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ENVIRONMENT + SYSTEMS INTEGRATION_ HOLLIE WELCH_

HOLLIEWELCH|YOUNGLIT+PHIL


BEO911_ENVIRONMENT + SYSTEMS INTEGRATION_

YOUNG LIT + PHIL: CENTRE FOR ENTERPRISE_ Part A:

PREFACE

Part B:

SITE DESCRIPTOR + ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

Part C:

LIBRARY CONDITIONS + KEY USES

Part D: Part E:

DESIGN STRATEGY + SOLUTION

Part F:

BIBLIOGRAPHY

PArt G:

REFERENCES

MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

HOLLIEWELCH|YOUNGLIT+PHIL


CONTENTS_

Part A: PREFACE 4 0.01 Introduction 5 0.02 Location 6

Part E: LIGHTING + MECHANICAL SYSTEMS 41 4.01 Artificial Lighting 42 4.02 Mechanical Ventilation 43 4.03 Heating Systems 44 Part B: SITE DESCIPTOR + ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES 7 4.04 Water Conservation 45 1.01 Site Map 8 1.02 Site Descriptor 9 Part F: REFERENCES 46 1.03 Initial Site Analysis 10 5.01 References 47 1.04 Views 11 5.02 Images 48 1.05 Sun Angle 12 5.03 Bibliography 50 1.06 Orientation 13 1.07 Sun Path 14 1.08 Wind 15 1.09 Acoustics 16 1.10 Easements 18 Part C: YL+P_CENTRE FOR ENTERPRISE 19 2.01 Spatial Strategies + Schedule of Accomodation 20 2.02 Spatial Hierachy 21 2,03 Library Conditions 23 2.04 Daylight 24 2.05 Ventilation 25 2.06 Internal Conditions 26 2.07 Design Implications 28 2.08 Equipment 29 2.09 Visual Environment 30 2.10 Office Requirements 31 2.11 Library Requirements 32 Part D: BUILDING STRUCTURE + ENVELOPE 33 3.01 Building Envelope 34 3.02 Glazing Proportions 35 3.03 Solar Shading 36 3.04 Glazing 37 3.05 Daylighting 38 3.06 Daylight Factor 39 3.07 Ventilation 40 CONTENTS_


PART A: PREFACE_

PREFACE_


0.01 INTRODUCTION_

CLIENT + NARRATIVE_ The Lit + Phil was an institution revolutionary of its time, and famous for groundbreaking demonstrations of new technologies which were exhibited there by the likes of George Stephenson and Joseph Swan, the library houses a wide historic collection covering all aspects of different interests, however over the years has become overlooked by modern alternatives. The Lit + Phil are looking to expand in order to suit a contemporary audience through the housing of a new collection at a sister library in Gateshead. The Young Lit + Phil will set out to modernise and continue the tradition of scientific excellence and technological development through the engagement with students, professionals and public, acting as a catalyst for innovation, growth and competitiveness in the region. Regeneration in Gateshead has already given way to the provision of high end accommodation for the growing student and young professionals market, as well as cultural outlets such as the BALTIC: centre for contemporary art and postgraduate enterprise centre, Northern Design. The Young Lit + Phil will see the location of a new enterprise centre which will focus upon research, education and opportunity, comprised of a research library, flexible exhibition + educational spaces along with the provision of low rent, temporary office incubation units, specialising in scientific + innovative technologies.

Concept Model_Innovation_

CONCEPT + SITE RESPONSE_ It was important that the proposal for the Young Lit and Phil would respectfully acknowledge both the site history and context. The strong sense of locomotive and industrial heritage would be identified in both material choice and the overall building form, derived from factory typologies which are present around the site the new structure will subtly mirror the linear dynamic of the railway. In terms of sensitivity of design it was crucial that the existing boundary wall would be retained, henceforth the library taking the form of a design intervention within the site where the topography would be utilised to create a sense of exploration into the space. In order to articulate a connection between new and old, the building would be raised one storey above the railway platform providing unobstructed panoramic views across Newcastle toward the Lit + Phil. Model Perspective_Library_

SPATIAL STRATEGIES_ The required spaces were developed as a direct response to the building programme, an integration of facilities to be utilised by local businesses, schools, young professionals and general public. Due to the mixed use nature of the Young Lit + Phil it was fundamental to establish a zoning of occupancy in accordance to acoustic requirements, where the ground floor is occupied mainly by public use, the first floor education and research, while the second floor for business and enterprise would remain almost entirely private.

Model Perspective_Office_

INTRODUCTION_5_


0.02 LOCATION_

KENILWORTH HOUSE

LIT + PHIL_YOUNG LIT + PHIL_

RAILWAY LINE

RAILWAY PLATFORM

BUSINESS CENTRE

THE SITE

EXISTING WALL

NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE_GATESHEAD_

RAILWAY APARTMENTS

TYNE + WEAR_

WELLINGTON ST.

HILTON HOTEL

NORTH EAST ENGLAND_

- Gateshead - Site originally used as a ramp to access railway line - Brownfield site - Redevelopment zone

LOCATION_6_


PART B: SITE DESCRIPTOR + ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES_

SITE DESCRIPTOR_7_


1.01 SITE MAP_

THIS SITE MAP SHOWS THE LOCATION OF THE YL+P IN RELATION TO NEIGHBOURING BUILDINGS, STRUCTURES AND BROWN AND GREENFIELD SITES WITHIN THE WIDER CONTEXT OF THE GATESHEAD QUAYSIDE.

SITE_8_


1.02 SITE DESCRIPTOR_

THE SITE IS SITUATED IN GATESHEAD WITHIN 15 MINUTES OF THE EXISTING LIT + PHIL ON WESTGATE ROAD. THIS AREA IS RICH IN INDUSTRIAL HERITAGE + THE YL+P EVOLVED AS A DIRECT RESPONSE TO THE SITE, INFLUENCED BY THE STRONG VICTORIAN ARCHITECTURE + FACTORY TYPOLOGIES WHICH SURROUND THE SITE, WITH RELATION TO CONCEPT, FORM + MATERIALITY. THE GROUND LEVEL OF THE SITE SLOPES BY 2500mm FROM THE SOUTHERLY TO THE NORTHERLY SIDE, THE SITE ITSELF ALSO SLOPES BY 5000mm IN HEIGHT LEVEL WITH THE RAILWAY LINE. THE SITE IS HIGHLY CONSTRAINED ON EACH AXIS: IMMEDIATELY TO THE WEST THE 8000mm HIGH CENTRAL RAILWAY LINE CUTS ALONGSIDE THE SITE, WITH AN UNUSED PLATFORM SHARING THE STRUCTURAL WALL WHICH ACTS AS THE SITE BOUNDARY. TO THE NORTH, THE RAILWAY LINE RUNS EAST ALONG WELLINGTON STREET + IMMEDIATELY TO THE EAST OF THE SITE, NEIGHBOURING RAILWAY BUILDING - NOW RESIDENTIAL APPARTMENTS RESTRICT ANY VIEWS EAST. UNDEVELOPED BROWNFIELD LAND TO THE SOUTH OF THE SITE IS CURRENTLY USED AS A CAR PARK FOR PRIVATE BUSINESSES AND IS SITUATED DIRECTLY OPPOSITE THE SITE. VEHICLE ACCESS IS LIMITED AS THE SITE IS LOCATED WITHIN A ONE WAY SYSTEM ZONE ON A NARROW STREET WITH MINIMAL SHORT STAY ON STREET PARKING.

SITE DESCRIPTOR_9_


1.03 INITIAL SITE ANALYSIS_

L+P_YL+P SITES_CASTLEGARTH_GATESHEAD_

GATESHEAD EXISTING LAND USE_

SITE CONSTRAINTS_

ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS_SUNPATH_WIND_ACOUSTICS_

SHADOW_

VIEWS OUT OF SITE_ ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES_10_


1.04 VIEWS_

VIEW IN_WEST_ CONVERSION OF VICTORIAN BUILDINGS ALONG WITH NEW PROPERTY DEVELOPMENTS + LANDSCAPING OF PUBLIC SPACE, POSE A DEVELOPING HIGH END RESIDENTIAL AREA TO THE WEST OF THE SITE_

VIEW OUT_NORTH_ HILTON HOTEL + RAILWAY LINE OBSTRUCT VIEWS FROM THE TOP OF THE SITE TO NEWCASTLE QUAYSIDE. UNATTRACTIVE VIEWS WILL BE OVERLOOKED WITH THE INCREASE OF HEIGHT ON SITE_

VIEW OUT_SOUTH_ UNDEVELOPED BROWNFIELD SITES POSE UNATTRACTIVE VIEWS TOWARD GATESHEAD TOWN CENTRE. VIEWS EAST ARE CONSTRAINED BY NEIGHBOURING APPARTMENT BUILDING_

VIEWS_11_


25o SKYLINE

RAILWAY LINE

THE SITE

RESIDENTIAL REDEVELOPMENTS

58o SUMMER SOLSTICE

12o WINTER SOLSTICE

1.05 SUN PATH_

SUN ANGLE THIS DIAGRAM DENOTES THE MAXIMUM SUN ANGLE THROUGH SUMMER AND WINTER, DURING SUMMER REACHING 58O WHILE IN WINTER ONLY 12O, THIS WILL HAVE A DIRECT EFFECT UPON THE INTERNAL CONDITIONS OF THE BUILDING WHICH SHOULD BE DESIGNED TO BENEFIT FROM NATURAL DAYLIGHTING THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. THE YL+P IS PREDOMINANTLY GLAZED WITH THE EXCEPTION OF THE MASONRY BOUNDARY WALL WHICH HAS BEEN INTEGRATED WITHIN THE ENVELOPE DESIGN. THE SLOPING TOPOGRAPHY AND UNDEVELOPED BROWNFIELD LAND TO THE SOUTH OF THE SITE ALLOW FOR UNINTERUPTED DAYLIGHT PENETRATION THROUGH THE SOUTH FACADE. THE WEST FACADE IS BANKED AGAINST THE RAILWAY LINE WHICH LIMITS THE AMOUNT OF DAYLIGHT ABLE TO PENETRATE THE GROUND AND FIRST FLOOR. GENERALLY THE NO SKYLINE RULE STATES THAT AN ANGLE OF 25O FROM EACH FLOOR LEVEL WILL PERMIT SUFFICIENT DAYLIGHT INTO A SPACE, THE AREA BELOW THIS WILL REMAIN IN SHADE. THE NORTH AND EAST FACADES ARE OBSTRUCTED BY CLOSE PROXIMITY BUILDINGS AND MAY STRUGGLE TO FILTER DAYLIGHT IN THE WINTER MONTHS. TO ENSURE DAYLIGHT IS PERMITTED INTO THIS SHALLOW LINEAR BUILDING, A COMBINATION OF ROOF LIGHTS, DOUBLE AND TRIPLE HEIGHT ATRIUM SPACES ARE INTRODUCED. SITE SECTION_12_


1.06 ORIENTATION_

‘Locating any building in the landscape requires careful consideration of the context so that the building fits functionally, visually and environmentally.’ - http://www.architecture.com/SustainabilityHub/Designstrategies/Earth/1-1-3-1-siteplanning.aspx

SITE ORIENTATION PLAYS A SIGNIFICAMT ROLE IN THE DESIGN + DEVELOPMENT OF ARCHITECTURE. HAVING IDENTIFIED EXISTING LAND USE AND SITE CONSTRAINTS, ORIENTATION IS THE NEXT CRUCIAL FACTOR WHICH WHEN UNDERSTOOD WILL ENSURE THE SUCCESS OF ANY BUILDING IN TERMS OF ITS ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE. ‘Well-orientated buildings maximise daylighting through building facades reducing the need for artificial lighting. Some typologies especially housing can be zoned to ensure different functional uses receive sunlight at different times of the day. Buildings that maximise sunlight are ideal for the incorporation of passive solar collection techniques that can reduce carbon use and enhance user comfort. A careful strategy can also mitigate overheating and glare when sunlight is excessive. You should know how the sun interacts with your building in high summer and the depths of winter.’ - www.architecture.com/SustainabilityHub/Designstrategies/Earth/1-1-3-2-Buildingorientation.aspx AN UNDERSTANDING OF ORIENTATION WILL AFFECT HOW THE BUILDING WILL OPTIMISE DAYLIGHT TO ENSURE A HIGH QUALITY ENVIRONMENT THROUGH NATURAL LIGHTING OF A SPACE. THUS INFORMING THE POSITIONING OF WINDOWS AND PROPORTIONS OF GLAZING WITHIN THE FACADE. ORIENTATION SHOULD TOO ASSIST IN UTILISING WIND POWER TO ENABLE NATURAL VENTILATION WHERE POSSIBLE THROUGHOUT THE BUILDING. THE SITE IS ORIENTATED 55O NORTH MEANING THE BUILDING WILL BENEFIT FROM DIRECT SUNLIGHT FOR MOST OF THE DAY ON THE EAST, SOUTH AND WEST FACADES.

