Part I Journal Entry:
June 10th, 2010
Today represents the beginning of my inevitable demise. After weeks of being terribly sick my doctors have finally confirmed that I am in fact infected with a new lethal infectious disease called the H3N2 “Selenium” virus. After living through twenty years of hearing the mass media reporting outbreaks of SARS, AIDS, Swine Flu and Bird Flu I have finally inherited my own curse. I remain confined to a hospital bed where doctors and nurses swarm around me injecting me with drugs, antibiotics and serums to help my body combat the virus. My loving family and friends stop by all the time, telling me how they are praying for me and how much they love me. The sad reality that my existence is coming to an end is beginning to make me question the existence of God. How can a supreme being exist in a world filled with so much pain? If God does not exist then why do the religious base their entirety around worshiping and placing their faith in one? We also have the growth of non religious, who build their beliefs around science, mathematics and what can be proved. Both types of people share common ground: they use metaphors to build conceptual systems. Science and Religion serve as metaphors in which society and individuals base their conceptual systems around. I find it ironic how most of us will end up spending the last few months of our lives sleeping and being bored. It is almost as if were warming out selves up for the eternal sleep. I myself have recently been reading highly intellectual articles and books as a way to forget about what is coming. I am currently reading Our Picture of the Universe by Stephen Hawking. He makes the point of how humans are on always on a quest to discover the true meaning behind the existence of the universe. The Hawking quote that stood out the most to me was, “A theory is just a model of the universe” 1. A theory to me is another word for metaphor. It is a way for us to simplify the complex universe into something tangible by our limited human intellects. Both Religion and Science utilize these metaphors or theories to relate their concepts to society. Hawking also goes on to describe how the development of Science has lead to describe the universe in two basic “partial” theories2. One theory is the general theory of relativity which serves to convey the abstractness of gravitational force and the macroscopic universe. Then there is the theory of quantum mechanics which attempts to describe the mass phenomena on the macroscopic level. All of this allows scientists and people alike to simplify the impossible and develop their thought processes around. By guiding by these principles they can develop their own opinions more clearly and effectively.
June 16th, 2010
The Selenium virus is taking its devastating toll on my body. Throughout the week I suffered mind numbing headaches and I frequently coughed up blood. Meanwhile Doctors continue bombard my
body with all kinds of drugs to help with the pain and the sorrow. I am noticing that it is a common American belief that mass bombardments are the answer for everything. I am currently watching all kinds of historical documentaries about the Cold War and I see a similar aspect America‟s endorsement of the atomic bomb. A short film created by the United States Military at the time seems to convey the idea that Communists are evil and that Americans have the divine right from God to purge this evil with the atomic bomb3. It makes me feel even sicker then I already am I to know that the US Government used religion to propagate the idea that completely demolishing cities of millions is ethical. Here is another case where we can see how a metaphor, such as the one of divine influence from Christianity, was used to build a conceptual system. American Politicians fabricated this concept of “manifest destiny” throughout history to justify the mass destruction of “evil enemies”. This idea is simply a theory that justifies America‟s actions because their beloved God wants them to establish “morality” and be the salvation of man. So when our Country is busy destroying entire cities and slaughtering “demonic” people all over the Earth just remember that it is for the glorious salvation of man. Journal Entry:
June 19th, 2010
Today I began to read Concepts We Live By, written by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson4. Its interests me because these two professors take an in depth look at how human thought processes are largely metaphorical. They point out how a common metaphor our society uses is “Argument is War” and then they go on to say, “…try to imagine a culture where arguments where arguments are not viewed in terms of war, where no one wins or loses”4. The interesting thing about this is that most coherent arguments do not result in a solely winner or loser. The constant debates about the existence of God and Scientific theories can both be disproved to a great extent with evidence, logic and reason, but there is never a clear cut victor. These debates will probably always continue because there will always be people who will continue to have faith in God and/or their scientific beliefs. If American society or society in general believes that there has to be a winner in any argument, could that explain the mass amounts of violence, bloodshed and warfare going on throughout the world? If another culture disagrees with our American culture is it imperative that we assert ourselves as the victorious? I wrote about the Cold War a few days ago and thinking about it now I believe it was all a result of a few powerful, egotistic people who did not want to bear the title of “loser”. Their conceptual systems were based around an idea similar to “Argument is War”5 in which there has to be a winner or loser. The argument in this case was over which nation, the United States or Soviet Russia, was the most technologically advanced and therefore the “Super” power of the world. Scientists and Engineers on both sides of this power struggle raced to develop technology that would cause the most destructive force and effectively tip the power balance. This technology was developed based on mass amounts of calculations and theorizing which demonstrates again how Science is a metaphor that conceptual systems are based
