest for the PP (-0.67) and WD (-0.61). In other words, high eyelid scores tended to be less closely associated with low PCV, and vice versa, among the black faced ewes and more closely associated among the white faced ewes.

Table 3. Comparison of actual and expected PCV for healthy ewes (H = Hampshire, PP = Polypay, WD = White Dorper).

Predictive Value of the FAMACHA© System To assess value of the FAMACHA© system for predicting anemia due to H. contortus infection, a comparison of measured versus expected PCV was made among “healthy,” “borderline” and “anemic” ewes. “Healthy” ewes had eyelid scores less than or equal to 2 (Table 3), “borderline” ewes had eyelid scores of 3 (Table 4), and “anemic” ewes had eyelid scores greater than or equal to 4 (Table

Table 4. Comparison of actual and expected PCV for borderline ewes (H = Hampshire, PP = Polypay, WD = White Dorper). 20 I VOLUME 15 SPRING 2014 I Hoof Print

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Table 5. Comparison of actual and expected PCV for anemic ewes (H = Hampshire, PP = Polypay, WD = White Dorper). equal to the expected lower limit of 23. Among ewes categorized as borderline (Table 4), 92% actually had PCV measurements higher than expected (greater than 22), meaning that the FAMACHA© system was overly sensitive. Ewes predicted to be borderline were actually healthy and should not be drenched. Among ewes categorized as anemic (Table 5), the FAMACHA© system was again overly sensitive. Overall, 86% of ewes categorized as anemic were actually borderline or healthier. According to measured PCV, none of the H ewes should have been classified as anemic (100% had PCV greater than 17). In contrast, 19% of PP and 24% of WD ewes had measured PCV below the threshold of 17. These animals were detected as anemic and appropriately drenched. The predictive value of the FAMACHA© system was good; anemic animals were properly categorized. At the same time, however, non-anemic ewes were drenched unnecessarily.

605-253-2018 Beresford, SD

The Take Home Message The FAMACHA© system is a useful tool for identifying Haemonchus contortus induced anemia in sheep. However, if ewes with eyelid scores of 3, 4 and 5 are considered anemic, some nonanemic ewes may be unnecessarily treated for parasite infection. Also, the association between eyelid score and PCV may be influenced by breed-specific color of the mucosa or face color. NOTE: The FAMACHA© color charts and cards used throughout this article were photographed by the author. Charts and cards are owned and copyrighted by the Livestock Health and Production Group of the South African Veterinary Association. Dr. Debra K. Aaron, PhD, professor in the UK Dept. of Animal Sciences, teaches animal science and genetics. Her research interests are management and genetic improvement of sheep.

Hoof Print I VOLUME 15 SPRING 2014 I 21


Sustainable Agriculture I. The Role of Grazing Sheep by Donald G. Ely


any descriptions have been developed for “sustainable agriculture”. In reality, it is simply a collection of agricultural production practices which can be continued over a relatively long period of time (a decade, a career of a producer/farmer/rancher, or for generations). It must provide long-range pro itability, as well as the most often discussed long-range maintenance and improvement of soil while minimizing the undesirable effects of erosion on water and air quality. As sustainable agriculture addresses a concern for the environment, the increasing world human population will take precedence because humans must eat to survive. Future food will be produced within an environment that will always be altered, whether it

comes from agricultural lands, the ocean, or the chemical laboratory. It seems, then, that pro itable production of high quality and quantity of food, with minimum environmental impact, should be the goal of sustainable agriculture. Soil is deemed the focal point in sustainable agriculture. Although fossil fuel energy use, application of conservation tillage, fertilizer use, systematic crop diversity, pesticide use, weed control, crop residue use, nutrient cycling, animal/poultry integration, waste management, and water quality are important in sustaining agriculture, all are directly, or indirectly, related to the soil. Sheep are opportunistic creatures relative to the harvest of solar energy that is contained in the biomass produced from the soil. Yet, they are synergistic in their abilities to convert forage into quality products for human consumption. Enhancing the ef icient use of solar energy, recycling nutrients to the soil, use of noncompetitive renewable resources, contributing to soil and water conservation, low capital investment requirements, and adding enterprise