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES_13_


1.07 SUMMER | WINTER EQUINOX_ SUMMER SOLSTICE_JUNE 21ST_

8:00AM_

10:00AM_

12:00_

14:00PM_

16:00PM_

10:00AM_

12:00_

14:00PM_

16:00PM_

10:00AM_

12:00_

14:00PM_

16:00PM_

WINTER SOLSTICE_DECEMBER 21ST_

8:00AM_ EQUINOX_MARCH 21ST_

8:00AM_

THE 3D ANIMATIONS ENABLE US TO DETERMINE THE SUN PATH AROUND THE SITE THROUGHOUT THE YEAR AT DIFFERENT TIMES OF DAY IDENTIFYING AREAS WHICH WILL BENEFIT FROM NATUTRAL DAYLIGHT AND AREAS WHICH WILL SUFFER FROM OVERSHADOWING. FROM THESE STUDIES WE CAN INTERPRET THAT THE BUILDING WILL REQUIRE THE USE OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING IN DECEMBER AS THE ENTIRE BUILDING IS OVERSHADOWED FOR THE MAJORITY OF THE DAY DUE TO THE LOW ANGLE OF THE SUN IN THE SKY AND CONSEQUENTLY THE LOWER LIGHTING LEVELS, HERE DAYLIGHTING OF THE LIBRARY IS ONLY VIABLE AROUND 12:00 NOON. DURING SUMMER SOLSTICE THE BUILDING IS PREDOMINANTLY DAYLIT ALTHOUGH DURING THE EARLY MORNING AND LATE AFTERNOON SOME ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING MAY BE REQUIRED TO COMBAT OVERSHADOWING FROM THE NEIGHBOURING APPARTMENT BUILDING ON HUDSON STREET, ALTHOUGH AN ABUNDANCE OF DIFFUSE LIGHT WILL FILTER DEEP INTO THE LIBRARY PLAN VIA THE GLAZED VIEWING BOX AND TRIPLE HEIGHT ATRIUM SPACE ON THE NORTH FACADE. SIMILARLY DURING MARCH THE EASTERLY FACADE IS HEAVILY OVERSHADOWED WHILE THE SOUTHERLY FACADE IS EXPOSED TO DIRECT SUNLIGHT FOR THE MAJORITY OF THE DAY ENABLING A HIGH DAYLIGHT FACTOR WHICH MUCH BE CONTROLLED TO AVOID GLARE AND OVERHEATING WITHIN THESE SPACES. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES_14_


1.08 WIND_

ARCHITECTURE HAS ALWAYS BEEN BASED ON PRINCIPLES OF DAYLIGHTING AS WELL AS THAT OF NATURAL VENTILATION. WIND PROVIDES US WITH OXYGEN, REDUCES ODOURS AND POLLUTION AND REDUCES INTERNAL TEMPERATURES, USING COOL AIR FROM OUTSIDE AND THE COOLING EFFECT OF AIR MOVEMENT. IT IS IMPORTANT THAT MODERN ARCHITECTURE UTILISES THE OPTION FOR WIND DRIVEN VENTILLATION. PREVAILING WINDS IN GATESHEAD GENERALLY COME FROM THE WEST TOWARD THE EAST. DESPITE THIS THE BUILDING DESIGN MUST TAKE INTO ACCOUNT WIND IN ALL DIRECTIONS WITHIN THE MICROCLIMATE OF THE SITE AND SURROUNDINGS. THE BUIDING MUST COPE WITH WIND DEFLECTION AND HOW IT IS REDIRECTED BY OBSTRUCTIONS. THE SITE IS CLOSE TO THE RIVER TYNE AND IS SURROUNDED BY TALLER STRUCTURES, EASTERLY WIND FROM THE SEA WILL REDUCE THE TEMPERATURE ON SITE AND WILL OFTEN BE DEFLECTED AND REDIRECTED AROUND THE TALLER BUILDINGS ON SITE SUCH AS THE RAILWAY APPARTMENTS, HILTON HOTEL AND RAILWAY LINE. THESE STRONG WINDS CAN CAUSE WIND TUNNELS BETWEEN BUILDINGS AS IT IS REDIRECTED, IT IS THEREFORE CRUCIAL TO PROVIDE A DRAFT LOBBY AT THE LIBRARY ENTRANCE TO PROTECT THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT AGAINST STRONG DEFLECTED WINDS. BUILDING AGAINST THE RAILWAY PLATFORM MEANS THAT A CONSIDERABLE AMOUNT OF WESTERLY WIND IS BLOCKED AND REDIRECTED AWAY FROM THE SITE, THE RAILWAY LINE THEREFORE ACTING AS A BUFFER ZONE. DUE TO THE CLOSE PROXIMITY OF NEIGHBOURING BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES THE YL+P IS SHELTERED FROM THE WIND TO A DEGREE ON THE NORTH, EAST AND WESTERLY FACADE, WHILE THE SOUTHERLY FACADE IS COMPLETELY EXPOSED TO THE WIND. THESE FACTORS MUST BE CAREFULLY CONSIDERED IN ORDER TO MAXIMISE THE POTENTIAL OF NATURAL VENTILATION STRATEGIES AND ENSURE APPROPRIATE USE OF INSULATION WITHIN THE BUILDING STRUCTURE AND DESIGN. THE USE OF THE STACK EFFECT WILL BE HIGHLY SUCCESFUL AS AIR IS FORCED THROUGH THE BUILDING WHILE CROSS VENTILATION MAY NOT BE AS APPROPRIATE DUE TO THE OBSTRUCTION TO WESTERLY WIND FLOW. AS DENOTED WITHIN THE TABLE THE WIND SPEEDS IN GATESHEAD FLUCTUATE BY 2 KNOTS ON AVERAGE THROUGHOUT THE YEAR WHILE AVERAGE AIR TEMPERATURES CAN RANGE 12O FROM A MINIMUM OF 5O TO A RECORDED MAXIMUM OF 17O.

NB. STATISTICS BASED ON OBSERVATIONS TAKEN BETWEEN 11/2000 - 12/2012 DAILY FROM 7AM TO 7PM LOCAL TIME.

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES_15_


1.09 ACOUSTICS_

THE EFFECT OF NOISE WITHIN THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT IS LOCAL AND HAS A SIGNIFICANT IMPACT UPON THE QUALITY OF LIFE IN AFFECTED AREAS. THE ACOUSTIC QUALITY OF A PARTICULAR BUILDING IS SUBJECT TO ACTIVITY BOTH INTERNALLY AND EXTERNALLY AND THE AREAS SURROUNDING THE SITE HAVE A VARIED AVERAGE DECIBEL LEVEL READING, THERE ARE NO COMMUNAL GATHERING AREAS OUTSIDE THE BUILDING SO ANY DISRUPTANCE EXTERNALLY SHOULD BE MINIMAL. THE MAIN POLLUTANTS AFFECTING THE GATESHEAD SITE ARE ROAD, RAIL AND INDUSTRIAL NOISE AND ALTHOUGH ACOUSTIC QUALITY IS NOT A PRIMARY ISSUE IN SUSTAINABLE DESIGN,ACOUSTIC CONSIDERATIONS SHOULD BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT, FOR EXAMPLE THE WAY THE SCHEDULE OF ACCOMODATION IS ORGANISED WITHIN THE BUILDING IN ORDER TO MINIMISE THE EFFECTS OF NOISE POLLUTION.

Road noise_morning_

Road noise_afternoon_

DB Readings taken on site_Morning_

Rail noise_ morning_

Rail noise_afternoon_

SOURCES OF NOISE DISCOMFORT MAY BE SUBJECT TO THE DAYLIGHTING AND VENTILATION SYSTEMS, FOR EXAMPLE FROM NOISE GENERATED BY MECHANICAL BUILDING SERVICE SYSTEMS OR THROUGH TRAFFIC NOISE OR LOSS OF ACOUSTIC PRIVACY FROM OPENING OF WINDOWS. SIMILARLY DISRUPTIVE NOISE CAN BE GENERATED BY THE LEVEL AND TYPE OF ACTIVITY WITHIN A SPACE AS A RESULT OF THE BUILDING FINISHES, THE IMPACT NOISE FROM HARD SURFACES. A SURVEY WAS CARRIED OUT ON SITE TO MEASURE THE NOISE LEVELS IN THE SURROUNDING AREAS DURING MORNING AND AFTERNOON. THE NOISE LEVELS IN THE IMMEDIATE SURROUNDING OF HUDSON ST AND HALF MOON LANE DID NOT FLUCTUATE, REMAINING IN THE BAND BETWEEN 65 AND 69.9 DB, WHEREAS THE SECONDARY SURROUNDING CHANGED AS A RESULT OF ROAD AND RAIL NOISE.

DB Readings taken on site_Afternoon_

Industrial noise_morning_

location 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

morning (dB) 56.3 57.2 71.4 56.5 63.4 61.7 68.9

afternoon 44.9 51.3 64.5 45.3 62.9 60.3 66.4

average 50.9 54.25 67.95 50.9 63.15 61 67.65

8 9 10 11 12 13

76.4 73.1 76.2 74.3 68.4 63.3

77.6 74.7 77.3 74.9 69.2 63.9

77 73.9 76.75 74.6 68.8 63.6

Average DB band prior to site survey_

Industrial noise_afternoon_ ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES_16_


1.09 ACOUSTICS_

THE SITE LIES IN A MEDIUM TO LOW NOISE BAND. AREAS WHICH LIE WITHIN THE MEDIUM NOISE BAND DO POSE MODERATE RISKS TO HUMAN COMFORT WHEN CONSTANTLY EXPOSED, THE NOISE HERE IS GENERATED MAINLY BY ROAD TRAFFIC. DB READINGS WILL BE HIGHER WHEN TRAINS ARE IN OPPERATION AND THIS MUST BE TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT WITHIN THE BUILDING DESIGN NOT ONLY IN TERMS OF ACOUSTIC QUALITY BUT ALSO WITH REGARDS TO STRUCTURAL STABILITY AS NOISE VIBRATIONS COULD THREATEN STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY OF BOUNDARY WALL AND GROUND QUALITY. A CIRCULATION SPINE IS SITED ALONG THE WESTERLY FACADE AGAINST THE RAILWAY LINE, ACTING AS AN ACOUSTIC BUFFER. THIS CONTINUES THROUGHOUT THE THREE FLOORS OF THE BUILDING IN ORDER TO REDUCE NOISE DISRUPTION WITHIN THE SCHEDULE OF ACCOMODATION.

NOISE ZONES TAKEN FROM SURVEY INVESTIGATION_

DECIBEL LEVELS_RISKS POSED TO HUMAN COMFORT_ NOISE RISK ZONES_

ACOUSTICS_17_


1.10 EASEMENTS_

MATERIALITY + LAND USE IT IS IMPORTANT TO ACKNOWLEDGE THE EXISTING MATERIALITY ON SITE AS THIS CAN HAVE A DIRECT EFFECT UPON THE ACOUSTIC QUALITY OF THE SITE. THE SURROUNDING STRUCTURES ON SITE ARE PREDOMINANTLY BRICK SO WILL TEND TO ABSORB NOISE. DESPITE THIS THE CLOSE SPACING OF BUILDINGS AND STREETS WILL CAUSE NOISE REVERBERATION. THE UNDEVELOPED GREENFIELD LAND WHICH LIES CLOSE TO THE SITE SHOULD ACT AS AN ACOUSTIC BUFFER WHERE NOISE IS ABSORBED BY TREES AND PLANTS. THIS ZONES HOWEVER ARE NEGLECTED AND DUE TO OVERSHADOWING PLANTS ARE NOT ABLE TO FLOURISH HENCE HAVING A POOR EFFECT UPON REDUCING THE NOISE LEVELS ON SITE.

EASEMENTS IT IS IMPORTANT TO UNDERSTAND THE LOCATION OF EASEMENTS ON SITE, IDENTIFICATION OF UTILITY EASEMENTS SUCH AS GAS SUPPLIES, SEWAGE, WATER MANAGEMENT AND ELECTRICITY SUPPLY ARE CRUCIAL IN ENABLING THE OPERATION OF THE BUILDING. SIMILARLY THE IDENTIFICATION OF PEDESTRIAN AND VEHICLE EASEMENTS ARE ESSENTIAL SO AS NOT TO COMPROMISE EXISTING ACCESS ROUTES. THE SITE LIES ON HUDSON STREET, AN ESTABLISHED ONE WAY SYSTEM WHICH IS ACCESSED PRIMARILY FROM WELLINGTON STREET BY CAR. ON FOOT PEDESTRIAN ACCESS ROUTES ARE LOCATED AROUND THE ENTIRE PERIMETER OF THE SITE. UTILITY EASEMENTS ARE OCCUPIED BY THE EXISTING BUILDINGS ON SITE.

