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Hoof Print

Volume 26 Winter 2017

The Small Ruminant Magazine









• Leicester Longwool Sheep • Braided Felted Wool Rugs • Chair Pads • Traditional & Designer Styles • Dyed and Natural Colors






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Volume 26 Winter 2017

Hoof Print

Hoof Print Magazine Published Quarterly $24 per year

The Small Ruminant Magazine

Free with paid membership to one or more of our partner organizations. HoofPrint: The Small Ruminant Magazine is a periodical to promote better animal health, husbandry, and knowledge among sheep and goat producers. HoofPrint is the joint effort of members of the sheep and goat industries and serves as a united voice for all small ruminant producers. EDITOR / MARKETING DIRECTOR Kelley Yates

EDITORIAL BOARD Tess Caudill, Maggie May, Sonia McElroy, Scott VanSickle, Debra K. Aaron, Donald G. Ely, Mark Powell, Denise Martin, Dr. Beth Johnson, DVM, Kathy Meyer, Jim Mansfield, Dr. Tom Huber, Brent Ballinger DESIGN & LAYOUT Maggie May Rogers OFFICE SUPPORT Sharon Koontz PHOTOGRAPHY Dr. Debra Aaron, Kelley Yates, KY Sheep and Goat Development Office, KY Department of Agriculture, Stephanie Hojan-Long, Tim Farmer, Philippe Roca ADVERTISING Kelley Yates (502) 682-7780

Executive, Editorial & Advertising Sales directed by Kentucky Sheep & Goat Development Office: P.O. Box 4709 Frankfort, KY 40604-4709

Copyright © 2016 by Kentucky Sheep & Goat Development Office. All rights reserved. No portion of this publication may be reproduced mechanically, electronically, or by any other means, including photo copying without written permission from the publisher.


In this Issue ––––––––

Special Features –––––


In Every Issue ––––––––

10 11 12

18 20


No-Bull Enterprises Introduces New Callicrate PRO Bander Market Matters Dairy Goat Nutrition: Feeding for Two Tim Farmer’s Country Kitchen Irish Lamb Stew How to Read a Feed Label Navigating to a Balanced Ration – Part 1: Balancing for Energy Growing Together - 2016 KIO Tri-State Summit

24 Health &Management & NEWS TO EWES Tips to Reduce Losses Around the Time of Parturition

2 4 6 8

Breeders Page KY Goat Producers Assoc. TN Sheep Producers Assoc. KY Sheep and Wool Producers Assoc. 30 Marketplace


President’s Letter

Roca ©2016

I’m proud and humbled to have recently been elected to serve as your KGPA president of this amazing organization. On behalf of the board I must extend our gratitude to outgoing board members Denise Martin, Ray Graves, Beverly Branco, Dr. Debbie Reed and Jackie Bremer who was lost to us in a tragic accident. We owe each one of you a huge thank From left to right: Shawn Harper, Dr. Beth Johnson, you for your commitment, DVM, Donna Puckett, Vincent Thompson, Barrett advice and passion for the Jones, Kenny Fenwick, and Kay DeMoss. industry. Our committees will continue to keep on We now welcome our new board top of issues, legislation and policies that members, Dr. Beth Johnson, Kay DeMoss, impact your industry. We encourage you, Shawn Harper, Laura Phillips, Barrett as a member, to become involved in your Jones, Anita Vaske, and and Vicki Watson. industry, ask questions, give your opinions I’m sure all you will bring and never hesitate to contact the new ideas to the Kentucky KY Sheep and Goat Development Goat Producers Association. I Office or any one of your KGPA would like to take this moment board members. You are always to thank our board members welcome to attend any of our face for their hard work and to face meetings or conference commitment to their various calls. We consider ourselves very roles and responsibilities over fortunate to have this opportunity the past year. I am honored to work with to represent our members and will work a group of talented individuals who are hard to meet your expectations. From dedicated and engaged in promoting the myself, all our new Board Officers, Board industry. of Directors and great staff, thank you Over the next year, your KGPA board for your membership and support. We will focus on engaging our membership, promise to keep evolving to serve you! offering activities and initiatives that are Sincerely, strategic in this direction and reflective of Donna Puckett, President the goals of the small ruminate industry. Kentucky Goat Producers Assoc.

2016-17 KGPA Board of Directors

President Donna Puckett, Munfordville, KY

Vice-President Vincent Thompson, Elizabethtown, KY Secretary Beth Johnson, Parksville, KY

Treasurer Kay DeMoss, Lexington, KY

2016-17 KGPA Board Members • Shawn Harper Benton, KY • Kenny Fenwick New Haven, KY • Angie French New Haven, KY • Barrett Jones Greenville, KY • Amy Keach Bagdad, KY • Laura Phillips Brownsville, KY • Anita Vaske Glencoe, KY • Vicki Watson Auburn, KY

JOIN or RENEW TODAY! KGPA Membership Application

Your $30 membership provides:

• 4 issues of the Hoof Print Magazine plus the newly designed 2017 Sheep and Goat Management Calendar • A unified voice for the goat industry on the state and national level • Representation on important committees such as the Check‐Off and the Animal Care Standards boards • Support of various educational and youth activities • Youth Membership forms can be found at • And much, much more!

4 I VOLUME 26 Winter 2017 I Hoof Print

Visit to join today! Name: _______________________________________________________ Address: _______________________City: _____________State: ______Zip:________ Phone: _______________________E-Mail: _________________________ Please enclose a check for $30 made out to KGPA and mail to: Kentucky Sheep and Goat Development Office P.O. Box 4709, Frankfort, KY 40604-4709.


KGPA Highlights for 2016


he Kentucky Goat Producers Association had a great year in 2016! A growing number of members were able to take advantage of many benefits offered through the association. Below are a few of the things we accomplished with the help of many wonderful volunteers! 2016 total membership was 193 people! KGPA conducted several educational events for members including: -- Small Ruminant Profit School -- Direct Marketing at the KSU Third Thursday Event

KGPA promoted the production of goats in KY, as well as goat products to thousands of consumers: -- 2016 Commissioner In Ag Breakfast at the 2016 KY State Fair -- Tim Farmer Country Kitchen Cooking Show KGPA supported our goat youth in Kentucky: -- Provided an updated youth membership program to reward youth to participate in goat production -- Provided prizes and additional contest at the 4-H/FFA Youth Breeding Show in Lebanon, KY -- Helps conduct the KY Proud Elite Breeder Sale -- Collected donations through the Bucks For Kids campaign, which provides funds to the Sale of Champions at the KY State Fair -- Provided belt buckles to the KY Youth Dairy Goat Showman, KY Supreme Exhibitor Dairy Goat Youth Show, KY Proud Grand and Reserve Champ Market Goat winners, and the KY Proud Grand and Reserve Champ Commercial Doe winners at the 2016 KY State Fair

KGPA Volunteers served up breakfast at the 2015 Commissioner In Ag Breakfast during the Kentucky State Fair in Frankfort. KGPA supported the goat industry in Kentucky by: -- serving on the KY Farm Bureau Sheep and Goat Commodity Group, which makes recommendations to

legislatures that benefit producers -- providing KY Legislators with products from the goat industry in the KY Farm Bureau Legislative Baskets


Calendar of event items can be sent to with date, location and time. JANUARY 3rd 5th 10th 17th 19th

Norther KY Goat Producers Assoc. Meeting; Kenton Co. Extension Office 6:00 p.m. Jessamine Co. Sheep and Goat Meeting; Jessamine Co. Extension Office 7:00 p.m. Central KY Sheep and Goat Association, Marion County Extension 7:00 pm South Central Goat and Sheep Producers Assoc., Barren Co. Extension 6:30pm (CT) Fort Harrod Goat Assoc. Meeting; Mercer Co.Ext. Office 6:30pm potluck, 7pm meeting

2nd 7th 18th 21st

Jessamine County Goat and Sheep Meeting; Jessamine Co. Extension Office; 7:00pm Norther KY Goat Producers Assoc. Meeting; Kenton Co. Extension Office 6:00 p.m. Small Ruminant Grazing Conference, Ashland, KY South Central Goat & Sheep Producers Assoc.; Barren Co. Extension, 6:30pm (CT)

2nd 7th 15th 16th 16th 21st

Jessamine County Goat and Sheep Meeting; Jessamine Co. Extension Office; 7:00 pm Norther KY Goat Producers Assoc. Meeting; Kenton Co. Extension Office 6:00 p.m. Central KY Sheep and Goat Association, Marion County Extension 7:00 pm KSU Third Thursday Goat Field Day Fort Harrod Goat and Sheep Association Meeting; Mercer Co. Ext. Office; 6:30 pm potluck , 7 pm meeting South Central Goat & Sheep Producers Assoc.; Barren Co. Extension, 6:30pm (CT)


> > Visit us at


Hoof Print I VOLUME 26 Winter 2017 I 5


Greetings form East Tennessee.

