FASHION & BIODIVERSITY 1 2 3 4 5
INTRODUCTION CONCEPT & DESIGN MATERIALS & PRODUCTION DISTRIBUTION & ACQUISITION USE & WASTE AWARENESS CONCLUSION TERMINOLOGY
4 9 12 16 20 24 27 29
BIODIVERSITY Biodiversity is life in all of its manifestations. It is the variety of life on earth, from the smallest fungus to the largest animal and from the Dutch polder to the tropical rainforest. Despite global efforts, biodiversity is being lost at a dizzying pace. Animal and plant species are dying between 100 and 1000 times faster than before. Over one third of all known species are threatened with extinction. With the loss of a single species an ecosystem can be completely disrupted, a phenomenon which directly affects the livelihoods of humankind and the foundation of our prosperity. Our current production and consumption culture is the largest cause of damage to biodiversity on earth. Irresponsible production is at the expense of the earthâ€™s biodiversity as natural ecosystems which maintain the value of the earth are being looted.
FASHION A lot of the produce in the fashion industry is not produced in a responsible manner. This means that fabrics, dyeing and finishing procedures that possess environmentally damaging characteristics are often facilitated for clothing production. In addition, overproduction, waste and transport within fashion have harmful effects on the environment. Water is wasted, natural resources are depleted and the environment is polluted.
Amsterdam International Fashion Week (AIFW) has initiated a competition on behalf of the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality to counteract the harmful effects of our current production and consumer culture and thus conserve biodiversity. This competition ‘The Green Fashion Competition’ will create awareness and attention within the fashion industry for biodiversity and how it can be sustained through CSR, a process wherein economic value (Profit) is in harmony with the social issues surrounding a business (People) and the impact of business on the environment (Planet).
APPROACH AIFW has developed a set of 5 ‘action domains’ in cooperation with CREM, consultancy office for sustainable development. These domains explain the different manners in which fashion entrepreneurs can sustain biodiversity within fashion and are are intended as guidelines for participants of The Green Fashion Competition. The action domains are: 1: Concept & Design 2: Materials & Production 3: Distribution and Acquisition 4: Use and Waste 5: Awareness
MANUAL This manual is meant as a tool with which participants of The Green Fashion Competition can connect fashion and biodiversity. Sustaining biodiversity is on of the main criteria of the competition. The manual will create understanding to ‘what biodiversity is’ and illustrate a few of the many manners wherein biodiversity can be sustained in the fashion industry. Each chapter of this manual briefly expalins an action domain and provides examples and useful sources. The manual concludes with an explanation of the juding criteria, the terminology and contact details. To illustrate how fashion and biodiversity can successfully go hand in hand, the manual features images from The Green Fashion Shoot - a shoot that features only biodiversity-friendly brands. For up-to-date information on The Green Fashion Competition, please visit www.amsterdamfashionweek.com/greenfashion and thegreenfashioncompetition.blogspot.com
CONCEPT & DESIGN
FASHION CAN BE DESCRIBED AS A ‘TEMPORARY STYLE OF DRESS WHICH CAN BE LINKED TO A PERIOD OF TIME’. IT HAS A FUNCTIONAL PURPOSE; PROTECTION FROM THE ELEMENTS AND CULTURAL PURPOSE; SOCIAL IDENTIFICATION, ADORNMENT, EXPRESSION OF PERSONAL TASTE AND STYLE. EACH SEASON (AUTUMN/WINTER AND SPRING/SUMMER) THE FASHION CHANGES AND DESIGNERS AND BRANDS SHOWCASE WHAT THE STYLE OF DRESS SHOULD BE FOR THE FOLLOWING SEASON. WHAT IS ‘IN’ ONE MONTH CAN THEREFORE BE ‘OUT’ THE NEXT.
