Page 1

A R T I F I C I A I N T E L L I G E N C A R T I F I C I A L A R T I F I C I I N T E L L I G E N C E

I N T EA L RL TI GI EF NI I A L

I N T E L L I I F I C I A L E N C E L L I G E N C E ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

A R T I F I C I A L I N T E AL L R I TG IE F E N C E I N T E L L ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE


Hollie Rutter N0698841 Word Count : 3284


CONTENTS


1

Introduction

6

2

Methodology

9

11

Aims of Research

3

The Robot, the Algorithm and the Scientist

The Evolution of Artificial Intelligence

Fuelling Technological Advancement

13

15

19

Fuelling Technological Advancement Millenials - A Driving Race

23

Fuelling Technological Advancement

AI Infiltrating Industry

Calling for Assistant Assistance

The Future of the Music Industry

27

29

AI Infiltrating Industry

AI Infiltrating Industry

The Elimination of the Swipe

Machine Learning for Fashion? Groundbreaking

31

Conclusion

33

Appendix

42

43

Image References

Bibliography

Debates Surrounding Artificial Intelligence.

39

References


INTRODUCTION

The butterfly effect; “the phenomenon whereby a minute localized change in a complex system can have large effects elsewhere.� This theory of chaos is directly applicable to the building momentum and the small victories happening right now in the tech industry – notably the Artificial Intelligence field and how they will grow and spread into bigger, all-reaching industry affects. This report conducts in-depth academic research into the macro trend Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the drivers behind the ever-ominous growing phenomenon, analysing comprehensively how AI is influencing society and calling attention as to how it directly impacts the lifestyle, music and fashion industry. This report will delve into how companies are adapting their businesses and finding innovative ways to respond to AI and how both political tensions and millennials drive the trend into a solidified future. Additionally, this report looks in-depth into how as a society we have let AI evolve and finalising to conclude where the trend may lead and the repercussions for both industry, the human race and consumer.

1


AIMS OF RESEARCH To be able to critically research the trend of AI a various number of research methods and processes were taken into consideration. The aims of the report are as follow;

Aim to critically analyse the macro trend AI with acknowledgment to subtrends and trend drivers that have cemented the trend into longevity. Aim to utilise varying secondary research to give insight into how brands and societal demographics are responding to the trend of AI. Aim to gain an understanding of how consumers are being affected by AI and the long-term effects it will have.

2


METHODOLOGY

Partaking in various methods of research was vital in achieving a broad scope of ideas and opinions on the present and future impact of AI. The use of secondary research such as published books by scientists and industry experts and an in-depth look into TED talks, broadsheet newspapers, podcasts and trend analysis websites such as Trend One and Zenith Media were paramount into scoping out the innerworkings of AI. On the adjacent page are a number of examples that outline the breadth of research taken and displays what methods/sources were the most useful.

3


TREND ANALYSIS WEBSITES

Trend One - The online website Trend One was vital in getting an

in-depth idea of the inner workings of AI as a global trend. Trend One helped to outline sub trends that are affecting society as a consequence of AI such as Intelligent Personal Assistants, Chatbots and Autonomous Mobility. This research was integral to learning the basics of AI.

Zenith Media - When looking into industry impact that AI has had on society Zenith Media’s research into “2017 Trends – Artificial Intelligence. Powering the Consumer Journey was a great starting point. Zenith Media’s report helped to outline a number of subtrends and went in depth into how brands can take advantage of these subtrends and the implications for brands moving forwards.

LIMITATIONS Limitations of trend analysis websites lie within the breadth of knowledge given – Zenith media managed to go into depth with the trend and displayed deep understanding of how AI affects brands, Trend One on the other hand was extremely informative but with little depth and a small quantity of information. Other websites when searching for information on AI, treated AI as a frequently used commodity rather than a macrotrend.

PUBLISHED BOOKS The Master Algorithm- How the Quest for the Ultimate Learning Machine Will Remake our World – Pedro Domingos (Professor of

University of Washington and a researcher in machine learning) looked extensively into the current economic and technological climate that surrounds AI and goes further into providing an extremely helpful insight into the future of AI and his own opinion into the future of AI. This book gave a fascinating outlook into the future of AI and gave premise to considering and forming various opinions and outlooks on the future of AI.

Life 3.0 - Being Human in the Age of Artificial Intelligence – Max Tegmark (physicist and cosmologist, a professor at

the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) An in-depth and technological outline of the possible pending doom or successful incline of AI in our society, this book was particularly helpful in visioning different outcomes to the way in which AI will impact our lives.

LIMITATIONS

Within search through published books to find relevant information to apply to the trend of AI a limitation was the lack of my knowledge and understanding of technical and computer science. Many books went into depth on the inner workings of AI – Life 3.0 included – and this information was easily dispensable as held no relevancy to the topic of AI as an applicable industry trend.


TED TALKS Watching Ted Talks became extremely beneficial when learning about both the societal and industry impacts of AI. Gaining different industry professional expert opinions on the topic was vital, the following TED talks were especially helpful; Ray Kurzwell – Get Ready for Hybrid Thinking. Jeremy Howard – The Wonderful and Terrifying Implications of Computers that can learn. Pierre Barreau – How AI could compose a personalized soundtrack to your life.

LIMITATIONS Limitations that surrounded watching Ted Talks were the age of the talks that were listened to, some of the talks in question dated back to 2013/2014 and although they were paramount in gaining an organic view on AI, AI is ever changing and within the last 2-3 years the AI industry environment is rapidly developing. Ted Talks by industry professionals and entrepreneurs can be bias.

INDUSTRY REPORTS & ARTICLES Whilst looking to the future of AI when applied to specific industries the below articles were helpful in gaining a key understanding and being able to create an informed opinion on where the trend can impact and change the industry in the future. Music’s Smart Future – How Will AI Impact the Music Industry – Music Ally Fashion in 2018 | 07. AI Gets Real – Business of Fashion Team and McKinsey & Co Medium.com – Various articles written by academics on this site were useful

LIMITATIONS

Limitations of gaining knowledge from industry reports and journalist led articles are the undisclosed bias that the author may have – when searching for information around AI impact on industry it was difficult to come across Academic led sources. When researching into the implications of data in regard to the Spotify Business model, there is an implied and acknowledged bias when employees such as Eliot Buskirk (A Spotify Data Storyteller) discuss the benefits of data usage as.

5


6


THE ROBOT, THE ALGORITHM AND THE SCIENTIST Artificial intelligence; noun The theory and development of computer systems able to perform tasks normally requiring human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between languages.