I hope each of you have had a great fall and had a very successful breeding season. It was great seeing many of you at some of the county fairs and shows and a special congratulations to those who exhibited with success at this years North American Livestock Expo in Louisville, KY. Just a reminder that the Tennessee Sheep Producers Annual Meeting will be help January 13 – 14, 2017 in Murfreesboro, TN at the Embassy Suites. We will again be holding our annual meeting in conjunction with the Tennessee Cattlemen’s Association Conference. Your sheep producer’s board of directors is working on an educational program with an emphasis on marketing. We will have speakers to talk about the marking of live animals, meat and wool. I think this will make for a very interesting program. You will be getting additional information on registering for this year’s conference. As part of this conference, we will

2016 TSPA Board of Directors

be holding some youth activities. One of these activities is the Livestock Quiz Bowl. This will take place on Saturday January 14th from 8am to noon. County teams of young people in grades 9 to 12 can compete for a chance to go to the National 4-H Livestock Quiz Bowl Contest at the AK-SAR-BEN Junior Livestock Show in Omaha, Nebraska in September. The quiz bowl will cover sheep, beef, swine and goat materials. You can find study materials and additional information at the UT Animal Science 4-H Projects website: https:// Ent r yFor m s/Q u i z %20Bow l%20 Rules%20%202016.pdf You can contact your 4-H agents across the state to get additional information regarding this contest. Mark your calendars and make plans to be there. I know that most parts of Tennessee have experienced extreme drought conditions this past summer and fall. Many individuals are running short of feed and hay resources to make it through

Alan Bruhin, President TN Sheep Producers Association


2016 Board Members

Alan Bruhin, President Sevierville, TN

Stevan Alsup Lascassas, TN

Dwight Loveday, Louisiville, TN

Ed Bowman, Vice President Gray, TN Debbie Joines, ASI Representative Mt. Juliet, TN

Reyes Rich, Moss, TN

Jessica Shanks, Lenoir City, TN

Chris Wilson, Jonesborough, TN

Mark Shedden, Knoxville, TN

Mark Powell, Secretary/Treasurer Watertown, TN

this winter. The University of Tennessee Extension has developed a website to assist Tennessee livestock producers deal with this situation. The “drought resources” webpage contains links to a variety of educational information. This should help sheep producers make informed decisions on how to deal with these problems. You can find the website at this URL: https://extension.tennessee. edu/Pages/ANR-CED-Drought.aspx I have enjoyed the opportunity to serve as president of the Tennessee Sheep Producers Association over the past year. As always, if there is anything that I or the sheep producers board of directors can do to assist you, please let us know. As we move into winter season I, wish each of you a successful lambing season and look forward to seeing you in the near future.

Date • Details • Location • Website January 13-14 TSPA Annual Meeting Embassy Suites Hotel, Murfreesboro, TN

Noah Collins - President, TN Junior Sheep Producers Association

TSPA Membership Application

Annual Dues:

Adult: $30.00

Junior $10.00


Name: ____________________________________________________________ If you are interested in a committee please select below: _____  Wool _____  Youth _____  Jr. Expo _____  Sale _____  Production Education _____  Membership/Revenue _____ Publicity _____ Annual Meeting

6 I VOLUME 26 Winter 2017 I Hoof Print

Address: ___________________________City:_____________State: ___Zip: _______ Phone: _______________________E-Mail: __________________________________ Breed(s) of Sheep: ______________________________________________________ Please enclose a check for amount made out to TSPA and mail to: Tennessee Sheep Producer’s Association 4233 Poplar Hill Road, Watertown, TN 37184



2017 TN Sheep Producers Association Convention, Annual Meeting, and Trade Show Held in conjunction with the TN Cattlemen’s and the TN Dairy Producers Associations

January 13-14, 2017

Embassy Suites Hotel Murfreesboro, TN 1200 Conference Center Blvd, Murfreesboro, TN 37129 

To Register

Please contact Mark Powell with the number planning on attending. Email: or phone: 615-519-7796 Small registration fee will be collected upon arrival to the conference.

This Year’s Annual Conference will center on Marketing.

Draft Agenda

Friday January 13th

8:00 AM Welcome 8:05 Rheba Capps to sing Star Spangled Banner 8:15-9:15 Seminar 1 Dr. David Kohl – Ag Economist David Kohl is professor emeritus at Virginia

Tech. He travels the U.S. as an agriculture “Road Warrior,” speaking about ag finances, trends and outlooks. (Joint Session with TCA)

9:15-10:00 10:00-10:30 10:30-11:15 11:15-12:00 12:00-1:30 1:30-2:15 2:15-3:05 3:05-4:00 4:00-5:00 6:00

Trade Show Time/Coffee Break Seminar 2 Trade Show Time Seminar 3 Lunch on Your Own Trade Show Time Seminar 4 Trade Show Time Seminar 5 Supper on your own

Saturday January 14th

8:00-Noon Youth Program 8:00-8:50 Seminar 6 8:50-9:30 Trade Show/Coffee Break 9:30-10:15   Seminar 7 10:15-10:45   Break/Trade Show 10:45–11:30 Seminar 8 11:15-12:20   Seminar 9:  Dr. Lerner, World Wide Weather.

Hoof Print I VOLUME 26 Winter 2017 I 7


2016 KY Make It With Wool


he 2016 Kentucky Make It With Wool Competition was held October 1st in Burlington along with the KIO Tri State Small Ruminant Summit. All entries were made from 100% wool or a minimum of 60% wool. All WOOL must be tested at Yocom-McColl Testing Laboratories, Inc. before competition. FOUR of the pieces of wool that I sent to be tested were not WOOL and two had already made their outfits. It is important to send me a 5x5 piece of wool before construction. All contestants must select, construct and model the garment themselves. The purpose is to promote the beauty and versatility of wool fabrics and yarns. Also to encourage personal creativity in sewing, knitting and crocheting with wool fabrics and yarns. The garments were judged on construction and modeling in the morning by a panel of three judges: Connie Davis, Linda Evans and Patsy Kinman. Kristy from Kristy’s Kreations felted wool necklaces for the judges. Thank you. The contestants modeled their garments at the luncheon at the Summit. The winners in each division received a garment bag with KY Make It With Wool design and all contestants received 2 ½ yards Pendleton Wool and sewing notions. Tiana Lenos the Junior winner will represent Kentucky at the National Make It With Wool Competition to be held in Denver, Colorado in January 2017. Thanks to all that helped with contributing for the contestant’s food and expenses at the National Competition. The Pre-teen (12 and under) winner was Madeline Hinman from Morning View, KY. She won with a 99% gray and rust plaid wool pleated skirt. The Junior Division (13 to 16) winner was Tiana Lenos from Louisville with a purple Merino 100% wool jersey top and a 100% Pendleton wool plaid skirt. Gillian Mudd from Raywick, KY is the alternate with 100% Pendleton wool jacket and skirt made from the wool she won in a previous competition. Other juniors were Audrey Hinman from MorningView, KY who made an 84% orange wool Caplet with collar. Ellie Burkholder from Lexington, KY who made a 100% soft and plush Italian Dark Heather gray wool lined coat. It is time to think about sewing to enter 2017 competition. The categories are Preteens (12 and under) and they can enter one piece such as a skirt, pants, jumper or a dress. Juniors (13 to 16), Seniors (17 to 24), Adults (25 and older) can enter a dress, jumper, and outerwear lined coat or jacket, two piece outfit or an ensemble.

2016 KY Make It With Wool Participants Pictured Left to right: Audrey Hinman – jr competitor, Tiana Lenos - jr winner, Madeline Hinman - preteen winner, Ellie Burkholder – jr competitor, Gillian Mudd - jr runnerup, Dorothy Vale - KY director The Made for Others (any age) can be any wool garment and will be modeled by the person for whom the garment was made. The garment is to be made from 100% wool or wool blend (minimum 60% wool or specialty wool fiber including mohair, cashmere, alpaca, camel, Ilama and vicuna) for each fashion fabric or yarn uses. Please send a 5x5 piece of wool along with five dollars to be tested before construction. The top 4-H wool garment at the 2017 Kentucky State Fair will receive 2 ½ yards of Pendleton Wool. Remember the winner of the Junior and Senior will represent Kentucky in the National Competition held in San Antonio, Texas in 2018 and the Adult garment will go on to be judged in the National Adult Competition. Entry forms will be available by contacting Dorothy Vale, KY State Director; 142 Carolyn Lane, Nicholasville, KY 40356, cell 859-420-3217, e-mail Entry forms will also by on web site in the spring.

JO I N o r R E N E W TODAY ! Visit

KSWPA Membership Benefits • Quarterly issues of HoofPrint Magazine plus the newly designed 2016 Sheep and Goat Management Calendar • A unified voice for the sheep industry and representation on important state and national committees • Assistance with new marketing opportunities such as The Kentucky Sheep and Fiber Festival and • Receive a membership to the American Sheep Industry, our national lobbying, marketing and promotional support system. • Support of various educational and youth activities

Name: ______________________________________________ Phone: ___________________E-Mail: ___________________ Address: ____________________________City : _____________________ State: ______ Zip: ______________ Please enclose a check for $30.00 made out to KSWPA and mail to: Kentucky Sheep and Goat Development Office P.O. Box 4709, Frankfort, KY 40604-4709.

8 I VOLUME 26 Winter 2017 I Hoof Print


KSWPA Highlights for 2016


Jessamine County Sheep and Goat meeting 7pm Jessamine County Extension Office Central KY Sheep and Goat Association, Marion County Extension 7pm6-9 South Central Goat and Sheep Producers Assoc., Barren County Extension 6:30pm (CT) UK Lambing School, Oran C. Little Research Farm Midway, KY

FEBRUARY 2nd Jessamine County Goat and Sheep Assoc.; Jessamine County Extension Office; 7:00pm 18th Small Ruminant Grazing Conference, Ashland, KY 21st South Central Goat and Sheep Producers Assoc., Barren County Extension 6:30pm (CT)

The Kentucky Sheep and Wool Producers Association had another great year of membership growth and providing services to our state’s producers! Below are a few of the things we accomplished with the help of many wonderful volunteers! 2016 total membership was 153 people! All these folks are represented by a very diverse board that consists of producers that grow and market fiber, direct market meats, raise purebred stock, raise and sell club lambs, conduct wool education across the state, conduct research on sheep production, facilitate graded sales, and raise commercial stock. KSWPA conducted several educational events for members including: • Small Ruminant Profit School • Assist and sponsor the UK EweProfit Schools • KY Make It With Wool Competition • Partnered with the American Sheep Industry to conduct the KIO TriState Small Ruminant Summit in Burlington, KY

MARCH 2nd 21st 21-22

Jessamine County Goat and Sheep Meeting; Jessamine County Extension Office; 7:00pm South Central Goat and Sheep Producers Assoc., Barren County Extension 6:30pm (CT) UK Sheep Shearing School, Oran C. Little Research Farm Midway, KY