22 I VOLUME 15 SPRING 2014 I Hoof Print

lexibility are favorable characteristics of forage farming/ranching with sheep. These environmental and economic attributes are not new. In fact, they have sustained since sheep were discovered as a food and iber source some 11,000 years ago. However, as history has progressed from domestication through the organic chemistry age to sustainability, certain myths have evolved regarding sustainable agriculture. Some of these follow: 1. Commercial farmers/livestock producers are only interested in maximizing proϐits in the short run. Although this may be true in some cases, generally, farmers work to increase net worth for a long period of time so the farm value can be transferred to the next generation. 2. Sustainable agricultural practices always demand less use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides relative to “nonsustainable production practices”. In contrast, sustainable practices may use the same amounts

of chemicals, but use them more strategically so less harm comes to the environment. 3. Production practices that use no purchased inputs are sustainable and will not harm the environment. Conversely, application of animal waste can pollute ground water just like commercial fertilizer. It is the amount and time of application of both that determine if either will harm the environment. 4. Producers who adopt sustainable agricultural practices are the same as organic producers. Instead, these are two different producers. Organics may not use commercial fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides at all as sustainables may strategically use reduced amounts of these commercial products. 5. Most commercial producers are opposed to sustainable agriculture and are unconcerned about the environment. In real life, producers are probably more aware of and have more concern for the

environment than non-producers because their livelihood depends on the bene its of nature. Although these myths apply to all aspects of agricultural production, an analysis of sheep production systems reveals that sustainable practices have been used, are currently being used, and will likely continue to be used in the future to maintain soil integrity and environmental quality. Sheep possess exceptional abilities to transform a wide variety of feedstuffs, produced in many ecosystems, into high quality products for human use. Arid, hilly, and mountainous areas of the world preclude cultivation and crop production, but sheep can convert the vegetation of these areas into meat, milk, and iber. Improved grasslands and cropping areas integrate sheep into the overall system to use crop residues and maintain soil fertility. The grazing habits of sheep are often maligned as the primary cause of denudation and erosion of vegetated land, probably because the land was overstocked. Overstocking low-growing legumes, weeds, and browse, which can be grazed close to the ground at

repeated intervals, is a sure- ire method of denudation and erosion. In actuality, sheep readily consume weeds in improved pastures, increase the uniformity with which grasslands are grazed because of their ability to negotiate steep terrain, and reduce losses of other animals grazed with sheep because plants toxic to other animals can be safely consumed by sheep. The natural characteristics of over a billion sheep in the world and the diversity of their function, adaptability, and performance have allowed them to provide food, iber, leather, and pharmaceuticals for millions of people in the world for thousands of years. Sheep can serve as scavengers on many farms and contribute to a reduced need for organic herbicides through their appetite for weeds. Lambs can be “ inished” to optimum slaughter weights from crop residues, spring growth of cool season grasses, and winter small grain pastures with minimum or no energy or protein supplementation. Compared with beef cows that produce 60% of their weight in offspring annually, the ewe can produce 150%. For every 22 lb of pasture forage consumed by ewe/lamb combinations, News to Ewes continues on pg. 24

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State Graded Sheep & Goat Sales 2nd & 4th Thursdays of every Month

Cattle Sales every Tuesday at 1:00pm 4350 Louisville Road Bowling Green, KY (270) 843-3224 Hoof Print I VOLUME 15 SPRING 2014 I 23

News to Ewes continued from pg. 23 1.0 lb of lamb is produced for human use. It is the unique grazing behavior of sheep that allows unusable land to be productive in terms of supplying meat for human consumption. In addition, sheep simultaneously produce the “forgottenmarketable product” – wool. Have these scenarios been sustainable in the past? Are they sustainable today? Will they continue to be sustainable in the future? Because of the nature of the sheep, it seems that future sheep production will continue to maintain soil integrity and environmental quality so production can remain sustainable. The inite nature of land, water, and fossil fuel energy points to the need to use renewable resources ef iciently. If ruminant animals consume only forage, it has been estimated that energy and land resources can be reduced by 60% and 8%, respectively. However, if this happens, the animal protein supply for humans will be decreased by 50%. To make up for the lowered protein supply, ef iciency of production from ibrous materials will have to be increased. Sustaining the human animal protein supply may fall to the sheep because of their unexcelled ability to produce food from ibrous material while requiring the smallest of fossil fuel energy to do it. Concurrently, environmental