Elon Musk infamously stated in 2014 that with the advancement of Artificial Intelligence we are summoning ‘the demon’, and although the perception and majority of discussion around AI surrounds the purge of human jobs in favour of our robot friends and the oncoming cause of World War 3 through AI superiority at a national level (Musk, 2017) AI in 2018, also known as ’weak AI’, (TrendOne 2018) takes on a much more innocent and subtly helpful form.

Artificial Intelligence refers explicitly to machines learning to do tasks that would require a level of intelligence if the task was taken on by a human, tasks such as problem solving, reasoning, talking and even seeing but in 2018 it includes low level AI such machine learning algorithms.

The term AI itself was first coined in 1956 by John McCarthy, an American computer and cognitive scientist, but was first in the mind and on paper in the workings of Alan Turing in 1950 (see pages 9/10 for full evolution of AI).

7

Thomas H. Davenport and Rajeev Ronanki suggest whilst writing for the Harvard Business Review that Artificial Intelligence in 2018 impacts the way we live in three simple forms; process automation, cognitive insight and cognitive engagement, this illustrates that although there are big dreams for the future of AI, at current the variation of implementation into our daily lives is unsubstantial and impacts society unobtrusively.


“Everything we love about civilization is the product of human intelligence, so if we can amplify it with artificial intelligence, we obviously have the potential to make life even better. Even modest progress in AI might translate into major improvements in science and technology and corresponding reductions of accidents, disease, injustice, war, drudgery and poverty.� (Tegmark, 2017)

8


1950 Computer scientist Alan Turing proposes a test for machine intelligence. If a machine can trick humans into thinking it is human then it has intelligence.

First mass produced autonomous robotic vacuum cleaner from iRobot learns to navigate and clean homes.

2002

1956 Term “Artificial Intelligence” is coined by computer scientist John McCarthy to describe “the science and engineering of making intelligent machines.”

Apple integrates Siri, an intelligent virtual assistant with voice interface, into the iPhone 4S.

2011

THE EVOLUTION OF AI

1961 First industrial robot “Unimate”, goes to work at GM replacing humans on the assembly line.

Eugene Goostman, a chatbot, passes the Turing Test with a third of judges believing he is human.

2014

(Marsden, 2017)


“AI winter multiple AI led start-ups failing

1964

1997

Eliza the first chatbot developed by Joseph Weizenbaum at MIT holds conversation with humans.

Deep Blue, a chess-playing computer from IBM defeats world chess champion Garry Kasparov

Amazon launches Alexa, an intelligent virtual assistant with a voice interface that completes shopping tasks.

Microsoft’s chatbot Tay goes rogue on social media making inflammatory and offensive racist comments.

2016

2016

10

1998 Cynthia Beazeal at MIT introduces KISmet, an emotionally intelligent robot detects and responds to humans feelings.

Google’s A.I. AlphaGo beats world champion Ke Jie in the complex board game of Go, notable for its vast number (2*170) of possible positions.

2017


FUELLING TECHNOLOGICAL To grasp a deep understanding of where the trend Artificial Intelligence has evolved from and where it can lead it is crucial to look at the macro environmental factors that have led to the development of AI, the human needs that it fulfils, shifts & triggers (see appendix fig 2) and the preeminent demographic groups that are shaping Artificial Intelligence and acting as a driver to ensure that AI will become one of the most important technological trends of the 21st century.

11


FUELLING TECHNOLOGICAL

THE POLITICAL RACE Putin once declared at a conference in 2017 that “the one who becomes the leader in this sphere (AI) will be the ruler of the world” and it is becoming clear that most countries have too set their sights on becoming the global leader in AI innovation, political parties and governing bodies will play a large part in the development, potential success and potential downfall of AI as displayed in the PEST analysis in fig.1 the appendix. Alongside these governing bodies, CEO of major corporations such as Amazon, Google, Apple, Microsoft and streaming services will play a key part in the development, implication and innovation of AI in logistic, social media and our everyday lives (Andriole, 2018), ensuring that even if we believe that the evolution of robot existence is detrimental to human existence we will simply have no choice but to be immersed in and surrounded by the AI race. It’s no secret that countries compete – since the Cold War, the race to space and beyond countries have needed stronger, newer and better development strategies to succeed in a world of growing globalization (Churchwell, 2007). Due to the economic growth benefits of being the leader in AI to the extent that countries could “potentially double their economic growth rates by 2035” (Accenture, 2018) within the last year Canada, China, France, India, Japan and the United Kingdom have all launched major government-backed initiatives to compete in AI. (Accenture, 2018) Intelligence agencies have already proven that AI was used to collect social media data and create bots in the form of social media profiles to influence the recent American election (Anderson, 2018,) evidentially as a society we have become less trusting of governing bodies than ever before as TrendOne articulate in their analysis of the trend Distrust Society “there is a growing desire to remove oneself entirely from political and economic interests”; we’re unable to escape, AI is becoming a trend because as long as it is economically profitable the political governing bodies in charge will ensure that it is solidified in our futures.


MILLENNIALS - A DRIVING FORCE

13


FUELLING TECHNOLOGICAL

Michael Dimock, the president of prominent US think tank Pew Research Centre defines Millennials as being born between 1981 and 1996, there are several defining moments in the life of a millennial that have created cultural shifts, these have shaped and moulded millennials into the people they are today; another large cultural shift within the millennial lifetime will be the addition of AI to their everyday lives and the debates that will shroud the upcoming succession of entrylevel jobs and the way in which AI collects and uses data. Millennials have grown with technology and adapt easily, they already prefer to use AI services when interacting with brands online (Arnold, 2018) are more time starved..

than ever fuelling companies such as Uber and Deliveroo with a need to satisfy needs quickly and would even welcome an AI babysitter for their children (see fig3 in appendix). It’s clear that as a demographic group they have the ability to adapt to new situations and embrace new technology that benefits their lifestyle, additionally research has shown that although they fear losing jobs to AI (8 in 10 millennials fear losing their job to AI see appendix fig 4) they are the most positive generation demographic in regard to jobs being created from AI (see fig 5 in appendix), this moderately positive outlook on the future of AI and the fact they’re knowledgeable about the topic (see fig 6 in appendix) shows that millennials are willing to adapt and buy into AI led services, driving the trend into a cemented existence.