off. Society was advocating the pursuit of devastating war machines because they could not accept being the “loser”. American and Soviet societies in turn built their support and livelihoods around the similar concepts of “Argument is War”, “Divine Influence”, and scientific theories as their governments persuaded them to. I would like to investigate these ideas further, but I am feeling very weak at the moment and need some sleep. „Till next time, if there is one. Journal Entry:
June 24th, 2010
If my body and the Selenium virus could be metaphorically thought of as warring entities, and then I would definitely say that I am losing the battle. My eyes are starting to fill up with some kind of puss and my vision is declining. The viral destruction of my head continues as the pain inside it increases each day. I feel as if a great evil is growing and living inside of my head. The doctors and nurses are panicking about this new disease inside of me. Since my last journal entry they have done numerous medical tests on me, scrambling to find some sort of solution to my curse. I‟ve been through MRI‟s, Cat scans, and scores of other tests. They always result into a long whispering discussion between the medical personal. I see it in their stressed and tired eyes that they do not want to lose this battle, just as the US government and Soviet Union felt years ago in the Cold War. In this “argument of war”, losing could mean that the virus could result in a pandemic, and they themselves could end up like me. So here I am now, spending time in a sterile room, quarantined from society and confined to my hospital bed when I am not being experimented on. As my condition worsens I cannot help but continue to delve deeper into my reflections about religion, science, society and life. I find myself still arguing over the existence of God while my family and friends continue to invest their faith in their religions. Why is it that my hope is failing while their hope flourishes stronger than ever? It all seems to go back to metaphor and its influence on conceptual systems. Even rereading the first paragraph in this entry I can see the negativity that flows from my personality. The fact that I think of my infected self as “cursed” could be the cause of my diminishing hope. Lakoff and Johnson talked about how our thought processes are largely metaphorical. I believe now that my negative outlook on life could be explained by negative metaphorical mind. Without even trying to do so, my journal entries have become an example of how metaphors influence conceptual systems. My nonreligious negative approach to analyzing everything so far has only made me more depressed. With that said I am going to try to have a more optimistic approach to my deep reflections from now on. In this way I or someone else might be able to notice a change in my outlook on life and everything in general by basing my life off of more positive metaphors. Yes, I am slowly suffering and will soon pass on, but I refuse to let myself suffer more as a result of my negativity. I have a short time
left on here on this Earth and I need to use it to appreciate my family, friends and all that I have enjoyed in life. Journal Entry:
June 30th, 2010
The Bible has been my only consistent reading material lately. Despite the constant numbing pain my body is going through, I continue to resist and read on. I love reading the scriptures about Jesus Christ, the son of God. His undying love for humanity persists even as his own disciples continue to constantly forsake him. Whether or not he really, truly was the son of God or if God even existed, Jesus Christ remains a powerful metaphor for the virtue, goodness and optimism he represented. In the parable of Jesus calming the storm he says to his disciples “Why are you so afraid? Do you have no faith?”(Mark 4: 35)6. I find this analogous to my current situation and Selenium pandemic that could be brewing as I write this. I am choosing to now place my faith in God and the teachings of Jesus Christ even after spending so much time questioning him. I could continue to be fearful and pessimistic about the approaching death and destruction the world might face and use it to further question his existence. However, my faith in God is now blind; it is not up to me to question what he is capable of. Sure the pandemic may come, but he has a plan that will work out for all of us in the end. Journal Entry:
July 4th, 2010
I feel a true evil taking over my body. There is something terribly wrong about the virus in side of me. It is no longer the pain or the sorrow, it is something demon like. I realize that there is a purpose for my curse. God gave me this curse as a blessing. I serve as a warning beacon for the rest of society to benefit from. I am a metaphor of hope in which they can use to resist the coming pandemic. I believe that this Selenium virus is going to be greater than anything we have ever seen before. It is going to enslave and destroy the minds of all of society as it did to me. I know my soul will soon die, but my decaying body will serve as a legionnaire of the Selenium virus, a drone, a zombie. Therefore I must destroy myself in order to destroy my “curse” and make everyone realize that we can find ways to fight back against this disease. Just remember, if hope continues flourish, so will mankind. I want to let my great family and friends know that I am doing this for them. I wish you the best humanity; you are going to need it. Fare well… Sincerely, Robert S. Ford
PART II CIA PSYCHOLOGIST: Dr. Clark Smith DATE: April 13th, 2012
AUTHORITY: CIA/FBI CLASSIFICATION: TOP SECRET (NTK BASIS) PRIORITY: NATIONAL (DeX) SUBJECT: Analysis of the psychology of Selenium pandemic victims.