Feedstuff Alfalfa Temperate grass Tropical grass Straw Soybean hulls Cottonseed hulls Common newsprint All paper Wood

quality can be maintained because sheep spread feces uniformly over untillable lands which could be overgrown by weeds if not grazed by sheep. Worldwide, over 90% of the sheep’s diet is composed of roughage (ligno-cellulosic materials), which cannot be used by nonruminants (humans, swine, poultry, ish). Nature has endowed the sheep with a fermentation vat (rumen) containing billions of microorganisms that secrete an enzyme named cellulase. This is the only enzyme in the digestive tract of animals that can degrade cellulose, the most abundant chemical component of plants and the most abundant organic chemical material on earth. Because sheep can use cellulose for energy to make food and iber, they occupy a strategic position relative to humans and other nonruminants because they do not compete for their food. The symbiotic relationship between sheep and their anaerobic (living without oxygen) microorganisms may be the most unique aspect of biochemical evolution. The table below illustrates how the percent digestibility, and subsequent utilization for food and iber production, of ligno-cellulosic materials differs for nonruminants and sheep:

Nonruminant, % 20 – 30 0 – 20 0 – 20 Negligible 40 0 – 10 0 Low 0

News to Ewes - Correction The lines for growth of single vs. twin fetuses in Figure 1 of the article News to Ewes: “Ketosis” by Lauren N. Wood and Donald G. Ely in the HoofPrint Volume 14 Winter 2014, page 23 should be switched. Blue line = single; green line = twins. The corrected graph is shown to the right.

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Sheep, % 40 – 60 50 – 90 30 – 60 40 – 60 90 – 95 30 – 50 23 – 37 20 – 99 0 - 40

While common feedstuffs consumed by nonruminants (grains) can be digested to the same degree by sheep, ligno-cellulosic feedstuffs consumed by sheep are almost indigestible by nonruminants. This unique difference will allow continued sheep production without competing with human survivability. Furthermore, lamb production from forage requires the lowest input of cultural energy (machinery, herbicides, pesticides, transportation) of any livestock production system. The bottom line in sustainable agriculture is future human food production. As the world’s human population continues to increase, there will be a need for even more food when the supply is already inadequate in many areas of the world. While sustainability is critical to future human survival, present-day survivability (one day at a time) will take precedence. One way to sustain survivability is to increase the role of ruminant animals (sheep) in human nutrition. They can play a central role in human nutrition in the future because a highly nutritious and palatable food can be produced from a wide variety of feed sources that cannot be used by other animals. And, they can do this without disturbing the soil or environment. Then, perhaps the Spanish proverb “wherever sheep feet touch the ground, the land turns to gold” will become reality. Dr. Donald G. Ely, professor in the Department of Animal & Food Sciences at the University of Kentucky




IMPROVE YOUR FARM WITH HYDROPONIC FODD Take control of the quality and availability of feed for your livestock by growing hydroponic fodder. FodderPro Feed Systems are designed to rapidly produce highly nutritious, fresh feed, year-round in a compact growing area with minimal inputs. By feeding hydroponic fodder, you'll see:


Is Online Marketing for You? by Kelley Yates


ny producer who relies on niche markets will tell you having a marketing plan is critical to success. Being able to reach your target audience easily and effectively can be tricky and costly if not researched and properly implemented. Online marketing can seem overwhelming, even for the tech savvy. However, there are quali ied companies who can help you create a marketing plan that is simple, concise and effective. How do I better market myself? Because there are so many people utilizing the Internet for information, shopping and social communication, it is an exciting time to be involved with online marketing. The Internet can bring millions of people right to your ingertips at a fairly inexpensive price. What are the beneϔits of online marketing? Regardless of the size or type of your business, it is important to let consumers know who you are and what you offer. A website can make both of these things available all the time. People can access the information either through their computer or smart phone. Thus, you can literally conduct business 24/7. If I want to use a company to create a website, how do I get started? 1) Do some research. Ask other producers