BRICK

ROA RIGHT OF ACCESS

SANDSTONE

G GAS SUPPLY

UNDEVELOPED LAND

D DRAIN / SEWAGE

REDEVELOPED LAND

E ELECTRICITY SUPPLY

EASEMENTS_18_


PART C: YL+P_LIBRARY CONDITIONS + KEY USES_

CONDITIONS +KEY USES_19_


2.01 SPATIAL STRATEGIES + SCHEDULE OF ACCOMODATION_

SCHEDULE OF ACCOMODATION_ AFTER THE UNDERSTANDING AND ADAPTATION OF THE PROJECT BRIEF TO MEET THE CLIENTS NEEDS, AN INITIAL SCHEDULE OF ACCOMODATION IS DEVELOPED. THE YL+P_CENTRE FOR ENTERPRISE OPERATES ACROSS 3 LEVELS COMPRIMISING AREAS FOR EXPLORATION, KNOWLEDGE AND OPPORTUNITY, HOUSING TWO SPECIFIC AREAS OF SEPERATE FUNCTIONS, THE OFFICES AND THE LIBRARY SPACE. IT IS THEREFORE IMPORTANT TO IDENTIFY BOTH THE INDIVIDUAL AND SHARED NEEDS OF EACH SPACE.

YL+P_Schedule of Accomodation_

OFFICES

YL+P_Second Floor_

Initial Schedule of Accomodation_

LIBRARY SPINE

YL+P_First Floor_

LIBRARY SPINE

YL+P_Ground Floor_

CONDITIONS +KEY USES_20_


2.02 ACOUSTICS + SPATIAL HIERACHY_

YL+P_Second Floor_

OFFICES

Majority concentrated individual learning space_ YL+P_First Floor_

LIBRARY SPINE YL+P_Revised Schedule of Accomodation_

Group_Enquiry based_Social learning + Social space_

YL+P_Ground Floor_

LIBRARY SPINE

Acoustic Hierachy for Library Spaces_

Schedule of Accomodation organised to comply with acoustic hierachy of library spaces_

Enquiry based_Social learning + Social Space_Small individual learning zones in the form of acoustic reading booths_

CONDITIONS +KEY USES_21_


OFFICE INCUBATORS_

- Temporary office incubation units will be minimal in terms of internal fit out in order to suit the needs of each resident. The spaces must take advantage of diffuse lighting enabling a calm atmosphere and to avoid the use of artificial task lighting.

IT + MEDIA_

- This space will be occupied by public use, predominantly that of school children. This zone will be noisy and may suffer excess generation of heat with high activity levels . The space is mainly north lit allowing for comfortable use of computers and touch screen tablet devices.

LIBRARY SPINE_

- This is the most integral part of the building, the Library spine acts unites both knowledge and exploration, exhibiting a dynamic approach to the use of the library which spans both vertical and horizontal circulation through the library. Lighting and humidity levels must be considered,

PERMANENT OFFICE_

VIEWING BOX_

- 50m2 permanent office for the library admin, manager and staff is south facing, this aside with equipment use may result in overheating. The space must be environmentally controlled to allow for a comfortable working environment.

- This multifunctional space is diverse, containing a bar and flexible seating this space can be used to house private functions, seminars and other events aswell as providing panoramic views across to Newcastle while allowing diffuse north light to filter into the building through floor to ceiling glazing.

FLEXIBLE LECTURE SPACE_

- This diverse space is south facing therefore must incorperate a solar shading system to avoid overheating and glare when in use by local schools, businesses and other organisations.

TRIPLE HEIGHT ATRIUM_

- Permits diffuse north light from the viewing box deep into the plan of the library across the three floors. This space will also enable stack ventilation as well as permitting visitors to view activity across three floors upon immediate entry.

GROUP STUDY ROOM_

- Capacity maximum of ten people for board meetings, small talks or group work alike, this is a relatively narrow space which will benefit from daylighting but may require mechanical ventilation in summer

ENTRANCE_

- The glazed entrance comprises a single leaf draft lobby on the north facade which will allow for positive internal air pressure. The glazed volume which protrudes through the existing wall permits daylight into the entrance area.

PLANT ROOM_

- This space is used as a means for library storgae, waste, refuge with a maintainence lift providing access to ground level. human activity is low and no precious items will be stored here.

DOUBLE HEIGHT CAFE_

- The cafe acts as an informal gathering space of both public and private users. provision of a mezzanine level allows for daylight to penetrate the lower ground floor plan which is partly located below ground level and heat from the kitchen can be distributed across two floors.

FLEXIBLE EXHIBITION SPACE_

- This space must strike a balance in both utilising natural daylight and artificial lighting in which to suit the nature of the exhibitions housed. Similarly the thermal environment must be controlled so as no not damage any work on display.

RECEPTION_

- This space will welcome visitors providing guidance and assistance to the use of the building and its facilities, this space should be comfortable and invite visitors to explore further into the library.

CONDITIONS +KEY USES_22_


2.03 LIBRARY CONDITIONS_

ATMOSPHERE_ THE YOUNG LIT + PHIL; CENTRE FOR ENTERPRISE IS A REVOLUTIONARY INSTITUTION, INVITING A DIVERSE AUDIENCE TO EXPLORE THE FACILITIES OFFERED WITHIN. THE BUILDNING DESIGN REFLECTS THE ETHOS OF THE LIBRARY ACTING AS AN INSPIRATIONAL HUB FOR SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL DISCOVERY AND INNOVATION. THE INTERIOR SPACES HAVE BEEN DESIGNED TO REFLECT THIS HI-TECH IDEA, WHERE EACH FLOOR HOUSES A DESIGNATED FUNCTION, THESE BEING THAT OF EXPLORATION, KNOWLEDGE AND OPPORTUNITY. IT IS THIS COMBINATION OF EDUCATION AND ENTERPRISE WHICH SERVES TO CREATE A BUSTLING ATMOSPHERE WHERE KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERIENCE IS SHARED BETWEEN THE PROFESSIONAL, THE PUPIL AND THE PUBLIC. THE FULL HEIGHT ATRIUM SPACE PROVIDES VISITORS WITH A SNAPSHOT OF THE ACTIVITY PRESENT WITHIN THE YL+P PERMITTING VIEWS WHICH SPAN ACROSS THE GROUND, FIRST AND SECOND FLOOR PLAN. THIS IDEA OF INNOVATION IS CAPTURED WITHIN THE BUILDING ENVELOPE AND MAKES REFERENCES BACK TO THE TECHNOLOGICAL DISCOVERIES EXHIBITED WITHIN THE EXISTING LIT AND PHIL. SIMILARLY TO ZUMTHORS KUNSTHAUS IN BREGENZ, AUSTRIA, THE YL+P WILL EMPLOY A TRANSLUCENT FACADE WHICH WILL GLOW LIKE A LIGHT BULB DURING HOURS OF ACTIVITY, PAINTING A SILHUETTE OF ITS OCCUPANTS UPON THE WALLS. THE ‘LIGHTBULB’ IS A UNIVERSALLY RECOGNISED SYMBOL FOR IDEAS, THINKING AND CONSEQUENTLY INNOVATION, SO WHAT BETTER WAY TO CAPTURE THIS THAN IN THE DESIGN OF THE BUILDING FACADE, WHERE THE YL+P CAN BE IMMEDIATELY IDENTIFIED AS A CENTRE AT THE FOREFRONT OF TECHNOLOGY.

DEVONSHIRE BUILDING, NEWCASTLE-UPON-TYNE The building incorporates a high degree of flexibility on the five functional floors which are arranged around an atrium with modular laboratories to the north, and open plan space to the south. The ground floor houses a central reception and management suite together with conference rooms, a virtual reality centre and cafeteria all designed to a high specification to encourage links with the business community. - http://www.greenspec.co.uk/image-bank/devonshire/

KUNSTHAUS, BREGENZ, PETER ZUMTHOR The minimalist structure stands as a light box that absorbs, reflects, and filters light across the façade and throughout the building. The facades etched, translucent glass glows as it is illuminated by the sunlight, or the interior lighting, becoming a dynamic part of the building as it reacts differently according to the light, time of day, weather, and the surrounding context. The light that is captured by the glass façade gets filtered through a light plenum that catches and distributes the light through the gallery spaces. - www.archdaily.com/107500/ad-classics-kunsthaus-bregenz-peter-

zumthor/

DELFT UNIVERSITY LIBRARY, NETHERLANDS, MECANOO the visionary TU Delft Library is an excellent example of forward-thinking sustainable design. Mecanoo Architecten’s vision was to develop a light-filled landmark that would serve as “a gateway to the digital highway”. What they achieved is a public place that is not only a core for information, but also features a prodigious public green roof for people to explore, relax and play. - www.inhabitat.com/mecanoos-tu-delft-library-crowned-with-a-massive-greenroof/

CONDITIONS +KEY USES_23_


2.04 DAYLIGHT_

DAYLIGHTING BASICS ‘Without Daylight...Architecture simply does not exist’ - Louis Kahn ‘We use light for dramatic effect as well as to provide visual comfort to allow us to perform various tasks. Both are highly subjective.’ - www.theenvironmentalhandbook.com/handbook

DAYLIGHT FACTORS MEASURE THE OVERALL LEVELS OF LIGHT IN ONE SPACE AND ARE DETERMINED AS A PERCENTAGE. A SPACE WITH A DAYLIGHT FACTOR OF 3 - 4 IS REGARDED AS BEING WELL LIT, WHILE AN ADEQUATELY LIT SPACE CAN BE ANYTHING ABOVE 2. ANYTHING ABOVE 5 IS CONSIDERED AS A VERY WELL LIT SPACE. THIS MEANS THAT THE INTERNAL SPACE WILL BE ADMITTING 3 TO 4 OF THE SOLAR RADIATION THAT HITS THE BUILDINGS FACADE, (achieving 300 to 400 LUX if the diffuse radiation in winter is 10,000 LUX)

‘Our eyes can cope with an extraordinary range of light intensity from over 100,000 lux on a sunny summer’s day down to about 0.25 lux under a full moon; but it does take time for our eyes to adjust. Externally, the amount of diffuse daylight available varies significantly over the course of both a day and the year. It varies from around 5000 lux on a dull day in winter up to around 50,000 lux on bright day in summer or even 100,000 lux in direct sunshine. So any windows, shading and blinds have a very wide range to deal with, a factor of 10 or 20, hence why blinds are moveable.’ - www.theenvironmentalhandbook.com/

NORTHERN LIGHTING IS OPTIMAL FOR A DIFFUSED LIT SPACE REQUIRED IN BOTH THE GALLERY AND THE IT SPACE, THE LIGHT HAS A CLEAR TO BLUE QUALITY SUITABLE WHEN LOOKING AT BRIGHT SURFACES SUCH AS ARTWORKS OR COMPUTER SCREENS.

handbook

THE PRINCIPLE RULES OF THUMB WE MUST FOLLOW IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE A SUITABLY NATURALLY DAYLIT SPACE ARE THE 2:1 RATIO, SEEING THE SKY AND THE INTEGRATION OF ROOF LIGHTS.

THE SECTION ABOVE SHOWS THE PENETRATION OF NATURAL LIGHT INTO THE YL+P FROM THE NORTH AND SOUTHERLY FACADE AS WELL AS THROUGH THE ROOF LIGHTS AND ATRIUM SPACE.

THE SECTION ABOVE SHOWS THE PENETRATION OF NATURAL LIGHT INTO THE YL+P FROM THE EAST AND WESTERLY FACADE. DUE TO THE NARROWESS OF THE PLAN THE MAJORITY OF SPACES CAN BE NATURALLY LIT

CONDITIONS +KEY USES_24_


2.05 VENTILATION_

VENTILATION BASICS Ventilation in buildings has three main purposes: 1. To maintain a minimum air quality (1 - 2 ac/h) 2. To remove heat (or other pollutant) (2 - 15 ac/h) 3. To provide perceptible air movement to enhance thermal comfort ( 0.5 - 2 m/s) Principle reasons for employing natural ventilation are to: -Provide oxygen -Reduce odours and pollution -Reduce internal temp using cool air from outside and the cooling effect of air -Purge the building at night to reduce summer time overheating

movement

Ventilation is a varied factor and can be determined in a number of ways, the four main natural ventillation solutions are;

THE SECTION ABOVE SHOWS THE PASSAGE OF NATURAL VENTILATION THROUGH THE YL+P BY MEANS OF WIND INDUCED, SINGLE SIDED, CROSS AND STACK VENTILATION.

WIND INDUCED VENTILATION_ SINGLE SIDED VENTILATION_ CROSS VENTILATION_ STACK VENTILATION_ The YL+P will employ a combination of these solutions in order to naturally ventillate the building. In Natural Ventilation, the airflow is due to wind and buoyancy through cracks in the building envelope or purposely installed openings. The building is prodominantly open plan, this fluid spatial arrangement linked by atrium spaces and voids caused by vertical circulation will encourage natural airflow throughout. This alternative is the preferred method and should be utilised to reduce the need for mechanical ventilation, the benefits amongst many are low running costs, zero energy consumption and low maintainence. It is also regarded as a healthier solutions incurring fewer hygiene problems with ductwork and extraction systems. Control of natural ventilation can prove difficult and attention should be given to the minimum ventilation rate which a system is expected to provide. Low values may lead to the integration of a hybrid system which will ensure an adequate indoor air quality, preventing SBS symptoms.

THE SECTION ABOVE SHOWS THE PASSAGE OF NATURAL VENTILATION THROUGH THE YL+P BY MEANS OF WIND INDUCED, SINGLE SIDED, CROSS AND STACK VENTILATION ALONG THE SHORT SECTION.