KSWPA promoted the production of sheep in KY, as well as sheep products to thousands of consumers: • Henry County, KY Farm Field Day • 2016 Commissioner In Ag Breakfast at the 2016 KY State Fair

2016 - 2017 KSWPA Board of Directors President

Bill Decker, Waddy, KY

Vice President

Kathy Meyer, Paris, KY

Past President/ASI Director Scott VanSickle, Auburn, KY


Mary Brown, Lexington, KY


Dorothy Vale, Nicholasville, KY

ASI Regional Director Bob Leer, Paris, KY

KY Make it with Wool

Dorothy Vale, State Director Nicholasville, KY

• Warren Adcock Campbellsburg, KY • Frank Berry, Lexington, KY • Jim Mansfield, Salvisa, KY • Hannah Nilsson Windsor, KY • Madeline Rosenburg, Bagdad, KY


> > Visit us at

Commissioner In Ag Breakfast 2016

• 2016 KY Lamb Jam Cooking Contest with Sullivan University • Tim Farmer Country Kitchen Cooking Show

KSWPA supported our sheep youth in Kentucky: • Provided a monetary award to the KY Proud Champion and Research Champion Market Lambs at the 2016 KY State Fair • Sponsor sheep judging at the State 4-H/FFA Livestock Judging Contest

Lamb Jam Cooking Contest Winners

KSWPA support the sheep industry in Kentucky by • Conducting the first KY Wool Pool that took in 4,549lbs of wool at top price of $0.94/lb • Co-sponsoring the 2016 KY Female Replacement Sale • Serving on the KY Farm Bureau Sheep and Goat Commodity Group, which makes recommendations to legislatures that benefit producers • Providing KY Legislators with products from the sheep industry in the KY Farm Bureau Legislative Baskets • Conducting the Make It With Wool Contest at the 2016 KIO Tri-State Small Ruminant Summit, which encourages youth and adults to use wool to create clothing • Providing Scrapie education to hundreds of producers • Conducting the 7th annual Kentucky Sheep and Fiber Festival at Masterson Station Park Lexington, KY • Providing leadership in the KY Livestock Care Council • Having a regional director, Bob Leer, within the American Sheep Industry Association • Have representatives on the American Sheep Industry Production, Education and Research Council

Hoof Print I VOLUME 26 Winter 2017 I 9










No-Bull Enterprises Introduces New Callicrate PRO Bander

o-Bull Enterprises is proud to introduce the next generation Callicrate Bander – the Callicrate PRO Bander™. It is the most advanced tool of its kind, thanks in part to the use of CAD (computer-aided design) and CAM (computer-aided manufacturing). “We eliminated the need to crimp the tensioned loop, which speeds up the operation by removing a step in the process, while also making the tool lighter-weight and ergonomically easier to handle,” says retired aerospace manufacturing engineer Roy Harbach, the product’s designer. “We also traded out heavier materials in favor of lighter weight, high strength aerospace-grade materials.” Other upgrades include replacing the tension system pull cord with a tough, webbed strap and adding a new 360-degree tension indicator that can be read easily from any angle. In addition, the loops are bright green to help the operator verify the loop is secured and placed properly. There is no wrong way to load the PRO Loop™, plus, the larger loop opening allows for easier application. “Precision components are machined on modern CNC (computerized numerical control) machine tools to ensure accurate fit and finish tolerances, while building on No-Bull Enterprises’ two decades of experience in bringing the most humane, effective, high quality American-made tools to the animal health market,” Harbach said. “The fully encapsulated, ratchet design helps

to protect the mechanism from the elements, expanding on the product line’s existing reputation for resistance to grit, wear, and abrasion.” In addition to the new Callicrate PRO Bander™, No-Bull Enterprises also manufactures the Callicrate WEE Bander™, a state-of-the-art hightension nonsurgical castration tool made specifically for smaller animals, including newborn calves, sheep, and goats. The original Callicrate SMART Bander and Loops will still be available. Ask for Callicrate Banders at your local animal health supplier or call NoBull Enterprises at 800-858-5974 or 785-332-3344 to find a distributor in your area. Rachel and Sam are standing by to answer any questions you may have about the PRO Bander – the first new tool for delayed castration in two decades! All Callicrate products are made in St. Francis, Kansas USA!!

By: Tess Caudill


Market Matter$

nstable may be the best way to describe goat and lamb markets for much of 2016. This year, even more than most, it seemed like it took very little change in market conditions to dramatically swing prices one way or another. While sheep and goat markets have definitely fared better than other livestock commodities, the market volatility seen this year has been confusing and frustrating at times for even our most experienced producers. Goat Kids - 2016 saw kid prices ranging from a high near $3.00 per pound to an August low of around $2.00 per pound. While this $1.00 per pound swing in prices seems alarming, it really isn’t that unprecedented. We typically see a price drop on 45 to 60 pound kids sometime around June and it can often be dramatic. The difference this year, much like last year, was the price drop didn’t occur until July. And when it fell, it fell hard. Some years, like 2013 and 2014 the annual drop from the spring high price to the summer/fall low is only $.50 to .60 per pound. But this year, 2015, and in 2012, we saw that $1.00 per pound swing. The good news is that in all years, prices rebounded as expected in November and December as we are seeing now, and I would expect markets to open up in January to some pleasantly high prices for those producers lucky enough to have fall born kids ready for market. Light Lambs – Light lambs are generally lambs in good condition, that are marketed between 40 and 80 pounds, and that typically end up in ethnic slaughter channels. These lambs can be hair or wool, but are predominantly hair lambs in Kentucky. There are really two distinctive weight classes for light lambs, over 60 pounds and under 60 pounds, with lambs under 60 pounds usually bringing significantly higher prices per pound. Lambs under 60 pounds began 2016 with a bang and actually outpriced the same size goat kids for the first few weeks of the year. By February, 40 to 60 pound lambs had settled around $2.50 per pound and steadily dropped each month as supply became more available. Like goat kids, there was a significant drop in light lamb prices for summer and prices bottomed out around $1.75 per pound in June. For much of the remainder of the summer and fall, prices remained in the $1.80 to $2.00 per pound range depending on supply, ethnic holidays, etc. As of writing this article, light lamb

prices have taken a jump back over $2.00 per pound as numbers of this size lamb are becoming difficult to find. Lambs between 60 and 80 pounds also started 2016 well with prices well above the $2.25 per pound mark. By April, however, supply had caught up with demand and prices fell below $2.00. Summer prices were very volatile for lambs of this size as demand for ethnic holidays can dramatically swing market prices in a particular week for a given size and possibly even sex of lamb (Hoof Print Summer 2015). Prices in recent months have ranged from $1.50 per pound to $1.80 per pound and are still in that range as of writing this article. I would expect these prices to follow suit with other classes of sheep and goats- gradually rise between now and the end of the year and open up strong in January. Fat Lambs – Fat lamb is a term to describe a lamb typically over 100 pounds that is “finished” and ready for market into more traditional channels (white table cloth restaurants, non-ethnic grocery stores, etc.). Like kids and light lambs, fat lamb markets seemed much more volatile than they have been in recent years. They started out 2016 fairly stable around $1.60 to 1.70 per pound. April and May is usually the peak for fat lamb prices as feedlot supply dries up and packers are waiting on the winter and spring lambs to become ready for market. We did see instances of fat lambs climbing to as high as $2.00 per pound during this time frame. However, by June the market weakened and continued to fall, and by September we saw fat lamb prices as low as $1.25 per pound, which is the lowest we have seen them since 2013. Recently, the fat lamb market has had a stronger feel to it, and I am optimistic that we will see lamb prices stabilize in the $1.60

to $1.70 per pound range by the beginning of the year. As markets open up in 2017 it will be exciting to see where prices land. The first few months of the year are always an exciting time to market small ruminants as supply is generally tight and prices can sometimes get crazy. My advice is to not get too caught up in these markets! Reality will eventually set in as supply catches up with demand in late spring and summer. The most important thing to remember is that no matter when you market, where you market or what size you market, make sure you are sending quality. Prices can be volatile enough, but discounts on lesser quality can be even more severe.

Happy Marketing!!!

Tess Caudill , is the marketing specialist for the for the Kentucky Department of Agriculture and has been instrumental in developing a graded marketing program for goats and sheep. She has a B.S. degree from the University of Kentucky in Animal Sciences and currently raises goats, sheep and cattle in Harrodsburg, KY.

Hoof Print I VOLUME 26 Winter 2017 I 11

Dairy Goat Nutrition: Feeding for Two (How to properly feed the goat and her rumen).

By Robert J. Van Saun, DVM, MS, PhD

Part 1


eeding a goat is not like feeding your dog or cat. Goats like other ruminant animals (e.g., cattle, sheep, deer and many more) have a complex digestive system where an enormous population of bacteria reside in a fermentation compartment (i.e., rumen) prior to the true stomach. These bacteria are the primary digesters of consumed feed and provide themselves and fermentation end products to the animal to meet their nutritional needs. So knowing how to feed a goat requires that you learn how to feed the bacteria that feed the goat. This article will set the stage for understanding how the rumen system works and how one should approach feeding practices to support efficient microbial fermentation.