how they got their website started. Find out what kind of design support they use and whether they created the site themselves or used a professional service like EDJE(1). 2) Look at other websites and have an idea of what information you want to share. 3) Look at the design company’s cost structure. By using a company to design your website, you simply provide the information you want to share to consumers and the company does the hard work. If changes need to be made, you need to know if the company charges by the hour or with a predetermined lat rate. For example, EDJE charges a quarterly fee for unlimited changes. 4) Visibility is only as good as you make it. Therefore, it is important that the company designs your site to be as search engine friendly as possible. Your website needs to include lots of “metatags” (words associated with your page) so that when consumers search key words, your site comes up irst. 5) How else can the company help you? Some companies can offer many different solutions to your marketing needs and help create an entire plan that includes logo development, placement in online directories, creation of a Facebook page that matches your website, print mediums and email marketing.

When using a professional web designer, what are some pointers? • There are no dumb questions. • This is your site and you need to be happy with it. If that means you need numerous changes, then don’t hesitate to send them. • You want to project the best image of yourself and your operation to consumers. Therefore, use the best photos and video footage on your site. • Keep your information current. • Look over your site and send in updates at least twice a year. • The best companies listen and help producers overcome their challenges. They offer solutions that are reasonable and effective. • The company staff needs to understand that your business is not necessarily 8am-5pm each day so, being available is important. Footnote: 1. EDJE was founded by Ed Tlach and Jeff Denzin to help producers connect with one another and to promote their sales. The original plan was to create an online directory for show cattle producers. However, the plan soon incorporated other species and services. Today, EDJE is one of the largest agriculture marketing companies in the world. To learn more, visit

Kelley Yates, Editor of HoofPrint Magazine and Executive Director for the Kentucky Sheep and Goat Development Ofϔice. Contact her at (502) 682-7780 or

Hoof Print I VOLUME 15 SPRING 2014 I 25

Health & Management

The Five Point Check®

By Susan Schoenian


nthelmintic resistance is a genetic change in the worm population that allows some worms to survive drug treatment. From a practical standpoint, it is when ef icacy of treatment falls below that which is normally expected. Anthelmintic resistance has been documented on many sheep and goat farms, especially those in the southeastern United States. Resistance exists in all three major drug classes (benzimidazoles, imidazothiazoles, and macrocyclic lactones) and is considered to be widespread and growing. It is not limited to sheep and goat parasites. Anthelmintic resistance is inevitable, as no treatment can successfully eliminate all worms. In the past, sheep and goats were dewormed frequently, with relatively good success. However, this practice was short-sighted and not sustainable. In fact, it accelerated the rate by which worms developed resistance to the drugs. Some farms are already experiencing “total anthelmintic failure.” Total anthelmintic failure is when the parasites have developed resistance to all of the available drug classes. Because of the widespread development of resistant worms, internal parasite control programs must now accomplish two goals. Besides reducing the mortality and morbidity associated with clinical parasitism, control programs must also strive to reduce the speed by which the worms develop resistance to the drugs. Drug resistance varies by geographic region and individual farm and is in luenced by past deworming practices. Some farms may still have ef icacy with some drugs. They need to preserve this ef icacy for as long as possible. The introduction of new drugs will only provide a temporary solution to the drug resistance problem. The worms will develop resistance to the new drugs in the same manner they developed resistance to the current drugs, especially if the drug is used frequently.