CONDITIONS +KEY USES_25_


2.06 INTERNAL CONDITIONS_

room use

Second Floor

plant WCs Cafe Kitchen Exhibition Library Reception Entrance Lecture Theatre Group Study Room Cafe IT + Media Library Office/Studios

potential occupants constant variable variable constant variable variable variable variable variable variable variable variable variable constant

temperature (oc) winter/summer 16 - 19 19 - 21 / 21 - 23 22 - 24 / 24 - 25 22 - 24 / 24 - 25 20 - 22 / 22 - 24 20 - 22 / 22 - 24 13 - 20 / 21 - 25 13 - 20 / 21 - 25 20 - 22 / 21 - 24 22 - 24 / 24 - 25 22 - 24 / 24 - 25 19 - 21 / 21 - 23 20 - 22 / 22 - 24 21 - 23 / 23 - 24

Roof All Floors

Function Room WCs Staff Room Plant Fire Stairs

variable variable constant variable variable

20 19 22 16 19

Circulation

variable

19 - 21 / 21 - 23

ground floor

First Floor

-

22 / 22 - 24 21 / 21 - 23 24 19 21 / 21 - 23

illuminance level (LUX) 200 100 200 - 300 300 - 400 300 400 100 100 300 400 200 - 300 300 - 400 400 300 (plus task lighting) 200 - 400 100 100 200 100

noise level (dB)

100

40

20 35 30 35 30 25 35 35 25 25 30 40 25 30 upon 40 30 35 20 40

40 45 45 35 35 40 40 30

GROUND FLOOR_

FIRST FLOOR_

45 30 40 (depending activity 45

SECOND FLOOR_

THE TABLE ABOVE SHOWS THE INTERNAL CONDITIONS REQUIRED WITHIN EACH SPACE ON EACH FLOOR, FOCUSSING UPON OCCUPATION, INTERNAL TEMPERATURES BOTH IN WINTER AND SUMMER, THE RECOMMENDED LUMINANCE LEVEL AS WELL AS NOISE LEVELS. RECOMMENDED TEMPERATURES WITHIN THE LIBRARY DURING SUMMER IS 22OC WHILE IN WINTER IS 20OC, THESE ARE TYPICAL TEMPERATURES FOR SEDENTARY ACTIVITIES

CONDITIONS +KEY USES_26_


USING THE TABLE FOR RECOMMENDED INTERNAL CONDITIONS, APPRORIATE LIGHTING CONDITIONS CAN BE ESTABLISHED WITHIN EACH SPACE HELPING TO DETERMINE WHICH LIGHTING SOLUTIONS ARE MOST APPROPRIATE EITHER NATURAL OR ARTIFICIAL. SIMILARLY IDENTIFICATION OF NOISE LEVELS WILL INFORM THE CHOICE OF INTERNAL FINISHES AND USE OF I NSULATION IN ORDER TO MEET THESE NEEDS.

YL+P_LIGHTING ZONES_

YL+P_NOISE BANDS_

YL+P_Second Floor_

YL+P_Second Floor_

YL+P_First Floor_

YL+P_First Floor_

YL+P_Ground Floor_

YL+P_Ground Floor_

Library_IT + Media Lounge_Group Study_

IT + Media Lounge_Function Room_Fire Stairs_Lift_Circulation_

Exhibition Space_Cafe Mezzanine Level_Lecture Theatre_Offices_

Entrance_Reception_Kitchen_WC_Staff Room_

Ground Floor Cafe_Plant_Function Room_ Entrance_Reception_WC_Staff Room_Fire Stair_Lift_Circulation_

Exhibition Space_Ground Floor Cafe_Mezzanine Level Cafe_Office_Staff WC_ Library_Group Study_Lecture Theatre_ Plant_ CONDITIONS +KEY USES_27_


2.07 DESIGN IMPLICATIONS_

GROUND FLOOR_ PLANT ROOM PRIMARILY USED FOR STORAGE OF EQUIPMENT, DELIVERIES, WASTE AND REFUGE, THE PLANT ROOM DOES NOT REQUIRE ANY SPECIFIC CONTROL OVER CONDITIONS. IT IS PARTIALLY UNDERGROUND SO WATERPROOF TANKING AND INSULATION OF THE SPACE MUST BE CARRIED OUT THOUROUGHLY AND MAY REQUIRE A MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM TO CONTROL HUMIDITY. HUMAN ACTIVITY WITHIN THIS SPACE IS MINIMAL. PUBLIC TOILETS THE PUBLIC TOILETS WILL NEED THE AID OF MECHANICAL EXTRACTION TO REMOVE ODOURS AND ANY CONDENSATION. KITCHEN THE KITCHEN REQUIRES AN EXTRACTION SYSTEM DUE TO THE USE OF COOKING APPLIANCES, A CONSIDERABLE AMOUNT OF HEAT, STEAM AND SMOKE WILL NEED TO BE REMOVED FROM THE RELATIVELY SMALL SPACE

GROUND FLOOR_

FLEXIBLE EXHIBITION SPACE THE FLEXIBLE EXHIBITION SPACE REQUIRES REGULAR AIR QUALITY AND CONTROL OVER TEMPERATURES SO AS TO SUIT THE NATURE OF WORK EXHIBITED. TO ENSURE THIS IS POSSIBLE A MECHANICAL VENTILLATION SYSTEM WILL BE SUPPLIED TO THIS AREA BUT ONLY USED WHEN ABSOLUTELY NECESSARY. CAFE, ENTRANCE + RECEPTION THE CAFE, ENTRANCE, RECEPTION AND BOOK ISSUE ZONE ARE ALL TOP LIT AND SUSCEPTABLE TO NATURAL VENTILATION BY MEANS OF STACK VENTILATION, THIS MEANING THEY WILL NOT REQUIRE ADDITIONAL MECHANICAL SERVICES. THEY ARE NATURALLY VENTILATED AND DAY LIT FOR MOST OF THE DAY. LIBRARY THE LIBRARY SPINE REQUIRES A LOW HUMIDITY LEVEL TO AVOID MOISTURE DAMAGE TO THE BOOKS, SIMILARLY THEY WILL BE TOPLIT WITH DIFFUSE NORTH LIGHT TO AVOID DIRECT CONTACT WITH THE SUNLIGHT WHICH WILL CONSEQUENTLY DAMAGE THE BOOKS.

The book shelves require a low humidity level, this is so that the books don’t warp from the moisture levels.

FIRST FLOOR_

FIRST FLOOR_ LECTURE THEATRE NATURAL VENTILATION WILL BE UTILISED IN THIS SPACE HOWEVER A MAXIMUM OCCUPANCY OF 50 PEOPLE MAY REQUIRE THE AID OF MECHANICAL VENTILATION TO COOL THE SPACE DURING USE IN THE SUMMER MONTHS WHERE GLARE UPON THE SOUTH FACADE WILL RESULT IN THE SPACE OVERHEATING. GROUP STUDY ROOM MAXIMUM OCCUPANCY AND THE USE OF PROTABLE DEVICES MAY RESULT IN OVERHEATING AND WILL TOO REQUIRE CAREFUL CONTROL OVER NATURAL VENTILATION TO COOL THE SPACE. IT + MEDIA ZONE THIS ZONE MUST BE SUPPLIED WITH A MECHANICAL VENTILATION SYSTEM FOR CAREFUL CONTROL OVER TEMPERATURES AS THE COMPUTERS WILL GENERATE ALOT OF HEAT. STACK VENTILLATION SHOULD BE ADEQUATE, HOWEVER IN SUMMER WALL MOUNTED COOLING SYSTEMS MAY BE REQUIRED.

SECOND FLOOR_

LIBRARY THE LIBRARY SPANS TWO FLOORS OF THE LIBRARY, THIS LIBRARY SPACE IS MORE EXPOSED TO NATURAL DAYLIGHT HOWEVER SHOULD BE SUFFICIENTLY OVERSHADOWED BY THE SECOND FLOOR OVERHANG. AGAIN, HUMIDITY LEVELS MUST BE CLOSELY MONITORED.

SECOND FLOOR_ DUE TO THE EXCESSIVE USE OF BOTH DESKTOP AND PORTABLE DEVICES, IT IS CRUCIAL THAT THE YL+P ENTERPRISE OCCUPANTS HAVE AN INDEPENDENT CONTROL OVER THEIR ENVIRONMENTS. THIS IS ENABLED THRUGH THE USE OF A DOUBLE FACADE ALLOWING FOR MANUAL CONTROL OVER THE AMOUNT OF DAYLIGHT AND AIR FLOW WHICH CAN BE PERMITTED INTO THE WORK SPACE IN ORDER TO CONTROL INTERNAL TEMPERATURES AND CONDITIONS. STAFF ROOM EXTRACTION UNITS MUST BE USED TO REMOVE ODOURS AND CONDENSATION FROM STAFF TOILETS, AS WELL AS HEAT AND STEAM FROM THE KITCHENETTE.

HIGHLIGHTED SPACES ON PLAN INDICATE WHERE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS WILL BE REQUIRED IN ORDER TO REMOVE HEAT ODOURS AND SUPPLY

CONDITIONS +KEY USES_28_


RECEPTION + BOOK ISSUE

OFFICE EQUIPMENT - IT

OFFICE EQUIPMENT - IT

OFFICE EQUIPMENT - IT

IT + MEDIA ZONE

OFFICE EQUIPMENT - IT

KITCHEN EQUIPMENT

OFFICE EQUIPMENT - IT

OFFICE EQUIPMENT - IT

2.08 EQUIPTMENT_

ASSOCIATED ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT WITHIN THE LIBRARY WILL AFFECT THE INTERNAL TEMPERATURE AND CONTRIBUTE TO THE HEATING AND COOLING STRATEGIES EMPLOYED WITHIN THE BUILDING. THE SECTION ABOVE INDICATES ZONES WHERE ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT WILL BE USED AND MAY REQUIRE MECHANICAL SYSTEMS TO CONTROL THE ENVIRONMENTS. - EACH OFFICE WILL HOUSE AT LEAST TWO DESKTOP COMPUTERS AND MAY REQUIRE OTHER RELATED ELECTRICALS DEPENDING UPON THE NATURE OF OCCUPANCY OF EACH TEMPORARY ENTERPRISE OFFICE SPACE. THESE ENVIRONMENTS CAN BE INDEPENDENTLY CONTROLLED BY THE USER BY MEANS OF OPENING DOORS AND WINDOWS, HOWEVER LARGER SPACES MAY REQUIRE ASSISTANCE BY MECHANICAL VENTILATIONSYSTEMS. - THE IT + MEDIA ZONE HOUSES 12 DESKTOP COMPUTERS AND 12 TABLET DEVICES WHICH WILL TOO GENERATE A CONSIDERABLE AMOUNT OF EXCESS HEAT. DURING SUMMER MONTHS THIS NORTH LIT SPACE MAY NEED THE AID OF MECHANICAL VENTILATION BY MEANS OF A WALL MOUNTED PANEL IN ORDER TO DITRIBUTE COOL AIR INTO THE SPACE ALLOWING FOR A COMFORTABLE WORKING ENVIRONMENT. - THE KITCHEN IS A KEY AREA WHICH WILL GENERATE EXCESS HEAT, USE OF APPLIANCES SUCH AS HOBS, GRILLS, OVENS AND MICROWAVES WILL REQUIRE THE NEED TO UTILISE NATURAL VENTILATION SYSTEMS BY MEANS OF TRICKLE VENTS AS WELL AS ALLOWING FOR AN EXTRACTION SYSTEM TO REMOVE HEAT FROM THE SPACE. - THE RECPTION BOOK ISSUE AREA HOUSES 7 DESKTOP COMPUTERS WHICH WILL GENERATE A SMALL AMOUNT OF HEAT, HOWEVER DUE TO THE TRIPLE HEIGHT ATRIUM SPACE AND OPENESS OF THE GROUND FLOOR PLAN, THESE ELECTRICALS WILL NOT REQUIRE ANY FURTHER MECHANICAL SYSTEMS TO EXTRACT HEAT.

CONDITIONS +KEY USES_29_


2.09 VISUAL ENVIRONMENT_

THE VISUAL ENVIRONMENT ESTABLISHED WITHIN THE YL+P IS PRIMARILY EFFECTED BY THE REFLECTANCE OF LIGHT UPON STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS AND INTERNAL FINISHES IN TERMS OF MATERIALITY AND COLOUR. ‘Light reflected off floors, walls, rooflight and window reveals, the “internal reflective component”, can contribute dramatically to the quality and quantity of light within a space. The range of reflectivity of different surfaces is considerable and is a function of their materials, texture, shininess and colour.’ - www.theenvironmentalhandbook.com/handbook LIGHT REFLECTANCE IS ENABLED IN A NUMBER OF WAYS, THE ENTRANCE INTO THE YL+P ALLOWS LIGHT TO SPREAD EFFECTIVELY FROM THE EDGES OF THE GLAZING BOUNCING LIGHT DEEPER INTO THE PLAN OF THE BUILDING. THIS PROVIDES A SURFACE OF INTERMEDIATE BRIGHTNESS THAT REDUCES THE CONTRAST BETWEEN THE GLAZING AND THE WALLS.