14


SUB TRENDS The industry of AI is all-encompassing; stretching over various industries and thus creating a snowball effect whilst penetrating other trends and working hand in hand with them to create both positive and negative effects on society. Understanding sub-trends is crucially important to understanding the inner workings of AI and how it has begun to have a direct effect on different demographic groups, industries and companies.

15


FUELLING TECHNOLOGICAL

CALLING FOR ASSISTANT ASSISTANCE 39 million people in America now own a smart speaker (Perez, 2018) and as previously mentioned the demographic group of millennials already prefer to use AI services when interacting with brands online (Arnold, 2018), with the phenomenon of having a small intelligent personal assistant (IPA) in the home, powered by AI, not slowing down any time soon with the introduction of new smart home technology every year such as the Amazon Echo Look and the introduction of robots into the retail space, the development of future technology will only blur the lines between physical and digital automation (Zenith Media, 2018) further. IPA’s both in the home or through the medium of customer service bots “flatter us with the feeling of being available to help; speech recognition and user profiling ensure a particularly personal user experience” (TrendOne, 2018) filling the human physiological need for both intimate relationships and prestige (Maslow, 1943), giving the owner/consumer of the IPA a sense of intimacy from the responsiveness of the technology they’re using. IPA’s are simply in existence as they create a bridge between technology being a stagnant, non-sensory product and coming to life, giving the owner/consumer a human-like reaction that is fuelled by AI machine learning. An example of IPA’s creating a sound business model is the Hennna Hotel in Sasebo in Japan; by using robots that are considered cute, that are efficient and are articulate as front of house staff the hotel have maintained a high level of business since opening in 2015, now planning to open 8 more hotels across Japan (Baird, 2018).

16


Debate surrounding the future of IPA’s lie within the implementation and normalization of IPA’s in the home. In 2018 we are assisted through voice recognition and through items such as Amazon Alexa and Google Home, for 2018 and beyond discussion has turned to sex bots and home assistants. Films such as Ex Machina (2014), Her (2013) and series such as Black Mirror touch on the future on robot and human interpersonal relationships pushing the idea to the forefront of our minds, and those that have studied the subject believe that within the next century it will become the norm, David Levy the author of “Love and Sex with Robots” argues that “Love with robots will be as normal as love with other humans” and suggests that it will aid mankind in alleviating those who are miserable and lonely into newfound relationships. Weak AI that we know today that works at a low level will have to evolve at some point in the future, the adopted at-home AI may indeed unleash robot romances and for the elderly or the socially challenged, decreasing loneliness and aiding with human companionship however it may bring along ethical questions and impact the future of human bonding and intimacy. The scepticism of robot love is outlined by Orge Castellano, a journalist writing for Medium; “Robotic and AI love begs a lot of morally and ethically questions, to a large extent in terms of love. Love is probably one of the strongest human emotions we get to experience. It’s a complex and a deep universal affection extremely hard to duplicate through computing programming into simulation devices.”

17


FUELLING TECHNOLOGICAL

CALLING FOR ASSISTANT ASSISTANCE

18


THE FUTURE OF THE MUSIC INDUSTRY AI INFILTRATING INDUSTRY

19

The application of algorithmic models to business are both bridging the gap and contrastingly furthering the divide between a more human experience through the impacts of personalization created by AI, whilst simultaneously creating a barrier between future need for human involvement in the industry all together. Streaming industry giants such as Spotify, Apple Music and Deezer actively use data AI application in all aspect of their business models to “analyse users’ behaviour and to analyse the relationship between songs so as to mix in new relevant tracks among a user’s favourites” (MusicAlly, 2018) and tech giants such as Google, Baidu and even commercially accessible companies such as Jukedeck are using AI algorithms to create music compositions in their entirety. At current the largest music streaming service, Spotify, has upward of 83 million paying subscribers (Statista 2018)...


The more we use streaming services the more and more they’re learning about us and applying this knowledge to their AI algorithms, giving us more and more personalised ways to listen and enjoy music. As more data about us is collected in the future, AI algorithms will take into account the music we listen too most when it’s raining, where we listen to pop songs versus where we listen to heavy metal and at what time of the day and make even more personalized recommendations; Google Play even now has begun to contextualise this data and put these practices to action. (MusicAlly, 2018) With frequent news stories such as the Cambridge Analytics case, the application and collection of our data is frequently debated. Elliot Buskirk, Data Storyteller for Spotify believes that the amount of data we create is being used for beneficial reasons, stating that “There is no end to where you can go with the data. If we could help artists find people that are interested in them, only good things can come from that.”

20


“It seems impossible, but when you have that many people listening to music, making playlists, adding things to their collections, it is possible to say that for every single user, here is music that you will enjoy, and we know that you have never listened to it before on Spotify, so here it is. That happens every Monday, and people’s minds are blown. It is a similar feeling to a friend making a mix tape. You feel like “There is no way this thing knows me this well”. That might seem strange or magical or impossible if you are just viewing it as an algorithm, but once you understand that it is all about people, the human element, their responses and reactions, then it makes sense.” (Elliot Buskirk, Data Storyteller 2017)

AI INFILTRATING INDUSTRY

21


The use of AI to compose music brings up the frequently touched-on fear of job loss through AI advancement. Will human composers be rendered useless in a dystopian future? Those writing for MusicAlly believe it will only enhance the human listening experience; “AI is the latest in a stream of new technologies that the music business can use to enhance the connection between artist and fans. It’s time to embrace music’s smart future.”

THE FUTURE OF THE MUSIC INDUSTRY

The implication of AI applied to the music industry does not solely affect the way that we stream music, but it is also starting to effect the way we create music. Jukedeck, a UK start-up state on their website that they are “fuelling creativity using musical AI”, Jukedeck use AI “deep neural networks” (Jukedeck, 2018) to compose background music for games. Additionally, Pierre Barreau when talking at TED conference outlines his company, Avia, that aims to not only create the backing music to films and games but eventually looks to “create the personalized soundtrack for our lives, based on life story and personality.”