1.1 BIODIVERSITY IN CONCEPT Sustaining biodiversity can be achieved by facilitating new or different concepts of fashion. Slow fashion is an example of a new concept that was developed by sustainable fashion pioneer Kate Fletcher. Within slow fashion, designs have a prolonged longevity and more attention is paid to the quality of individual garments and how they were produced. In slow fashion, garments do not necessarily go ‘out’ of fashion after a certain season. By producing less, over-production and waste is combatted, which can contribute to conserving certain species and ecosystems by reducing environmental harm and the usage of raw materials. More information about Slow Fashion can be found on Fletchers’ website: www.katefletcher. com
1.2 BIODIVERSITY IN DESIGN Fashion designs are generally created by designers with a functional and aesthetic value, attractive to consumers whom identify themselves with the designer or brand and their garments. Biodiversity can be sustained by approaching the existing design process in an innovative manner. Ways to do so are through Material innovation, Product design and Innovative production systems. Material Innovation - By designing with, or developing innovative and/or new (natural) materials, such as Bamboo and Tencel one can contribute to sustaining biodiversity in comparison to regularly implemented materials such as cotton. Tencel for example has been created by wood cellulose and is therefore a completely natural material and has acquired the EU Eco-label. This means that the production processes necessary for developing Tencel have a minimal impact on the world’s ecosystems and are ecologically sustainable. For more information about hallmarks such as the EU Eco-label, please read chapter 3 and 5. For more information on sustainable, innovative and fair-trade materials, please visit: www.allesduurzaam.nl/thema/kledingverzorging or read the book “Eco Textile Labelling”.
DID YOU KNOW THAT TO PRODUCE 10KG OF RAW COTTON, 10.000 LITRES OF WATER IS USED?
Product Design – By starting the design process with an ecological mindset, biodiversity can be sustained. By for example developing a pattern that excludes waste material or designing a garment that has many different functions or that is adaptable by the consumer, a design in itself can become more sustainable. If a consumer can for example redesign a product that he/she has already bought, the lifespan of the product could be extended, or even become infinite. An example of innovative product design is the Cradle to Cradle approach. This means designing products with their end-of-life phase in mind. The Cradle to Cradle principal is based around the concept that ‘waste is food’, which basically means that all used materials should be usefully implemented as a different product after their lives as another product. Quality loss should not be an issue in a real Cradle to Cradle concept and all residuals should be reusable or environmentally neutral. The Cradle to Cradle approach sustains biodiversity as the use of raw materials and water-use is minimised. For more information concerning Cradle to Cradle design, please visit www.cradletocradle. nl (Dutch) or http://mbdc.com/ (English) Another example how biodiversity can be sustained through fashion design is by applying the ‘Ecodesign’ concept. Ecodesign is comparable to the Cradle to Cradle approach as it is a design principle where the environmental impact of a products’ total lifespan is taken into consideration while the product is being designed. During the production phase, attention is focused on the
raw materials used and the emission of harmful substances. In the usage phase (when the consumer owns the product) attention should be paid towards the amount of energy, water and other elements used and the impact on air quality (for example washing the garment). In the disposal phase it is important to make a product as easily recyclable as possible. For more information concerning Ecodesign, please visit: http://www.ecodesign.nl/ (Dutch) Innovative Production Systems – By applying completely new production techniques, all of the harmful environmental impacts linked to current fashion production could be discarded. Examples to do so are by facilitating a shortened production process, localizing all production and for example recycling. Shortening a production process can contribute to sustaining biodiversity by for example saving energy expenditures on transportation and salvaging materials that would otherwise be wasted. Another example of innovative production is vertical integration, which means that a company owns all parts of the supply chain, from production to sales. By integrating all aspects of production and avoiding outsourcing, it becomes possible to achieve a fast turn-around time from design concept to finished product. It is also able to monitor each facet of the production process, therefore guaranteeing high social standards for workers and controlling the impact on biodiversity. The Amsterdam Sustainability Institute for Fashion and Fabrics have published an article, which covers innovative production processes such as enzyms which make production chains more sustainable. This, and more informative articles will be published on TGFC - blog from October first.