Applied Rumen Anatomy

The rumen is actually only one chamber of a complex, bacterial fermentation system located before the true digestive stomach compartment. This is in contrast to the bacterial fermentation system located after the stomach as found in horses. Bacterial fermentation is a digestive process where bacteria living in the digestive tract partially breakdown complex dietary ingredients to produce end products, which can be used by the host animal to meet its nutrient needs. We may be more familiar with bacterial fermentation as the process by which beer and wine are produced. In addition to fermentation end products, the host animal obtains most of its dietary protein needs from the digestion of bacteria growing in its digestive tract. This bacterial digestion occurs only in ruminant animals since the

12 I VOLUME 26 Winter 2017 I Hoof Print

fermentation process comes before the stomach. The reticulum is a smaller fermentation compartment, in front of and intimately associated with the ruminal compartment. The reticulum is primarily responsible for assisting in rumination contractions and distributing feed within the reticulo-rumen. The rumen is the primary fermentation vat, being between 5 to 10 gallons in volume in a mature goat. Muscular contractions aid in the constant mixing of feed materials with bacteria laden fluids to promote fermentation and in regurgitation of feed materials, which results in particle size reduction from chewing and copious amounts of saliva production. Bicarbonate in saliva is primarily responsible for maintaining only a slightly acid pH in the rumen, given the tremendous amount of acids being produced during fermentation. Also as

a result of the continuous fermentation process, rumen temperature is slightly greater than the goat’s and can contribute to helping maintain normal body temperature during cold weather or making the goat more uncomfortable during hot weather. The rumen has a specialized lining that contains many finger-like projections called papillae, which absorb end products of fermentation, volatile fatty acids (VFAs). These VFAs, namely acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are available to the goat to be used for production of glucose (propionate), fat (acetate, butyrate) or oxidized for energy. This rumen lining can be easily damaged by severe or prolonged declines in rumen pH, a result of excessive grain or insufficient fiber feeding. When the rumen is appropriately fed, it will contain a small gas cap, middle fibrous mat layer, and a lower liquid layer. The gas cap consists of carbon dioxide and methane, both end products of fermentation and prevent exposure of bacteria to oxygen. The fibrous mat layer is composed of long dietary fiber material that helps stimulate rumination and ruminal contractions. Dietary fiber of sufficient length (> 1 inch) to form the mat layer is termed effective fiber. The tremendous number of bacteria found in the rumen are distributed within the fibrous mat and liquid layers. Besides the type of raw material the microorganism requires for metabolism, reproductive rate also determines where the organism will be found in the rumen. Bacteria and protozoa that do not reproduce quickly in relation to rate of passage through the rumen must attach to fibrous material if they are to remain in the rumen. When effective fiber is not adequately provided, these microorganisms will be wiped out of the rumen and will result in abnormal fermentations and potentially digestive upsets and off-feed situations. The third ruminal chamber is the omasum, which is approximately the size of a volleyball and located on the right side of the goat. The omasum is responsible for regulating particle passage rate from the rumen and water absorption from ingesta. Under normal rumen conditions, particles greater than 2 mm in size do not leave the rumen. Very little other information is known about this organ. When large fiber particles or whole corn kernels are found in the manure, this is a good indication of improper rumen

Table 1. Characteristics of the different categories of microorganisms found in an anaerobic fermentation system.1 Class of Organism

Primary Substrate

Specific Requirements

Primary Endproduct

pH Tolerance

Fiber Fermenting Bacteria

Cellulose, Hemicellulose, Pectins

Ammonia Iso-acids Cofactors

Acetate Succinate Formate, CO2

Neutral 6.2-6.8

Cellulose Starch

Ammonia Amino Acids

Propionate, Succinate, Butyrate Ammonia

Acid 5.5-6.6

Starch Sugars

Amino Acids Ammonia

Propionate Lactate Butyrate Ammonia

Acid 5.0-6.6

Succinate, Lactate Fermentation Endproducts

Amino Acids

Ammonia Iso-acids Propionate

Neutral 6.2-6.8


Sugars, Starch Bacteria

Amino Acids

Acetate Propionate Ammonia

Neutral 6.2-6.8

Methane Producing Bacteria

CO2, H2 Formate

Coenzyme M Ammonia


Neutral 6.2-6.8

General Purpose Bacteria Nonstructural CHO Bacteria Secondary Feeders

Adapted from Chase, L.E. and C.J. Sniffen, Cornell University.


function and should be evaluated. The abomasum, or fourth rumen chamber, is similar to our own stomach. Digestive enzymes and hydrochloric acid are secreted which initiate breakdown of complex proteins and starches for further digestion in the small intestine.

Rumen Microbiology

Over 150 different species of microorganisms have been identified in the rumen. These organisms range from bacteria, the most abundant, to protozoa, fungi, and viruses. Although there is a wide variety of bacteria found in the rumen, they can be loosely grouped into five major categories (Table 1). A basic understanding of nutrient and environmental requirements of these different microbial groups is necessary to fully appreciate how feeding programs may impact on rumen health. Substrates, nutrient requirements, fermentation end products, and pH tolerance are shown for these different microbial groups (Table 1). One important concept to glean from this table is the observation that fiber fermentation (i.e., the bacterial breakdown of plant cell wall) occurs only at higher pH levels. A healthy rumen is one that has a balanced interaction between all the

special groups of bacteria. In abnormal rumen environments, usually one group of bacteria has overwhelmed all other groups and dominates fermentation activity. For example, rumen acidosis is the result of feeding too much grain (sugars and starches), which allows the starch digesters to overwhelm the rumen environment and eliminate fiber fermentation. Reduced dietary amounts of either effective or total fiber reduces rumination activity and salivary buffering resulting in acidic conditions impeding fiber fermentation. In addition, with loss of the rumen mat, fiber fermenting bacteria will be washed out of the rumen. This is the crux of the problem in dairy goat feeding, providing sufficient grain to support milk production without excessive amounts which suppress fiber fermentation, milk fat test, and rumen activity.

Nutrient Requirements: Goat and Rumen

All living organisms require essential nutrients to support their metabolic processes, which keeps them alive. General classification of required nutrients include: water, the most essential, energy, protein, minerals, and vitamins. Minerals can be further

Dairy Goat Nutrition continues on pg. 14

Hoof Print I VOLUME 26 Winter 2017 I 13

Dairy Goat Nutrition continued from pg. 13 subdivided into macrominerals and microminerals based on the daily amounts required. Vitamins are separated into fat or water soluble sources. Daily amounts of these essential nutrients required are based on the physiologic state of the doe (e.g., maintenance, growth, lactation, pregnancy) and environmental conditions. Bacteria have similar requirements for maintenance and growth (i.e., reproduction). Differences between the dairy goat and microbes are seen in where they derive their nutrients (Table 2). The dairy goat derives a majority of her energy and protein from microbial end products or the microbes themselves. Bacteria contain approximately 60% protein, which is of high quality and digestibility. In other words, the more we make the bugs grow in the rumen system, the less additional more expensive feedstuffs we need to provide the doe. Microbial protein production alone can support up to 50 lbs of milk production in the dairy cow. The first goal of a dairy goat feeding program should be to maximize microbial protein production and then secondly, meet additional nutrient requirements overand-above those not met by microbial fermentation end products. This type of feeding approach would theoretically be the most economical and efficient. Bacteria require a number of essential nutrients for the synthesis of protein, similar to that of the doe. However unlike the doe, bacteria can use a greater variety of potential nitrogen sources to synthesize amino acids, the building blocks of proteins. In addition, bacteria can synthesize both essential and nonessential amino acids unlike the doe, which needs to be supplied with

Figure 1. Metabolic processes involved in the synthesis of microbial protein. preformed essential amino acids. Figure 1 presents an overview of the processes required to synthesize microbial protein.

Microbial protein production is a function of dietary ingredients, which can be broken down (i.e., degraded or fermented) in the rumen by the microbes. If any of the required building blocks are in limited supply, microbial protein production will be determined by the availability of the most limiting substrate. In many goat rations based on low quality forages, energy (ATP) and protein are in limited supply. Ammonia (NH3) may be provided from non-protein nitrogen sources, amino acids, peptides, or proteins where utilization of a nitrogen source is dependent upon the specific population of bacteria. For example, fiber fermenting bacteria can only use NH3 as their nitrogen source. Energy production (generation of ATP) will be dependent upon the available carbohydrate source (i.e., sugar, starch, or fiber) and its rate

Table 2. Substances that supply essential nutrient needs for the dairy goat and rumen microbial population.

NUTRIENT Energy Protein Minerals Vitamins

GOAT VFA’s Glucose Amino Acids Microbial Protein Dietary Dietary Bacterial

14 I VOLUME 26 Winter 2017 I Hoof Print

BACTERIA Complex Carbohydrates Sugars, Starches, Amino Acids Ammonia, Amino Acids, Peptides Dietary Dietary Synthesized

of degradation. Plant cell wall material, especially from very mature plants, is very slowly degraded and therefore is a less readily available source of energy in the rumen. Microbial protein production is more complex than just providing the necessary amounts of substrate in the diet. The rumen is a dynamic system that constantly has fermentation end products, liquid, bacteria, and particles being removed and new substrate added. So not only do we need to address concepts of substrate requirements, availability of substrate relative to other substrates needs to be addressed as well.

Applied Feed Analysis

Microbial protein can only be synthesized when all necessary substrates are available in the rumen in a synchronized manner. Both energy (ATP) and nitrogen, the critical substrates, need to be available at the same relative time and in appropriate amounts to allow for maximal utilization of dietary ingredients and maximize protein synthesis. This process is essential to the efficiency and dietary adaptability of the ruminant organism. Remember, the bulk of dietary protein digested in the gastric stomach of the ruminant animal is of bacterial origin. Plant carbohydrates are separated on the basis of their association to the plant cell wall (Figure 2). Carbohydrates that make up the cell wall are termed structural carbohydrates and are slowly fermented, if at all. Therefore, energy (ATP) yield from

Figure 2. Partitioning of feed carbohydrate fractions. these sources would be minimal and slow compared to nonstructural carbohydrates. Nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC) are those compounds not associated with the cell wall, with the exception of pectin. This is a diverse group of compounds including some readily fermentable fiber and traditional sugars and starches. Sugars and starches, termed nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC), are very rapidly fermented to acids

and provide much energy to support milk production and growth. In contrast to structural carbohydrates, nonfiber carbohydrates can rapidly provide large amounts of energy for microbial protein production. However, fermentation of nonstructural carbohydrates also results n lactic acid production, which if excessive can have detrimental effects on rumen fermentation.