THIS CONTRAST CAN ALSO BE ACHIEVED BY COLOUR. THE DIAGRAM BELOW ILLUSTRATES THE VISIBLE SPECTRUM OF COLOUR WAVELENGTHS. THE EYE IS MOST SENSITIVE AT AROUND 555nm WHICH IS BETWEEN YELLOW AND GREEN, THIS IS BECAUSE IT IS THE BRIGHTEST COLOUR TO THE EYE. AT THE POLAR END OF THE SENSITIVITY CURVE THE EYE IS LEAST SENSITIVE TO VIOLET 400nm AND RED 750nm THIS IS BECAUSE THESE ARE THE DARKEST COLOURS TO THE EYE.

DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATING COLOUR WAVELENGTHS AND VISIBLE SPECTRUM_

IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT MATERIALS AND COLOURS WITH A REFLECTANCE VALUE GREATER THAN 0.8 ARE MOST EFFECTIVE IN ACHIEVING POSITIVE DISTRIBUTION OF REFLECTED DAYLIGHT WITHIN THE BUILDING. THE YL+P COMPRISES A PALE GREY CONCRETE FLOOR SCREED, THE VALUES OF BOTH THE COLOUR AND MATERIAL ARE BELOW THE RECOMMENDED VALUE AT 0.4 AND 0.64. HOWEVER DUE TO THE EDUCATIONAL NATURE OF THE SPACES THIS FLOOR FINISH DOES COMPLY.

CONDITIONS +KEY USES_30_


2.10 OFFICE REQUIREMENTS_

NOISE LEVELS_ Typically noise levels within the office space is estimated at around 30db, however during times of minimum occupancy this will be a significant amount less. Independent control over internal environments by means of opening doors and windows will affect the noise levels due to external disturbances such as traffic and rail noise.

AIR QUALITY_ In the summer months, the air movement rate is to be 0.25m/s, and 0.15m/s in the winter. Where possible natural ventilation is used to improve personal well being.

POLLUTANTS_ Formaldehyde in furniture and plastics could also pollute the air aswell as fumes emitted by equipment such as printers and photocopiers.

THERMAL COMFORT_ In summer the optimum internal temperature should be between 22째 - 24째, and in winter 21째 - 23째

LIGHT LEVELS_ A LUX level of 300 is sufficient for lighting the officeand a recommended average daylight factor of 5 is advised. High efficiency task lighting reduces thermal gain and energy consumption. Task lighting is positioned laterally in relation to the worker to minimise reflex glare.

NATURAL LIGHTING_ This space is naturally lit by means of floor to height glazing on the east and westerly facade. Admission of two roof lights within this space permit further daylight into the working environment. Access to external views allow for a healthier environment furthering concentration and focus

POTENTIAL OCCUPANTS_ This 36m2 office space accomodates a desk work space for a maximum of 7 people at any one time. This may be less depending upon the needs of the temporary residents as desks/ office furniture can be removed to allow for space to house other necessary equipment.

GLARE_ The possibility of glare is reduced by diffusing the direct sunlight that enters the space, this is achieved by the integration of a double facade whereby perforated metal screening limits the amount of direct sunlight to penetrate into the office spaces.

CONDITIONS +KEY USES_31_


2.11 LIBRARY REQUIREMENTS_

NOISE LEVELS_ Typically the noise levels within the library will range from 20 - 40db depending upon occupancy. The average noise level to be obtained in the library is around 30db however because the library is located within the circulation spine this value could be easily exceeded. The open bookcases will avoid sound reflection.

LIGHT LEVELS_ A LUX level of 400 is ample for lighting the library and a recommended average daylight factor of 5 is advised.

NATURAL LIGHTING_ The Library is natural lit predominantly from the easterm facade to avoid direct contact between daylight and the books.Light from the triple height atrium space will provide a more even distribution of light suitable for using the library.

AIR QUALITY_ In the summer months, the air movement rate is to be 0.25m/s, and 0.15m/s in the winter. Where possible natural ventilation is used to improve personal well being.

POTENTIAL OCCUPANTS_ Occupancy is varied and library staff must ensure the library stairs are not overcrowded. The library spine spanning two floors is moderately occupied, ranging from 1 - 40 people across the plan of the building.

POLLUTANTS_ Formaldehyde in furniture and plastics could pollute the air as well as fumes emitted by computers and printing facilities at book issue points.

THERMAL COMFORT_ In summer the optimum internal temperature should be between 22째 - 24째, and in winter 21째 - 23째

CONDITIONS +KEY USES_32_


PART D: DESIGN STRATEGY_

STRUCTURE + ENVELOPE_33_


3.01 BUILDING ENVELOPE_

THE BUILDING ENVELOPE PLAYS A SIGNIFICANT ROLE WITHIN THE ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE OF A BUILDING, WHETHER CONTRIBUTING TO THERMAL MASS, UTILISING NATURAL DAYLIGHT AND VENTILATION OR PROVIDING A WATERTIGHT SHELTER, EACH ELEMENT OF THE ENVELOPE MUST BE THOUROUGHLY CONSIDERED WITHIN THE DESIGN PROCESS. THE FACADE IS A CONTEMPORARY YET SENSITIVE RESPONSE TO BOTH THE HISTORICAL IDENTITY OF THE SITE AND THE YL+P NOTIONS OF SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION. BY DAY THE INTERNAL SPACES ARE CONCEALED BEHIND A TRANSLUCENT CURTAIN WHICH RETREATS BEHIND THE CURVED MASONRY WALL, WHILE AT NIGHT THE WALL FADES INTO DARKNESS REVEALING A GLOWING HUB OF ACTIVITY WITHIN. THE BUILDING ENVELOPE IS COMPRISED OF THREE MAIN ELEMENTS, INTEGRATING THE EXISTING MASONRY BOUNDARY WALL AND RAILWAY PLATFORM, AN EXPANDED COPPER LOW EMISSIVITY GLAZING SYSTEM AND A PERFORATED CORTEN DOUBLE FACADE. COLD BRIDGING IS AVOIDED BY RUNNING A CONTINUOUS LAYER OF RIGID INSULATION AROUND THE PRIMARY STRUCTURE TO PREVENT THE INGRESS OF AIR AS WELL AS ASSISTING IN REGULATING INTERNAL ROOM CONDITIONS. EXPLODED AXONOMETRIC ILLUSTRATES THE STRUCTURAL COMPOSITION OF THE YL+P, COMPRISING REINFORCED CONCRETE, UNIVERSAL STEEL FRAME AND VIERENDEEL GIRDER,

SPECIFICATION 0.1_ 500mm Masonry Wall 12mm 1.2mm PREPRUFE waterproofing membrane 75mm Kingspan Kooltherm rigid Insulation 300mm In- situ cast reinforced concrete retaining wall TOTAL WALL THICKNESS_ (at ground level) 887mm SPECIFICATION 0.2_ 18mm Okatech Glazing 250mm Universal Steel I-Beam TOTAL WALL THICKNESS_ (at first floor level) 268mm SPECIFICATION 0.3_ 5mm Proteus perforated corten steel panels 10mm Proteus facade aluminium support rail 15mm PILKINGTON Eclipse advantage Glazing 200mm KINGSPAN KOOLTHERM Rigid Insulation TOTAL WALL THICKNESS_ (at second floor level) 230mm

THERMAL MASS INSULATION

SECTION ABOVE DETAILS THERMAL MASS ACTING WITHIN THE BUILDING STRUCTURE THROUGH THE EXISTING MASONRY, REINFORCED CONCRETE RETAINING WALL AND COMPOSITE FLOOR DECKS. BY LOCATING THERMAL MASS BETWEEN INSULATION IN WALLS AND FLOORS, DAILY FLUCTUATION OF INTERNAL TEMPERATURES ARE REDUCED, WHILE ALSO PROVIDING SURFACES THAT CAN BE COOLER IN SUMMER AND WARMER IN WINTER.

GLAZING STRUCTURE + ENVELOPE_34_


3.02 GLAZING PROPORTIONS_

THE PROPORTION OF GLAZING WITHIN THE BUILDING FACADE IS SUBJECT TO A NUMBER OF ARCHITECTURAL CONSIDERATIONS; IN ORDER TO UTILISE ENERGY SAVING IT IS IMPORTANT THAT A BALANCE IS ESTABLISHED BETWEEN MAXIMISING DAYLIGHTING AND MINIMISING HEAT LOSS. IT IS ADVISED THAT A VALUE BETWEEN 35% - 55% IS SUFFICIENT IN OPTIMISING THESE TWO FACTORS. A FACADE WTH LESS THAN 20% GLAZING MAY RESULT IN THE EXCESSIVE USE OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING WITHIN THAT AREA OF THE BUILDING. SIMILARLY A VALUE ABOVE 60% IS SUBSEQUENT TO EXCESSIVE HEAT LOSS.

SOUTH ELEVATION_ SURFACE AREA_ 140M2 GLAZING AREA_ 111M2 GLAZING PERCENTAGE_ 82%

EAST ELEVATION_ SURFACE AREA_703M2 GLAZING AREA_246M2 GLAZING PERCENTAGE_35%

NORTH ELEVATION_ SURFACE AREA_127M2 GLAZING AREA_55M2 GLAZING PERCENTAGE_55%

WEST ELEVATION_ SURFACE AREA_703M2 GLAZING AREA_160M2 GLAZING PERCENTAGE_23%

BOTH THE SOUTH AND WEST FACADE DO NOT COMPLY WITH THE SUGGESTED GLAZING PROPORTIONS, HOWEVER, THE GLAZING USED ON THE GROUND AND THE FIRST FLOOR ACTS AS A GLASS METAL SKIN, ALLOWING FOR A SENSE OF OPENESS AND TRANSPARENCY. THIS CHOSEN MATERIAL ALLOWS FOR DAYLIGHT TO ENTER THE BUILDING, WHILE VIEWS OUT ARE TRANSLUCENT.THE GLASS IS COMPOSED WITH A LAYER OF EXPANDED COPPER MESH WHICH IS LAMINATED BETWEEN TWO GLASS SURFACES. THE COPPER MESH ACTS AS A SUN SHADING DEVICE WITHIN EACH PANE REDUCING GLARE AND SOLAR GAIN.

STRUCTURE + ENVELOPE_35_


3.03 SOLAR SHADING_

Development diagrams showing external metal skin_ Examples using Perforated Metal Skins_

CANOPY + OVERHANGS_

SOLAR SHADING_ ‘Windows facing east admit sunlight for a relatively short part of the working day in the morning which can be used to warm the building before the daily air temperature has risen. East elevations can be protected by fixed vertical shading “blinkers”.’ - www.theenvironmentalhandbook.com/handbook.

THE OFFICE SPACES ARE ORIENTATED ALONG THE EAST FACE OF THE YL+P, THIS MANING THAT THE RETRACTABLE SECTIONS WITHIN THE FACADE CAN BE LEFT PARTIALLY OPEN THROUGHOUT MOST OF THE DAY TO ADMIT REFLECTED OR DIFFUSE LIGHT FROM THE NORTH WHILE STILL BLOCKING DIRECT SUNLIGHT. SO HOW IS DIRECT GAIN [REVENTED ALONG THE GROUND AND FIRST FLOOR FACADES?

Perforated metal Skin_East/South/West Facade_

Second Floor through metal skim by night_

- A 2000MM OVERHANG FROM THE SECOND FLOOR STRUCTURE ALONG THE EAST FACADE PROVIDES A SUBSTANTIAL CANOPY OVER THE GROUND AND FIRST FLOOR. - THE 7000MM CANTELEVER OVER THE BOUNDARY WALL ACTS SIMILARLY, HOWEVER LIMITS NORTH LIGHT SUBSTANTIALLY. - TO ALLOW NORTH LIGHT INTO THE YL+P THE SECOND FLOOR NORTH FACADE IS GLAZED COMPLETELY ALLOWING NORTH LIGHT TO FLOOD THE BUILDING AND TRANSMIT THROUGH THE FLOORS VIA THE TRIPLE HEIGHT ATRIUM SPACE.

PERFORATED METAL SKIN_ METAL MESHES AND PERFORATED SHEETING APPEAR ALMOST TRANSPARENT, HOWEVER ARE OFTEN A SUITABLE SOLUTION WHERE EXTERNAL VIEWS ARE LIMITED. THE YL+P HOUSES A SEPERATE STRUCTURE ON EACH FLOOR, ARTICULATING THE DIFFERENT FUNCTIONS OF THE BUILDING. THIS WORKING SIMILARLY WITH THE FACADE, WITH THE SECOND FLOOR ‘OPPORTUNITY + INNOVATION’ ACTING INDEPENDENTLY FROM THE REST OF THE YL+P, COMPRISING OF A DOUBLE FACADE. THIS PRIVATE WORKSPACE REQUIRES THE NEED FOR CONTROL OVER INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT. THE PERFORATED COPPER PANELS ACT AS A SCREEN, BY DAY, ALLOWING WORKSPACES TO REMAIN PRIVATE EXTERNALLY WHILE INTERALLY ALLOWING VIEWS OUT. BY NIGHT WE ARE ABLE TO SEE DEEP INTO THE BUILDING PLAN, AS SILHUETTES MOVE AROUND THE SPACES. MANUAL CONTROL OF INTERNAL CONDITIONS INSTILL THE USER WITH A SENSE OF TRUST WITHIN THEIR ENVIRONMENT. THIS IS ENABLE HERE BY THE USE OF DOUBLE FACADE WHERE OCCUPANTS CAN OPEN OR CLOSE SLIDING OFFICE DOORS ONTO SERVICE CORRIDORS ENCOURAGING NATURAL VENTILATION, WHILE THE PERFORATED SHEETING REDUCING THE AMOUNT OF DAYLIGHT PENETRATING WINDOWS. SHOULD THE OCCUPANT WISH TO INCREASE DAYLIGHT TRANSMITTANCE AND IMPROVE AIR QUALITY. RECTRACTABLE PANELS CAN BE FOLDED VIA A MECHANICAL SYSTEM ALLOWING FOR GENEROUS 2000MM x 2000MM OPENINGS WITHIN THE FACADE. ALTHOUGH DESIGNED WITH THE INTENTION TO IMPROVE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS WITHIN THE OFFICE SPACES, WITH THESE OPENINGS MAY COME ACOUSTIC AND AIR POLLUTION AS A RESULT OF HEAVY TRAFFIC FROM SURROUNDING ROAD AND RAILWAY NETWORKS.