The following documents are a series of journal entries recovered from survivors and victims of the Selenium pandemic that began in 2010. These personal reflections are from the journals of the Private John Thompson, a United States Army ranger, Alexander Scott, a former enrolled student of University of California, Merced, and Dr. Michael Morgan, the former United Stateâ€&#x;s Secretary of Health and Human Services. I have chosen these journals specifically and have been arranged them in order chronologically. The change in writer will be indicated when necessary. After analyzing this set of documentation thoroughly I have come to believe that it greatly reflects the ideas expressed by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson in Concepts We Live By7. This book demonstrates how behaviors and actions of humans are greatly influenced by metaphor. The following journals similarly serve to compare and contrast the metaphors that individuals use to construct their conceptual systems around and their resulting effects. Please take time to read and analyze this documentation to if my conclusions are apparent, be wary though, the content of some entries are very dark and depressing.
BEGINNING OF DOCUMENTATION
(WRITER: ALEXANDER SCOTT) JOURNAL ENTRY:
JUNE 21st, 2010
A month has passed now since I have successfully completed my first year of college at UC Merced. I have to persevere through a few more long years of college before I can obtain my goal of becoming an Environmental Engineer. People always seem to be curious to know the reason behind my major choice. Maybe it is because I spent my early years growing up as a Boy Scout working through years of merit badges and requirements in order to obtain the prestigious rank of Eagle Scout. The numerous amounts of camping trips and other outdoor adventures I took part in along the way have allowed me to witness the variety, complexity and wonder of the natural world. It saddens me those generations that come after my own may not be able to experience these same emotions over these natural
resources and realize how important they are to our survival. That is why I have decided to become I Environmental Engineer. I hope to join the effort in developing a more sustainable society and preserve the Earth‟s natural resources for the benefit of generations to come. I am currently basking in the warm sun in my front yard while I continue to reflect on future ambitions. Until now I have been rereading the The World Without Us, by Alan Weisman which was one of the assigned readings of my Core 001 class last semester. This novel is the result of his extensive research over the question: what will happen to the Earth after we are gone 8? In this way of imagining a world without people, he was able to provide insight to how we impact the environment. If all of humanity were to unify and think about preserving its natural resources and live more sustainable life styles we would be able minimize our largely negative impact we have on the world. I fear that the majority of people ignore warnings like the one Alan Weisman has provided and continue to use destructive chemicals and products further polluting everything around them. A failure to recognize and act on these problems will just make things worse in the future. The consequences of our actions now will eventually come back to haunt us. We can keep plaguing the Earth with waste, toxic chemicals and pollutants, but it will eventually result in the self destruction of our own species. My friend Robert Ford is lying sick in a cold, lonely hospital bed diagnosed with the newly discovered H3N2 Selenium virus. The media is currently raving over the potential deadly pandemic effects the new virus could have. I feel as if infectious diseases like this could be one of the many effects that have arisen as a result of our unsustainable life styles. The pollutants that continue to flow into the environment could be mutating or aiding normally harmless viruses into becoming more destructive ones. Selenium could be the result of one of a pollutant induced mutations, and may end up eradicating large numbers of humans. Then we will see deserted ghost towns similar to the ones in the “world without us” described Weisman‟s book9. The Selenium virus could also just be another petty seasonal virus that has been blown out of proportion by the media. Ever since I can remember the News channels always seem to be broadcasting about some new virus that might result in massive amounts of death and destruction. In 2009, everyone was clamoring over the possible pandemic effects of the Swine Flu and how lots of people were going to die. I caught this supposedly “lethal” swine flu back then and I am still living to tell the tale. I hope that the Selenium virus Robert has been infected with will be just like Swine Flu was last year. He will probably turn out to be fine just like I did.