MATERIALS & PRODUCTION 12
THE MATERIALS USED TO CREATE A FASHION GARMENT AND THE PRODUCTION PROCESSES APPLIED HAVE THE LARGEST INFLUENCE ON BIODIVERSITY. THE SUSTAINABILITY OF A PRODUCT IS DEPENDENT ON THE RENEWABILITY AND SOURCE OF THE RAW FIBRE, THE PROCESS OF HOW THAT FIBRE IS TURNED INTO A TEXTILE, THE WORKING CONDITIONS OF THE PEOPLE PRODUCING THE MATERIALS AND ITS TOTAL ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT. THE PATH FROM A RAW MATERIAL TO AN END PRODUCT IS A LONG ONE AND THERE ARE MANY LINKS IN THE CHAIN WHICH AFFECT THE WORLD’S BIODIVERSITY.
2 Materials used in fashion can consist of natural fibres, manufactured fibres, and recycled fibres. The choice for a certain material significantly affects the impact on the environment. Natural fibres are renewable materials that can be categorized into two groups, plant fibres (cellulose fibres) and animal fibres (protein fibres). The most widely used plant fibre in fashion is cotton. Other plant fibres include: Jute, Flax, Hemp, Ramie, Bamboo, Soy, Corn, Banana and Pineapple. Animal fibres are: Wool, Silk, Hair, Angora, Camel, Alpaca, Lama, Cashmere and Mohair. Manufactured fibres are man-made or synthetic materials, which have been extracted from raw oil. Examples of manufactured fibres are: Nylon, Polyester, Acrylic, Modacrylic, Elastane, Polypropylene and Polyurethane. Besides natural and manufactured fibres, Recycled fibres are also attainable for usage in fashion. Recycled fibres are materials that have been salvaged after being discarded by the consumer. Certain salvaged garments can be cleaned and reused as a complete product (second-hand clothing). Other salvaged clothing is processed into rags that can then be reused. Reclaimed plant fibres can be processed into ‘new’ materials. Examples of which are: Viscose, Modal, Cupro, Lyocelll, Acetate and Triacetate. By reusing materials, raw materials are saved and no adverse effects are made on the environment.
2.1 BIODIVERSITY IN MATERIALS Biodiversity can be sustained by choosing fibres that are the most environmentally friendly. Although natural fibres might automatically seem like the most planet-friendly alternative, there are benefits and disadvantages to all fabrics usable in fashion. Cotton for example occupies vast spaces of fertile soil as a ‘monoculture’ crop, therefore significantly reducing the variety and amount of different species able to live in such an area. The cultivation of cotton often goes hand-inhand with the use of insecticides and pesticides and demands the use of large quantities of water for optimal growth. Such water usage puts pressure on water resources and causes soil erosion. In total you can conclude that contemporary cotton cultivation has a negative effect on biodiversity, and that even organically grown cotton demands large quantities of water and takes the form of a monoculture - thus reducing the species in a natural habitat. Environmental advantages of cotton cultivation in comparison to some other materials are that it does not cause harmful air emissions or create dangerous wastewater. Manufactured fibres also significantly effect the environment, as harmful substances are often emitted into the air and the water. During the production of for example polyester, volatile organic substances and hazardous chemicals are emitted which are classified as being carcinogenic. Benefits of manufactured fibres are that they do not require agricultural land and pesticides and that they produce less waste water than natural fibres.
Reuse and recycling both provide environmental benefits, which can contribute to sustaining biodiversity. These benefits can be summarized as: -By reusing and recycling textiles, the need for landfill space is reduced. Biodiversity is sustained as textiles present particular problems in landfills; manufactured products will not decompose, while for example woollen garments do decompose and produce methane, which contributes to global warming. -Reuse and recycling also reduces pressure on raw materials and non-renewable resources. -And reuse and recycling minimizes pollution and saves energy, as materials do not have to be produced again and do not for example have to be transported from abroad. Nevertheless reuse and recycling do have downsides, as the designers’ material-choice is limited and some materials can be less pure after recycling. In rare cases energy is not saved as it costs more energy to recycle a material than it would have done to dispose of the product, making the ecological footprint larger than necessary. An example of such would be if a truck would have to travel for miles to collect a small amount of material to be recycled. For a helpful overview of the different kinds of textiles that are available and what environmental (and societal) effects they have on our world, please download ‘Guidelines’ from TGFC blog. Guidelines is an excellent handbook on the environment for the textile and fashion industry, created by the Danish ministry of Environment and Energy. For a greater understanding of cotton production and help in choosing the most suitable kind of cotton, please download ‘Sustainable cotton on the shelves’ by CREM, also on TGFC blog.