SECTIONAL STUDY DETAILS THE OVERSHADOWING OF THE BUILDING BY THE NO SKYLINE RULE AND SECOND FLOOR OVERHANG.

STRUCTURE + ENVELOPE_36_


3.04 ENVELOPE + GLAZING_

Pilkington OptiPhon_ THE INNER SKIN OF THE DOUBLE FACADE CONSISTS OF PILKINGTON OPTIPHON GLAZING. THIS PARTICULAR GLAZING SOLUTION INCORPERATES A SPECIAL PVB INTERLAYER FOR CALCULATED SOUND INSULATION PERFORMANCE WITHOUT COMPROMISING ON LIGHT TRANSMITTANCE. THIS IS A SUITABLE SOLUTION WHICH PROVIDES ACOUSTIC PROTECTION FROM THE RAILWAY WHICH THE SECOND FLOOR IS PARALLEL WITH.

PRECEDENT STUDY_TRANSLUCENT SKIN_

Des Moines Library, Iowa, USA, David Chipperfield Architects_ Facade is comprised using triple glazing units with an intigrated metal mesh. The three dimensional quality of the mesh allows for clear views out of the building but reduces the solar gain through the facade by upto 80% reducing the buildings cooling load significantly.

OKALUX OKATECH WRAPS AROUND THE ENTIRE STRUCTURE SPANNING THE VOID BETWEEN THE WALL AND THE SECOND FLOOR. OKATECH IS AN ARMOURED LAMINATED GLASS WITH RESIDUAL STABILITY, THUS MEANING THE PREVENTION OF COMPLETE SYSTEM FAILURE SHOULD ONE PANEL BE BROKEN. THE OKATECH EXPANDED METAL COPPER LOW EMISSIVITY GLAZING IS COMPRISED OF FOVE LAYERS: - AN EXTERNAL PANE OF THERMALLY TREATED GLASS FOLLOWED BY A CAVITY CONTAINING THE EXPANDED COPPER MESH - AN INTERMEDIATE PANE MADE OF THERMALLY TREATED GLASS - A 12MM ARGON FILLED CAVITY PROVIDING A U-VALUE OF 0.21 - AN INNER PANE MADE OF THERMALLY TREATED GLASS

OKATECH_Build Up_

THESE GLAZING SOLUTIONS OPTIMISE THE CONDITIONS ON SITE IN TERMS OF ORIENTATION AND UTILISATION OF AVAILABLE SUNLIGHT, WHILE TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE ACOUSTIC FACTORS WHICH WILL AFFECT THE QUALITY OF THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENTS.

PANEL SIZES OF THIS SPECIFICATION CAN OBTAIN MAXIMUM WIDTHS OF 1580MM AND MAXIMUM LENGTHS OF 4000MM OFFERING EFFICIENT SOLAR CONTROL AS WELL AS PROVACY SCREENING FROM OUTSIDE TO INSIDE. OKATECH HAS A TRANSMITTANCE VALUE OF 35 WHILE THE LOW EMISSIVITY E COATING HAS A U VALUE OF 1.2W/m2K AND A SOLAR TRANSMISSION OF 5%

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3.05 DAYLIGHTING_

THE YOUNG LIT + PHIL IS FILTERED WITH AN ABUNDANCE OF NATURAL LIGHTING, THREE SIMPLE FACTORS CONSIDERED WITHIN THE DESIGN PROCESS HAVE DETERMINED GREAT USE OF NATURAL LIGHTING. UNDERSTANDING OF THESE PRINCIPLES HAS ALLOWED FOR A SOPHISTICATED APPROACH TO LIGHTING DESIGN AND THE LAYOUT OF INTERNAL SPACES.

2 - 1 RATIO USEFUL DAYLIGHT WILL PENETRATE INTO A ROOM FOR ABOUT TWICE THE HEIGHT OF THE WINDOW WALL. THE DEPTH OF OPEN PLAN, SIDE LIT FLOORPLATES IS A SUITABLE COMPROMISE BETWEEN PROVIDING ENOUGH DEPTH TP ALLOW FLEXIBLE PLANNING WHILE MAINTAINING GOOD VIEWS EXTERNALLY AND PROVIDING GOOD DAYLIGHT AND CROSS VENTILATION. THE FLOOR TO CEILING HEIGHTS IN THE YL+P ARE 4.5M, HALF OF THE MAXIMUM DEPTH OF THE FLOORPLAN, THUS COMPLYING WITH THE 2 - 1 RATIO PRINCIPLE.

ROOFLIGHT ALTHOUGH THE BUILDING PLAN IS SHALLOW, ALLOWING FOR THE EXECUTION OF THE DESIGN TO MEET THE 2 - 1 RATIO, THE LENGTH OF THE SITE FROM THE NORTH TO THE SOUTH FACADE (47M) BROUGHT ABOUT THE NEED TO FIT ROOFLIGHTS AS FREQUENTLY AS POSSIBLE ABOVE THE OFFICE AND THE VERTICAL CIRCULATION SPACES. A ROOFLIGHT WILL LET IN 2.5 TIMES MORE DAYLIGHT PER M2 THAN A WINDOW. MORE SKY IS VISIBLE THROUGH THE ROOFLIGHTS THAN THROUGH A WINDOW EQUAL IN SIZE, SIMILARLY THE SKY IS BRIGHTER DIRECTLY OVERHEAD. DESPITE THE APPARENT ADVANTAGES OF ROOFLIGHTING, SOLUTIONS MUST BE CONSIDERED IN ORDER TO REDUCE EXCESSIVE SOLAR GAIN. PILKINGTON ECLIPSE ADVANTAGE GLAZING IS USED OFFERING ENERGY EFFICIENT SOLAR CONTROL.

BY INTERPRETING THE NO SKYLINE RULE WE CAN GENERALLY ASSUME THAT DURING SUMMER SOLSTICE WHEN THE SUN IT AT ITS HIGHEST POINT IN THE SKY, THE MAJORITY OF SPACES WITHIN THE YL+P CAN BE DAYLIT. LIGHTING LEVELS AT THE BUILDING ENTRANCE WILL BE LOWER AS A RESULT OF OVERSHADOWING CAST BY THE EXISTING MASONRY WALL.

NO SKYLINE ‘The real test of good daylighting is often whether you can see the sky from where you sit or stand. If you can it is more likely to be a well daylit space. For daylight to penetrate deep into the room the glazing should be as high as possible in the window wall’ - http://www.theenvironmentalhandbook.com THE SECTIONAL STUDIES ADJACENT ILLUSTRATE THIS PRINCIPLE

USING DAYLIGHTING RULES OF THUMB, THE SPACES WHICH WILL BE MOSTLY DAY LIT CAN BE IDENTIFIED. THE OFFICES SPACES ARE LIT PREDOMINANTLY BY MEANS OF ROOF LIGHTING WHILE NORTH LIGHT FLOODS THE ATRIUM SPACE. THE IT + MEDIA ZONE IS GENERALLY THE MOST POORLY LIT AND TASK LIGHTING MAY BE REQUIRED.

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3.06 DAYLIGHT FACTOR_

CALCULATING THE AVERAGE DAYLIGHT FACTOR ADF= W θ T/ A(1-R2) Where: W is the glazing area θ is the angle of visible sky T is the glazing transmittance (0.65 double glazing) A is the area of the enclosing room surfaces R is the average reflectance of the room surfaces (approx 0.5 for light coloured rooms)

THE AVERAGE DAYLIGHT FACTOR FOR THE OFFICE SPACE W - 75m2 θ - 25o T - 0.65 A - 192m2 R - 0.5 An average daylight factor of 6 - 7% is achieved within the temporary office space, this is more than sufficient as the space utilises natural daylight through rooflights and floor to ceiling height glazing on the east and westerly facade. This factor is obtained without taking into account the effect of the double facade. the perforated metal skin will reduce daylight penetration across both facades reducing the daylight factor to the recommended 5%

THE AVERAGE DAYLIGHT FACTOR FOR THE LIBRARY W - 90m2 θ - 25o T - 0.65 A - 440m2 R - 0.5 An average daylight factor of 3 - 4% is achieved within the library space and is perhaps not daylit sufficiently enough. Despite this excessive direct sunlight would damage the books so the integration of artificial lighting systems would be more efficient.

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3.07 VENTILATION_

TRICKLE VENTING_

THE METABOLIC HEAT GENERATION WITHIN THE LIBRARY IS DEPENDENT UPON THE LEVEL OF ACTIVITY, TYPICALLY OFFICE ACTIVITIES SUCH AS TYPING, FILING AND MOVING ABOUT THE SPACE CAN GENERATE BETWEEN 65 AND 100W/m2 SIMILARLY ACTIVITY WITHIN THE LIBRARY, EXHIBITION AND MEDIA ZONES CAN REACH UP TO 145W/m2 . THE INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT MUST THEREFORE BE CONTROLLED TO ALLOW FOR THERMAL COMFORT, WHICH CAN BE DEFINED AS A ‘Sense of well being with respect to temperature ‘ Fitzgerald, E, McNicholl, A, Robert, A, Owen, J (2008). A Green Vitruvius.

to allow for natural ventilation within the building envelope Trickle vents are fitted into the joints of the glazed roof light which sits above the triple height atrium space, and similarly in the joints between the Okatech and the floor above. This solution allows for natural ventilation in all types of weather, a key feature within this main atrium space.

STRIKING A BALANCE BETWEEN THE HEAT GENERATED BY HUMANS WITHIN THE SPACE AND THE LOSS OF HEAT TO THE SURROUNDINGS CAN BE CONTROLLED BY NATURAL VENTILATION WHOSE PRIMARY AIMS ARE TO REDUCE INTERNAL TEMPERATURES USING COOL AIR FROM OUTSIDE AND THE COOLING EFFECT OF AIR MOVEMENT. TRICKLE VENT IN ATRIUM/WALL CONNECTION GENERALLY THE SHALLOW PLAN ASSISTS IN MAXIMISING THE FLOW OF NATURAL VENTILATION. THE PLAN REACHES A MAXIMUM OF 10M IN WIDTH FROM THE EAST TO THE WEST FACADE, IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT THE WIDTH IS DOUBLE THE FLOOR TO CEILING HEIGHT (5M) IN ORDER FOR NATURAL CROSS VENTILATION TO WORK EFFECTIVELY.

GROUND FLOOR_

ON THE WHOLE THE PERFORMANCE OF NATURAL VENTILATION WITHIN THE LIBRARY IS HIGH REDUCING THE REQUIREMENT FOR MECHANICAL SOLUTIONS AS A PRIMARY SYSTEM.

FIRST FLOOR_

THE YL+P PREDOMINANTLY USES CROSS AND STACK VENTILATION WHICH IS ENABLED BY OPENESS OF PLAN AND BY VOIDS IN THE FLOOR PLATES WHICH PERMIT DOUBLE AND TRIPLE HEIGHT ATRIUM SPACES. THE MAIN TRIPLE HEIGHT ATRIUM SPACE IS A CRUCIAL ASPECT WITHIN THE BUILDING DESIGN DIRECTING AIR FLOE INTO AND OUT OF THE THREE FLOORS WITHIN THE BUILDING.

SECOND FLOOR_

EACH FLOOR IN TURN CONTRIBUTES TO POSITIVE AIR FLOW AS OPENINGS AT LOW AT HIGH LEVELS ASSIST AIR FLOW TRANSFER HORIZONTALLY ACROSS THE PLAN. THIS CROSS VENTILATION ACTS AS A BACK UP FOR THE PRIMARY VERTICAL STACKING SYSTEM. AXONOMETRIC DETAIL OF FLOOR PLANS ILLUSTRATES STACK VENTILLATION OPERATING VERTICALLY THROUGH ATRIUM SPACES, LIFT SHAFT, FIRE STAIRS AND VOIDS WITHIN THE FLOORPLATES.

PLANS SHOW THE EFFECT OF CROSS VENTILATION AND STACK VETILATION, SEE PAGE 25 FOR SECTIONAL DETAILS.

