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Liberty University PHIL 201 quiz 5 complete solutions

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Buynow $25 1. The view in which the basing relationship between beliefs is deductive: According to externalism one must be aware of whether his cognitive processes are functioning properly or not. 2. The doxastic assumption is: 3. The areas on knowledge that Descartes doubted include: 4. Christopher Columbus was convinced that he discovered a route to the East Indies because it lined up with his maps and the current beliefs of his day. However, he was wrong. This example demonstrates a problem with 5. The means by which non-basic beliefs are inferred from basic beliefs (via deduction or induction) is called: 6. Which of the following are NOT claims that the modest foundationalist retains from the strong foundationalist’s perspective? The claim that there are no basic beliefs 7. Thomas Reid argued that the laws of logic and mathematics are considered Necessary first principles 8. Which of the following is NOT a condition that strong foundationalists claim will qualify a belief as properly basic? 9. There is no appropriate stopped point to our justifications for our beliefs (i.e., each belief must be supported by some other belief with no end), according to which criticism of foundationalism? 10. When Descartes employs systematic doubt against the beliefs he holds, he discovers that:


11. Among some of the reasons why unmitigated skepticism is difficult for a person to consistently hold as a serious philosophical position is because: 12. One of the philosophical benefits of skepticism is that: 13. Robert is a scientist who firmly believes in empirical truths and the physical laws of causality (e.g. when he builds a fire in his fireplace, it will produce heat), but he expresses serious reservations about the rational credibility of whether there are objective moral virtues, such as goodness, or whether such a being as the traditional God of theism in fact exist. In such a case, Robert is expressing a form of:Metaphysical skepticism 14. According to Dew and Foreman, most rational people believe that it is extremely rarely for our senses to mislead us: False 15. If Jacob thinks there is overwhelming evidence for the existence of God, especially in light of what he thinks is the apparent design and fine-tuning of the universe, but John claims that the obvious existence of evil argues against the rationality of Jacob’s belief in the existence of God, then John has: 16. the existence of God. 17. Those holding to some form of externalism in rationality tend to argue that, since it is impossible for persons to have any cognitive access to the reasons and evidence that support some of a person’s beliefs, internalists cannot be right with respect to their account of justification for all beliefs.

18. The problem with W.K. Clifford’s statement “It is wrong always, everywhere and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence” is that

19. If a person is a reliabilist in terms of rationality and epistemic warrant, in order to be considered rational about a belief that she holds, the person in question must at least: 20. The internalist in terms of epistemic justification thinks that:


21. When considering our noetic structure we recognize that we hold beliefs in varying degrees of strength. –True 22. Karen says she doesn’t believe that you can ever have real knowledge. When asked if she claims to know that as a fact, she says no, but she believes that is the case. What category would you place her in: Mitigated skeptic 23. The view in which the basing relationship between beliefs id deductive: Strong 24. A major criticism that internalism raises against externalism is- it never gives us certainty for our beliefs 25. David Hume was a: 26. Non-basic beliefs form the foundation of all that we believe, undergirding everything else we are justified in believing27. Thomas Reid claimed that we must justify our basic beliefs: 28. Reliabists argue that beliefs are epistemically warranted just so long as they are dependably produced: 29. A kind of reasoning that often proceeds backwards from a known effect to some kind of explanation for the effect: 30. Strong foundationalists claim that the foundations of human knowledge must be unshakably certain and that the only way this certainty is transferred to nonbasic beliefs is by the ordinary logical relations of deduction and induction. 31. To say that it is impossible to have knowledge is itself a claim to knowledge, and is for that reason a self-defeating assertion: 32. Which of the following is NOT commonly given by philosophers as a reason for adopting some form of skepticism: 33. According to Dew and Foreman, most rational people believe that it is extremely rarely for our senses to mislead us:


34. To suggest that we should suspend all judgments about any claim to knowledge, is to suggest a softer and mitigated form of skepticism in contrast to its more unmitigated expressions: 35. What is the point of Descartes’ evil demon argument 36. Select the one below that is NOT a difficulty with W.K. Clifford’s approach to evidentialism: 37. If an individual is an externalist in terms of epistemic warrant, then that person thinks that: 38. If a person is a reliabilist in terms of rationality and epistemic warrant, in order to be considered rational about a belief that she holds, the person in question must at least: 39. 40. The problem with W.K. Clifford’s statement “It is wrong always, everywhere and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence” is that: 41. While Clifford’s form of evidentialism may have its difficulties, most contemporary epistemologists agree that it is, at the very least, not a selfdefeating position, and this is part of what makes it a good option for epistemic justification:

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