22


THE ELIMINATION OF THE SWIPE

AI INFILTRATING INDUSTRY

23


In 2018 the annual revenue in the US for the Online Dating segment amounts to $571m with an annual growth rate of 4.8% in the next 5 years (Statista, 2018). The future of the dating industry is Artificial Intelligence. Innovation and the need to evolve is important in any industry if companies expect to carry on seeing a healthy annual growth rate and the way that we date has change exponentially over the past decade. By analysing the table in fig.7 of the appendix we’re able to visualise just how quick the increase in use of online dating has taken place with there being a steep rise in the use of online dating to meet their partner in both heterosexual and same-sex couples. (Beijing, Mando 2018) Dating in the near future could may eliminate the need to swipe left or right, Tinder’s CEO Sean Rad believes that “Five years from now instead of scrolling, searching, swiping, I think these devices will be intelligent enough to just give you the answer.” Ahead of the game the Asian online dating app “Lunch Actually” already utilises AI; once the participant matches with a partner the app will “check both party’s calendar, book a restaurant of their liking, send reminders and provide directions.” (Ambler, 2018) This will surely be the route that Tinder and dating apps alike in the western world will take, even potentially tapping into the trend of the Experience Economy; 80% of millennials “feel attending live events can help deepen their relationships (Eventbrite, 2018) and creating dating events that take you away from the online platform with a specified amount of people there that you may get along with (Scoped out by AI based algorithms) may work to bridge the world between online and offline dating.

24


THE ELIMINATION OF THE SWIPE Pedro Domingos, a professor and researcher into Machine Learning writing in 2015 believes that at current “machine learning only learns from what you (sic) do, the communication channel is narrow” but contrastingly has large ideas for the future of online communication and dating through the advancement of AI. Domingos predicts that we will obtain an “online self” a complete perfect mirror of us online who will “do our bidding 24 hours a day.”

Contrastingly he admits that:

Interestingly Domingos and a number of other futurists such as Sophie Hackford predict that our “online model will go on millions of dates, so you don’t have to, and come Saturday, you’ll meet your top prospects”.

This demonstrates that although, according the Domingos, most of our lives will be taken care of by our “online-self” there is a level of learning and personalization that ensures dating remains a human experience.

AI INFILTRATING INDUSTRY

“chemistry is hard to predict” but suggests that AI and the Master Algorithm will be able to learn from our own dating disasters and turn it into useable data, the algorithm “hypothesizes possible reasons, which it will test on your next round of dating. It shares its most important findings with you. (“You believe you like X, but in reality, you tend to go for Y.”)”

25


26


MACHINE LEARNING FOR FASHION? GROUNDBREAKING. There are at current, countless possibilities for the future implementation of Artificial Intelligence in the fashion industry. “Leading innovators” are looking into implementing AI “across all parts of the fashion value chain, exploring new ways of creating value for those employed.” (BussinessOfFashion, 2018) AI goes further than the automation of behind the scene processes and beyond 2018 we will see more live examples of how companies are distributing AI into both creative and business led ventures. 90% of all the world’s data has been created and collected within the past 24 months (Marr, 2018) and in 2018 the way that fashion brands are beginning to use this data for business is through the implementation of data in demand forecasting, operation automation and customer experience enhancement. (BussinessOfFashion, 2018) the adjustment of retail models using AI to both predict demand in specific locations and turn operations automated could be the answer to ensuring fashion has a more sustainable future. What this means for the consumer is that brands will become more aware and more vocal about their carbon footprint on the planet, Matthew Drinkwater, head of the Fashion Innovation Agency at the London College of Fashion believes that “the retail model needs to change. AI makes it possible to adjust manufacture in real time, responding to customer design as it happens, so that waste is minimised.” (Drinkwater, 2018.)

AI INFILTRATING INDUSTRY

27


Companies such as Amazon are beginning to hone into the AI trend and think of creative ways to peak our interest and more importantly to them – ways to collect data on our purchasing habits and generate these into sales. The recent release of the Echo Look is the first of its kind, marketed as being “focused on style” (Amazon, 2018) the Echo Look is a smart speaker with a camera; “you can use Alexa to take full-length photos of your daily look using just your voice. Edit your images in the Echo Look app for clean, shareable photos. Find similar pieces with More Like This Look.” Amazon want to become a leader in the fashion industry, Cathy Beaudoin, former president of Amazon Fashion, said in 2013, “We want to be a great department store, like Bloomingdale’s, Nordstrom, and Saks.”(Racked, 2017) and in 2018 they’re doing this by infiltrating the everyday consumers home. By taking pictures of outfits and using these pictures to recommend the consumer similar clothing Amazon are directly targeting your exact interests.

28


DEBATES SURROUNDING ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE. The most thought-provoking discussions about AI follow the impact of the trend on the future of humanity, and the inventions that can be created to either be beneficial or detrimental to the human race. Largely, the debate surrounding the future of machine learning, algorithms and AI are focused towards the eventuality of a superior robot race taking our jobs in all industries. It’s almost unfathomable to consider now that within the next century our thinking will develop into a warped-hybrid of non-biological and biological thinking. Ray Kurzweil, when speaking at a TED conference in 2014 predicted that within 20 years we’ll have nanobots in our brain, connecting our neo-cortex to a synthetic neocortex in the cloud and that we’ll simply be able to think of something to search and download the information into our brain.

29

Max Tegmark, the author of Life 3.0, when deliberating the future of the human race as a whole, comprehensively outlines every hypothesized eventuality (fig 8). Tegmark concludes that the biggest challenge when moving forward with AI advancement is whether we attach “goals” to AI and the implications that might happen writing that; “Should we give AI goals, and if so, whose goals? Can we ensure that these goals are retained even if the AI gets smarter? Can we change the goals of an AI that’s smarter than us? These questions are not only difficult, but also crucial for the future of life: if we don’t know what we want, we’re less likely to get it, and if we cede control to machines that don’t share our goals, then we’re likely to get what we don’t want.”


Our goals as human beings lay hand in hand with our basic human needs – these human needs are outlined in Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (see fig.9). The advancement of AI threatens a number of these basic needs such as our sense of belonging, the potential of risk to our security as a race and the need of self-actualization. Pedro Domingos argues that the more of your brain is used for your job, “the safer you are.” Whilst most focus on the advancement of technology is shrouded with the negative outlook on the “loss of jobs”, Domingos also focuses on the positive: “Eventually, we’ll start talking about the employment rate instead of the unemployment one and reducing it will be seen as a sign of progress. (“The US is falling behind. Our employment rate is still 23 percent.”) Unemployment benefits will be replaced by a basic income for everyone.” The need for a basic level income within the next century is a certain eventuality. With trials already taking place in Finland from 2016 to present on a sample size of 2,000 (Henley, 2018) unemployed individuals and the certainty that the advancement of machine learning will increase the level on unemployment across the globe our governments will have to seek solutions to ensure a certain standard of level is maintained across all countries.