Targeted Selective Treatment (TST), a phrase coined by South African researchers, is a relatively new principle in parasite control. TST identi ies individual animals that require anthelmintic treatment. By leaving a portion of the herd untreated, the amount of refugia is increased. Refugia are worms that have not been exposed to the drug(s). They remain susceptible to anthelmintic treatment. Without these susceptible worms in the population, resistant worms will simply breed with other resistant worms and produce more resistant worms, eventually rendering all drug treatments ineffective. For TST to be viable, there must be practical tools that farmers can use to make deworming decisions. The irst tool developed was the FAMACHA© system. The FAMACHA© system employs a color eye chart that depicts ive clinical categories and eye colors. When the FAMACHA© system was being developed, the colors were matched to packed cell volumes (PCVs) of individual animals. PCV is the diagnostic test for Haemonchosis. It is an estimate of anemia, the primary symptom of barber pole worm infection and other blood-feeding parasites. The farmer evaluates the color of the animal’s ocular membranes and compares it to the colors on the FAMACHA© chart. Each clinical category (color) offers a treatment recommendation. FAMACHA© scores 1 and 2 do not generally require anthelmintic treatment, whereas FAMACHA© scores 4 and 5 require treatment with an effective anthelmintic. A FAMACHA© score of 3 is borderline and may or may

26 I VOLUME 15 SPRING 2014 I Hoof Print

The FAMACHA © Scorecoard was created by the South African Veterinary Association. Table I. FAMACHA© scores

not require treatment, depending on the presence of other symptoms and other parasites. The FAMACHA© system was developed by South African researchers. The FAMACHA© card was copyrighted to prevent its misuse. In the United States, the sole distributor for FAMACHA© cards is Dr. Ray Kaplan’s lab at the University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine. Veterinarians and other animal health professionals may purchase FAMACHA© cards, whereas producers must take an approved training in order to receive a card and FAMACHA© certi ication. The American Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control (ACSRPC) has taken the leadership in providing FAMACHA© training to small ruminant producers in the United States. The FAMACHA© system has been widely adopted by sheep and goat producers, especially those in the eastern half of the U.S. At the same time, there is a continued need for training and education While the FAMACHA© system is very useful, its use is limited to those parasites which cause anemia. This includes the barber pole worm (Haemonchus contortus), hookworms (Bunostomum), and lukes. The barber pole worm is the primary parasite in most regions of the United States, even in the more northern climates. Hookworms are not common, nor very pathogenic, whereas lukes can be common in some regions in the U.S.


To address the limitations of the FAMACHA© system, the South Africans developed the Five Point Check©. The Five Point Check© is an extension of TST. It involves ive checkpoints on the animal. As seen in Figure 1, the ive checkpoints are ocular mucous membranes (FAMACHA© score), back, tail, jaw, and nose. The Five Point Check was developed for sheep. For goats, it is suggested that the nose checkpoint be replaced with coat appearance. Nasal bots are not considered to be a signi icant problem in goats.

Table II. The Five Point Check©

Figure 1. The Five Point Check© is a practical tool that farmers can use to determine the need for deworming for all internal parasites that commonly affect sheep and goats. Images provided by Susan Schoenian, Sheep and Goat Specialists, University of Maryland Extension. Source: Targeted Selective Treatment of Sheep Using the Five Point Check©, Bath, G.F., Van Wyk, J.A. and Malan, F.S.Source: www. Table III. Body Condition Scoring

Source: Table IV. Dag Scoring

The Five Point Check© includes FAMACHA© scoring. The ocular mucous membranes are evaluated for anemia and the worms causing anemia. The jaw is examined for the presence of submandibular edema, more commonly called “bottle jaw.” Bottle jaw is caused by the same blood-feeding worms that cause anemia. It is an accumulation of luid under the jaw. Goats with bottle jaw usually have a heavy parasite load. Bottle jaw seems to be less commonly observed in goats than sheep. Body condition scoring is used to determine the amount of fat on a goat. A body condition score can’t be determined by simply looking at an animal. It is accomplished by feeling for the amount of fat or muscle, primarily in the loin area. Many worms cause loss of body condition. Poor body condition can also be a sign of poor nutrition or other disease. Coat condition is another subjective score that can be used to evaluate the health and well-being of a goat. A healthy goat usually has a healthy hair coat. A dull, thin, or coarse hair coat can be a sign of disease. There aren’t any of icial scoring systems for hair coat quality in goats. In summary, with the Five Point Check©, the emphasis has changed from identifying animals that require treatment to those that are unlikely to benefit from treatment. Susan Schoenian, is a Sheep and Goat specialist at the Western Maryland Research & Education Center. She has been with University of Maryland Extension since 1988. Susan holds B.S. and M.S. degrees in Animal Science from Virginia Tech and Montana State University, respectively. Susan lives on a small sheep farm (called The Baalands) in Clear Spring, Maryland.