2.2 BIODIVERSITY IN PRODUCTION Many production processes in fashion have a negative impact on biodiversity. The length of the production chain and for example transportation and storage in between each link also contribute to this negative impact. The production chain for cotton illustrates the lengthiness of textile production systems and consists out of cotton growing, harvesting, cleaning - spinning fibre - weaving and knitting yarn - wet treatment (desizing, prewashing, bleaching, dying, printing, after treatment) sewing, transport and sales. Manners wherein the production chain can become more sustainable and preserve biodiversity are: * By choosing local production - saving transportation, water and energy. * By taking the range of the season and seasonal produce into account - look for example at the availability of certain textiles in your region in certain seasons. * By facilitating Functional Agro Biodiversity as a tool for natural pest control and to reduce the use of fertilizer and pesticides. * By facilitating energy and water efficient production To share your views, idea’s and experiences with fellow ‘green fashion entrepreneurs’ visit the British Ethical Fashion Forum: www.ethicalfashionforum.com
DID YOU KNOW THAT CONVENTIONALLY GROWN COTTON IS THE MOST CHEMICAL-INTENSIVE CROP IN THE WORLD? IT DEMANDS APPROXIMATELY 25% OF THE WORLDS INSECTICIDES AND MORE THAN 10% OF THE WORLDS PESTICIDES?
DISTRIBUTION & ACQUISITION
THE THIRD ACTION DOMAIN FOR SUSTAINING BIODIVERSITY IS ‘DISTRIBUTION AND ACQUISITION’. WHERE YOU BUY STOCK OR MATERIALS AND THE MANNER IN WHICH YOU SELL YOUR END PRODUCTS CAN HEAVILY INFLUENCE THE TOLL THEY TAKE ON THE WORLD’S BIODIVERSITY. ACQUISITION FOCUSES ON WHERE YOU SOURCE ALL OF THE PRODUCE FROM THAT YOU USE IN YOUR FINAL PRODUCT. DISTRIBUTION FOCUSES ON THE CHANNELS AND REGIONS WHEREIN YOU SELL.
3.1 BIODIVERSITY IN ACQUISITION Acquisition is closely related to materials and production. Consider where you buy your materials from. Is it necessary to buy a certain fabric from for example Hong Kong? Or is there a comparable manufacturer in your home country? Are you purchasing an ecologically ‘sound’ fabric, from a supplier who complies with social and ecological standards? A manner wherein the acquisition of materials (but also the acquisition of packaging, adornment, accessories etc.) can sustain biodiversity is by monitoring the production process that takes place to create the materials that you use. Personal contact with farmers, production companies and factories can provide a clear insight into the processes that have taken place and therefore what the environmental advantages and disadvantages are of one material in comparison to the other. Such contact demands a high level of involvement, time and transparency from all links in the production chain and is in many circumstances unattainable for independent designers. An easy manner to monitor the sustainability of your acquisitions is by facilitating hallmarks and quality labels. Certain organic labels for example guarantee that a material is produced in consideration to the environment and therefore comply to key criteria in fibre production, processing, quality assurance of the entire supply chain and for example residue sampling.
BIODIVERSITY CAN BE PRESERVED THROUGH DIGITAL SALES POINTS IN COMPARISON TO PHYSICAL LOCATIONS Main labels applicable to cotton and wool are:
3.2 BIODIVERSITY IN DISTRIBUTION
GOTS (Global Organic Textile Standard) www.global-standard.org A textile product carrying the GOTS label grade ‘organic’ must contain a minimum of 95% certified organic fibres whereas a product with the label grade ‘made with organic’ must contain a minimum of 70% certified organic fibres. The GOTS standard also includes requirements with regard to the other steps in the supply chain, like the wet processing phase. The label is both relevant for wool and cotton.
Distribution is strongly connected to your consumer and target market. When developing your designs it is important to consider who the end user will be, where they are situated and how you can reach them.