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PART E: MECHANICAL SYSTEMS_

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4.01 ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING_

‘When daylight is not sufficient to meet the required light levels in a space, artificial lighting will be necessary. It is important that the daylighting and artificial lighting scheme should complement one another.’ - www.theenvironmentalhandbook.com/handbook.

‘An artificial lighting scheme can have a dramatic effect on the visual appearance and functionality of a space. The balance of light between direct and indirect needs to be considered. Washing a wall with light can help to lift a space and make it feel brighter then it really is. Any lighting scheme needs to consider maintenance access for cleaning and bulb replacement, it also needs to provide emergency lighting for safe escape from the building’ - www.theenvironmentalhandbook.com/handbook

ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING SYSTEM

SECOND FLOOR_

THE ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING SYSTEM IS TO BE USED AS A BACKUP WHEN NATURAL DAYLIGHTING LEVELS ARE LOW COMMONLY IN THE LATE AFTERNOON. AS THE YL+P IS PREDOMINANTLY DAY LIT A SERIES OF UPLIGHTERS AND DOWNLIGHTERS ARE USED THROUGHOUT THE GROUND AND FIRST FLOOR IN ORDER TO ENHANCE THE VISUAL AESTHETIC, BOTH REFLECTING LIGHT AND CASTING SHADOWS FOR A HIGH TECH APPEAL. UPLIGHTERS ON THE GROUND FLOOR ARE MOUNTED WITHIN THE FLOOR PROVIDING A RAY OF LIGHT TO ILLUMINATE THE EXISTING MASONRY WALL AND EXPOSED STRUCTURE. THIS LIGHT IS REFLECTED FROM THE HARD, NEUTRAL COLOURED INTERIOR SURFACES OF THE WALLS AND CEILING. DUE TO THE HIGH 4.5M FLOOR TO CEILING HEIGHTS THESE UPLIGHTING SPOTS ALLOW FOR BOTH EASY AND SAFE MAINTAINENCE. LED TRACK LIGHTS ARE LOCATED WITHIN THE BOOKCASE, GUIDING VISITORS ALONG THE LIBRARY SPINE AS WELL AS PROVIDING AN IMPROVED QUALITY OF BLUE LIGHT IN WHICH TO BROWSE AND READ THE BOOKS COMFORTABLY.

FIRST FLOOR_

CENTRALLY THROUGHOUT THE ACCOMODATION A STRING OF DOWNLIGHTERS ARE SUSPENDED 2M FROM THE CEILING HEIGHT, AGAIN TO ALLOW FOR SAFE AND EASY MAINTAINENCE WHILE EMBODYING THE ENTIRE SCHEME CONCEPT OF THE LIGHT BULB AND ITS UNIVERSAL LINK TO INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGY. THE PERMANENT AND TEMPORARY OFFICE SPACES FITTED WITH HIGH EFFICIENCY TASK LIGHTING WHICH WILL REDUCE THERMAL GAIN AND ENERGY CONSUMPTION. ALTHOUGH THESE LIGHTS ARE FITTED FLUSH WITHIN THE 4.5M HIGH CEILING, THEY ARE POSITIONED TOWARD THE EDGES OF THE ROOM WHERE FURTHER STABILITY CAN BE OBTAINED DURING MAINTAINENCE SHOULD A BULB NEED TO BE CHANGED. LED LIGHTING IS CONSIDERABLY MORE EFFICIENT THAN STANDARD INCANDESCANT LIGHTING PROVIDING AN IMPROVED QUALITY OF COLD LIGHT AND LONGER LIFE SPAN.

GROUND FLOOR_

EMERGENCY LIGHTING IS FITTED ALONG THE CIRCULATION SPIBE TO GUIDE OCCUPANTS TO THE NEAREST ROUTE OF ESCAPE DURING THE EVENT OF A FIRE. SIMILARLY THIS LIGHTING CAN BE FOUND IN THE STAIRWELL AND AT EXIT AND ENTRANCES, ENSURING A VISIBLE ESCAPE ROUTE.

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4.02 MECHANICAL VENTILATION_

MECHANICAL VENTILATION IS EMPLOYED WHERE NATURAL VENTILATION IS EITHER NOT POSSIBLE OR INSUFFICIENT IN PROVIDING THE REQUIRES AIR QUALITY. AS MENTIONED PREVIOUSLY THE KEY AREAS REQUIRING MECHANICAL VENTILATION ARE: PLANT ROOM WCS KITCHEN IT + MEDIA ZONE OTHER SPACES COULD BENEFIT CONSIDERABLY FROM THE AID OF MECHANICAL SYSTEMS HOWEVER IT IS UNDERSTOOD THAT THESE AREAS SUCH AS THE TEMPORARY OFFICE SPACES SHOULD BE MANAGED INDEPENDENTLY BY THE USER THROUGH OPERATION OF THE DOUBLE FACADE IN WHICH TO SUPPLY MORE AIRFLOW IF REQUIRED. PRINCIPLE ADVANTAGES OF MECHANICAL SYSTEMS INCLUDE; - THE ABILITY FOR BETTER VENTILATION CONTROL DURING PERIODS OF HIGH OCCUPANCY - IMPROVED CONTROL OVER AIR QUALITY AS MECHANICAL VENTILATION IS CAPABLE OF FILTERING INCOMING AIR. - IMPROVED CONTROL OF AIR QUALITY WHERE HIGH HUMIDITY OR HIGH LEVELS OF INTERNAL POLLUTION ARE GENERATED FOR EXAMPLE IN WC’S AND KITCHENS - ENHANCED SYSTEMS WHICH CAN BE MANIPULATED TO PROVIDE HEATING AND COOLING ADDING A DEGREE OF FUTURE PROOFING, SHOULD THE BUILDING USE AND CLIMATE CHANGE WITH FUTURE USE. - EXHAUSTING HEAT FROM EQUIPMENT AND APPLIANCES

DUCTWORK THE PLAN ABOVE SHOWS MECHANICAL SERVICING THROUGHOUT THE BUILDING. DUCTWORK IS FED ALONG THE CIRCULATION SPINE WITHIN THE SUSPENDED CEILINGS FROM THE PLANT ROOM DISTRIBUTING AIRFLOW ACROSS EACH FLOOR, WHILE VERTICAL RISERS ARE FED THROUGH THE FIRE STAIR WELL AND LIFT SHAFT SIMILARLY TO DISTRIBUTE AIRFLOW EVEVLY ACROSS THE FLOORS. GENERALLY WITH DUCT WORK IT IS SUGGESTED THAT THE BIGGER THE DUCT THE LOWER THE AIR SPEED, FAN ENERGY AND NOISE. THE DUCTS WORK MORE EFFICIENTLY WHEN RECTANGULAR IN PROFILE, DRAWING AIR EASIER THROUGH THE BUILDING. MORE CONSIDERATION NEEDED TO BE TAKEN IN TERMS OF ALLOWING SUFFIENT SPACE FOR DUCTS HORIZONTALLY AND ENABLING EASIER ACCESS AND MAINTAINENCE.

WHILE DISADVANTAGES INCLUDE; - HIGH CAPITAL COSTS - COMPLEXITY OF CONTROLS AND MAINTAINENCE - LACK OF INDEPENDENT CONTROL BY THE USER WHEN COMPARATIVE TO THAT OF NATURAL VENTILATION ‘the psychological benefits of opening a window should not be underestimated.’ - - Ian Taylor. Feilden Clegg Bradley, Environmental Handbook 2007.

DESPITE THE OBVIOUS DOWNFALLS OF MECHANICAL VENTILATION, THE REQUIREMENT TO PROVIDE TO AN ABSOLUTE CONTROL OVER THE BUILDING ENVIRONMENT IN ORDER TO PROVIDE HUMAN COMFORT AND FURTHER THE AVERAGE BUILDING LIFE, MECHANICAL VENTILATION IS A BOTH SUITABLE AND SENSIBLE SOLUTION.

PLANT ROOM AS STATED PREVIOUSLY THE PLANT ROOM IS USED PRIMARILY FOR STORAGE AND SERVICING, IT DOES NOT HOLD ANY PRECIOUS OBJECTS WHICH REQUIRE SPECIFIC LEVELS OF LIGHT OR HUMIDITY CONTROL, THE SPRINKLER SYSTEM, UNDERFLOOR HEATING, MECHANICAL VENTILATION, ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING AND WASTE DISPOSAL SYSTEMS ARE ALL CONTROLLES FROM THIS SPACE. HOWEVER BECAUSE THE PLANT ROOM IS PARTIALLY UNDERGROUND A GRADE 3 LEVEL OF PROTECTION MUST BE OBTAINED TO SUIT THE PLANT ROOM USE, THIS DRY ENVIRONMENT IS ACHIEVED BY COMPRISING A TANKING SYSTEM WITH PREPUFE CONTINUOUS WATERPROOFING MEMBRANE, SURROUNDING THE EXTERIOR CONCRETE WALLS PREVENTING GROUND WATER PENETRATION. MECHANICAL EXTRACTION SYSTEMS WILL BE USED HERE TO REMOVE CONDENSATION AND OTHER POLLUTANTS WHICH MAY AFFECTS THE HUMIDITY OF THE SPACE.

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4.03 HEATING SYSTEMS_

UNDERFLOOR HEATING

INTERFACE INTERCELL Space Saving Modular Flooring System

THE UNDERFLOOR HEATING IS USED PRIMARILY AS A BACKUP SOLUTION WHEN THE NATURAL EFFECT OF THERMAL MASS OPERATING WITHIN THE CONCRETE COMPOSITE FLOOR SLABS IS INSUFFICIENT IN ACHIEVING THERMAL COMFORT FOR ENTERPRISING PROFESSIONALS, STUDENTS AND PUBLIC ALIKE. THESE MECHANICAL HEATING SYSTEMS SHOULD ONLY NEED TO BE USED DURING THE WINTER MONTHS WHERE INTERNAL TEMPERATURES MUST LIE BETWEEN 21OC AND 24OC.

THIS SUSTAINABLE FLOORING SOLUTION IS SUITABLE FOR OFFICE LIFE UTILISING CABLE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS TO DISTRIBUTE UNDERFLOOR HEATING PIPES FOR EFFECTIVE CONDUCTIVITY AVOIDING UNECESSARY COSTS AND ALLOWING FOR EASE OF WORKSPACE CHANGE.

WARMAFLOOR TACKER SYSTEM Underfloor Heating System

KINGSPAN KOOLTHERM Rigid Insulation Board

THE INSULATION PANELS ARE EXPANDED POLYSTYRENE LAMINATED WITH A FABRIC POLYTHENE RE-ENFORCING FOIL. THE FOIL IS WATER RESISTANT AND IS PROVIDED WITH OVERLAPS ON TWO ADJACENT SIDES TO COVER ADJACENT PANELS.

BUILDINGS REQUIRE THE USE OF INSULATION TO BOTH REDUCE HEAT LOSS WHEN EXTERNAL CONDITIONS ARE COLDER THAN WE WOULD LIKE AND ALSO TO MINIMISE HEAT GAIN WHEN THESE CONDITIONS ARE HOTTER.

EDGE INSULATION IS LAID AROUND THE AREA TO BE HEATED, PROVIDING A BARRIER AGAINST PERIMETER HEAT LOSS AND EXPANSION. THE WARMAFLOOR INSULATED TACKER PANELS ARE THEN LAID OVER THE COMPLETE FLOOR AREA. WARMAFLOOR PB PIPEWORK IS THEN LAID OUT IN CIRCUITS AND SECURED INTO THE TACKER PANEL BY SPECIALLY DESIGNED STAPLES, INSTALLED WITH A TACKER GUN. THESE STAPLES ARE FULLY RETAINED BY THE FABRIC THEREBY PREVENTING THE PIPEWORK LIFTING DURING THE CREEDING PROCESS.

KINGSPAN KOOLTHERM RIGID INSULATION BOARD IS USED WITHIN THE FLOOR PLATES OF THE YL+P ASSISTING IN REDUCING DOWNWARD HEAT. THIS PARTICULAR PRODUCT HAS A THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF 0.020–0.023 W/m.K AND CAN OBTAIN A U-VALUE OF 0.2.

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4.04 WATER MANAGEMENT_

“Climate change is forcing us to consider localised water management and storage in order to reduce flooding and maintain good supplies in dry periods. More than 40% of the water we use at home is flushed down the toilet or used for maintenance. Using portable water with its relatively high embodied energy for these purposes makes little economic sense.” - Feilden Clegg Bradley, Environmental Handbook 2007, p. 226

RAINWATER HARVESTING_ RAINWATER HARVESTING IS THE PRACTICE OF COLLECTING RAINWATER RUN OFF FROM THE ROOF AND FILTERING IT THROUGH A PIPEWORK SYSTEM TO STORE IT FOR REUSE AS AND WHEN REQUIRED. BY FILTERING DURING THE COLLECION PROCESS, AND DEBRIS OR POLLUTANTS ARE REMOVED PRIOR TO STORAGE, RESULTING IN CLEAN, CLEAR WATER SUITABLE FOR A VARIETY OF USES SUCH AS IRRIGATION, WHICH CAN RESULT IN CONSIDERABLE COST SAVINGS. EMPLOYMENT OF THIS SYSTEM PROVIDES FURTHER ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFIT BY REDUCING THE RISK OF FLOODING AND CONSEQUENT MAINTAINENCE AND REPAIR WORK.