30


CONCLUSION The ever-advancing acceleration of growth and propelled interest from all industries into how AI can enhance our future, opens multiple doors for the innovation of new technology to improve how we interact with brands, how we interact with each other, how we become sustainable and in layman terms, the future of the human race. Adaptations in society that will follow, by both politicians and industry as they push for the advancement of new technology and work towards adapting to this trend, will help to alleviate the heavy workload that we take on in the 21st century. Negatives of work-culture capitalism will become a thing of the past. The loss of low-level labour jobs first moving up to affect the whitecollar work force will at first bring protest and push back but eventually a 4-day week and a basic level income will become a norm – giving humans more time to indulge in life experience and spend less time stressed. The loss of jobs in fields such as the aforementioned music, fashion or lifestyle will simply give those with a passion behind those industries more time to focus on the creative, human-driven aspects that they love – weeding out the tedious repetitive tasks that come along with it. Pulling on the knowledge from academics and industry professionals it’s easy to conclude that the implementation of AI into our lives is certain; although AI in its ‘weak’ form has been growing since the 1950’s, the past few years and certainly within the next century, our actions as human beings and how we react to the everevolving trend will help to define and shape the route we go down as a human race. There are no answers within 2018 as to where the trend will go and what industries it will fully affect – we are only able to make educated estimates and hypothesise.

31


“We sense the robots creeping up on us, we imagine them breathing down our necks (unlikely, what with them having no need of respiration, but still) and we worry about how we will compete. And the more artificial intelligence advances into those areas of our thinking that we experience as creative and emotional, the more spooked we get.� (Cartner-Morley 2018)

32


FIG ONE

APPENDIX Political - The world is being held in a state of uncertainty. Brexit will soon become a reality in March 2019 and as the UK moves towards a “no deal is better than a bad deal” (Theresa May, 2018) future there is no solid outline of what this will mean for either businesses, import or the economic future of the UK. With powers such as Donald Trump constantly tweeting his ill-fed feelings and right-wing movements, such as the recent presidential election of Jair Bolsonaro, across the world gaining support and tensions rising between large influential countries such the US and Russia; the US recently threatening to ‘take out’ Russian Missiles (Marcus, 2018) the political world is in an anxious state. With country relationships on tenterhooks there is an air of uncertainty around the future of Tech industry power within the UK. TechCrunch write that Two out of the top three challenges facing tech companies in the UK’s top two tech clusters are related to Brexit, and the largest of these is the move of workforce due to tighter or uncertain immigration laws – with a majority of Tech Start-ups within the UK (namely London); 54% of workers being born outside the UK – the future political standings of the UK will directly affect the future of Tech industry and potentially direct halt innovation. Politics is a key player is the future of Artificial Intelligence – as most companies race to become the leader in the world in the field, as countries could “potentially double their economic growth rates by 2035” (New, 2018). Within the last year Canada, China, France, India, Japan and the United Kingdom have all launched major government-backed initiatives to compete in AI. (New, 2018). Politics is a key factor in driving the innovation and funding behind the trend of AI and therefore will continue to be a big player in future years. Economical - Although the UK government is heading towards Brexit there has been major deals behind the scenes and a budget set aside for the innovation of Artificial Intelligence. “The U.K. government announced Thursday that it had put together “an AI deal worth more than £1 billion” that includes public and private funding.” (Olson, 2018. The UK have reached a deal worth £950 million in collaboration with Japan that will pump extra funding into a number of ventures including education funding, tech-start up funding and funding for extra research. Although as a country the general outlook for the future of the economy is looking cloudy as the pound is set to drop after the eventuality of Brexit comes into existence, the future for AI Tech Start-ups and education is looking bright as the government hone in on becoming the best in the world. Social – 2018 and further will mark the change in social attitudes towards our own personal data- Olwen Smith writes that; waking up to the realisation that such transaction is severely lacking in regulation. Chris Gorst believes that 2018 will mark a change in this, with consumers taking back control of their data and regulators themselves leveraging data to ensure fairer practices across the board. (Smith, 2018). We have started to form a negative opinion as to how our data is being collected, spread and the amount of it. Millennials are becoming the largest group and will determine social change and the future of innovation – with millennials being easily adaptable to new situations they can easily take on technological changes and help drive the trend of AI. Humanity are becoming more aware of the future of the planet and our effect on it – “Humanity’s grandest challenges in education, health care, climate change, and even civil rights can all be viewed through a different lens as disruptive technologies energize creative problem-solving. What responsibility do companies have to expand their reach beyond their own walls, and to help leverage exponentials to drive greater good in society?” (Shingles, Briggs, O’Dwyer, 2018) New technology is having to be created to assist humanities efforts to become clean and the face of the technology industry is having to adapt to becoming eco-friendlier.

33


Technological

FIG TWO

Massive movements within the tech industry directly effects the AI industry - aforementioned government spending on the tech industry is increasing as the government begin to hone in on the power of AI and take on the race to become the AI leader. Within the MIT tech review the top 10 technological breakthroughs are outlined yearly – 2018 is concluded to be; 3-D metal printing, artificial embryos, sensing cities (smart-cities), AI for everybody, duelling neural network, babelfish earbuds (translating earbuds), zero-carbon natural gas, perfect online privacy, genetic fortune-telling and materials quantum leap. MIT outline that AI is mostly used in the Tech industry and seldom utilised in our everyday lives to the extent it can be and that within the next few years there will be mass implementation of AI into our homes and work places. Google’s babel-fish earbuds have been described as functioning so that; “One person wears the earbuds, while the other holds a phone. The earbud wearer speaks in his or her language—English is the default—and the app translates the talking and plays it aloud on the phone. The person holding the phone responds; this response is translated and played through the earbuds.” (MIT, 2018) the use of new artificial intelligence being brought into small, helpful technology will ensure that even language barriers can be broken down – making a massive impact on world communications.