OE 100 and OE Blended (Organic Exchange 100 and Blended) www.organicexchange.org The OE 100 is used for tracking and documenting the purchase, handling and use of 100% certified organic cotton in yarns, fabrics and finished goods. The OE Blended details the steps required for textile mills to receive organic certification relating to goods which have only a certain percentage of organic fibre. This label is only relevant for cotton. IWTO (International Wool Textile Organisation) http://www.iwto.org/ Modified its definition of organic wool by aligning it to the GOTS processing standard and also unveiled a new IWTO standard for ‘Eco-wool’, which is based on the EU Eco-Label guidelines. The Eco-wool standard is only relevant for wool. A great source for hallmarks and quality labels used in fashion and textiles is the book ‘Eco Textile Labelling’.
Distribution regions Where your products are sold geographically can contribute to sustaining biodiversity. Targeting a global market will have a larger impact on biodiversity than for example targeting a local market in consideration to shipping, which costs energy and causes harmful emissions. By retailing your produce close to where it is actually produced, biodiversity could be sustained. Biodiversity can thus be preserved by for example local or regional distribution in comparison to international distribution. Other examples of how considering your distribution regions can sustain biodiversity are: •To only retail in certain areas during a certain season. •Connecting your products to the availability of raw materials. •To only retail to consumers who fulfil your own environmental criteria. •To retail to consumers who are willing to pay a ‘carbon offset’ tax on top of their purchase. Distribution channels The nature of the distribution channels facilitated for retailing your garments can also contribute to sustaining biodiversity. Selling strictly online or only through markets, could for example prove to be a more energy-efficient retail tool than retailing through bricks-andmortar shops. Other contemporary retail channels include catalogues, TV, fairs and door-to-door sales. Saving energy, raw materials and avoiding emissions all contribute to saving biodiversity.
USE & WASTE 20
WHETHER THE RESPONSIBILITY OF A DESIGNER ENDS AFTER A GARMENT IS PURCHASED IS A HIGHLY RELEVANT TOPIC WHICH BEARS MANY HEATED DISCUSSIONS. THE EFFECTS THAT A GARMENT WILL CONTINUOUSLY HAVE ON THE WORLD’S BIODIVERSITY AFTER SALES ARE NEVERTHELESS INDISPUTABLE. The manner in which a garment is used can contribute to sustaining biodiversity. If a product for example demands a consumer’s attention for a certain topic (eg sustaining biodiversity) through the manner in which it is used, a more conscious lifestyle could be stimulated. The topic ‘awareness’ is more broadly covered in chapter 5. How a consumer uses a garment, its functionality, the necessary care (cleaning) involved and the disposal can be influenced by the choices that designers make and can therefore be made more ‘biodiversity-friendly’.
4.1 BIODIVERSITY IN USAGE The functionality of a garment can contribute to how biodiversity-friendly a garment is. If a garment can be used in more than one way, for example as trousers and a shirt, or inside-out, the consumer would not have to buy as many garments as when the garment would only have one use. This would reduce production rates, over-consumption and waste. Providing consumers with the possibility to adapt the garments to their liking or to for example change them completely could also extend the lifespan of a product.
4.2 BIODIVERSITY IN CARE
Washing is nevertheless a major role-player in the usage of a garment and its continued effects on biodiversity. The manner in which the end user washes his/her purchase is highly influential to biodiversity due to the detergents (chemicals) and water most frequently used. Dry cleaning for example requires the usage of solvents. The most commonly used is perchloroethylene (perc), which is a central nervous system depressant, and is listed as a hazardous air pollutant. But even regular detergents contain bountiful chemicals, which can be both harmful to humans as the environment. To name just two: •Phosphates found in clothing detergent stimulate the growth of certain marine plants, unbalancing ecosystems. •Artificial fragrances (often made from petroleum) are not degradable and have been linked to toxifying fish and mammals, and causing allergies and skin and eye irritation on humans. Examples to sustain biodiversity through care are therefore: •To promote the usage of environmentally friendly washing alternatives •To facilitate / develop materials that do not require frequent washing. •To find washing alternatives that reduce the amount of water, energy and chemicals are used.