A variety of factors, which may or may not be under our control, can influence both rate and degree of bacterial breakdown of carbohydrates. As a plant matures, there is an increase in the lignin content of cell wall material making it less available. Degree of lignification and distribution of lignin within the cell wall will affect rate of digestion of plant carbohydrates. How a plant grows based on rainfall, soil temperature, fertility, cloud cover, location, and cutting strategies all can influence availability of carbohydrates within the plant. Particle size reduction (grinding) increases surface area for bacterial attachment and breakdown and is very beneficial in increasing cell wall digestion. Steam, extrusion, and popping will alter starch configuration to make it more available. Fermentation (ensiling) will make lesser available carbohydrates more available. As particles pass through the rumen faster, less time is available for bacterial attachment and degradation. Rate of passage is directly related to dry matter intake and will have an impact on extent of digestion of slower degraded carbohydrates and proteins.

Dairy Goat Nutrition continues on pg. 16

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We Care for Kids Hoof Print I VOLUME 26 Winter 2017 I 15

Dairy Goat Nutrition continued from pg. 15 Dietary crude protein is also separated into fractions on the basis of rumen degradability and solubility (Figure 3). Proteins that are rumen degradable would be able to provide nitrogen for microbial protein production. Rumen solubility suggests that the protein source would be more rapidly available. For example urea, a nonprotein nitrogen source, is 100% soluble and degradable and therefore would very rapidly provide ammonia for microbial protein production. In meeting our goal of maximum microbial protein production, we also need to match rates of degradation of carbohydrate and protein sources to make rumen energy and nitrogen available in somewhat equivalent amounts for most efficient microbial protein yield and overall dietary protein incorporation. If we can reduce the amount of protein used in the ration and yet maintain or improve milk yield, the goat becomes much more efficient and profitable! When putting together a goat feeding program, we need to address many of these factors in attempting to make sure that rumen availability of energy

Figure 3. Fractionation of feed crude protein. and nitrogen are coordinated in order to achieve maximal microbial protein production. We need to blend energy and nitrogen sources with similar rumen availability properties to ensure equal availability. If we maintain maximal microbial protein synthesis, not only will the amount of additional dietary protein be reduced, but the goats will have increased dry matter intake and remain healthier, all contributing to increased

milk producing efficiency. When nitrogen and energy sources are not matched, diseases such as grain overload, milk fat depression, or other rumen dysfunctions may occur. This first article provides a detailed description of the unique and exquisite digestive system of the goat that allows for consumption of low quality plant materials and generates highly nutritious food human products. Feeding practices to meet the goat’s nutritional needs starts with properly feeding the rumen microbial populations, which in turn provide high quality nutrient resources to the goat in support of all her productive functions. To feed both the rumen and goat properly, we need a better understanding of feed components, namely the differing carbohydrate and protein fractions within plants to best meet microbial needs and make them efficient fermenters. It is the proper balance of fermentable carbohydrates and proteins in synchronous availability to the microbes that makes the goat highly productive and economically efficient as a production animal. The second part of this article will take these concepts and address forage quality as it would impact the feeding program for both rumen and goat. Dr. Van Saun is a professor and extension veterinarian with Pennsylvania State University. He has a clinical practice background and completed graduate work in ruminant nutrition at Cornell University. He lectures nationally and internationally on nutrition and health topics for cattle and small ruminant animals.

16 I VOLUME 26 Winter 2017 I Hoof Print

The Kentucky Sheep and Goat Check-Off Program collects $.50 for every $100 worth of sheep and goats sold in the Commonwealth. According to Kentucky law, Check-Off funds must be used for the purpose of promoting the increased use and sale of sheep and goats. • Special Project Proposal- The Kentucky Sheep and Goat Council will use check–off dollars to fund special sheep and goat related projects from Kentucky residents designed to meet at least one of the following two objectives. 1. Increasing the supply of sheep and goats in Kentucky. 2. Increasing the consumption of Kentucky raised sheep and goat products. Proposals will be accepted twice per year, on December 31st and on June 30th and applicants will be notified of their funding status within three months of the application deadline. • Examples of projects are the promotion of goat or lamb at public events or educating potential producers on the benefits of raising sheep and goats. To learn more details about the Kentucky Sheep and Goat Check-off Program visit

How to Read a Feed Label Understanding and Evaluating Medicated Goat and Sheep Feed Labels What information is required on a label?

The basic information you should find on most labels will include the product name, the product purpose statement, a guaranteed analysis, the ingredient statement, the manufacturer name and address, a net weight statement, and feeding directions. Your label may resemble the one to the right. (Remember, some labels contain only basic information, while others are more in depth.) Here’s what each section of this label tells you... Product name and Purpose Statement Describes the product as well as the species and classes for which it is intended. Medicated feeds require an active ingredient statement and statement of drug purpose. Ingredient Statement Commercial feeds, other than customer formula feeds, shall have an ingredient statement listing the feed ingredients.

Feeding Directions Directions for use should provide at a minimum basic information on how to feed the product safely and effectively. This may include any caution and warning statements for medicated feeds required per Federal CFR guidelines. Manufacturer Information The company or person taking responsibility for the product must be listed on the label with their name and address. These individuals must be registered in the state and are the responsible party.

Quantity Statement Each package, container, or bulk lot must contain an accurate statement of net quantity. The statement’s terms of weight or measure should be expressed in ounce—pound units and must include the appropriate metric unit such as 50 LB. (22.67 kg) or bulk invoice.

18 I VOLUME 26 Winter 2017 I Hoof Print


Pellet for Growing and Finishing Goats Maintained in Confinement For the prevention of coccidiosis caused by Eimeria crandallis, E. christenseni and E. ninakohlyakimovae. Active Drug Ingredient MONENSIN 20.0 g/ton Guaranteed Analysis CRUDE PROTEIN, min 14.0 % (This includes not more than 1.0% equivalent crude protein from non-protein nitrogen) CRUDE FAT, min 2.0 % CRUDE FIBER, max 24.5 % CALCIUM (Ca), min 0.5 % CALCIUM (Ca), max 1.0 % PHOSPHORUS (P), min 0.7 % SALT (NaCl), min 0.4 % SALT (NaCl), max 0.9 % COPPER (Cu), min 30 ppm COPPER (Cu), max 50 ppm SELENIUM (Se), min 0.30 ppm VITAMIN A, min 6,000 IU/lb VITAMIN D3, min 990 IU/lb Ingredients Processed grain by-products, roughage products, ammonium chloride, molasses products, plant protein products, calcium carbonate, salt, potassium chloride, copper sulfate, copper chloride, zinc sulfate, manganese sulfate, ethylenediamine dihydroidide, calcium iodate, cobalt carbonate, sodium selenite, vitamin A acetate, vitamin D3 supplement. Feeding Directions Feed continuously as the sole ration to growing and finishing goats maintained in confinement. Always provide clean, fresh drinking water. Always provide adequate roughage in the form of good quality hay or pasture. Additional mineral is recommended. Allow animal to adjust to grain feeding before feeding high rates. It is recommended to feed equal amounts at the AM and PM feeding. CAUTION: Do not allow horses or other equines access to feed containing Monensin. Ingestion of Monensin by horses has been fatal. Monensinmedicated cattle and goat feeds are safe for use in cattle and goats only. Consumption by unapproved species may result in toxic reactions. Do not exceed the levels of Monensin recommended in the feeding directions as reduced average daily gains may result. Do not feed to lactating goats. This product, which contains added copper, should not be fed to sheep or related species that have a low tolerance to copper. Goat Feed Inc. 103 Regulatory Services Bldg. Lexington, KY 40546 NET WT 50 LB (22.67 kg) or bulk invoice

Guaranteed Analysis Guarantees are required for all feed products. At a minimum, sheep and goat complete and supplement feeds should guarantee the following nutrients:

• Minimum percentage of crude protein; • Maximum percentage of equivalent crude protein from nonprotein nitrogen (if added);* • Minimum percentage of crude fat; • Maximum percentage of crude fiber; • Minimum and maximum percentage of calcium; • Minimum percentage of phosphorus; • Minimum and maximum percentage of salt (if added); • Minimum and maximum percentage of total sodium, if the total sodium exceeds that furnished by the maximum salt guarantee; • Minimum and maximum copper in parts per million (ppm) [if added, or if total copper exceeds twenty (20) ppm] due to copper sensitivity of sheep and certain species of goats. • Minimum selenium in parts per million (ppm); • Minimum vitamin A, other than precursors of vitamin A, in international units per pound (if added). *Some commonly used sources of non-protein nitrogen include: Urea, Feed Grade Biuret, and Ammonium Chloride.

feeds are reviewed for approved drug usage, statement of drug purpose and any required warning, caution or special feeding instructions. Misleading and unsubstantiated information is.

So, how does the feed regulatory program work for goat and sheep feeds? ALL goat and sheep complete feeds and supplements in Kentucky are required to be labeled with specific information. Feed labels are the fundamental basis for providing consumer information and protection, equitable competition and regulation. Effective labeling is essential to accomplish these objectives. Regulatory efforts continue to assist manufacturers to provide informative labeling that promotes the safety and usefulness of feeds for livestock producers.

and are administered using a cooperative, science-based approach.

Want to know more?