SECTION DETAILS RAINWATER HARVESTING SYSTEM WHICH COLLECTS SURFACE WATER FROM THE FLAT ROOF AND CHANNELS IT INTO A STORAGE TANK BELOW GROUND.

WATER MANAGEMENT SPRAY TAPS ON HAND BASINS WILL BE USED IN BOTH THE PUBLIC WC, STAFF WC, KITCHEN AND STAFF KITCHEN. THIS SYSTEM IS ENVIRONMENTALLY BENEFICIAL AS ARE CAPABLE OF SAVING A MAXIMUM OF 80% OF THE WATER AND ENERGY USED TYPICALLY BY STANDARDISED PILLAR TAPS AS THEY ARE ELECTRONICALLY CENSORED TO CONTROL THE AMOUNT OF WATER USED AT ANY ONE TIME PREVENTING WASTAGE AND FLOODING.

THIS DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATES THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF A DIRECT SYSTEM

IMAGE DETAILING WATER SENSOR TAP

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PART F: REFERENCES + BIBLIOGRAPHY_

REFERENCES + BIBLIOGRAPHY_46_


5.0 REFERENCES_

- http://www.architecture.com/SustainabilityHub/Designstrategies/Earth/1-1-3-1-siteplanning.aspx - Accessed 13.02.13 - http://www.architecture.com/SustainabilityHub/Designstrategies/Earth/1-1-3-2-Buildingorientation.aspx - Accessed 13.02.13 - http://www.theenvironmentalhandbook.com/handbook.asp?sectionCode=01#01.07.01 - Accessed 29.02.13 - http://www.theenvironmentalhandbook.com/handbook.asp?sectionCode=01#01.02 - Accessed 03.03.13 - http://www.theenvironmentalhandbook.com/handbook.asp?sectionCode=01#01.03 - Accessed 08.03.13 - http://www.theenvironmentalhandbook.com/handbook.asp?sectionCode=02#02.04.03 - Accessed 05.03.13 - http://www.greenspec.co.uk/image-bank/devonshire/ - Accessed 18.02.13 - http://www.archdaily.com/107500/ad-classics-kunsthaus-bregenz-peter-zumthor/ - Accessed 18.02.13 - http://inhabitat.com/mecanoos-tu-delft-library-crowned-with-a-massive-green-roof/ - Accessed 18.02.13 - http://www.theenvironmentalhandbook.com/handbook.asp?sectionCode=01#01.08.02 - Accessed 29.01.13

REFERENCES + BIBLIOGRAPHY_47_


5.01 IMAGES_

Newcastle-Upon-Tyne Sunpath Diagram_ http://www.gaisma.com/en/sunpath/newcastle-upon-tyne.png 23.01.13 Newcastle-Upon_Tyne Wind Rose_ http://www.windfinder.com/windstats/windstatistic_newcastle.htm Noise Levels_ http://www.alabamabeltone.com/images/protecting_hearing_image.GIF Road noise Day_ http://services.defra.gov.uk/wps/portal/noise/!ut/p/c5/hY3bDkNQFEQ_aY86bo-cNqhbW7R4EUmbhtQlIYSvLx-gnXlcWTOU0dqmGMt3MZRtU3wooUzOualbTHEBiKEE2wwkh4UM4Fh5us8h_rEflIDlYaV23jwk7sLHqFqus1fx2T_ak7-cFk9LLs_7LTZ03ZH63lmd7Nfq9rlx7EQH-VZbvyilTMll01UFI4AG6yDC5tFZ0eCLYAJFlBrU1fHYWRO-9Kd2NA!!/dl3/d3/L0lDU0lKSmdwcGlRb0tVUm1abUEhL29Kb2dBRUlRaGpFQ1VJZ0FJQUl5RkFNaHdVaFM0SlJFQXdDR2lJQmdBREVRREFBV0lnR0FBY1JBTUFBQS80QzFiOVdfTnIwZ0NVZ3hFbVJDVXdnISEvN182R0w4MUJPMDkwSDIzMElDVEo3OTBOMzA0MS9VOldpSTI4MDcwMDEyLzIyMDI5MjkxOTIwMi9qYXZheC5zZXJ2bGV0LmluY2x1ZGUucGF0aF9pbmZvLyUwTWFwUG9ydGxldE1hcHMuanNw/ Road Noise Night_ http://services.defra.gov.uk/wps/portal/noise/!ut/p/c5/04_SB8K8xLLM9MSSzPy8xBz9CP0os3hnd0cPE3MfAwMD42BTA093f1Nvk2ATAwNnA6B8JG55A2MCusNB9uHXD5I3wAEcDfT9PPJzU_ULciMMskwcFQHW4PMe/dl3/d3/L0lDU0lKSmdrS0NsRUpDZ3BSQ1NBL29Ob2dBRUlRaGpFS0lRQUJHY1p3aklDa3FTaFNOQkFOYUEhIS80QzFiOVdfTnIwZ0RFU1pJSlJERVNaTUpRaUlrZmchIS83XzZHTDgxQk8wOTBIMjMwSUNUSjc5ME4zMDQxL3Q6V2lJMjgwNzAwMDEvaWJtLmludi8yMjAyOTIwNzQ2NjUvamF2YXguc2VydmxldC5pbmNsdWRlLnBhdGhfaW5mby8lME1hcFBvcnRsZXRJbnN0cnVjdGlvbnMuanNw/ Rail Noise Day_ http://services.defra.gov.uk/wps/portal/noise/!ut/p/c5/hY1JDoJAFESP9EtpGZZtk9BIAyqgwIaQaAxEhgWBwOmFA6hVy5dXRTmtbcuxepVD1bXlm1LK9UI4XDJDAdCiA1wnPHgsYoDAyrPvHNof-04pWBHVZu_PQ6oWMcb1cpn9WsyB7c2-4pM_qPPjdk2O3I4TxsXq5L9Wt8-N40s4KJBd86SMcqPQHWXujiEsyL0GV8Qnw0Kgge0opsymvknGXk74ACkf6F8!/dl3/d3/L0lDU0lKSmdwcGlRb0tVUm1abUEhL29Kb2dBRUlRaGpFQ1VJZ0FJQUl5RkFNaHdVaFM0SlJFQXdDR2lJQmdBREVRREFBV0lnR0FBY1JBTUFBQS80QzFiOVdfTnIwZ0NVZ3hFbVJDVXdnISEvN182R0w4MUJPMDkwSDIzMElDVEo3OTBOMzA0MS96OldpSTI4MDcwMDA0LzIyMDI5MjM0MTQ1OC9qYXZheC5zZXJ2bGV0LmluY2x1ZGUucGF0aF9pbmZvLyUwTWFwUG9ydGxldE1hcHMuanNw/ Rail noise night_ http://services.defra.gov.uk/wps/portal/noise/!ut/p/c5/hY3dEkJgGIQv6d34_B3yaVAooXBiTJqGiUxjFFcfF6B2D595dimjuW0xVPeir55t8aCEMjnnlm4zxQUghhIc6yDtWcgAjpmn6xziH_tCCVge1mrnjX3iTnyI6ikYvZqPvukIXhR8-tI8ludTbOiGdPVf2uxkv1aXz4VjJTrIt5_NjVLKlFy2XHVjHKDBFkQ4PNopGnwRbEMRpVvqmnjo7De-x8ZNww!!/dl3/d3/L0lDU0lKSmdwcGlRb0tVUm1abUEhL29Kb2dBRUlRaGpFQ1VJZ0FJQUl5RkFNaHdVaFM0SlJFQXdDR2lJQmdBREVRREFBV0lnR0FBY1JBTUFBQS80QzFiOVdfTnIwZ0NVZ3hFbVJDVXdnISEvN182R0w4MUJPMDkwSDIzMElDVEo3OTBOMzA0MS9oOldpSTI4MDcwMDA1LzIyMDI5MjQ3NDU5Ny9qYXZheC5zZXJ2bGV0LmluY2x1ZGUucGF0aF9pbmZvLyUwTWFwUG9ydGxldE1hcHMuanNw/ Industry noise levels day_ http://services.defra.gov.uk/wps/portal/noise/!ut/p/c5/hY3LDkNQGIQf6R913Jacpmj1oLTFRiS9hFRZiOLpywNoZ5ZfvhnKaO676Mtn0ZXNu3hRQpmac9t0mOYBkCMFru0rBxYxgGPm6TqH_Me-UgKWR5XeHscu8Sbex9UUjseKj2LrDmKyJSEewe1yOlsm34fDJpid7Nfq8rlwrMQECaep75RSpuWq7emS5cOAs5Hh8nivGRAymEQxpTtq63PfOh98AXidniA!/dl3/d3/L0lDU0lKSmdwcGlRb0tVUm1abUEhL29Kb2dBRUlRaGpFQ1VJZ0FJQUl5RkFNaHdVaFM0SlJFQXdDR2lJQmdBREVRREFBV0lnR0FBY1JBTUFBQS80QzFiOVdfTnIwZ0NVZ3hFbVJDVXdnISEvN182R0w4MUJPMDkwSDIzMElDVEo3OTBOMzA0MS9uOldpSTI4MDcwMDA2LzIyMDI5MjU0NDk3MS9qYXZheC5zZXJ2bGV0LmluY2x1ZGUucGF0aF9pbmZvLyUwTWFwUG9ydGxldE1hcHMuanNw/ Industry noise levels night_ http://services.defra.gov.uk/wps/portal/noise/!ut/p/c5/hY1JDoJAFESP9AtpGZbQaoMyqIACG4LRGIgMJgQDpxcOgFYtX14VpTS1zvvimXdFU-cviilVMi4Mi6kOADlYwxb--sACBnBMPFnmkP_YV4rBsqDUWnfoYmfkfViOp8Et-eBtbMm9beHp4fF-OUemYe7elTQ76a_V-XPmWIgB8qymelBCqZopwtEk04cOayXD5uFe1eHJYBKFlAhqq6hvrQ--Kr8hfQ!!/dl3/d3/L0lDU0lKSmdwcGlRb0tVUm1abUEhL29Kb2dBRUlRaGpFQ1VJZ0FJQUl5RkFNaHdVaFM0SlJFQXdDR2lJQmdBREVRREFBV0lnR0FBY1JBTUFBQS80QzFiOVdfTnIwZ0NVZ3hFbVJDVXdnISEvN182R0w4MUJPMDkwSDIzMElDVEo3OTBOMzA0MS91OldpSTI4MDcwMDA3LzIyMDI5MjYyNTUxNi9qYXZheC5zZXJ2bGV0LmluY2x1ZGUucGF0aF9pbmZvLyUwTWFwUG9ydGxldE1hcHMuanNw/ Daylight Factor table_ http://www.theenvironmentalhandbook.com/handbook.asp?sectionCode=01#01.04.01 Surface Reflectance_ http://www.theenvironmentalhandbook.com/handbook.asp?sectionCode=01#01.04.01 Internal finishes reflectance values_ http://www.theenvironmentalhandbook.com/handbook.asp?sectionCode=01#01.04.01

REFERENCES + BIBLIOGRAPHY_48_


Sarphatistraat Offices, Amsterdam. Steven Holl Architects. -www.archweb.it/dwg/Particolari_costruttivi/rivestimenti_facciate/riv_metallo/Riv_Pavillion_holl.jpg Signal Box, Basel, Herzog + de Meuron. - www.heren5.nl/ul/cms/opp/images/1/4/9/1149/large/1149.jpg The Wyckoff Exchange, New York, Andre Kikoski Architect. - www.dezeen.com/2011/01/25/the-wyckoff-exchange-by-andre-kikoski-architect/ Des Moines Library, Iowa, David Chipperfield Architects. - http://www.architypereview.com/img/uploaded/projects/44/545-10-fa-060600-n7.jpg Des Moines Library, Iowa, David Chipperfield Architects. - http://www.wernick.eu.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/Farshid-Assassi-Ph.-Des-Moines-3.jpg

REFERENCES + BIBLIOGRAPHY_49_


5.02 BIBLIOGRAPHY_

Bradley, K; Clegg, P; Fielden, R; Gethin, B (2007). Fielden Clegg Bradley: the emvironmental handbook. London: Right Angle . Bougdah H and Sharples S (2010) Environment, Technology and Sustainability. Taylor & Francis, London Fitzgerald, E, McNicholl, A, Robert, A, Owen, J (2008). A Green Vitruvius: Principles and Practice of Sustainable Architecture. Edwards B. (2005) Rough Guide to Sustainability RIBA London Malta: James & James. Burberry, P (1997) Environment and Services. 8th edn. Harlow: Longman Randall, T (2006) Environmental Design: An Introduction for Architects and Engineers. 3rd edn. Abingdon: Taylor & Francis Roaf S. (2002), Ecohouse A Design Guide, Architectural Press, Oxford www.alabamabeltone.com www.concretecentre.com www.defra.gov.uk www.gaisma.com www.greenspec.co.uk www.theenvironmentalhandbook.com/handbook www.windfinder.com

REFERENCES + BIBLIOGRAPHY_50_


YL+P Environmental Report