34


FIG SIX

35

FIG FIVE

FIG FOUR

FIG THREE


36

FIG EIGHT

FIG SEVEN


37

FIG EIGHT


38

FIG NINE


REFERENCES Accenture.com. (2018). Future of Artificial Intelligence Economic Growth | Accenture. [online] Available at: https://www.accenture.com/gb-en/insight-artificialintelligence-future-growth [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Ambler, P. (2018). How AI And The Blockchain Is Helping Put A Valentine’s Spark Back Into Online Dating. [online] Forbes. Available at: https://www.forbes.com/ sites/pamelaambler/2018/02/13/how-ai-and-the-blockchain-is-helping-to-put-avalentines-spark-back-into-online-dating/#4981b87411d4 [Accessed 4 Nov. 2018]. Anderson, B. (2017). The Rise of the Weaponized AI Propaganda Machine – Scout: Science Fiction + Journalism – Medium. [online] Medium. Available at: https://medium.com/join-scout/the-rise-of-the-weaponized-ai-propaganda-machine86dac61668b [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Andriole, S. (2018). Apple, Google, Microsoft, Amazon And Facebook Own Huge Market Shares = Technology Oligarchy. [online] Forbes. Available at: https:// www.forbes.com/sites/steveandriole/2018/09/26/apple-google-microsoft-amazonand-facebook-own-huge-market-shares-technology-oligarchy/#5394cc362318 [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Anon. (2018). [online] Eventbrite-s3.s3.amazonaws.com. Available at: https:// eventbrite-s3.s3.amazonaws.com/marketing/Millennials_Research/Gen_PR_Final. pdf [Accessed 4 Nov. 2018]. Arnold, A. (2018). Why Millennials Prefer Chatbots Over Travel Agents When Planning Their Vacations. [online] Forbes. Available at: https://www.forbes.com/ sites/andrewarnold/2018/02/24/why-millennials-prefer-chatbots-over-travel-agentswhen-planning-their-vacations/#6b0ac9c92233 [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Banks, E. (2017). Big Data Conversation with Spotify. [Blog] Dell EMC. Available at: https://blog.dellemc.com/en-us/big-data-conversation-spotify/ [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Barreau. P (2018). How AI could compose a personalized soundtrack to your life [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/pierre_barreau_how_ai_ could_compose_a_personalized_soundtrack_to_your_life?language=en Beijing and Malmo (2018). How the internet has changed dating. [online] The Economist. Available at: https://www.economist.com/briefing/2018/08/18/how-theinternet-has-changed-dating [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Bird, M. (2018). Is Artificial Intelligence Taking-Over the $3 Billion Online Dating Industry?. [online] Equities.com. Available at: https://www.equities.com/news/isartificial-intelligencetaking-over-the-3-billion-online-dating-industry [Accessed 4 Nov. 2018].

39


REFERENCES

BPI Media. Available at: https://www.musictank.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/ bpi-ai-report.pdf [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Brite, E. (2018). [online] Eventbrite-s3.s3.amazonaws.com. Available at: https:// eventbrite-s3.s3.amazonaws.com/marketing/Millennials_Research/Gen_PR_Final. pdf [Accessed 4 Nov. 2018]. Churchwell, C. (2018). The Competition of Countries. [online] HBS Working Knowledge. Available at: https://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/the-competition-of-countries [Accessed 6 Nov. 2007]. Davenport, T. and Ronanki, R. (2018). 3 Things AI Can Already Do for Your Company. [online] Harvard Business Review. Available at: https://hbr.org/2018/01/ artificial-intelligence-for-the-real-world [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Domingos, P. (2015). The Master Algorithm - How the Quest for the Ultimate Learning Machine Will Remake our World. 1st ed. Penguin. Domingos, P. (2015). The Master Algorithm - How the Quest for the Ultimate Learning Machine Will Remake our World. 1st ed. Penguin. Ex Machina. (2015). [film] Directed by A. Garland. Her. (2014). [film] Directed by S. Jonze. Jukedeck. (2018). Jukedeck - Create unique, royalty-free AI music for your videos. [online] Available at: https://www.jukedeck.com [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Kurzweil, R (2014). Get Ready for Hybrid Thinking [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/ray_kurzweil_get_ready_for_hybrid_thinking Levy, D. (2009). Love + sex with robots. London: Duckworth. Mandel, J. (2015). The Future of Dating Is Artificial Intelligence. [online] Startupgrind.com. Available at: https://www.startupgrind.com/blog/the-future-ofdating-is-artificial-intelligence/ [Accessed 4 Nov. 2018]. Medium. (2018). The Future of Love: Robot Sex and AI Relationships. [online] Available at: https://medium.com/@orge/the-future-of-love-robot-sex-and-airelationships-3b7c7913bb07 [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Music Ally (2018). Music’s Smart Future - How Will AI Impact the Music Industry? [online] Musk, E. (2014). Elon Musk: ‘We are summoning the demon’ with artificial intelligence. [online] CNET. Available at: https://www.cnet.com/news/elon-musk-

40


REFERENCES Perez, S. (2018). 39 million Americans now own a smart speaker, report claims. [online] TechCrunch. Available at: https://techcrunch.com/2018/01/12/39-millionamericans-now-own-a-smart-speaker-report-claims/ [Accessed 2 Nov. 2018]. Putin, V. (2017). Putin says the country who leads the development of A.I. will rule the world. [online] CNBC. Available at: https://www.cnbc.com/2017/09/04/putinleader-in-artificial-intelligence-will-rule-world.html [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Statista. (2018). Online Dating - worldwide | Statista Market Forecast. [online] Available at: https://www.statista.com/outlook/372/100/online-dating/worldwide [Accessed 4 Nov. 2018]. Statista. (2018). Spotify users - subscribers in 2018 | Statista. [online] Available at: https://www.statista.com/statistics/244995/number-of-paying-spotify-subscribers/ [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Trendone.com. (2018). Mega-Trend: Artificial Intelligence. [online] Available at: https://www.trendone.com/en/trend-universe/mega-trends/mega-trend-detail/ artificial-intelligence.html [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Trendone.com. (2018). Mega-Trend: Distrust Society. [online] Available at: https:// www.trendone.com/en/trend-universe/mega-trends/mega-trend-detail/distrustsociety.html [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. ZenithMedia (2017). ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE POWERING THE CONSUMER JOURNEY. [online] The ROI Agency. Available at: https://www.zenithmedia.com/ wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Zenith_ArtificialIntelligence2017Trends.pdf [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018].