USE & WASTE
4.3 BIODIVERSITY IN WASTE The amount of clothing wasted and the manner in which textiles are disposed have a significant impact on the environment. As mentioned before in this manual, a tremendous amount of clothing is discarded each day. The most common way that clothing is disposed of is though landfills (namely in the USA) and burning. Each has a negative effect on biodiversity. Landfills waste valuable land, pollute the soil and groundwater and burning clothing causes harmful air emissions. Manners wherein a product’s disposal can become more environmentally friendly are for example:•By making your products easily recyclable •By developing a cradle 2 cradle product. •By developing a system where consumers can return old garments so that you can recycle them yourself. Other important aspects that need to be considered to preserve biodiversity are residuals, the way your product is discarded and how it is processed.
THE FINAL ACTION DOMAIN FOR SUSTAINING BIODIVERSITY THROUGH FASHION IS ‘AWARENESS’. ALTHOUGH CREATING AWARENESS THROUGH YOUR FASHION BRAND AND / OR PRODUCTS CANNOT DIRECTLY BE LINKED TO SUSTAINING BIODIVERSITY BY PRESERVING CERTAIN SPECIES AND ECOSYSTEMS, IT CAN CONTRIBUTE TO CHANGING CONSUMERS’ ATTITUDES AND STIMULATING SUSTAINABLE LIFESTYLES. THE MOST OBVIOUS MANNER WHEREIN AWARENESS AMONG YOUR TARGET MARKET CAN BE ACHIEVED IS THROUGH MARKETING AND COMMUNICATION.
Examples of marketing and communication tools that can create awareness concerning biodiversity are:
•Communicating the effects that a product has on biodiversity through visual merchandising. •Informing your consumer how the world’s biodiversity can be sustained by using and disposing your garment in a certain manner (eg washing with ecological detergent). •Creating a transparent brand / company wherein the effects of your operations on the world’s biodiversity are communicated. •Channelling your consumers’ focus to specific topics of interest (eg extinction of a species / seasonal production / transport emissions) •Facilitating Hallmarks: Hallmarks such as for example the blue ‘Made- By’ button are recognisable signs that communicate to your consumer that you maintain a certain quality level. In Made-By’s case the label communicates a certain quality level for your production process, but there are many different internationally and nationally acknowledged labels, which communicate different things.
COMPETITION The five action domains elaborated in this manual are meant as guidelines for participants of The Green Fashion Competition. The competition question is:
“DESIGN TWO OUTFITS AND WRITE A BUSINESS PLAN, WHICH EXPLAIN HOW YOUR FASHION ENTERPRISE CONTRIBUTES TO SUSTAINING BIODIVERSITY.”
Sustaining biodiversity is one of the core criteria for the competition. Reducing energy usage, the amount of raw materials used, the amount of water used and harmful emissions are ideal ways to sustain the environment and can therefore be connected to sustaining biodiversity. Ideally participants will be able to take the competition a step further by connecting their fashion enterprises to conserving actual species and ecosystems. A representative from the Dutch ministry of Agriculture, Nature and Food Quality and an expert from CREM will be judging the applications on basis of biodiversity. It is a requirement to have one chapter of your business plan dedicated to sustaining biodiversity. The judges will focus on four main points within this chapter, namely: 1. Does the concept convincingly sustain biodiversity in comparison to prevailing techniques? 2. Are other aspects of sustainability, such as social aspects, taken into consideration? 3. Is the design / concept innovative when it comes to the ‘advantage’ for biodiversity? 4. Does the concept provide expansion possibilities, which could further greaten the positive impact on biodiversity? Further criteria that will be covered in the competition are: Vision, Profitability, Feasibility, Market, Positioning, Design and Execution. These criteria will be elaborated during the workshops held for the participants of the competition in October 2010. For all queries concerning this manual and TGFC, please contact: Holly Syrett - project coordinator for The Green Fashion Competition email@example.com
TERMINOLOGY BIODIVERISTY: Biodiversity is life in all of its manifestations. It is the variety of life on earth, from the smallest fungus to the largest animal and from the Dutch polder to the tropical rainforest. ECOSYSTEM: An Ecosystem is all of the
organisms in a given area, along with the nonliving (abiotic) factors with which they interact; a biological community and its physical environment.
CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility): CSR is a concept wherein companies take responsibility for the impact of their activities (manners wherin they aim to gain Profit) on the environment (Planet) and on humankind (People).
SLOW FASHION: Slow Fashion is a concept of
fashion design wherein garments are designed to surpass fashion seasons and more attention is paid on the quality of a garment and how it is produced.
CRADLE TO CRADLE: Cradle to Cradle is a
design principal based around the concept that ‘waste is food’, which basically means that all used materials should be usefully implemented as a different product after their lives as another product.
ECODESIGN: Ecodesign is a design principle
where the environmental impact of a products’ total lifespan is taken into consideration while the product is being designed.
VERTICAL INTEGRATION: Vertical integration is a style of business operation wherein all links of a supply chain are owned by one company. NATURAL FIBRES: Natural fibres are renewable materials that can be categorized into two groups, plant fibres (cellulose fibres) and animal fibres (protein fibres). Manufactured fibres: Manufactured fibres are man-made fibres which can be made from regenerated (reclaimed) plant fibres or from solely synthetic fibres, which have been extracted from raw oil. REUSED FIBRES: Reused materials are
materials that have been salvaged after being discarded by the consumer
RECYCLED FIBRES: Recycled fibres are made from waste fabric from clothing factories, which are processed back into short fibres and spun into new yarn. ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT: The ecological footprint is a measure of human demand on the Earth’s ecosystems. It compares human demand with planet Earth’s ecological capacity to regenerate. It represents both the amount of biologically productive land and sea area needed to regenerate the resources that a human population consumes as well as the amount of biologically productive land and sea area needed to absorb and render harmless the corresponding waste that comes forth from that consumption. CARBON OFFSET: A carbon offset is a financial
instrument aimed at a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.
CREDITS THE GREEN FASHION MANUAL AIFW: Amsterdam International Fashion Week
started in 2004 as an initiative to put Amsterdam on the map as a sparkling and internationally oriented destination for fashion. Twice a year, AIFW forms the centre-point of the Dutch fashion world, with a full schedule of catwalk shows, trade fairs, presentations, lectures and parties.
CREM: CREM is a specialised bureau for sustinable development projects. CREMâ€™s strenght lies in an interdisciplinary approach and the placing of ecological, economic and social problems in an international context.
THE GREEN FASHION SHOOT PHOTOGRAPHY: Bob van Rooijen STYLING: Mirjam de Ruiter HAIR & MAKE-UP: Aga Urbanowicz - Angelique Hoorn Agency
MODEL: Wendy van de Wouw - Modelution
Cover: Knitted swimsuit, Merel Groebbe / Leather cuffs, Studio Ruig Page 4: Skirt: Satara / Shirt, American Apparel / Shoes, EnD / Necklace, LEW Page 7: Trousers, Elsien Gringhuis / Top, American Apparel / Jumpsuit worn as headpiece, Satara Page 8: Skirt, Camilla Norrback via Charlie & Mary / Coat, INTOXICA / Necklace, Studio Ruig / Shoes, End Page 11: Coat, Merel Groebbe / Body, American Apparel / Woollen dress, Alchemist / Shoes, Kentroy Yearwood Page 13: Leather top, Malousebastiaan / Trousers, LEW / Shoes, EnD Page 17: Leather dress, Malousebastiaan / Overknee boots, United Nude / Leather hood, Studio Ruig Page 18: Denim jacket, INTOXICA / tube-dress, Alchemist via Charlie & Mary / Scarf on head, Rianne de Witte / Ankle boots, United Nude Page 21: See Page 4 Page 22: Leather blouse, INTOXICA / Jumpsuit, American Apparel / Belt, American Apparel
THE GREEN FASHION VIDEO At www.vimeo.com/13710659 you can find back the scenes footage, shot during The Green Fashion Shoot.
Page 25: See Page 13 Page 27: See Page 18 Page 28: Skirt, American Apparel / Top, Satara / Knitted Necklace, Pieces of Art by Tanja van Wijk via Charlie & Mary