We in the Feed Regulatory program are happy to help with any other inquiries you might have. If you have any questions about feed labeling requirements or the other duties of the program, please look us up on the web at:

Or call our office where our staff will be happy to help you. Our number is (859) 257-2785. Article courstey of

What commercial feed products are regulated? The commercial feed law regulates materials offered for sale as feed or for mixing in feed with the exemption of whole, unprocessed grain, raw meat, hay, straw, stover, silage, cobs, husks and hulls when unground and not mixed with other materials. Typical products regulated include pet foods, complete and concentrate feeds for livestock and poultry, soybean meal and other feed ingredients, drug premixes, vitamin and mineral supplements, liquid feed and protein blocks. Registration of each commercial feed is required before distribution to ensure that required information is provided to the consumer. This involves annual review of approximately 10,000 labels. Medicated

The Division of Regulatory Services Our Mission

As a part of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station in the UK College of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Regulatory Services is committed to service and consumer protection of Kentucky citizens, businesses, and industries. Our programs monitor and analyze feed, fertilizer, milk, seed, and soil

Hoof Print I VOLUME 26 Winter 2017 I 19

Navigating to a Balanced Ration Part 1: Balancing for Energy

By Dr. John Johns, Nutritionist Burkmann Nutrition


nowing how to feed your sheep or goats is one of the most important pieces of knowledge held by a producer. Making sure a flock/herd has the proper nutrition is necessary for a high percentage lamb or kid crop, heavy weaning weights for the growing offspring, a high rebreeding percentage in the mothers and last, but not least, the development of satisfactory replacement females. Feeding a balanced ration will support optimum reproduction, minimize problems at or near birth, minimize health issues in the newborn and be economical.


The beginning point of feeding is knowing what nutrients your animals need for growth and reproduction. Five nutrients are necessary: water, vitamins, minerals, protein and energy.


Water is the nutrient given the least consideration, but may be the most important. It is the primary nutrient in the body and is necessary for digestion, regulation of body temperature and excretion of metabolic waste. Most importantly, it controls feed intake. As water intake decreases, feed dry matter intake decreases. Water must be adequate for animals to eat enough feed to meet their needs.


Small ruminants require vitamins A, D, E, K and all of the B vitamins. Fortunately, the animals can make most of these. Vitamin K and the B vitamins are made by the rumen bacteria during fermentation of feed intake. The animal has the ability to make vitamin D from a chemical reaction in the skin when exposed to direct sunlight. High quality forages contain beta carotene and the

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20 I VOLUME 26 Winter 2017 I Hoof Print

animal can convert this precursor to vitamin A. Vitamin E is generally supplied in abundance in high quality, leafy, green forage. Deficiencies of vitamins are rare but they do occur occasionally. Beta carotene drops when forage is allowed to become too mature before harvesting for hay and when hay rolls are left out in the winter to weather and lose quality. Drought will result in a loss of leafy, green forage available for grazing and can cut down on vitamin intake. Good insurance is to use a mineral product as a supplier of vitamins and have it available free choice.


Minerals should be considered in one of two categories. Macro minerals are those needed in larger quantities and consist of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chlorine and sulfur. Trace minerals (micro) are those needed only in small quantities and consist of cobalt, iodine, iron, manganese,

selenium, zinc, molybdenum and copper. Small ruminants do not require large amounts of any mineral, but this does not make them any less essential for growth, reproduction and health. However, when choosing mineral for small ruminants, one major difference between sheep and goats must be considered. Goats require more copper than sheep and are not as sensitive to this mineral excess as sheep. Copper toxicity can occur readily with sheep when too much is supplied.


Small ruminants actually have two requirements for protein. First, protein is needed to supply nitrogen to the rumen bacteria to maximize fermentation of feed intake. Without maximizing rumen fermentation, bacterial energy and protein production will be limited to the animal. Secondly, protein is needed to supply amino acids to the small intestine of the animal to be absorbed for tissue growth and repair. Due to the two requirements, feed proteins may be considered as two types. First is rumen degradable protein (RDP). This type breaks down in the rumen and supplies nitrogen to the rumen bacteria. The second type is rumen undegradable protein (RUP). This type escapes ruminal breakdown, but can still be digested and absorbed in the small intestine to supply the needed amino acids to the animal. Together, both sources are known as metabolizable protein representing the total protein needs of the rumen bacteria and the animal.


Energy is the nutrient needed in greatest abundance in the feeds consumed. It is composed primarily of carbohydrate and fat intake. Rumen bacteria ferment the complex carbohydrates in forage and the simple carbohydrates, such as starch, in grains and produce fatty acids which the animal uses as a primary energy source. The more mature the complex carbohydrates or fiber in forages, the slower and less complete rumen fermentation will be and the less energy the animal will receive. Energy is the most common limiting nutrient. Less than optimum energy intake will result in decreased production, decreased reproduction and increased lamb/kid morbidity, mortality and parasite infection.

Nutrient Requirements

After understanding what nutrients are needed, the next step is finding out how much of each nutrient is needed. Nutrient requirements for small ruminants are shown in the following tables. Table 1: Nutrient Requirements, 150 Pound Mature Female, % of Ration Dry Matter


DMI, lbs

CP %


Calcium %

Phosphorus %







Early Gest. Twins






Late Gest. Twins






Lactation twins






NRC 2007 Table 2: Nutrient Requirements for Small Ruminant Replacement Females, % of Ration Dry Matter Weight, lbs

DMI, lbs

CP %


Calcium %

Phosphorus %































Table 3: Nutrient Requirements for Finishing Small Ruminants, % of Ration Dry Matter Weight, lbs

ADG, lbs

DMI, lbs

CP %


Calcium %

Phosphorus %








88 to 130







Feed and Forage Analysis

The next step is to get a feed or forage analysis and compare the nutrient content of what you have with what the animals need. An example forage analysis is shown in Table 4. The forage is a grass legume mixture. The analysis is shown as both an “as fed basis” and a “dry matter basis”. “As fed” takes into account an average of 10% moisture in the feed. “Dry matter” does not take into account any moisture levels in the feed. When evaluating a feedstuff or balancing a ration, always use the data from the dry matter column. By comparing the analysis with the needs shown in the above tables, it is obvious that forage alone will meet the needs of the mature female for maintenance and early gestation- even with twins! However, supplementation of energy, protein, minerals and vitamins will be necessary for other life stages and maximum production. Table 4: Example Forage Analysis, Percent As Received Basis

Dry Matter Basis



Dry Matter



Crude Protein



RDP, % of CP










.30 Balanced Ration continues on pg. 22

Hoof Print I VOLUME 26 Winter 2017 I 21

Balanced Ration continued from pg. 23

Putting It All Together

As an example, the following shows how to balance a simple ration for a 66 pound replacement female. She requires a ration that is 15.8% crude protein and 65% TDN (Table 2). The feeds include the hay (Table 4) and a purchased concentrate supplement. The purchased supplement is 24% protein and 80% TDN on a dry matter basis. We will use a Pierson Square to balance for energy first.

Step 1: Place the TDN values of the two feeds (58% from the hay analysis- Table 4 and 80% from the purchased conc. feed) on the left diagonals 58.0 (hay TDN, %)

80 (conc. TDN, %) Step 2: Place the required TDN value in the center of the square (65.0 %TDN from Table 2) 58.0 (hay TDN, %)

(Required %TDN) 65.0 80 (conc. TDN, %) Step 3: Subtract across the diagonal placing the differences on the right diagonals. 80 (conc. TDN, %) - 65= 15 65.0 - 58.0 (hay TDN, %)=7

58.0 (hay TDN, %)



80 7 (conc. TDN, %) Step 4: Add the values on the right diagonals and this is the total parts of the ration. 15 + 7= 22 total parts

58.0 (hay TDN, %)

65.0 80 (conc. TDN, %)



22 total parts

22 I VOLUME 26 Winter 2017 I Hoof Print

Step 5: Now calculate the percent hay and concentrate for the ration. (15 ÷ 22) x 100= 68% forage (7 ÷ 22) x 100= 32% concentrate 58.0 (hay TDN, %)

(15 ÷ 22) x 100 = 68 % Forage

80 (conc. TDN, %)

(7 ÷ 22) x 100 = 32 % Concentrate


22 total parts

On a dry matter basis, the ration will be 68% forage and 32% concentrate to meet her energy requirements (roughly a 2:1 ratio). Now you need to convert the 68% forage and 32% concentrate into the pounds of feed that will be fed each day. From the table, we know the animal will eat 2.6 pounds of dry matter (DMI/lb from Table 2). To covert the DMI to an as-fed basis, divide the required DMI from Table 2 by the average dry matter content of feedstuffs as they are fed, which is 90%. 2.6 lbs DMI from Table 2 ÷ .9= 2.9 lbs of as-fed feed, rounded to 3.0 lbs of total feed/head/day

This means we feed 2 pounds of hay and 1 pound of the concentrate daily to meet the energy needs of the animal.

The Next Step

As mentioned in the beginning of this article, energy is just one nutrient that is required by small ruminants. The second largest nutrient required is crude protein. To actually complete a balanced ration, you must determine if your forage and concentrate meet the crude protein requirements. The steps to balance a ration for crude protein will be presented in the Navigating to a Balanced Ration – Part 2: Balancing for Crude Protein in the April 1, 2017 issue of HoofPrint.


Providing a balanced ration to our animals in any stage of production will ensure they do the best their genetics will allow, will optimize production and minimize the cost. Dr. John Johns received his Bachelors in Science form Western Kentucky University and earned his Masters Degree and Ph.D. from Michigan State University. Dr. Johns taught at the University of Kentucky as an Extension Professor from 1974 until his recent retirement. Upon retirement from the University of Kentucky, Dr. Johns has joined his expertise with the Burkmann nutrition family.

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Hoof Print I VOLUME 26 Winter 2017 I 23


Health & Management

Tips to Reduce Losses Around the Time of Parturition

By Dr. Donald G. Ely, Dr. Beth Johnson, DMV, and Shaylyn Burton


ive months ago, identified females were assigned to mate with males to produce the next kids/lambs. Now, it is time to deliver the anticipated crop. What needs to be done to ensure that everything is ready? What is normal kidding/lambing? What problems can be encountered? How can losses be minimized? The objective of this article is to provide some guidelines to follow to try and prevent as many losses as possible before, during, and after kidding/ lambing.