41


IMAGE REFERENCES In order of appearance; Alan Turing Aged 16, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alan_Turing [1938] [Accessed 6 November 2018] John McCarthy, https://www.nytimes.com/2011/10/26/science/26mccarthy.html [2010] [Accessed 6 November 2018] Eugene Goostman, https://www.zdnet.com/article/computer-chatbot-eugenegoostman-passes-the-turing-test/ [2014] [Accessed 6 November 2018] Alexa Smart Speaker, https://www.johnlewis.com/amazon-echo-smart-speakerwith-alexa-voice-recognition-control-2nd-generation/p3348223, [2018] [Accessed 6 November 2018] Microsoft Chatbot Tay, http://uk.businessinsider.com/microsoft-deletes-racistgenocidal-tweets-from-ai-chatbot-tay-2016-3 [2016] [Accessed 6 November 2018] Xandtor, Blue Touch Photo, https://unsplash.com/photos/6TWiFzTv-Yc [Accessed 6 November 2018] Marcos Paixao, Leiria Sunset, https://unsplash.com/photos/rcMdkY7S4TY [Accessed 6 November 2018] Franck V. White Robot https://unsplash.com/photos/JjGXjESMxOY [Accessed 6 November 2018] Gradikaa, Woman in nature https://unsplash.com/photos/xaY6Nr4A0Co [Accessed 6 November 2018] Owen Beard, Pepper the Robot, https://unsplash.com/photos/K21Dn4OVxNw [Accessed 6 November 2018] Charles Deluvio, Google Home speaker, https://unsplash.com/photos/gByOS-Vss2E [Accessed 6 November 2018] Andres Urena, Amazon Alexa https://unsplash.com/photos/tsBropDpnwE [Accessed 6 November] Alec Favale, Robot Café https://unsplash.com/photos/2Wasf9zd25A [Accessed 6 November 2018] James Owen, “Pads to sound” Keyboard https://unsplash.com/photos/c-NBiJrhwdM [Accessed 6 November] Freestocks.org, Tinder, book and croissant https://unsplash.com/photos/ DjlUjj7ewsA [Accessed 6 November[

42


BIBLIOGRAPHY Accenture.com. (2018). Future of Artificial Intelligence Economic Growth | Accenture. [online] Available at: https://www.accenture.com/gb-en/insight-artificialintelligence-future-growth [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Ambler, P. (2018). How AI And The Blockchain Is Helping Put A Valentine’s Spark Back Into Online Dating. [online] Forbes. Available at: https://www.forbes.com/ sites/pamelaambler/2018/02/13/how-ai-and-the-blockchain-is-helping-to-put-avalentines-spark-back-into-online-dating/#4981b87411d4 [Accessed 4 Nov. 2018]. Ambler, P. (2018). How AI And The Blockchain Is Helping Put A Valentine’s Spark Back Into Online Dating. [online] Forbes. Available at: https://www.forbes.com/ sites/pamelaambler/2018/02/13/how-ai-and-the-blockchain-is-helping-to-put-avalentines-spark-back-into-online-dating/#4981b87411d4 [Accessed 4 Nov. 2018]. Anderson, B. (2017). The Rise of the Weaponized AI Propaganda Machine – Scout: Science Fiction + Journalism – Medium. [online] Medium. Available at: https://medium.com/join-scout/the-rise-of-the-weaponized-ai-propaganda-machine86dac61668b [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Andriole, S. (2018). Apple, Google, Microsoft, Amazon And Facebook Own Huge Market Shares = Technology Oligarchy. [online] Forbes. Available at: https:// www.forbes.com/sites/steveandriole/2018/09/26/apple-google-microsoft-amazonand-facebook-own-huge-market-shares-technology-oligarchy/#5394cc362318 [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Anon. (2018). [online] Eventbrite-s3.s3.amazonaws.com. Available at: https:// eventbrite-s3.s3.amazonaws.com/marketing/Millennials_Research/Gen_PR_Final. pdf [Accessed 4 Nov. 2018]. Arnold, A. (2018). Are Visual Chatbots The Next Step Of The Conversational Interfaces Revolution?. [online] Forbes. Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/ andrewarnold/2018/09/19/are-visual-chatbots-the-next-step-of-the-conversationalinterfaces-revolution/#37b2558141b6 [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Arthur, C. (2015). Artificial intelligence: ‘Homo sapiens will be split into a handful of gods and the rest of us’. [online] the Guardian. Available at: https://www. theguardian.com/business/2015/nov/07/artificial-intelligence-homo-sapiens-splithandful-gods [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018].

43


BIBLIOGRAPHY Banks, E. (2017). Big Data Conversation with Spotify. [Blog] Dell EMC. Available at: https://blog.dellemc.com/en-us/big-data-conversation-spotify/ [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Barreau. P (2018). How AI could compose a personalized soundtrack to your life [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/pierre_barreau_how_ai_ could_compose_a_personalized_soundtrack_to_your_life?language=en Beijing and Malmo (2018). How the internet has changed dating. [online] The Economist. Available at: https://www.economist.com/briefing/2018/08/18/how-theinternet-has-changed-dating [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Bird, M. (2018). Is Artificial Intelligence Taking-Over the $3 Billion Online Dating Industry?. [online] Equities.com. Available at: https://www.equities.com/news/isartificial-intelligenceBPI Media. Available at: https://www.musictank.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/ bpi-ai-report.pdf [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Brite, E. (2018). [online] Eventbrite-s3.s3.amazonaws.com. Available at: https:// eventbrite-s3.s3.amazonaws.com/marketing/Millennials_Research/Gen_PR_Final. pdf [Accessed 4 Nov. 2018]. Brite, E. (2018). [online] Eventbrite-s3.s3.amazonaws.com. Available at: https:// eventbrite-s3.s3.amazonaws.com/marketing/Millennials_Research/Gen_PR_Final. pdf [Accessed 4 Nov. 2018]. Churchwell, C. (2018). The Competition of Countries. [online] HBS Working Knowledge. Available at: https://hbswk.hbs.edu/item/the-competition-of-countries [Accessed 6 Nov. 2007]. Davenport, T. and Ronanki, R. (2018). 3 Things AI Can Already Do for Your Company. [online] Harvard Business Review. Available at: https://hbr.org/2018/01/ artificial-intelligence-for-the-real-world [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Davenport, T. and Ronanki, R. (2018). 3 Things AI Can Already Do for Your Company. [online] Digitaltrends.com. (2017). [online] Available at: https://www.digitaltrends.com/cooltech/realdoll-sex-robot-ai/ [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Domingos, P. (2015). The Master Algorithm - How the Quest for the Ultimate Learning Machine Will Remake our World. 1st ed. Penguin.