Hoof Print I VOLUME 15 SPRING 2014 I 27

ur Mark Yo ! s r a d n e Cal

American Kiko Goat Association Convention


he AKGA National Convention and Breeders Showcase Sale will be held, May 30 - 31, 2014 and the public is invited. This event will be held at the Tennessee Livestock Center in Murfreesboro, TN. This is a great place to connect with goat producers from all over the country, or just have a great time “goating” with the family. Friday will be spent at the TSU Research Farm with Drs. Richard & Maria Browning for a Field Day - “The Basics”. Saturday morning will include more education, youth presentations and the 2nd Annual Breeders Maiden Doe Futurity. The Breeders Showcase Sale will wrap up the two day event on Saturday afternoon. Free 2014 AKGA Breeder Membership (a $50 value) for irst-time purchasers of an AKGA registered goat at the sale. Visit, the of icial AKGA website, for more info on the AKGA Convention & Breeders Showcase Sale & the “KIKO Advantage”, including exceptional maternal instincts, parasite resistance, aggressive foragers and breeders, fast growing vigorous kids, less hoof problems, more kids surviving to weaning age, and excellent cross-breeding. Preregistration is required by May 1st for the TSU Field Day. Make plans to attend today!

Annual Small Ruminant Conference & Field Day Set


he Alabama Cooperative Extension System (ACES) in partnership with Tennessee State University’s College of Agriculture, Human and Natural Sciences, is conducting its Seventh Annual Small Ruminant Conference and Field Day at Tennessee State University’s Main Campus Agricultural Research and Education Center in Nashville on Friday, May 30, 2014. The 2014 event will be enhanced by the addition of the American Kiko Goat Association that will conduct a day of its Annual Convention in conjunction with this event. The Annual Small Ruminant Conference and Field Day is a yearly tradition between ACES at Alabama Agricultural and Mechanical University and Tennessee State University (TSU) that is designed to educate audiences about the art of meat goat production. The theme this year is “The Basics.” Agricultural experts, including staff from the United States Department of Agriculture, will provide research-based information and handson demonstrations at TSU’s Agricultural Research and Education Center. The TSU Ag Center is the home of more than 350 Boer, Tennessee Fainting, Kiko, Spanish, and Savanna goats. Admission is free and open to the public. However, participants are encouraged to pre-register by calling 256-3724954 or e-mailing by Thursday, May 15. 30 I VOLUME 15 SPRING 2014 I Hoof Print

MARKETPLACE American Kiko Goat Association • 254-243-5914 Bluegrass Livestock Marketing Group Callicrate Bander 1-800-858-5974 • FarmTek Fodder Pro 1-800-201-3414 Fastrack 1-800-727-0716 Febus Farms 859-734-9035 Four Hills Farm Jim Mansfield, 859-325-5188 Kencove Farm Fence Supplies • 1-800-536-2683 Kentucky Goat Producers Association Kentucky Sheep & Fiber Festival Kentucky Sheep and Goat Check-Off Kentucky Sheep & Wool Producers Association Ketcham’s Land O’ Lakes Animal Milk Products Co. 800-618-6455 • MountainView Machine 605-253-2018 • National Livestock Producers Association 1-800-237-7193 ext. 10


Paris Stockyards 859-987-9945 StayTuff Fence • 1-888-223-8322 Silver Maple Katahdin Sheep Jay Greenstone, 276-346-2444



Tennessee Sheep Producers Association Udderly EZ email: • 800-287-4791 United Producers, Inc. 270-843-3224 University of Kentucky


800-858-5974 Hoof Print I VOLUME 15 SPRING 2014 I 31

P.O. Box 4709 Frankfort, KY 40604-4709

32 I VOLUME 15 SPRING 2014 I Hoof Print

HoofPrint- vol.15 Spring 2014  
HoofPrint- vol.15 Spring 2014  

HoofPrint - The Small Ruminant Magazine is a periodical used to promote better animal health, husbandry, and knowledge among sheep and goat...