(WRITER: DR. MICHAEL MORGAN) JOURNAL ENTRY:
JULY 5th, 2010
As of today, I have been the United States Secretary of Health and Human Services for 432 days. After serving on the President's cabinet for all that time I have experienced much stress over the constant debating, lobbying and finger pointing from the public. However, today I feel an internal anxiety rising that is demolishing all of those previous feelings. Almost every channel on television and media source online is broadcasting the story of Robert S. Ford, a twenty year old man from San Diego, California that committed suicide yesterday just a month after being infected with the new incurable H3N2 "Selenium" virus. A journal he had been writing before he died was discovered and published online. He describes in his last entry a “zombifying” effect that he believed the virus disease had on him. He killed himself in an effort to rid the world of the classic fictional demon he was becoming. Hysteria is arising in the general public as they see the deadly pandemic we all have long foreseen is finally coming. I already know what has to be done. All of the top officials in the US Government have already unanimously agreed to initiate Project Purity, a comprehensive procedure developed to thwart the apocalyptic effects of a deadly pandemic. This plan cuts through many of the morals and laws set up by US Constitution, however it is necessary to ensure the survival of our nation and more importantly or species. The general public will face a lot of dishonesty in the next couple days but this deceitfulness is necessary to keep order. The US Government created and approved measures long ago to help its country outlast a deadly pandemic. Project Purity was created after the Spanish flu pandemic in 1910; a fully detailed plan that instructed the current government how to handle the outbreak of a deadly virus. Billions of dollars since then have been spent creating a fully automated, self sustaining underground city called Salus City which was strategically positioned in South Dakota. Salus is Latin term meaning “health, safety and salvation” which is relevant because this city is equipped with enough necessary food, water, and supplies to sustain itself for several years if needed. This sanctuary is reserved solely for the United State‟s top government officials and the wealthiest. The critics of Project Purity say it is immoral to leave the majority of the Americans in the dark while wealthy and important politicians relax in sanctuary. However, in a utilitarian perspective more people will benefit in the long run from this plan10. Preserving the rich and the powerful who own most of the Nation‟s resources will allow for a swift recovery when the pandemic ends. The politicians will be able to set up a system of law and order and the wealthy will help reconstruct the Nation. Imagine we did tell the public that the government is going to wait out the pandemic in a state-ofthe-art sanctuary while they suffer death and destruction. There would be anarchy and chaos throughout the country as people revolt against us. With our current plan the public is blissfully unaware of the sanctuary and be led to believe they have no option but to pray to God and hope they do not become
infected with the virus. Instead rebelling against authority and fighting to make it into sanctuary they will just accept the pandemic as a course of nature that no person or government on Earth could do anything about. (WRITER: ALEXANDER SCOTT) JOURNAL ENTRY:
JULY 5TH, 2010
I have just been informed that my dear friend Robert Ford killed himself yesterday… Sadness grows in my heart as I continue to think about all the memories I shared with my now deceased friend. His mourning family has discovered and posted an entire set of journal entries he left behind online believing they may provide important insight for future Selenium victims. In his last few journals he talks about how even he believed that the Selenium virus will be catastrophic, but still believed that ultimately humanity will survive its effects. If Robert killed himself in order to stop himself from becoming a zombie that means that the Selenium virus can potentially lead to a zombification of the mass amounts of H3N2 infected victims. All of those horror movies made over the last few years depict a future where a zombie apocalypse consumes the human race will then come true. I believe that Robert was right when he said we can overcome this great pandemic. If we choose to cower in fear and hide as this destructive biological force overtakes the planet then we will surely perish. If we unite and work together as a society to overcome this problem I believe we will be able to preserve the existence of our species. The days of the undead are coming and as the Native American Maidu once said “in this world, there will be blood”11. (WRITER: PVT. JOHN THOMPSON) JOURNAL ENTRY:
JULY 19TH, 2010
At 1200 hours today I was informed that my division, the 1st Recon Division of the United States Army Rangers was assigned to a mission involving disease control. Our Mission Debriefing was very vague on the details, but it was mentioned we would be deploying within the week. I have not told my wife yet because I know she will be devastated to know I am leaving so soon after my division's return from the operations going on in Iraq. I wish with all of my heart that I could relax and finally spend time with the love of my life. However, I must answer the call of duty and protect my wife and my loved ones from whatever threat is coming. I do know that my company is being stationed somewhere in California to help control a possible outbreak of a new disease called the H3N2 Selenium virus. Our guns and ammunition are useless against a biological pathogen itself, but our mission will entail keeping order if a panic arises among the general public. I never imagined I would be helping defend my country from itself, but I will do my duty nevertheless. My job is to defend and give my life for the great and glorious United States and my loved ones and that is what I will continue to do.