Typically, kids/lambs are born in one of three seasons: September/October, January/February, or April of each year. Regardless of the season, the level of nutrition of expectant dams is increased significantly during the last 4 to 6 weeks of pregnancy. Setting genetics aside, provision of 0.5 to 1.5 lb/hd/day of a single grain (corn, oats, barley, or wheat) or grain/ protein mix can increase the body condition scores (BCS) to 3.0 to 3.5 (1.0 = emaciated; 5.0= obese). Dams with higher BCS can be fed less grain/mix while those with lower BCS can be separated and fed larger amounts (i.e., 1.5 lb/hd/day). Delivery will be as normal as it can be and dams will have

plenty of milk to feed their offspring if they kid/lamb at 3.0 to 3.5 BCS. Wooled ewes need to be sheared about the time the grain feeding begins (4 to 6 weeks before lambing), regardless of the lambing season. Sheared ewes stay drier and cleaner and require less space in confinement. Body condition in late gestation and lactation is easier to assess, it is easier to evaluate the signs of imminent lambing, and newborn lambs can find the teats faster immediately after birth if the ewes are freshly shorn. Evaluate the FAMACHA score of all does/ewes 4 to 6 weeks before lambing begins. Those with FAMACHA scores of 3, 4, or 5 should be de-wormed, but make sure the drench label says it is safe to give to pregnant females. Those with FAMACHA scores of 1 or 2 don’t need to be de-wormed at this time. An example kidding/lambing facility, like the one in Figure 1, can be constructed within a barn. Its size can be adjusted to fit the number of does/ewes scheduled to give birth. It can also be made permanent or temporary with metal or wooden panels. Old manure/bedding pack must be removed down to the soil surface at least 3 months before the upcoming kidding/ lambing season. Replace the pack with a 3-inch layer of Class-I sand after the soil

24 I VOLUME 26 Winter 2017 I Hoof Print

Figure 1. A Proposed Kidding/Lambing Facility

surface dries. Bed all pens with wheat straw and move pregnant females into the close-up pen to start the movement through the facility. The most important function of this facility is that it provides a workable movement of does/ewes so they can be managed according to their production (late pregnancy [close-up], parturition, early lactation [maternity/mixing], and females with singles or twins).

As parturition approaches, use breeding records and visual appraisal to identify the “close-up” females and move them into the close-up pen at least a week before the first birth is anticipated. Watch closely for the signs of parturition, which include isolation from the other females in the pen, sagging in front of the hips, relaxation of the vulva, a strutted udder that may drip colostrum from the teats, nervousness, pawing, looking behind continually, and calling (bleating). Sometimes a uterine prolapse may be seen sometime before parturition (1 month, 2 weeks, 1 week, or a couple of days before). A piece of equipment every producer must have is the vaginal spoon shown in Figure 2. Insertion into the vulva/ vagina and stabilization with a homemade string harness will allow females to defecate and urinate normally and even kid/lamb with the spoon still in place. Figure 2. A Vaginal Spoon

Once labor begins, look for fluid dripping from the vulva and the female lying on her side straining and groaning. Let her give birth and bond with the newborns in the close-up pen before moving to the lambing pen (Figure 1).


There are some steps during the parturition phase that humans can take to save kid and lamb lives. During delivery, if an amniotic sac (water bag) has been present for more than 30 minutes without any progression, the dam should be examined for possible malpresentation of the fetus. A normal presentation is shown in Figure 3. If presented with a head turned back, legs folded, one leg back, or only the head visible, try to straighten the malpresentation. If a backward or breech presentation, pull the kid/lamb backwards, but do it quickly because it can strangle if back feet come first. The sooner the presentation is straightened out, the higher the probability that a live animal will be delivered. If you don’t feel comfortable in assisting in the deliveries, contact a veterinarian or an experienced livestock

producer for help. Even though a study of the entire delivery process can aid the producers’ success, there is no substitute for the actual hands-on experience. Preferably, some of this experience can be gained under the direction of experts at kidding/lambing schools and/or producers with extensive experience. Figure 3. A Normal Birth Presentation

Occasionally, the cervix fails to dilate in the parturition process (ring-wombed). Stimulation with fingers may may cause it to dilate. If so, continued assistance in the delivery process may yield a live kid/lamb. Unfortunately, by the time all of this occurs, the fetus may have died. If a caesarean delivery is an option in a ring-wombed situation, call a veterinarian as soon as it is discovered and hope for a live kid/lamb.

temporarily constructed so the standard 5 ft. x 5 ft. model can be increased in size to accomodate larger dams and/or increased number of newborns per dam. Check dams, as they enter kidding/ lambing pens, to ensure they have plenty of colostrum and that newborns can nurse. Check every udder to make sure the mucal plugs in the teats are removed. If the newborns did not nurse in the closeup pen, place their mouths on the teats and manually squeeze colostrum into their mouths. Tickling their tail area may help stimulate them to suck. In turn, the newborn sucking the teat will encourage dams to accept their offspring. Sometimes, newborns are born weak and may not nurse immediately or normal newborns may get lost from their dams in the close-up pen before they nurse. Both of these situations are especially a problem if they are born in cold weather. Newborns like these become chilled and may have no desire to nurse as they enter the kidding/ lambing pens. This is when the stomach tube shown in Figure 4 becomes a lifesaver. This is the most and most valuable piece Figure 4. A Stomach Tube for Small Ruminant Newborns


It is after the birth of the kids/lambs that the real work begins. The first week after parturition requires more human management expertise than any other phase of the production year. Management practices can be developed from the following description of a newborn. It is born wet, coming from its mother’s internal body temperature of 102 to 103°F, into an environment where the air temperature will be much lower: freezing or colder. They have no nutrient stores, so they have little ability to control their body temperature. Therefore, there is an immediate need for nutrition from colostrum and imprinting with the dam. The gastrointestinal tract of the newborn is wide open to disease causing organisms. Colostrum must be consumed quickly so antibodies contained within can combat potential infections. After imprinting (bonding) in the close-up pen for an hour or more, dams and their newborn(s) are transferred to kidding/lambing pens. They should be

of equipment producers can own. Handmilk colostrum from the dam into a 60-cc syringe attached to the tube. Hold the kid/lamb between your legs so its head is right below your knees and gently pass the tube through the mouth down the throat until its lips come in contact with the syringe. Push the syringe plunger down so colostrum goes directly into the abomasum. Sometimes when the weather is so severely cold, or the producer is so busy with other jobs, milking and administering colostrum with the stomach tube is the best way to jump-start the newborn, even though it may be strong enough to nurse. If, by chance, a dam has little or no colostrum, be prepared. Have colostrum frozen News to Ewes continues on pg. 26

Hoof Print I VOLUME 26 Winter 2017 I 25

News to Ewes continued from pg. 25 in flattened, zip-lock bags (2 ounces per bag). Thaw in lukewarm water. Do not microwave. If the newborn has no source of colostrum from nursing, administer frozen/thawed colostrum via stomach tube at 1, 4, 6, 10, 14, 18 and 24 hours after birth. The essential antibodies in the colostrum must be ingested and absorbed across the small intestinal wall within 24 hours after birth. After this time, the intestinal wall closes and antibodies are unable to pass into the bloodstream. The dose at each feeding is about 2 ounces, which is equal to 1/3 to 1/2 cup. Synthetic colostrum can be purchased, but it is always best to obtain it from does or ewes in the herd/flock. It is also best to give colostrum from one species to the same species, so give doe colostrum to kids and ewe colostrum to lambs. Other management tips within the first 24 hours post partum include dipping navels with an iodine solution, checking udders of dams, and checking eyes and mouths of newborns for any abnormalities (inverted eyelids, overshot or undershot mouths). If eyelids are inverted, correct immediately by rolling out the bottom eyelid and/or cut a small incision immediately below the lower eyelashes. This will cause scar tissue to form and the inversion will be corrected. Mouth deformities have to be dealt with on an individual basis. Record the identification of these newborns. To do this, ear tags with numbers will be necessary. In addition, the sires and dams of these newborns need to be identified and culled before the next kidding/lambing season. Do not keep any “abnormals” as replacements. Each newborn should be injected with 0.5 cc (SQ) of Bo-Se at birth. This prevents a selenium deficiency (white muscle disease), which can result in an inability of the newborn to nurse. Although they may appear to be nursing, their tongue slips to the side, preventing them from sucking and consuming the much-needed colostrum. If their mouth becomes cold and their rectal temperature goes below 100°F, they are suffering from hypothermia, which can lead to hypoglycemia. Now, they need some supplemental heat from either heat lamps or kid/lamb coats. If heat lamps are used, three rules apply: (1) securely fasten them in an area that is free from a fire hazard, (2) make sure they are attached high enough to not burn the cold newborns, but low enough to keep them from crowding

under it, and (3) if only the member of a twin is cold, take both to the heat lamp; if only the cold one goes, the dam is likely to not accept it when it is brought back to her. One of the biggest problems encountered at parturition is dealing with multiple births, especially triplets. Small ruminant females are not designed to raise triplets. To try and maximize production efficiency, graft one of the triplets to a female with a single. The female with the single has to be convinced the triplet is hers. Generally, to be successful in this grafting venture, the female that is to accept the graft should give birth within 12 hours of the triplet birth. Rub the fluids of the female’s newborn on the dry triplet and let her dry it off. If she accepts it, great! If not, confine her in a stanchion (head gate) with feed and water. Let the triplet get hungry before putting it with its potential foster mother. Then, manually help it nurse. Leave the potential foster mother in stanchion until the kid/lamb is comfortable nursing. Allow the female out of stanchion for exercise and watch her response. If she accepts the graft, allow them free movement. If not, restanchion. Continue to test her until she accepts it or take it away and try to place on the bottle. The problem is, by this time the triplet is probably too old to take the bottle. Therefore, the work continues with the female until the triplet is old enough to wean. Some females accept the graft immediately, others may take days, and others may never accept it, but it is always worth the effort because small ruminant females are always better at raising kids and lambs than are humans and the bottle. Now that the newborns are nursing, make sure the dams expel their placentas. Remove them from the close-up or kidding/ lambing pens, wherever expelled. If it is not expelled within 12 hours after birth, check for a retained fetus. If needed, administer 2cc of oxytocin (IM) to help contract and expel the placental tissue. Give an antibiotic (IM) to to prevent bacterial infections in the dams.Concurrently, during the first 24 hours after birth, newborns may encounter constipation or retained meconium. They do great for 12 to 24 hours, then appear humped up with a bloated abdomen. A human infant rectal enema is needed to rectify this problem. The next 48 hours are crucial to both the dams and their newborns. Normal, healthy kids/lambs vocalize very little during this period. Normal, healthy