44


Esquire. (2018). It’s Finally Official: You’re A Millennial If You’re Inbetween These Ages. [online] Available at: https://www.esquire.com/uk/latest-news/a19051601/ age-range-millennials-2018/ [Accessed 1 Nov. 2018]. Evans, B. (2018). AI And The CEO: Why Every Company Must Become An AI Company. [online] Forbes. Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/ bobevans1/2018/08/20/ai-and-the-ceo-why-every-company-must-become-an-aicompany/#268ba01f679a [Accessed 1 Nov. 2018]. Ex Machina. (2015). [film] Directed by A. Garland. Fuertes, J. (2018). Is Artificial Intelligence The Future Of Sustainable Fashion?. [online] ELLE. Available at: https://www.elle.com/uk/fashion/trends/a22125220/aifuture-of-sustainable-fashion/ [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Haas. P (2017) The Real Reason to be Afraid of Artificial Intelligence https://www. youtube.com/watch?v=TRzBk_KuIaM Harvard Business Review. Available at: https://hbr.org/2018/01/artificialintelligence-for-the-real-world [Accessed 31 Oct. 2018]. Her. (2014). [film] Directed by S. Jonze. Howard, J (2018) The Wonderful and Terrifying Implications of Computers that can learn. www.ted.com/talks/jeremy_howard [Accessed 6 Nov 2018] Hurst, D. (2018). Japan lays groundwork for boom in robot carers. [online] the Guardian. Available at: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/feb/06/japanrobots-will-care-for-80-of-elderly-by-2020 [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Jordan, M. (2018). Artificial Intelligence — The Revolution Hasn’t Happened Yet. [online] Medium. Available at: https://medium.com/@mijordan3/artificial-intelligence-therevolution-hasnt-happened-yet-5e1d5812e1e7 [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Jukedeck. (2018). Jukedeck - Create unique, royalty-free AI music for your videos. [online] Available at: https://www.jukedeck.com [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Kurzweil, R (2014). Get Ready for Hybrid Thinking [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/ray_kurzweil_get_ready_for_hybrid_thinking Landrum, S. (2018). Millennials Driving Brands To Practice Socially Responsible Marketing. [online] Forbes. Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/ sarahlandrum/2017/03/17/millennials-driving-brands-to-practice-sociallyresponsible-marketing/#407f680e4990 [Accessed 1 Nov. 2018]. Levy, D. (2009). Love + sex with robots. London: Duckworth.

45


Mandel, J. (2015). The Future of Dating Is Artificial Intelligence. [online] Startupgrind.com. Available at: https://www.startupgrind.com/blog/the-future-ofdating-is-artificial-intelligence/ [Accessed 4 Nov. 2018]. Mandel, J. (2015). The Future of Dating Is Artificial Intelligence. [online] Startupgrind.com. Available at: https://www.startupgrind.com/blog/the-future-ofdating-is-artificial-intelligence/ [Accessed 4 Nov. 2018]. Marr, B. (2018). The Amazing Ways Spotify Uses Big Data, AI And Machine Learning To Drive Business Success. [online] Forbes. Available at: https://www.forbes.com/sites/ bernardmarr/2017/10/30/the-amazing-ways-spotify-uses-big-data-ai-and-machinelearning-to-drive-business-success/#32727d964bd2 [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Medium. (2018). The Future of Love: Robot Sex and AI Relationships. [online] Available at: https://medium.com/@orge/the-future-of-love-robot-sex-and-airelationships-3b7c7913bb07 [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Music Ally (2018). Music’s Smart Future - How Will AI Impact the Music Industry? [online] Musk, E. (2014). Elon Musk: ‘We are summoning the demon’ with artificial intelligence. [online] CNET. Available at: https://www.cnet.com/news/elon-muskwe-are-summoning-the-demon-with-artificial-intelligence/ [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Perez, S. (2018). 39 million Americans now own a smart speaker, report claims. [online] TechCrunch. Available at: https://techcrunch.com/2018/01/12/39-millionamericans-now-own-a-smart-speaker-report-claims/ [Accessed 2 Nov. 2018]. Perez, S. (2018). 39 million Americans now own a smart speaker, report claims. [online] TechCrunch. Available at: https://techcrunch.com/2018/01/12/39-millionamericans-now-own-a-smart-speaker-report-claims/ [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Putin, V. (2017). Putin says the country who leads the development of A.I. will rule the world. [online] CNBC. Available at: https://www.cnbc.com/2017/09/04/putinleader-in-artificial-intelligence-will-rule-world.html [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Statista. (2018). Online Dating - worldwide | Statista Market Forecast. [online] Available at: https://www.statista.com/outlook/372/100/online-dating/worldwide [Accessed 4 Nov. 2018]. Statista. (2018). Spotify users - subscribers in 2018 | Statista. [online] Available at: https://www.statista.com/statistics/244995/number-of-paying-spotify-subscribers/ [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. taking-over-the-3-billion-online-dating-industry [Accessed 4 Nov. 2018]. Techopedia.com. (2017). What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)? - Definition from Techopedia. [online] Available at: https://www.techopedia.com/definition/190/ artificial-intelligence-ai [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018].

46


The Drum. (2018). Artificial Intelligence. [online] Available at: https://www.thedrum. com/topics/ai [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. trendone.com. (2018). Macro-Trend: Intelligent Personal Assistants. [online] Available at: https://www.trendone.com/en/trend-universe/macro-trends/macrotrend-detail/intelligent-personal-assistants.html [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Trendone.com. (2018). Mega-Trend: Artificial Intelligence. [online] Available at: https://www.trendone.com/en/trend-universe/mega-trends/mega-trend-detail/ artificial-intelligence.html [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Trendone.com. (2018). Mega-Trend: Distrust Society. [online] Available at: https:// www.trendone.com/en/trend-universe/mega-trends/mega-trend-detail/distrustsociety.html [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. Velez, M. (2015). Undergraduate Program in Computer & Information Sciences. [online] 1. Available at: http://www.cs.cmu.edu/~mvelezce/publications/VSUMMA15.pdf [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018]. What is Artificial Intelligence (or machine learning)?. (2017). [video] https://www. youtube.com/watch?v=mJeNghZXtMo. What is Artificial Intelligence? In 5 minutes.. (2018). [video] Directed by R. Ramesh. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2ePf9rue1Ao. ZenithMedia (2017). ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE POWERING THE CONSUMER JOURNEY. [online] The ROI Agency. Available at: https://www.zenithmedia.com/ wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Zenith_ArtificialIntelligence2017Trends.pdf [Accessed 6 Nov. 2018].

BIBLIOGRAPHY

47


Profile for hollierutter1995

Future Thinking - Artificial Intelligence  

The first stage of first year work - researching into a macro trend.

Future Thinking - Artificial Intelligence  

The first stage of first year work - researching into a macro trend.

Advertisement