(WRITER DR. MICHAEL MORGAN) JOURNAL ENTRY:
JULY 23RD, 2010
Project Purity is commencing in full effect. My family and I moved into Salus City last week along with the rest of the hundreds of selected important figures and politicians. This stronghold is really a modern marvel in itself. This city was worked on by teams of scientists and engineers who work to improve it every year to make sure there is virtually no way for an infectious disease to penetrate its walls. As I am writing this a team of top medical personnel and expert scientists are working around the clock to comprehensively analyze the new Selenium virus in a state-of-the-art scientific lab built inside of Salus city. They have managed to isolate and genetically sequence DNA strands containing the Selenium virus in microbes found in its recent victims12. The sequencing of this disease has revealed important biological aspects identical to other common infectious diseases. A strain of Chlamydia, called C. psittaci, contains the most similar genetic makeup and infects the host in ways similar to H3N2. When this strain of Chlamydia infects a host it takes over their immune system and uses their own defense mechanisms to cause inflammation, redness and swelling. These symptoms damage and destroy the tissue in vital organs all over the body13. The Selenium virus infects the immune system in a similar way; however it seems to primarily cause massive amounts of inflammation and swelling in the brain as it slowly destroys the mind of its victim. This is what causes the massive headaches and vomiting of blood that has been consistently observed in all of the infected Selenium victims. The virus results a complete destruction of the brain and the virus takes control of the mindless body that is left. This is the â€œzombificationâ€? effect that Robert Ford described in his journal entries. The virus has not been observed in any other animal species and as it continues to spread from person to person we have yet to discover how the virus actually travels. All vaccines and antibiotics used thus far have had no effect on Selenium. Our government has no choice, but to continue to initiate deceitful decisions in order to help preserve the diminishing order of American society. The mass media corporations have been ordered to instruct all of their broadcasting stations to falsify the information about the effects of the Selenium virus. They are not to mention anything about the zombifying effect of the disease. Society would not be able to handle the fact that a zombie apocalypse is an actual possibility and no longer an element of fictional horror. The commanders of our armed forces have also lied to the reserves that are secretly mobilizing throughout the country. Our soldiers were instructed that the only possible way the disease can be transmitted is through direct contact. While none of our scientists actually know the viruses means of transmission it would do our armed forces no duty to know so. It is important we preserve the sanity of our armed regiments because they have the important duty of containing possible outbreak sites. While all these dishonest decisions seem wrong and immoral, they are all necessary to preserve the great nation of
the United States. A deontologist would say it is immoral to lie to our society and military, but in reality there are really no other options. Lies are sometimes necessary when it comes to preserving the livelihoods of millions of Americans. (WRITER: JOHN THOMPSON, US ARMY RANGER) JOURNAL ENTRY:
JULY 24TH, 2010
I have just arrived here with my company in sunny San Diego, California which is predicted to be one of the possible ground zero sites for the outbreak. The military is going through great efforts to keep the containment operations out of the reach of public knowledge, including the mass media. I was transported from my home in South Dakota to here in an ordinary commercial airliner and instructed to wear standard civilian attire. This secretive approach is necessary to keep law and order among the public. Our commander debriefed us on our mission revealing more details and specifics about the operations we would soon perform. On a nationwide scale the United States armed forces are carefully setting up containment sites around the most highly trafficked and populated cities. The Selenium virus has no known cure and scientists and politicians are skeptical to how long it will take to spread, but surely the devastation will be vast if we do not contain it. Our job as rangers is to serve as the shock troops as the pandemic swiftly picks up. We among hundreds of other troops will be identifying infected victims and quarantining them from the rest of the public. This will ensure that the majority of society does not become infected with the Selenium virus as well. Our commander has assured us that avoiding direct contact with infected victims will be sufficient enough to avoid being infected ourselves. My patrol is ready to move out, and we will soon enter the containment zone to commence the operations we have been ordered to fulfill. Our AR-15â€&#x;s are ready and we stand as an enigma of conflict within society, both literally and figuratively. Societies that cannot solve their disputes in diplomacy call on us soldiers to go settle their disputes in a dance of death, gunfire and explosions. Today society calls us to solve the dispute between man and a virulent disease. We are to obey our governmentâ€&#x;s command and attempt to preserve the peace and stability of threatened society with the rifles and ammunition on our belts. This entire pandemic situation relates back to Stanley Milgramâ€&#x;s Some Conditions of Obediance and Disobediance to Authority14. We are entering a city filled with citizens who are on the edge, full of paranoia instilled by the media. Survival instincts are activating as their fear rises and they are willing to disobey the law and order their authorities have preserved for so long in order to preserve themselves. Milgram believed that conflict in society was composed of three agents: an agent that commands, one that follows the command and hurts the last agent. As a soldier I fulfill the description of the second agent as one ready to hurt as the result of the orders from my authorities. It is not in my interest to destroy the lives of scared and aggressive civilians, but if it helps protect the livelihood of my wife and family back at home than by all means I must do so.