26 I VOLUME 26 Winter 2017 I Hoof Print

newborns also eat, sleep in a curled position, and play. They have warm mouths and full bellies. When they stand after sleeping, they stretch, stand with level backs, and have a rectal temperature between 102 and 103°F. In contrast, hungry kids/lambs appear gaunt, stand with a humped back, bleat often, have cold mouths and the rectal temperature may drop to below 100°F. A healthy environment for newborns is a warm (40 to 50°F), dry, draft-free area that is bedded with clean straw on the barn floor that was previously cleaned and covered with Class-I sand. Health of newborns can change quickly, so they should be checked (gotten up from sleep) every 2 to 3 hours during the day for evaluation. Newborns need to be watched for signs of pneumonia and bacterial diarrhea (scours) in the first week of life. Signs of pneumonia varies from acting lethargic to rapid breathing and/or rattling when breathing. It is usually associated with elevated rectal temperatures from 103 and 106°F. Pneumonia has to be treated with antibiotics which have to be prescribed by a veterinarian. Signs of diarrhea can be misleading because symptoms vary from fecal material stuck under the tails (orange/ yellow color) to having wet tails when the diarrhea is more watery (gray color). The feces under the tail is usually a result of some excess milk consumption and should be removed manually. Newborns can quickly succumb to dehydration from the watery, gray scours. Recognize and treat for this quickly. Does and ewes need only water for the first 24 hours in the kidding/lambing pens. Thereafter, provide 1 to 3 lb of medium quality grass hay per head per day. Feeding concentrates in the kidding/ lambing pens can stimulate greater milk production than needed or that can be consumed, potentially resulting in udder problems and/or scouring by the offspring. Does and ewes can develop bacterial infections, mastitis, ketosis, or milk fever while in the kidding/lambing pens. Evaluate each one individually each time their newborns are evaluated. The average length of stay in kidding/lambing pens is 2 to 5 days. Some may only stay 24 hours, while others may need to stay a week or so. The length of stay depends on the health of the females, milk production, disposition, health and strength of newborns, and number of pens available in relation to the



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ZERO PERCENT FINANCING AVAILABLE rate of kidding/lambing. Typically, one pen can handle 9 or 10 does/ewes per kidding/ lambing season. As the females and their kids/lambs are moved from kidding/lambing pens to the maternity (mixing) pen (Figure 1), check the mouths, eyes, and general health of each kid/lamb. If they need to be castrated, this is the time to do it. They can also be docked, vaccinated, ear tagged, and/ or paint branded at the same time. Check the udders of does/ewes for sores on their udders, mastitis, and overall functionality of the milk producing unit. Most importantly, deworm all dams at this time or certainly by 14 days post-partum. Deworming as they are moved to the maternity pen (Figure 1) keeps from having to catch them later in a big pen where the young kids or lambs can get run over, stepped on, and/or get legs broken. Deworming at this time prevents the stomach worm rise that typically occurs in mature females after parturition and beginning of lactation. Stomach worms seem to increase their activity (reproduction) during times of reduced immunity. The 14-day period immediately after parturition is one of the most stressful periods for small ruminants. The resultant “periparturient rise” in stomach worm

activity is a phenomenon that can result in significant production losses from decreased milk production and may even cause death of the lactating female.


The long awaited kidding/lambing season usually arrives with great optimism. Hopefully, this optimism carries through until all newborns are alive, healthy, and growing. This occurrence, however, depends on producers and their innate abilities, their knowledge of the parturition process (before, during, and after), and their willingness to help the does/ewes make the season a success. Plan and prepare in advance for the first birth. Feed the pregnant females in late gestation so they will be in a 3.0 to 3.5 BCS at parturition. Prepare the kidding/lambing facility so it has a close-up pen, kidding/lambing pens, maternity (mixing pens), and pens for females with singles vs. those with twins. A knowledge of the signs of imminent parturition and what constitutes a normal presentation and birth is essential. Even more critical is the reaction to abnormal presentations. The new mothers and the producers must work together to make sure the newborns nurse soon after birth because colostrum provides nutrition,

restrictions may apply

antibodies, and serves as a laxative to get the digestive tract operational. If the newborn does not suck, the stomach tube (the most important utensil in the barn) is put into use. Constant check of newborns and their mothers in the kidding/lambing pens can head off many potential problems that may arise later. After 2 to 5 days in the kidding/lambing pens, and if all females and their offspring are healthy, castrate, dock, vaccinate, ear tag (if appropriate) and deworm does/ewes as they move to maternity (mixing) pens. Having a barn full of healthy newborns is a joyful sight and is the second step, after conception, towards a viable and economic enterprise. Dr. Donald G. Ely, professor, Department of Animal and Food Sciences at the University of Kentucky

Dr. Beth Johnson is a Staff Veterinarian in the Kentucky Department of Agriculture and has 40 years of experience raising and treating small ruminants. Her family farms in Parksville, KY where she raises Gelbvieh cattle and Boer goats. Shaylyn Burton, University of Kentucky student of Animal and Food Sciences Hoof Print I VOLUME 26 Winter 2017 I 27

Growing Together

The 2016 KIO Tri State Small Ruminant Summit

By Jaclyn Krymowski


he 2016 KIO (Kentucky, Indiana, and Ohio) Tri State Small Ruminant Summit- “Let’s Grow Together” brought in both newcomers and seasoned producers for a day of learning and growing. The event was held at the Boone County Enrichment Center in Burlington, KY. Over 200 participants attended a variety of breakout sessions featuring topics on herd nutrition, genetics, reproduction, and health. Workshops and demonstrations were offered on skills such as goat and lamb cooking, predator trapping, soap making, hide tanning, and FAMACHA scoring. Regardless of operation size or years of experience, the Summit offered something for everyone. “I want to raise my own sheep,” said participant Brittany Roeder. “…I feel I can now better understand and interpret new information.” One Summit speaker, Dr. Van Saun, said he believes that the event offers both the basic introduction for new producers and also keeping current ones updated on new material. “There are lots of opportunities for interaction (today). So much information might be intimidating (at first) but (I’m seeing) good questions.” A variety of vendors stood by, including Burkmann Nutrition, Eagle Bend Alpacas, the Kentucky Farm Bureau, Mountainview Equipment, and more. The Kentucky Sheep and Goat Development Office also presented a few special awards recognizing years of outstanding service and dedication to Dorothy Vale, BP Davis, and Dr. Don Ely. In addition, Miranda and Josh Geiser were given awards for participating in the 2016 KGPA Youth Leadership and Community Service Program. Winners of the Kentucky Make It with Wool competition displayed their exhibits. The KIO Tri-State Small Ruminant Summit – Let’s Grow Together initiative was intended to bring together three neighboring states to share common goals and barriers to production, and then find innovative solutions to increase sustainable industry productivity, profitability and growth. The main event sponsors were the American Sheep Industry, Let’s Grow Committee and the American Goat Federation. A pre-conference survey of stakeholders from each state was used to identify the top goals and/or barriers to increased production that are common to all 28 I VOLUME 26 Winter 2017 I Hoof Print

Bob Leer presents a gift to Dr. Don Ely, University of Kentucky for his years of dedication and service to Kentucky’s sheep industry.

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Donna Puckett conducted a workshop on soap making. three main areas. Specific presentations were conducted on integrated sheep management, sheep genetics to improve commercial herds, how to use genetics to increase profits in goat herds, ewe nutrition, scrapie education, general small ruminant health, how to properly feed goats for maximum feed utilization, out of season breeding, feeding supplements, and the difference in feeding market lambs and ewe lambs. Speakers included Dr. Don Ely (University of Kentucky), Dr. Beth Johnson (KY State Small Ruminant Veterinarian), Dr. Kenneth Andries (Kentucky State University Animal Sciences), Dr. Mike Neary (Purdue University, Dr. Robert Van Saun (Penn State University) and Dr. David Thomas (University of Wisconsin). “The goal of the Summit was not only to begin the conversation between Indiana, Ohio and Kentucky small ruminant producers on how to increase profits using better health, genetics and nutrition, but to continue it after Polly Lush conducted a workshop the event,” stated Kelley Yates, Executive on hide tanning. Director of the Kentucky Sheep and Goat Overall, the KIO Tri-State Small Development Office. To provide producers with the information provided by the Summit, Ruminant Summit was a great success. The a website- network between the Kentucky , Indiana kio-tri-state-small-ruminant-summit.html, and Ohio leadership teams will continue was created to provide the presentations, to work together to provide resources and pictures and survey results. Survey results were opportunities to producers. Conversations then used to create a list of editorial topics are already being had to conduct another for HoofPrint Magazine and each state’s conference like this in the future so that more newsletters to address areas where producers assistance is given to producers in their efforts had additional questions or concerns. A list to become more sustainable and profitable. of industry contacts are also going to be made available so that producers can seek additional Jaclyn Krymowski, 2016 Intern for the information in the areas of genetics, nutrition Kentucky Sheep and Goat Development and health. All of this information will be Office provided at the web address listed above.

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Hoofprint-vol. 26 Winter 2017  
Hoofprint-vol. 26 Winter 2017  

HoofPrint - The Small Ruminant Magazine is a periodical used to promote better animal health, husbandry, and knowledge among sheep and goat...