END OF DOCUMENTATION BRIEF ANALYSIS While the journal entries continue on after the previous entry, I have chosen to take the opportunity to summarize my interpretation of them thus far. The development of the student‟s, the politician‟s, and soldier‟s morale exhibited in the journals certainly is reflecting that how human thought processes are largely metaphorical as stated by Lakoff and Johnson. Each person has reacted differently when hearing of the new of the Selenium pandemic based on the metaphorical concepts they center their lives around. Recall that Alexander Scott spent most of his journals reflecting on how humanity‟s mistreatment of the environment is what caused the virus. This is due to the fact that he his life was based around the concepts of environmental sustainability and being mindful about the future. Then Dr. Michael Morgan wrote extensively about Project Purity and why the United States government‟s actions were ethical. His justifications were based around the utilitarian concepts similar to those expressed by 19th century philosopher Jeremy Bentham. He also spends a journal entry trying to summarize the biological aspects behind the Selenium virus which can be due to the fact that he had long history of working in the bio-medical field prior to his political position. Private John Thompson classifies himself as an enigma of conflict within society. This metaphor he lives by causes his personal reflections to be primarily about the effects of war on society. All of these observations I have made go back to reflect my point of how the journals compare and contrast metaphors that individuals build their conceptual systems around. Please continue to read the rest of the journal entries I believe they are important in understanding and dealing with a threatened society effectively. These “Dark Entries” will allow us to gain information that will help survive future pandemics similar to the Selenium pandemic in 2010.
1. Hawking, Stephen. “Our Picture of the Universe.” Fields of Reading, Motives for Writing. Ed. Nancy R. Comley, et al. New York: Bedford/St. Martin‟s, 2001. 565-74. [Originally appeared in A Brief History of Time. New York: Bantam, 1998.) 2. ibid. 3. Loader, Jayne, and Kevin Rafferty, dirs. The Atomic Cafe. The Archives Project, 11982. Film. 4. Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1980. 5. ibid. 6. Holy Bible: New International Version. Grand Rapids: Zondervan Bible , 2000. Print. 7. Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson. Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1980. 8. Weisman, Alan. The World Without Us. New York: Picador, 2008. 9. Ibid. 10. Teichman, Jenny, and Katherine C. Evans. “Utility and Principles.” Philosophy: A Beginner's Guide. 3rd ed. Oxford: Blackwell, 1999. 85-93. 11.Shipley, William, ed. The Maidu Indian Myths and Stories of Hánc'Ibyjim. Berkeley: Heyday Books, 1991. 12. Church, George. “The Genome Generation.” Newsweek 2009. Newsweek.com. 1 January 2010. <http://www.newsweek.com/id/226963/page/2>. 13. Ojcius, David M., Toni Darville, and Patrik M. Bavoil. “Can Chlamydia Be Stopped?” Scientific American (May 2005): 32-39. 14. Milgram, Stanley. “Some Conditions of Obedience and Disobedience to Authority.” Fields of Reading, Motives for Writing. Ed. Nancy R. Comley, et al. New York: Bedford/St. Martin‟s, 2001. 399-422. [Originally appeared in Human Relations 18.1. (1965): 57-76.]